effect of specimen

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effect of specimen

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Arghya Deb

Associate Professor

Department of Civil Engineering

IIT Kharagpur

Concrete

Composite: cement, sand, coarse aggregate.

Cement: silicates and aluminate of lime(Ca). In presence

of water, acquires adhesive & cohesive properties.

Water necessary for hydration of cement (~25% by wt.)

Additional water necessary for workability. Total water

content ~ 40%-60% by wt. of cement.

This water is not chemically bound can evaporate

depending on relative humidity.

Porosity of concrete due to evaporating free water as

well as air voids (~2% of total volume)

In concrete, weaker planes occur at the interface of the

cement mortar and the aggregate: as a result of

bleeding, shrinkage etc.

The micro cracks that appear at the interface tend to

propagate along the aggregate surfaces.

through the matrix material, as well as aggregate

cracks which tend split apart the aggregates.

Concrete: anisotropy

Casting Direction

voids under large aggregate

particles

The propagation of internal micro-cracks and micro-voids

is reflected in the macroscopic stress-strain behavior of

concrete.

For instance, under uniaxial compression, growth of micro

cracks aligned to the direction of loading leads to stress

softening.

tensile

crack

Tensile strength of concrete ~ one-tenth compressive

strength

Under uniaxial tension, propagation of micro cracks

along a plane normal to the loading direction leads to

strain softening behavior.

The presence of steel reinforcement reduces crack

widths: stiffening effect on the post peak behavior.

confinement

Under confinement compressive strength of concrete

increases.

and leads to more ductile response.

Uniaxial Compression

Biaxial Compression

Triaxial Compression

150 mm

150

mm

300 mm

150 mm

than a cylinder made of the same concrete mix.

size of a structural member.

Effect of specimen size on nominal strength in metals

loaded in tension is well known.

1

Within elastic range, nominal strength n

, where d is

d

the characteristic size of the specimen.

This is true for self similar specimens.

is the newly cracked area

1

1

2

W n V

2

E

W f G f A G f o a2 G f o d 2

1

1

1

1

2

2

W n oa 3 n od 3

2

E

2

E

1

W f W n

d

Cracks in concrete are very different in geometry from

mechanics.

Crack front is highly irregular, blunted by a zone of

distributed micro cracking that precedes it, known as the

fracture process zone (FPZ).

negligible compared to the dimensions of the specimen:

LEFM size effect law can be used to determine the

influence of size on tensile strength of large specimens.

Concrete specimens do exhibit size effect in uniaxial

Z.P. Bazant and J Planas (1997)Fracture and size effect in concrete and other quasibrittle materials CRC Press LLC.

Concrete is a heterogeneous material with randomly

distributed voids and flaws.

Weibull distribution best approximates the tensile

strength distribution in concrete specimens.

Tensile failure occurs at places where tensile stresses

Material structures at nano/micro/meso scale for cement and concrete (Van Mier 2007)

f ( x)

Stress distribution:

More extensive the region of high tensile stresses,

greater the chance of initiation of tensile fracture.

stress increases: this increases chances of tensile

damage & leads to lower structural strength.

Stress gradients are known to be inversely proportional

to structural size.

As structure increases in size, stress gradient becomes

smaller: size of region with high tensile stresses increase

decrease of structural strength with size.

N d

1

d

1

D d

1

1

1

n

, n

N

D

d

Beyond a certain size the size vs. structural strength

curve tends to asymptote horizontally.

Once a structure is sufficiently large, the size of the

region with high tensile stress is sufficiently big.

It is sure to contain the critical mass of voids and flaws

necessary to precipitate failure.

reduction in strength.

concrete. Does it explain the entire size effect observed

in concrete specimens?

For reasons mentioned earlier for a long time it was

thought that a fracture mechanics based energetic size

effect could not describe the size effect in concrete.

Bazants work in this area, in particular Bazants paper,

(ASCE, Journ. of Engg. Mech.,110(4),518-535,1984)

however led to a major reconsideration.

Crack propagation depends on the geometry and stress

state in the FPZ, approximated by a crack band, rather

than the length of the open crack behind the FPZ.

an integer and d a is the max. aggregate size.

t

further stresses, the crack band becomes part of the

macro crack which further propagates by a .

Work of fracture per unit advance of crack band (fracture

energy)

Ec t2

G f wc 1

Et 2 Ec

strain energy in stress relief zone surrounding the crack

band and strain energy in fracture process zone (FPZ).

Strain energy released is given by

1 P2

W

volume of contributo ry zone

2

2 Ec (bd )

1 P2

a wc a

2

f

(

,

)

bd

2 Ec (bd ) 2 d d 2

(*)

W

Enforcing energy balance i.e.

G f b , it can be

a

shown that

B t

d

1

0 d a

(**)

Asymptotes to LEFM:

geometry would approach the ideal crack of LEFM.

Function f in Eqn.(*) becomes a function of

Eqn(**) becomes

a

only and

d

C

n

d

0 d a 0 d a

LEFM size dependence is recovered.

small, then d contributes little to the denominator of

da

Eqn.(**).

n B t

Bazants size effect relation.

Gonnerman in 1925 was the first to observe size effect in

nominal strength of cylinders and cubes.

In the absence of definitive knowledge about the size

effect, codes introduce factors of safety that account for

the variation of compressive strength with size.

Usually a factor of 1.2( BS 1881: Part120; BSI 1983) is

strongly depends on the loading environment.

Stiff i.e. nearly rigid plattens provide end restraints to

lateral motion through shear stresses

These shear stresses act to confine the concrete in a

conical zone beneath the loading platten.

If a flexible loading platten is used, such that the lateral

strains in the platten are more than in concrete shear

stresses act outward from the center of the specimen

Results in tensile stresses in the mortar. If tensile

stresses exceed the local tensile strength: growth of

nearly vertical splitting cracks.

These very different loading-platten dependent failure

modes complicate an already murky scenario. The

questions that can be posed therefore are:

Is there an energetic size effect for compressive loading

with rigid plattens?

Is there an energetic size effect for compressive loading

with flexible plattens?

Existence of energetic size effect in compression depends

on the configuration of the crack ( Bazant and Xiang

(1997).

Splitting cracks oriented along loading direction do not

energy release and hence causes no size effect.

Inclined cracks will alter the axial stress field and will

change global energy release rate: result in size effect.

Inclined cracks:

Bazant and Xiang (1997) considered an inclined crack

band, formed by localization of large number of splitting

cracks of length h whose growth had been arrested.

The microslabs between the cracks were considered to

be short columns: global failure occurs when these

columns buckle.

Because of buckling of the micro-slabs, the stress, and

sides of the crack band is reduced.

Bazants assumption

In the crack band itself, there is accretion in strain

energy due to bending of the micro-slabs, but no further

increase of strain energy due to axial compression.

The crack band grows due to formation of further

splitting cracks.

By equating rate of loss of strain energy to the energy

required for crack band growth, the following size

d 5

Experimental evidence:

follows this law is sketchy.

Bazant and Kwon(1993)s experiments on reinforced

concrete prisms seem to support this relation.

Other experiments, however, e.g. those by Van Mier

(1997) do not show any effect of size on the peak stress.

Numerical simulations by Dros and Bazant (1989),

have all failed to capture any significant size effect in

concrete specimens under axial compression.

In a homogeneous material, splitting crack growth under

unconfined compression is impossible.

Splitting crack growth in concrete due to tensile cracks

that develop at aggregate interfaces.

These cracks release the lateral stresses at the interface

but do not affect the primary vertical stresses.

Cracks are random, their sizes small, they do not affect

not affect global energy release & cause no size effect.

Vonks experiments:

Experimental study by Vonk(1992) however showed

flexible plattens

Bazants reasoning for suggesting that splitting crack

growth causes no size effect at all, is not clear.

Energy reduction due to splitting crack may be local and

random, but it does causes release in stored elastic

strain energy and loss in lateral stress carrying capacity

in the specimen

Since splitting crack initiation and growth strongly

distribution is random, it seems quite probable that a

statistical size effect would exist.

Numerical simulations:

compression were performed using the ABAQUS finite

element code.

The concrete was modelled using the concrete damage

plasticity constitutive relations (Lubliner et al. (1989)).

This is a non-associative plasticity model, based on a

modified version of the Drucker Prager yield criterion and

concrete in tension and compression (fracture dominated

vs. plasticity dominated)

Accounts also for the pressure sensitivity of the

constitutive response.

Damaged states in tension and compression are

characterized by different equivalent plastic strains in

1

F ( , )

(q 3 p ( p ) I I ) c ( p )

1

p

(1 d )

S pI

3

Deviatoric component

3

S:S

Mises stress in terms of the effective stress q

2

yield stresses in equi-biaxial and uniaxial compression

compression

Effect of Confinement

and ductility significantly

columns is very similar. On plastification small stress

increment causes large radial expansion

of tensile cracks in concrete & results in higher failure

loads

response of concrete specimens?

concrete

epoxy

Axial load

fabric

h=0.3m

Dia=0.15m

boundary conditions

made of fibers such as glass, aramid, and carbon

embedded in a polyester or vinyl ester resin matrix.

the fiber and matrix, their relative volumes, and length

and orientation of fibers within matrix.

fiber. It is much cheaper and significantly less brittle.

AFRP: Made of aramid fiber.

FRP

Type of FRP

Ultimate

tensile stress

(Mpa)

Elastic

modulus

(Gpa)

Fiber

content

(% by wt)

Thickness

(mm)

GFRP laminate

400-1800

20-55

50-80

0.4-2.0

CFRP Laminate

1200-2250

120-250

65-75

0.1-1.9

AFRP laminate

1000-1800

40-125

60-70

0.025-0.29

have high strength.

FRPs are commonly used in aerospace, automotive,

marine, and construction industries.

Applications include the construction of FRP bridge deck

systems, concrete decks with reinforcing FRP rebar, and

the strengthening and repair of existing structures.

If wrap stiffness above a certain threshold value, the

confining pressure activated will prevent localized failure

and result in strength gain.

Similar results from LEFM: Sato and Hashida (2006)

studied the fracture toughness of rocks deep inside the

earth,

and

therefore

subjected

to

large

confining

pressures.

increases

pressures.

substantially

due

to

increased

confining

The following relationship was proposed for the fracture

toughness and the confining pressure if the cohesive

stress ( c ) acting in the fracture process zone was

uniform:

K p2

Kc

p0

K p is the fracture toughness after confinement

Summary

Size effect in tension: closely resembles Bazants law.

Size effect in compression: combination of energetic &

statistical effects

Bazants model in compression: overpredicts size

effect for splitting crack growth.

Numerical

studies

on

unconfined

and

confined

Reference

wrapped cylindrical olu s , ACI Structural Journal, 109 (4), 445-456

Z. P. Baa t and J. Planas (1998 F a tu e and Size effect in concrete and other

quasibrittle ate ials , CRC Press LLC.

J.G.M. Van Mier, (1997 F a tu e Processes of concrete: assessment of material

parameters for fracture odels CRC Press Inc.

J.G.M. Van Mier, (2007 Multi-scale interaction potentials (F-r) for describing

fracture of brittle disordered materials like cement and o ete , International

Journal of Fracture. 143(1), 41-78.

J.G.M. Va Mie et al.

Fracture mechanisms in particle composites: statistical

aspects in lattice type analysis , Me ha i s of ate ials. ,

-724.

). P. Baa t

ize effe t i lu t f a tu e: Co ete, o k, etal. Jou al of

Engineering Mechanics, ASCE,110(4), 518-535.

BS-1881 Part-120: Testing concrete method for determination of the compressive

strength of concrete cores, British Standards Institute, 1983.

M.D. Kotsovos

Effe t of testi g te h i ues o the post ulti ate ehaviou of

o ete i o p essio . Mate ials a d t u tu es, RILEM,

, -12.

Z. P. Baa t a d Y. Xia g

ize effe t i o p essio f a tu e: plitti g a k

a d p opagatio , Jou al of E gi ee i g Me ha i s, ACE,

.

R. Vo k

ofte i g of o ete loaded i o p essio , PhD thesis, Ei dhove

University of Technology, Eindhoven.

Reference

olu s: tests of size effe t , Mate ials a d t u tu es,27,79-90.

P. Droz and Z.P. Baa t(1989 No lo al a alysis of sta le states a d sta le paths of

p opagatio of da age shea a d . I C a ki g a d Da age, t ai Lo alizatio a d ize

effect, J. Mazars and Z.P. Bazant, eds, Elsevier Applied Science, London.183-207.

Z.P. Baa t and J.Ozbolt(1992 Co p essio failu e of uasi-brittle material: Nonlocal

i opla e odel Jou al of E gi ee i g Me ha i s, ACE,118(3).2484-2504.

J. Lubliner et al.(1989 A plasti da age odel fo o ete I te atio al Jou al of

solids and structures,25(3) 299-326.

Y. Xiao and H. Wu(2000 Co p essive ehavio of o ete o fi ed y a o fi e

o posite ja kets , Jou al of Mate ials i Civil E gi ee i g, ACE,12(2),139-146.

J.G.M. Van Mier, (1984 t ai Softening of Concrete Under Multiaxial Loading

Co ditio s , PhD Thesis, Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.

H.G. Gonnerman (1925 Effe t of size and shape of test specimen on compressive

strength of concrete. Proc., ASTM, West Conshohocken, PA, 237-250.

Cusatis, G. and Z.P. Baa t(2006 ize effect on compression fracture of concrete with or

without V-notches: a numerical meso-mechanical study , Computational Moedelling of

Concrete Structures-Meschke,de Borst, Mang & Bicanic (eds), Taylor & Francis Group,

London.

K. Sato and T. Hashida (2006 Cohesive crack analysis of toughness increase due to

confining p essu e Pure and Applied Geophysics,163,1059-1072.

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