Anda di halaman 1dari 52

1

Math 151 3.1 Notes: The Derivative and the Tangent Line
Problem
Topic #1: The Tangent Line Problem
The Secant Line:

o
o
o

is called the difference quotient


is called the change in y
is called the change in x

Definition of a Tangent Line:

Example 1: Find the equation of the line


tangent to
at the
.
Graph the results

Method:
1. When x = c, find m = f "(c)
2. Find a point

on

!
3. Substitute (x, y) and m to find bvalue for y = mx + b .

NOTE: Vertical Tangent Lines

Topic #2: The Derivative of a Function

Definitions:

The process of finding the derivative of a function is called differentiation


A function is differentiable at x if its derivative exists at x and is differentiable
on an open interval (a, b) that contains x.

Notations: The following are ALL ways to denote the derivative of the function
with respect to the variable x.

4
Example 2: Find the derivative of
at
by the limit
process. Graph the results.

Notice!! How the graphs of f and f relate to each other!!

5
Example 3: The graph of f is given. Draw the correct graph for f
a)

b)

c)

d)

6
Example 4: The graph of

is drawn. Sketch a possible graph of f.

Example 5: Identify a function that has

and

, with domain

7
Example 6: Find the equation of the line
that is tangent to
and
parallel to the line

. Graph

your results.

Method:
1) Find m using // property
2) Find
3) Set
4) Find y by substituting x into
5) Find b by substitution

8
Topic #3: Differentiability and Continuity
Example 7: Find the derivative of the function at x = 3 for the following functions.
a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

f)

9
Questions:
1) Can you have a function be continuous at a value x = c but not differentiable?

2) Can you have a function be differentiable at a value x = c but not continuous?

Theorem 3.1:
If f is differentiable at x = c, then f is continuous at x = c.
In other words:
In order for a function to have a derivative at x = c it must be continuous, BUT just
because a function is continuous at x = c does NOT mean you necessarily have a
derivative.

10
Math 151 3.2 Notes: Basic Differentiation Rules and
Rates of Change

Topic #1: The Constant Rule


Theorem 3.2: The Constant Rule
The derivative of a constant function is 0. That is, if c is a real number, then

Example 1: Find the derivative of

. Graph.

Topic #2: The Power Rule


Theorem 3.3: The Power Rule
If n is a rational number, then the function

is differentiable and

Example 2: Find the derivative of:


a)

b)

c)

11
Topic 3: The Constant Multiple Rule
Theorem 3.4: The Constant Multiple Rule
If f is a differentiable function and c is a real number, then cf is also differentiable and

Example 3: Find the derivative of the following: (hint: rewrite first)


a)

c)

b)

12
Topic #4: Sum and Difference Rules
Theorem 3.4: The Sum and Difference Rules
The sum (or difference) of two differentiable functions f and g is itself differentiable.
Moreover, the derivative of f + g (or f g) is the sum (or difference) of the derivatives of
f and g.
Sum Rule:
Difference Rule:
Example 4: Find the derivative of the function:
a)

c)

b)

13
Topic #5: Derivatives of Sine and Cosine Functions
Theorem 3.5: Derivatives of Sine and Cosine Functions
Sine Rule:

Cosine Rule:
Example 5: Find the derivative of the function:
a)

b)

Topic #6: Derivatives of Exponential Functions


Theorem 3.6: Derivatives of Exponential Functions
Eulers Exponential Rule:
Example 6: Find the derivative of the function:
a)

b)

14
Example 7: Find the equation of the line tangent to the curve
of

at the point

Example 8: Determine all values of x (if any) at which the graph of the function
has a horizontal tangent line.

15
Topic #7: Rates of Change
The function s that gives the position (relative to the origin) of an object at a function of
time t is called a position function

Velocity of an object at time t (with position function s(t):

Note: The speed of an object is the absolute value of its velocity.


Position function for Free-falling Objects:

Notes:
is the acceleration due to gravity. On earth, it is -32 feet per second per second or -9.8
meters per second per second.
is the initial velocity of the object
is the initial height of the object

16
Example 9: On a distant planet, a free-falling object thrown straight down from a cliff
with an initial velocity of
feet per second from an initial height of
feet, has position function
. Find the velocity of the object at the
instant it hits the ground (accurate to at least 3 decimal places).

Example 10: The height of an object, in feet, is given by


the velocity of the object when its height is 66 feet, given that
feet. (accurate to at least 3 decimal places)

. Find
feet per second and

17
Math 151 3.3 Notes: Product and Quotient Rules and
Higher-Order Derivatives

Topic #1: The Product Rule


Theorem 3.8: The Product Rule
The product of two differentiable functions f and g is itself differentiable. Moreover, the
derivative of fg is:

Example 1: Find the derivative using the product rule.


a)

b)

18
Topic #2: The Quotient Rule
Theorem 3.8: The Quotient Rule
The quotient of two differentiable functions f and g is itself differentiable at all values of
x for which
. Moreover, the derivative of f/g is:

Example 2: Find the derivative using the quotient rule.


a)

b)

19
Topic #3: Derivatives of the Other Trig Functions
Theorem 3.10: Derivatives of the Trigonometric Functions

Example 3: Find the derivative of


a)

Example 4: Differentiate:

b)

20

Example 5: Find an equation of the tangent line to the graph of


the point

Example 6: The length of a rectangle is given by


, and its height is
, where t is
time in seconds and the dimensions are in inches. Find the rate of change of the area A
with respect to time.

at

21

Topic #4: Higher-Order Derivatives


Higher Order Derivatives:
Example:

Example 7: Find the second derivative of the function:

Example 8: Find

given

22

Example 9: Suppose the function shows a particles position in feet at time t seconds.
sketch the graphs of
and
, including units for the axes.

Important Link: Position, Velocity, Acceleration

23
Math 151 3.4 Notes: The Chain Rule

Topic #1: The Chain Rule


Example 1: Breaking down Composite Functions:

y = f(g(x))

Function

Theorem 3.11: The Chain Rule


If
then

is a differentiable function of u and


is a differentiable function of x and:
Or, equivalently,

Example 2: Find the derivative of the function:

Topic #2: The General Power Rule

is a differentiable function of x,

24
Theorem 3.12: The General Power Rule
If

, where u is a differentiable function of x and n is a rational number, then,


Or, equivalently,

Example 3: Find the derivative of:


a)

b)

25
Example 4 Combining Chain Rule with Product and Quotient Rules
a)

b)

26

Topic #4: Trigonometric Functions and the Chain Rule


Chain Rule Versions of Trigonometric Derivatives:
If u is a differentiable function of x

Example 5: Basic Chain Rule with Trig Functions


a)

c)

b)

27

Example 6: Evaluate the slope of the line tangent to the curve


when
.

Chain Rule Versions of Exponential Derivatives (base e):


If u is a differentiable function of x and n is a rational number, then

Example 6: Find the derivative of the following:


a)

b)

28

Example 7: Find the second derivative of

Topic #5: The Derivative of the Natural Logarithm Function


Theorem 3.13: Derivative of the Natural Logarithm Function
Let u is a differentiable function of x
1. Basic Rule:
2. Chain Rule Equivalent:

Example 8: Find the derivative of:

29
Recall: Properties of Logarithms

Example 9: Find the derivative of:

using properties to simplify

Theorem 3.13: Derivative Involving Absolute Value


Let u is a differentiable function of x such that
Example 10: Find the derivative of:

, then,

30

Topic #6: Bases Other than e


Theorem 3.15: Derivatives for Bases Other than e
Let a is a positive real number
and let u be a differentiable function of x.
Basic Rule

Chain Rule Equivalent

1.

2.

3.

4.

Example 11: Find the derivative of:


a)

c)

b)

31

32
Math 151 3.5 Notes: Implicit Differentiation

Topic #1: Implicit and Explicit Differentiation


Implicit Form:
Explicit Form:

Trouble: There are many functions which cannot be written explicitly:


so well need to be able to take the derivatives of those too!!

Example 1: Differentiate with respect to x (practice before implicit differentiation)


a)

b)

33
Example 1: (Contd)
c)

d)

e)

f)

34
Topic #2: Implicit Differentiation

Example 2: Find
a)

b)

by implicit differentiation

35

Example 2: (contd) Find

by implicit differentiation

c)

Example 3: Implicitly differentiate


line at the point

to find

and the equation of the tangent

36
Example 4: Find an equation of the tangent line to the graph of
the point

at

37
Topic #3: Second Derivatives Implicitly
Example 5: Find

of

at the given point

Example 6: Find the points at which the graph of


either a vertical or horizontal tangent line.

has

38
Topic #4: Logarithmic Differentiation
Example 7: Find

by logarithmic differentiation

a)

b)

Notes: Logarithmic differentiation is very useful for:

39
Math 151 3.6 Notes: Derivatives of Inverse Functions

Topic #1: Derivative of an Inverse Function

Example 1: Let
. The function is invertible. Find the value of the
derivative of the inverse function (as a function of x) when x = 1. A numerical answer
must be accurate to at least 3 decimal places.

40
Example 2: Write

Example 3: Solve

in algebraic form.

for x.

41
Derivatives of Inverse Trigonometric Functions:
If u is a differentiable function of x

Example 4: Find the derivative of the function


a)

b)

42

Example 5: Find an equation of the tangent line to the graph of

at

43

44
Math 151 3.7 Notes: Related Rates
Topic #1: Finding Related Rates
Recall: The Chain Rule

Example 1: Compute the following derivatives with respect to t.


a)

b)

c)

d)

Example 2: If

and

, compute

when

45
Topic #2: Problem Solving with Related Rates

Example 3: A ladder 20 feet long is placed against a wall. The foot of the ladder begins
to slide away from the wall at the rate of 1 ft/sec. How fast is the top of the ladder sliding
down the wall when the foot of the ladder is 12 feet from the wall?

46

Example 4: At a certain instant, car A is 60 miles north of car B. A is traveling south at a


rate of 20 mi/hr while B is traveling east at 30 mi/hr/ How fast is the distance between
them changing 1 hour later?

Example 5: A plane, P, flies horizontally at an altitude of 2 miles with a speed of 480


mi/hr. At a certain moment it passes directly over a radar station, R. How fast is the
distance between the plane and the radar station increasing 1 minute later?

47

Example 6: A point is moving along a circle


in the first quadrant in such a
way that its x coordinate changes at the rate of 2 cm/sec. How fast is its y coordinate
changing as the point passes through
?

Example 7: The dimensions of a rectangle are continuously changing. The width


increases at the rate of 3 in/sec while the length decreases at the rate of 2 in/sec. At one
instant the rectangle is a 20-inch square. How fast is its area changing 3 seconds later? Is
the area increasing or decreasing?

48

Example 9: Two sides of triangle are 5 and 10 inches, respectively. The angle between
them is increasing at the rate of 5 per minute. How fast is the third side of the triangle
growing when the angle is 60?

Example 10: A kite is flying 200 ft above the ground, moving in a strictly horizontal
direction at a rate of 10 ft/sec. How fast is the angle between the string and the horizontal
changing when there is 300 feet of string out?

49

Example 11: A conical tank (with vertex down) is 18 feet across at the top and 18 feet
deep. If the water is flowing into the tank at a rate of 12 cubic feet per minute, find the
rate of change of the depth of the water when the water is 10 feet deep.

50

Example 12: A man 6 feet tall walks at a rate of 4 feet per second away from a light that
is 13 feet above the ground. When he is 10 feet from the base of the light, at what rate is
the length of this shadow changing?

51
Math 151 3.8 Notes: Newtons Method

Example 1: Approximate the zero(s) of the function. Use Newtons Method and continue
the process until two successive approximations differ by less than 0.001

1
2
3
4
5

Calculator Code:

52

Example 2: Apply Newtons method to approximate


the x-value of the indicated point of intersection of
and
. Continue the
process until two successive approximations differ by
less than 0.001. [Hint:
]

1
2
3
4
5