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TECHNICAL

GUIDELINES
Prepared by the International Concrete Repair Institute

October 2014

Guideline No. 710.22014


Copyright 2014 International Concrete Repair Institute

Guide for Horizontal Waterproofing


of Traffic Surfaces

TECHNICAL

GUIDELINES
Prepared by the International Concrete Repair Institute

October 2014

Guide for Horizontal


Waterproofing of
TrafficSurfaces
Guideline No. 710.2-2014

Copyright 2014 International Concrete Repair Institute


All rights reserved.
International Concrete Repair Institute
10600 West Higgins Road, Suite 607, Rosemont, IL 60018
Phone: 847-827-0830 Fax: 847-827-0832
E-mail: info@icri.org
Website: www.icri.org

About ICRI Guidelines

The International Concrete Repair Institute (ICRI) was


founded to improve the durability of concrete repair
and enhance its value for structure owners. The identification, development, and promotion of the most
promising methods and materials are primary vehicles
for accelerating advances in repair technology. Working
through a variety of forums, ICRI members have the
opportunity to address these issues and to directly
contribute to improving the practice of concrete repair.
A principal component of this effort is to make carefully
selected information on important repair subjects
readily accessible to decision makers. During the past
several decades, much has been reported in the liter
ature on concrete repair methods and materials as they
have been developed and refined. Nevertheless, it has
been difficult to find critically reviewed information on
the state of the art condensed into easy-to-use formats.
To that end, ICRI guidelines are prepared by sanctioned
task groups and approved by the ICRI Technical
Activities Committee. Each guideline is designed
to address a specific area of practice recognized as
essential to the achievement of durable repairs. All
ICRI guideline documents are subject to continual
review by the membership and may be revised as
approved by the Technical Activities Committee.

Technical Activities Committee


Fred Goodwin, Chair
James E. McDonald, Secretary
Frank Apicella
Jorge Costa
Brian Daley
Pierre Hebert
Gabriel A. Jimenez
Ralph C. Jones
Peter R. Kolf
Kevin A. Michols
Mark Nelson
Lee Sizemore
John Weisbarth

Producers of this Guideline


Subcommittee Members
Kevin A. Buck, Chair
Mark LeMay, Co-Chair
George Reedy
Jeffrey Smith
Dan Wald

ICRI Committee 710,


Coatings and Waterproofing
Mark Nelson, Chair
Kevin A. Buck
Peter Golter
Michel Jalbert
Alfred Kessi
Mark LeMay
Jeff Ohler
George Reedy
Monica Rourke
Jeffrey Smith
Dan Wald

Synopsis

This guideline is intended to provide information


for the selection and application of materials for
fluid-applied waterproofing systems to concrete
pedestrian and vehicular traffic surfaces.
Concrete is subject to deterioration by a variety
of mechanisms. Properly selected and applied
traffic membrane systems can protect concrete
from deterioration caused by abrasion, moisture
intrusion, environmental forces (freezing-andthawing cycling), and chemical attack. This
guideline provides information on the common
service conditions, basic review of the properties
of concrete, surface preparation, system designs,
and materials used for traffic membranes.

Keywords

Membranes; polymers; traffic surfaces; waterproofing.

This document is intended as a voluntary guideline for the owner, design professional, and
concrete repair contractor. It is not intended to relieve the professional engineer or designer
of any responsibility for the specification of concrete repair methods, materials, or practices.
While we believe the information contained herein represents the proper means to achieve
quality results, the International Concrete Repair Institute must disclaim any liability or
responsibility to those who may choose to rely on all or any part of this guideline.

710.22014

GUIDE FOR HORIZONTAL WATERPROOFING OF TRAFFICSURFACES

Contents
1.0 Introduction........................................................................................................................................ 1
1.1 Scope............................................................................................................................................. 1
1.2 Features and Benefits..................................................................................................................... 1
2.0 Definitions........................................................................................................................................... 1
3.0 System Design Considerations.......................................................................................................... 2
3.1 Owner Requirements...................................................................................................................... 2
3.2 Service Conditions.......................................................................................................................... 2
3.3 Type(s) of Construction................................................................................................................... 2
3.4 Existing Condition of the Structure.................................................................................................. 3
3.4.1 Concrete Surface Conditions................................................................................................. 3

3.4.1.1 Surface Strength....................................................................................................... 3

3.4.1.2 Efflorescence............................................................................................................ 3

3.4.1.3 Intercoat Adhesion.................................................................................................... 3
3.4.2 Physical and Chemical Damage............................................................................................. 3
3.4.3 Voids, Pinholes, and other Defects......................................................................................... 3
3.4.4 Joints and Cracks.................................................................................................................. 4
3.4.5 Moisture in Concrete Floor Slabs........................................................................................... 4
3.4.6 Poor Construction and Thermal/Structural Movement............................................................ 4
4.0 Materials ............................................................................................................................................. 5
4.1 Material Properties......................................................................................................................... 5
4.2 Material Types................................................................................................................................ 5
4.2.1 Polymers............................................................................................................................... 5

4.2.1.1 Polyurethane............................................................................................................. 6

4.2.1.2 Polyurea.................................................................................................................... 6

4.2.1.3 Epoxy........................................................................................................................ 6

4.2.1.4 Methyl Methacrylate (MMA)...................................................................................... 6
4.2.2 Cementitious......................................................................................................................... 6
4.3 Appropriateness for Application...................................................................................................... 7
4.4 Appropriateness for Substrates....................................................................................................... 7
4.5 Warranties...................................................................................................................................... 7
5.0 Project Implementation...................................................................................................................... 7
5.1 Contractor Selection....................................................................................................................... 7
5.2 Pre-Installation Meeting................................................................................................................. 8
5.3 Mockups........................................................................................................................................ 8
6.0 System Installation............................................................................................................................. 8
6.1 Inspection of the Concrete Substrate.............................................................................................. 8
6.2 Repair of Structural Defects............................................................................................................ 8
6.3 Repair of Concrete Surface Imperfections and Irregularities............................................................ 8
6.4 Surface Cleaning and Decontamination.......................................................................................... 9
6.5 Surface Preparation........................................................................................................................ 9
6.6 Cracks and Joints......................................................................................................................... 10
6.7 Application Process...................................................................................................................... 10
6.7.1 Priming............................................................................................................................... 11
6.7.2 Material Installation............................................................................................................. 11
6.7.3 Terminations....................................................................................................................... 12

6.7.3.1 Floor....................................................................................................................... 12

6.7.3.2 Wall......................................................................................................................... 12
6.7.4 Skid Resistance................................................................................................................... 12
6.8 Testing and Inspection.................................................................................................................. 12
6.9 Maintenance................................................................................................................................ 12
6.10 Inspection and Performance Analysis.......................................................................................... 12

GUIDE FOR HORIZONTAL WATERPROOFING OF TRAFFICSURFACES

710.22014

7.0 Health and Safety............................................................................................................................. 12


7.1 General Overview......................................................................................................................... 12
7.2 Employee Protection..................................................................................................................... 13
7.3 Employee Personal Protective Equipment..................................................................................... 13
7.4 Vapors.......................................................................................................................................... 13
8.0 References........................................................................................................................................ 13
8.1 Referenced Standards and Reports............................................................................................... 13
8.2 Cited References.......................................................................................................................... 15

710.22014

GUIDE FOR HORIZONTAL WATERPROOFING OF TRAFFICSURFACES

1.0 Introduction
1.1 Scope
This guideline has been developed to specifically
assist in the selection and application of fluidapplied high-build waterproofing systems for
horizontal traffic surfaces. Concrete is subject to
deterioration by a variety of mechanisms. Properly selected and applied traffic membrane systems can protect concrete from deterioration
caused by environmental and service conditions
(Fig. 1.1 and 1.2).

Fig. 1.1: Example of deck waterproofing


application

Fig. 1.2: Example of balcony waterproofing


application
The target audience for this guide includes the
owner, designer, developer, operator, material
supplier, installer, and property manager. Each of
these parties plays an integral part in the successful implementation of a concrete protection
strategy. For them to do their parts properly, each
party must have good information on which to
base design, selection, installation, and product
development decisions.
This document addresses the primary concerns
and requirements that the owner may have with
traffic membrane systems. This includes, but is
GUIDE FOR HORIZONTAL WATERPROOFING OF TRAFFICSURFACES

not limited to, budget constraints, operational


considerations, Code Requirements and Regulations, and material warranties.

1.2 Features and Benefits


Some of the features and benefits provided by the
application of vehicular and pedestrian traffic
membranes to concrete include:
Concrete substrate protection against chemicals, oil, and other contaminants from vehicles;
Prevention of permeation or intrusion of water;
Aesthetically pleasing concrete surfaces that
reduce deterioration caused by weathering and
traffic (Fig. 1.3);

Fig. 1.3: Waterproofing membrane applied to


pedestrian plaza
Enhanced light reflectivity and slip resistance to improve visibility and reduce potential safety hazards in areas such as parking
structures and warehouses, along with identifying and delineating traffic lanes and
safety zones;
Providing a temporary containment of chemical splash and spills while enhancing the ease
of cleaning the surface; and
Prevention of water and waterborne chlorideion penetration to the embedded steel reinforcement bar, preventing corrosion and
related concrete deterioration.

2.0 Definitions

ICRI provides a comprehensive list of definitions


through an online resource, ICRI Concrete
Repair Terminology (www.icri.org/GENERAL/
repairterminology.aspx). Definitions provided
herein compliment that resource.
Traffic membrane systemA high-build
film-forming liquid or a liquid with fillers, reinforcement, or both that is applied to a substrate
and cures by heat, moisture, or chemical reaction
710.22014- 1

to form a thermoset or thermoplastic polymer that


bonds to and protects the substrate and provides
a barrier for fluids.
Ultraviolet (UV) stabilityA combination
of two different performance criteria: discoloration and physical property retention.

3.0 System Design


Considerations

Waterproofing systems for the protection of


concrete structures may be formulated to provide
a wide range of properties. Because material
properties affect performance of the traffic membrane system, selecting the proper system
involves consideration of several important factors. The proper design of a waterproofing system
for traffic-bearing surfaces should take into
account the following items:
Owner requirements;
Service conditions;
Type(s) of construction; and
Condition of the structure.
In many instances, more than one waterproofing system will satisfy the established
requirements of the project. Final selection of the
system should be based on the balanced relationship between cost and performance.

3.1 Owner Requirements

Detailed discussions with the owner are critical


in understanding the goals and expectations of
the completed work. Project objectives need to
be clearly defined at the onset and provide a
reference to measure the success of the project.
Objectives and requirements may encompass, but
are not limited to, the following:
Life expectancy of the structure;
Desired aesthetics of the finished product;
Installation constraints, including anticipated
closures for critical access areas; and
Budget constraints.

3.2 Service Conditions

With the variety of materials applicable for


traffic-bearing horizontal waterproofing systems,
the systems can be tailored to meet a wide range
of service conditions. The waterproofing system
designer can assist the owner in understanding
various service conditions that may affect the
performance of the waterproofing system. These
conditions may include:
AbrasionAn attempt should be made to
understand the frequency and any potential
2 - 710.22014

sources of traffic. This may include foot or


vehicular traffic; types of wheels (such as
rubber and steel); or any other location-specific item, such as snow plows or pallets;
ChemicalsTraffic membrane systems ex
posed to vehicular traffic may come in contact
with common fluids, such as gasoline, ethylene
glycol, brake fluid, or engine oil;
ClimateDifferent climates may require
specific performance characteristics. This may
include increased resistance to snow removal
equipment and deicing chemicals for colder
climates or improved UV performance in
warmer ones;
Impact areasAreas subject to repeated stress,
such as repair bays, drum storage rooms, manu
facturing, or loading/unloading areas may have
the potential for the traffic membrane system
to be damaged through normal use;
Thermal shockIf the traffic membrane
system is in an environment where it would
be exposed to significant differences in temperature, it may experience stress cracks due
to different thermal expansion rates between
the membrane and substrate. Use of fabric
reinforcement, fillers, or combinations thereof
may reduce this effect.

3.3 Type(s) of Construction


With the exception of some of the cementitious
systems, horizontal waterproofing systems
typically form a barrier on the surface of the
concrete, preventing passage of moisture vapor
through the membrane. These membranes are
also known as Class I vapor retarders, having
a permeability < 0.1 perms, as determined by
ASTM E96/E96M. Consequently, these systems are not usually applied to concrete that is
subject to significant amounts of moisture
vapor transmission, such as slabs-on-ground,
elevated concrete slabs placed on unvented
metal decking, and concrete topping slabs
placed over a waterproofing membrane (also
called sandwich slabs). Applications to these
types of substrates can result in unacceptable
blistering and premature failure of the waterproofing system.
ICRI has created a certification program
(www.icri.org/Certification/Certification
Classes.asp) to train and certify individuals in
concrete slab moisture testing procedures that
should be performed to determine the suitability
of substrates for the application of non-breathable waterproofing systems.
GUIDE FOR HORIZONTAL WATERPROOFING OF TRAFFICSURFACES

3.4 Existing Condition of


theStructure
Manufacturers of horizontal waterproofing membranes typically require materials to be applied
to clean, sound substrates. Existing structures are
generally evaluated to determine:
Concrete surface conditions;
Physical and chemical damage;
Voids, pinholes, and other defects;
Joints and cracks;
Moisture in concrete floor slabs; and
Evidence of shrinkage, thermal movement,
poor construction, or structural movement.
It is important for the system designer to identify potential deficiencies in the substrate and
specify the necessary repairs to restore the substrate to a sound condition, bringing it into compliance with the material manufacturers requirements. Refer to ICRI 210.4 for guidance on
nondestructive evaluation methods for condition
assessment, repair, and performance monitoring
of concrete structures.

to determine if the new waterproofing system is


compatible with the existing system. With many
replacement systems, traces of the old system
should be removed. If the old system is compatible
with the new system, it may then be evaluated for
soundness and uniformity. Loose, delaminated,
chalked, or otherwise unsound areas must generally be removed. Before being recoated, an
existing system should have a uniform surface
profile and exhibit adequate bond strength to the
substrate, especially along any edges. Test applications should be made to evaluate the bond of a
new system over an existing system in accordance
with the material manufacturers recommendations, or as described by ASTM D4541. Use of a
proprietary adhesive primer may be required to
achieve adequate bonding.

3.4.2 Physical and Chemical Damage

3.4.1.1 Surface Strength

Existing concrete structures may have been subjected to mechanical damage (by impact or abrasion), chemical attack, or corrosion to the
reinforcing steel. Deteriorated concrete must be
removed and replaced prior to the application of
the traffic membrane system (Fig. 3.1). Cementitious, polymeric, or monomeric repair materials

3.4.1.2 Efflorescence

Fig. 3.1: Physical damage to concrete structure

The presence of efflorescence, crystalline


deposits, or both on the concrete surface will
lessen the adhesion of waterproofing systems. If
efflorescence is detected, the cause should be
determined and remedied prior to application of
the traffic membrane system. Wet cleaning and
wet surface preparation methods may cause additional efflorescence on the concretes surface.

are often used for making repairs in concrete.


ICRI 320.2R can assist in selecting and specifying repair materials, and ICRI 510.1 provides
guidance on electrochemical techniques to mitigate corrosion of steel for reinforced concrete
structures. The traffic membrane system manufacturer should be consulted to determine compatibility with replacement and repair materials.

3.4.1.3 Intercoat Adhesion

3.4.3 Voids, Pinholes, and other Defects

3.4.1 Concrete Surface Conditions


Many traffic membrane system manufacturers
and design professionals specify minimum concrete tensile bond strength, or 100% cohesive
failure in the concrete substrate depending on the
type of system and service conditions. ASTM
D4541 describes a procedure used to test the
pulloff strength of polymer systems, while ICRI
210.3R and ASTM C1583/C1583M describe
procedures used to field-test the surface soundness of concrete and adhesion of bonded systems.
Concrete substrate compressive strength may also
be determined and evaluated.

Concrete surfaces may have a previously applied


protective system. Exercise caution when applying
a new system over an existing system to ensure a
successful application. Consult the system manufacturer and conduct adhesion testing on test areas
GUIDE FOR HORIZONTAL WATERPROOFING OF TRAFFICSURFACES

Surface voids, pinholes, and excess porosity can


affect the performance of traffic membrane
systems, and are typically remedied prior to
application. Unfilled voids may trap air, which
could expand to create a condition known as
710.22014- 3

outgassing. This results in the formation of


bubbles during or immediately after the traffic
membrane installation. Bubbles that pop and
backfill are not a problem. However, porosity
in the concrete surface can result in pinhole
development that does not pop and backfill,
resulting in avenues for moisture and moistureborne chemical intrusion.
Rough edges and protrusions in the surface
of the concrete, such as trowel chatter, mortar
splatter, ridges, or sharp projections, are typically
removed during surface preparation because they
can cause a nonuniform thickness of the traffic
membrane systems.

3.4.4 Joints and Cracks

Cracks may develop in concrete as a result of


shrinkage, thermal cycling, dead-load settling,
or live-load traffic. Cracks often allow more
rapid ingress of moisture, chlorides, and carbonation, resulting in accelerated corrosion of em
bedded reinforcing steel. Existing joints (Fig.3.2)
and cracks are usually identified and the movement determined prior to selection of the traffic
membrane system.

3.4.5 Moisture in Concrete Floor Slabs

As noted previously, moisture vapor transmission


through the concrete substrate can be detrimental
to the performance of a horizontal waterproofing
system. The presence of excess moisture in concrete floor slabs can cause discoloration, interrupt
polymerization of components of the waterproofing system, compromise adhesion, and
contribute to premature failure or delamination
of the waterproofing system. Sources of excess
moisture fall into three distinct categories:
Moisture present at the surface prior to application (Fig. 3.3);
Moisture within the concrete that moves out
during and after application; and
Moisture in contact with the concrete.

Fig. 3.3: Excessive moisture due to inadequate


surface drainage

Fig. 3.2: Typical joint in concrete deck


Monitoring joints and crack widths over time
can determine whether they are dormant or
active. However, cracks have the potential for
movement and can therefore be treated as active
cracks. Joints and cracks are usually sealed and
treated with an initial application of the base coat
material (detail coat) over the crack (refer to
Section 6.7) to prevent reflective cracking in the
waterproofing system. More flexible traffic
membrane systems can bridge some cracking
and are not as dependent on the jointing system
as are more rigid systems. Additional information
about the identification of joints and cracks and
their expected movement due to the other factors
mentioned is given in ACI 224R, ACI 302.1R,
and ACI 504R.
4 - 710.22014

Moisture within the concrete can come from


an external source or be the result of residual
mixing and curing water. One often-discussed
reason for waiting 28 days prior to the instal
lation of waterproofing systems over new
concrete is to allow excess moisture to evaporate
(Aldinger 1991). However, the evaporation rate
is dependent on the quantity of excess moisture,
the temperature and humidity differential
between the interior of the concrete and the
exterior ambient environment, air flow, concrete
thickness, and concrete permeability. In existing
concrete slabs, the age of the concrete may also
influence its rate of drying. This does not preclude older concrete slabs from being tested for
excessive moisture. Further information on this
topic can be found in ACI 302.2R.

3.4.6 Poor Construction and


Thermal/Structural Movement

Exposed reinforcing steel on the concrete surface


or inadequate concrete cover over embedded
steel is an example of poor initial construction,
which can affect the short- and long-term duraGUIDE FOR HORIZONTAL WATERPROOFING OF TRAFFICSURFACES

bility of the concrete. Properly installed traffic


membrane systems can prevent moisture intrusion, which exacerbates concrete deterioration
caused by corrosion of embedded steel elements.
The degree of thermal and structural movement will have an impact on the amount of flexibility required in a traffic membrane system.
For example, because precast double-tee beam
construction tends to deflect more under traffic
loads than cast-in-place floor slabs in parking
structures, membrane systems for precast garages
need to have a higher degree of flexibility.

4.0 Materials
There are five basic chemistries used in trafficbearing waterproofing applications. They are:
polyurethane, polyurea, epoxy, methacrylate, and
cementitious.

4.1 Material Properties

The selection of the proper material for the


waterproofing system will vary, depending on
the specific application requirements, location,
and substrates. Table 4.1 is intended to be a
guideline tool to help narrow the search for the
proper material type for the system application.
More specific information for material performance is provided in the individual material
sections that follow.

4.2 Material Types


4.2.1 Polymers

Most of the polymer material types are available


in either one-component or two-component
variations. The one-component options only
require mixing of the material in the provided
container to ensure consistency of the end
coating. One-component systems cure by
reacting with ambient moisture. As a result, the
cure rate may be significantly affected by changes
in temperature or humidity.
With two-component polymers, it is critical
to properly mix the components together. It is
important to comply with the manufacturers
written instructions and only mix full units.
If the product is not properly proportioned
and mixed, the traffic membrane system may
not cure or perform properly. An advantage of
multi-component products is the cure rate can
be tailored to provide a faster cure and quicker
turnaround if desired.
In some cases, traffic membrane systems may
contain solvents. Proper application and safety
procedures should be followed in all cases. Also,
a complete traffic membrane system may use
more than one of the polymers listed in the following sections. For instance, a flexible membrane may be placed under a rigid system to
improve the overall systems ability to bridge

Table 4.1: Material Type and Performance


Polyurethane,
single-component

Polyurethane,
two-component

Epoxy,
Methyl
low
modulus methacrylate

Polyurea

Aromatic Aliphatic Aromatic Aliphatic Aromatic Aliphatic


UV resistance (Note 1)
Property retention
Color stability

***
**

****
***

Scratch resistance

**

***

Tensile strength

**

***

Resistance to tear

**

***

Crack bridging

****

Hardness range

**

Durability
Breatheability
Low odor
Ratings (Note 2)

* Poor

****
***

***
**

***
***

*
*

***

***

***

***

****

****

***

***

**

***

****

***

****

**

****

**

***

**

**

***

***

***

***

***

****

***

**

***

**

***

***

****

***

***

****

****

**

****

**

**

**

**

**

****

****

**

**

****

****

**

**

***

****

****

** Fair

*** Good

**
**

Cementitious
SingleTwocomponent component

***
***

****
***

****
***

****

***

**

***

****

****

****

****

**** Excellent

NOTES:
(1) UV stability may depend on the inclusion of UV stabilizers, the usage of a fully broadcast aggregate or whether a UV stable topcoat is used
(2) Ratings are based upon the comparison of properties published on product data sheets from several manufacturers for similar products and on collective
committee experience

GUIDE FOR HORIZONTAL WATERPROOFING OF TRAFFICSURFACES

710.22014- 5

cracks. Experienced design professionals and


material manufacturers can assist with the task
of developing a system that best suits the performance requirements needed. ICRI 710.1 provides a more detailed description of various
polymer types.

4.2.1.1 Polyurethane

Polyurethanes are organic polymers formed by a


reaction of an isocyanate with a hydroxyl-functional resin. They are available in either onecomponent or two-component versions and the
isocyanate may be either aromatic or aliphatic in
nature. Aromatic systems are more economical,
but not as UV-stable as the aliphatic products.
Typically, polyurethanes have good abrasion
resistance, flexibility, and overall durability and
are usually applied with a single base coat and
multiple top coats, depending on project requirements. Due to the tendency for discoloration,
polyurethane systems may be pigmented light
gray, charcoal, or tan. Other colors may be available, depending on the manufacturer.

4.2.1.2 Polyurea

A pure polyurea elastomer is derived from the


reaction product of an isocyanate component and
an amine-terminated resin blend. Similar to
polyurethanes, polyureas can be either aromatic
or aliphatic in nature. Polyurea will generally
provide superior physical properties over polyurethanes and have slightly better color stability.
Generally, polyurea has a fast-set chemistry,
requiring high-pressure, multi-component spray
equipment. Upon application, polyurea can be
dry to the touch in as little as 10 seconds.
Additional variants may be available with
slightly slower cure times for joint sealants, as
well as brush-grade systems for repair applications. Systems approved for use with potable
water (NSF/ANSI Standard 61) are available.

4.2.1.3 Epoxy

Epoxies are two-component materials, based on


organic chemistry, which have been widely used
in the construction industry since the early 1960s
and are perhaps the most common interior systems used in construction today. These systems
may range from thin-set epoxy terrazzo to those
with high chemical resistance. One of the limitations of epoxy is its inability to expand and
contract the same as concrete when exposed to
temperature extremes. Therefore, it may not be
appropriate for exterior application. Another
limitation is that epoxy will change color when
exposed to UV light because of its aromatic
6 - 710.22014

characteristics. Epoxies also get softer in the heat


and harder in the cold and tend to become brittle
over time. Low-modulus epoxies are somewhat
more flexible than higher-modulus epoxies. The
majority of the epoxies available today are 100%
solids, so they contain almost no volatile organic
compound (VOC), and have only a slight amine
odor that may be objectionable to nonconstruction personnel.
Exterior use of epoxy traffic membrane systems is often restricted because of their rigid
responses to loads and thermal movement. When
used outdoors in applications such as bridge deck
overlays, they may use a semi-rigid or flexible
epoxy loaded with aggregate. However, reflective cracking from the substrate through the
epoxy traffic system is possible with the more
rigid versions.

4.2.1.4 Methyl Methacrylate (MMA)

Methyl methacrylate, or MMA, as it is widely


known, is an acrylic resin cured with a specified
amount of benzyl peroxide. MMA compounds
are 100% reactive and may range from soft coatings, similar to contact lenses, to hard membranes, such as acrylic glass. MMA is naturally
colorless, volatile, and flammable, with limited
solubility in warm water. It has a distinctive,
acrid odor, although the detectable threshold of
0.08 parts per million (ppm) (0.3mg/m3) is well
below the OSHA-defined limits.
MMA traffic membranes are resistant to
many acids, salts, and alkalis. However, they
are not recommended for exposure to many
industrial solvents. In general, these products
have excellent UV resistance, although this
should be verified with the manufacturer for the
specific system under consideration. Some
products are NSF-rated for sanitary areas (NSF/
ANSI Standard 61). MMA systems have varying
degrees of flexibility, which is a consideration
where the concrete will experience significant
ranges in temperature.

4.2.2 Cementitious

Cementitious waterproofing products have a


distinct difference from the polymer types previously described in that they contain a dry aggregate mixed with liquid materials on site. They
are readily mixed and applied using a variety of
tools and methods, including trowel, roller, spray,
broom, and notched squeegee with back roll. A
variety of colors, textures, and decorative faux
finishes can also be incorporated into the coating
installation for architectural enhancement.
GUIDE FOR HORIZONTAL WATERPROOFING OF TRAFFICSURFACES

Cementitious systems are typically applied


thicker than the polymers and, as a result, require
polymer modification when used for thin hor
izontal surfaces. The polymer modification
enhances physical properties, including adhesion, freezing-and-thawing resistance, abrasion
resistance, tensile and flexural strengths, durability, and permeability of the coating.
The advantages of cementitious waterproofing materials include greater moisture
vapor transmission rates, usually no requirements for primers, and inherent anti-slip characteristics. However, cementitious waterproof
coatings have limited elongation properties, and
as a result will not perform well in applications
where crack bridging is a key requirement.

4.3 Appropriateness for Application

Not all traffic membrane systems are ideal for


every application. For instance, cure times may
be an important consideration when access to
existing facilities may be required. Also, individual product data and test methods should be
considered when comparing material performance relative to the desired application location and substrate. Users should consult with
the respective manufacturers to determine if
their product has been designed for the specific
end use.
Potential application locations for traffic
membrane systems include:
Parking decks;
Helix;
Mechanical rooms;
Vehicular bridges;
Pedestrian bridges;
Plazas;
Loading docks;
Stadiums; and
Balconies.

4.4 Appropriateness for Substrates

Although traffic membrane systems may be


designed for use on different substrates, discussion herein is limited to the application of membrane systems on concrete substrates.
Best practice is for recently placed concrete
to cure for 28 days or until the moisture content
is within acceptable limits for the waterproofing
system. The contractor must verify that the
moisture content of the concrete is within the
limits as recommended by the membrane system
manufacturer. Typical test methods for assessing
moisture in concrete include ASTM F1869,
ASTM F2170, and ASTM F2420.
GUIDE FOR HORIZONTAL WATERPROOFING OF TRAFFICSURFACES

It is further recommended that the concrete


substrate have a minimum concrete surface
profile (CSP) of 3 (ICRI 310.2R) or as recommended by the manufacturer. If the substrate is
highly profiled, it may be necessary to use a
leveling compound, such as a high-build primer
or mortar, to fill in low spots. It may also be
necessary to include the use of a primer prior to
applying the traffic membrane system. It is up
to the contractor to verify system performance
via adhesion testing prior to the application.
Previously coated surfaces present unique
challenges for the application of new traffic
membrane systems. Without complete removal
of the existing membrane system, considerations
must be given to the compatibility of the existing
membrane with the new system.

4.5 Warranties

The majority of manufacturers provide warranties for their materials ranging in duration from
1 to 5 years. Contractors who install traffic
membrane systems also provide similar warranties for the application portion of the work. In
some cases, manufacturers and contractors will
provide a joint warranty on a single document.
It is important for the owner to understand
what the warranty does and does not cover, the
limitations and exclusions that are listed on the
warranty document, the maintenance requirements for the traffic membrane system to keep
the warranty in force, and what requirements are
placed on the owner in the event of a claim.

5.0 Project
Implementation

5.1 Contractor Selection


Prior to actual contractor bidding or negotiation
on the project, there are some critical activities
that need to take place for the project to proceed
smoothly. Contract documents should be completed, including a qualification standard for
applicators. This may be satisfied through
manufacturers certified applicator programs or
independent training conducted by a trade
school, trade association, or community college,
to cite a few examples. Once qualified bidders
have been identified, then an invitation to a prebid conference may be in order, or contractor
negotiations may take place, depending on the
complexity of the project and the system chosen
for concrete protection. This process ensures that
all parties fully understand the project scope and
710.22014- 7

can ask any clarifying questions that will ultimately result in more accurate estimating and
provide the groundwork for a successful project.

5.2 Pre-Installation Meeting

Once the contractor/applicator has been


selected, a pre-installation meeting will enable
all involved parties to resolve any issues that
might hinder the project. First and foremost, any
safety issues must be identified and dealt with
at this time, prior to mobilization. Other items
discussed may involve site access, sequence of
work between trades, scheduling anomalies
(such as weather), maintenance of access, and
noise restrictions. A clear understanding of
likely obstacles and establishing the process to
be used for resolving subsequently identified
difficulties is very important if a project is to
move ahead without undue delays.

5.3 Mockups

To establish a standard for acceptance of the


waterproofing system, a mockup installation of
the waterproofing system should be required.
The mockup should include the treatment of
cracks, joints, deck-to-wall transitions, termi
nations, penetrations through the membrane
system, and other detailing that will impact the
performance and aesthetics of the system. The
mockup should be of sufficient size to provide
the owner with a clear understanding of the
color and texture of the final product, includ
i ng expected variations in appearance. Once
approved by all parties, the mockup becomes the
standard by which the installation is judged. In
most cases, the sample installed is left in place
as part of the final installation and can also be
used to validate the adequacy of surface preparation, material application, intercoat adhesion,
and finishing.

6.0 System
Installation
6.1 Inspection of the Concrete
Substrate

Inspection of the concrete substrate is conducted


to determine the general condition, soundness,
presence of contaminants, moisture vapor emission, and relative humidity to identify the best
methods to prepare the concrete surface to meet
the requirements of the system manufacturer.
Hydrophobic contaminants can be identified by
8 - 710.22014

lack of absorption of water drops on the concrete


surface. Simple nondestructive testing (NDT)
techniques such as hammer sounding and chain
dragging can help to identify unsound sections
of concrete. A proper evaluation leads to the
selection of the proper materials, installation
methods, tools, and equipment to accomplish
the objective. Refer to ACI 201.1R and ICRI
210.4. The traffic membrane manufacturers
guidelines should be used to evaluate the condition of the concrete.

6.2 Repair of Structural Defects


A structural defect is a major, unintended discontinuity in a structure (Fig. 6.1). Some defective members may be repaired, while others may
require removal and replacement. Spalled concrete with exposed reinforcing steel, corroded
reinforcing steel, or extensive cracking in concrete members are conditions that should be
investigated by a licensed design professional.
Structural defects require an engineered repair
that is beyond the scope of this guideline.

Fig. 6.1: Structural defect to correct prior to


membrane installation

6.3 Repair of Concrete Surface


Imperfections and Irregularities
Once structural repairs have been completed, it
may be necessary to correct other defects, such
as surface pitting or scaling, minor spalls, cracks
(Fig. 6.2), slopes, and areas near transition zones,
such as around drains and doorways, to achieve
the desired performance level. High spots may
wear prematurely, whereas excess product
pooled in surface depressions may slow or compromise development of the desired protective
properties of a traffic membrane system. For
some systems, it is not necessary to have all
surfaces of the concrete in the same plane as long
as transitions are gradual and smooth. The traffic
GUIDE FOR HORIZONTAL WATERPROOFING OF TRAFFICSURFACES

membrane system material manufacturer should


be contacted for recommendations.

CAUTION: Decontamination methods that


introduce large amounts of water can contribute
to moisture-related problems (refer to Section
3.4.5). Visual inspection is not always an accurate indicator of proper decontamination or
cleanliness. Other considerations include:
The decontamination method may create a
bond breaker if not completely removed;
Disposal of the wash residue may require
special handling to meet environmental
guidelines; and
Because the cleaning method may introduce
large quantities of water to the concrete,
additional tests to determine the acceptable
level of moisture vapor emissions and relative
humidity are required prior to application of
the traffic membrane system.

6.5 Surface Preparation

Fig. 6.2: Cracks leading to surface irregularities

6.4 Surface Cleaning and


Decontamination
Decontamination of the concrete surface involves
the removal of bond-inhibiting materials such as
oils, grease, wax, fatty acids, and other contam
inants. The decontamination process can be
accomplished by detergent scrubbing, chemical
cleaning, low-pressure (less than 5000 psi
[35MPa]) water cleaning, or steam cleaning. The
suitability of these methods is dependent on the
depth of penetration of the contaminant, the
contaminants viscosity, the contaminants solubility, the concretes permeability, and the duration of exposure. Note that in areas contaminated
with hydrophobic materials (oils, greases, fats),
it may be necessary to decontaminate, then obtain
the required surface profile, and again decontaminate the prepared surface, as most decontamination procedures (including water, steam,
and chemical cleaning) are only effective on the
surface and do not significantly penetrate the
concrete. Other contaminants can be identified
by pH, infrared spectroscopy, or other chemicalanalysis test methods. Acids and alkalis can be
removed by neutralizing to form a water-soluble
salt and then cleaning with high-pressure water.
In areas where the contaminants cannot be
removed, complete removal and replacement of
the contaminated concrete may be necessary.
GUIDE FOR HORIZONTAL WATERPROOFING OF TRAFFICSURFACES

The objective of surface preparation is to produce


a concrete surface that is suitable for application
and adhesion of the traffic membrane system.
The quality of the surface preparation step and
performance of the specified system are directly
related. The system manufacturer should provide
detailed instructions, in the form of a specification, for preparation of concrete surfaces to
receive their system.
Creation of a satisfactory surface profile
can be accomplished by a number of methods,
each using a selection of tools, equipment,
and materials dependent on the type of surface
to be prepared and the type of system to be
installed. Most manufacturers recommend a
concrete surface profile (CSP) of 2 or 3 (refer
to ICRI 310.2R). The service temperature and
type and thickness of the selected waterproofing
system also play an important role in the surface
preparation selection process. ICRI 310.2R

Fig. 6.3: Concrete surface profile (CSP) chips


on prepared surface
710.22014- 9

provides a comprehensive description of surface


preparation methods, the tools/equipment available, and the results of using the methods. A set
of molded replicas (chips) are also available
with the guideline as visual guides (Fig. 6.3) for
verification of acceptable surface profile for the
application of industrial sealers, coatings, and
polymer overlays.
Depending on the concrete condition, one or
more methods of surface preparation may be
specified. Among the most frequently used
methods include:
Acid etchingDiluted hydrochloric acid is
used to remove concrete laitance and weak
paste at the surface. This provides a relatively
even surface profile but may not be aggressive
enough to achieve a CSP 3 surface profile;
GrindingA labor-intensive approach, generally employing a handheld or walk-behind
machine with grinding wheels. Minor grinding
is particularly suitable for small areas not
accessible to other forms of surface preparation, such as joint faces, areas along walls, and
in confined spaces; while major grinding is
typically used for terrazzo and big-box-store
concrete floor polishing. The use of aggressive
grinding discs will provide a CSP 2 profile,
adequate for some traffic membrane systems;
Abrasive blastingGenerally employs wet or
dry sand or other abrasive mixed with compressed air and propelled at high velocity
through a nozzle. This method of surface
preparation is highly effective and can produce
slight to deep surface profiles from CSP 2 to
7, depending on the concrete hardness, velocity
of impact, and choice of abrasive medium;
ShotblastingThe most commonly used and
preferred method for preparation of concrete
surfaces to receive coating (Fig. 6.4). ICRI
310.2R provides information on the effect of
steel shot size and resulting surface profiles

Fig. 6.4: Shotblast surface preparation


10 - 710.22014

from CSP 2 to 9. The profile is affected by


the speed at which the machine is operated
and the number of passes; and
Scarifying and scabblingScarifying generally employs a rotary cutter (toothed washers)
that impacts the surface to fracture and pulverize the concrete. Scabbling employs
piston-driven cutting heads to create a chipping and pulverizing action. Both methods
are effective in removing concrete and brittle
coatings up to 0.25 in. (6 mm) thick.
Prior to application of the waterproofing
system, it is prudent to test for adequacy of the
surface preparation. Testing and inspection of
the prepared surface takes into account bond
strength, profile, cleanliness, pH, moisture vapor
emission, and relative humidity.

6.6 Cracks and Joints


Existing cracks must be addressed prior to application of the traffic membrane system. The
system manufacturer should be consulted for
recommendations specific to their system.
Typically, dormant cracks with widths less
than 1/16 in. (1.5 mm) may be pretreated with
either a primer or the base coat of the traffic
membrane system to fill and seal, prior to the
general priming of the deck. Moving joints and
active nonstructural cracks may be routed and
sealed with elastomeric sealants, if approved by
the material supplier, after proper surface
preparation. The traffic membrane may or may
not be terminated at the joint edge depending
on the specification or manufacturers recommendation. Damaged joint nosings must be
repaired per the materials suppliers recommendation prior to placement of the traffic membrane system.

6.7 Application Process


The specific application method will vary
depending on the particular traffic membrane
system chosen. These methods may include
squeegee, roller, low-pressure spray, or trowel
application. Most systems are applied in layers
consisting of one or more of the following:
primer, base coat, intermediate coat(s), and top
coat (Fig. 6.5). The respective manufacturers
installation instructions should be consulted for
proper techniques and requirements.
The application process must be completely
understood by everyone involved in the project.
In cases where other trades will be working on
the project, it is also useful for them to underGUIDE FOR HORIZONTAL WATERPROOFING OF TRAFFICSURFACES

stand the basics of the application process so


they do not inadvertently contribute to unnecessary delays, or, worse yet, safety issues. For
example, if a worker in a nearby area is welding
while an MMA or other system containing
solvents is being installed, the fumes, which
concentrate and migrate along the ground, could
be ignited.

consequences in the overall performance of the


system. One must also understand the consequences relative to material cost and the construction schedule prior to selecting a traffic
membrane system. In some cases, the extra time
and money consumed by priming are more than
offset by a quicker turnaround and faster return
to service for the client.

6.7.2 Material Installation

Fig. 6.5: Waterproofing membrane application


in a stadium
Experienced applicators know how to plan
ahead for an efficient application process. Units
of material are often staged at intervals accor
ding to the coverage rates required by the sys
tem manufacturer. For example, on a 60 ft
(18.3m) wide section of deck with a coverage
rate of 100ft2/gal. (2.4 m2/L, one 5 gal. (19 L)
unit will be placed every 8 ft (2.4 m) along the
length of the deck. Spiked shoes are worn by
workers who must walk in the wet coating to
perform back rolling or aggregate spreading.
Material being applied continuously is always
applied to a wet edge.

In general, single- or two-component poly


urethane, epoxy, and MMA systems are typically applied by pouring the mixed material onto
the deck, then pushing the material using a
notched squeegee. The V-shaped notches in the
rubber portion of the squeegee vary in size and
control the amount of material placed on the
surface. Rollers are used to spread the material
evenly over the surface. Aggregate is then
broadcast into the wet material at various rates
to improve adhesion of subsequent coats, and
to provide slip resistance for topcoat applications (Fig.6.7). For some systems, it may be
permissible to spray-apply the material. Vertical
surfaces may require the use of higher-viscosity
or special vertical-grade versions to help prevent sagging. Specific installation recommendations from the material manufacturer should
always be followed.

6.7.1 Priming

Priming is required with some systems, but not


with others (Fig. 6.6). In each case, it is necessary to understand whether and under what
conditions priming will be required, and any

Fig. 6.7: Application of broadcast aggregate

Fig. 6.6: Primer application

Polyurea systems are spray-applied using


heated plural component pumps. Application
thickness is achieved by performing multiple
passes over the surface. Depending on the cure
time for the system, it may be possible to broadcast aggregate into the wet material prior to
setting. Stipple textures can also be achieved
with some systems. The material manufacturers
installation requirements and procedures should
be consulted.
Some material suppliers provide thinner
cementitious systems that can be spray-applied

GUIDE FOR HORIZONTAL WATERPROOFING OF TRAFFICSURFACES

710.22014- 11

in one or more lifts (layers) using hopper


gun spray equipment, textured sprayers, or
rotor/stator pump equipment. Once the material begins to set, the desired texture can be
achieved using sponge or plastic trowels. Thicker
cementitious systems are most often trowelapplied. Manufacturers product data sheets
typically list minimum and maximum appli
cation thicknesses.

6.7.3 Terminations
6.7.3.1 Floor

The most common termination in a floor is where


a floor intersects a wall or other vertical surface.
There are two basic ways to terminate the membrane system under such conditions:
A cant bead of sealant applied where the floor
meets the wall or vertical surface. This condition occurs when a wall or other vertical
surface is sitting directly on the slab. A bond
breaker tape is installed at the intersection and
an elastomeric sealant is placed over the tape,
adhering to the floor and the wall or other
vertical surface to either side of the tape.
Reinforcement cloth (fiberglass or scrim) for
dimensional stability is often recommended
at wall-to-floor transitions. Manufacturers
instructions should be followed as the primary
guide for the use and installation of materials
at these locations.
A saw cut is installed in the deck surface and
the coating system is turned down into the
saw cut.

6.7.3.2 Wall

A common termination for a traffic membrane


system on a wall is to install a piece of bond
breaker tape at the termination height, typically
4 to 6 in. (100 to 150 mm), then apply the material up to the tape. Once the application is complete and prior to final cure, the tape is removed.
In some cases, a flat metal strip, called a termination bar, is mechanically anchored to the wall
covering the top of the membrane, and then a
bead of sealant is installed on the top seam of
the bar.

6.7.4 Skid Resistance

Most exterior traffic membrane systems applied


to pedestrian or vehicular areas will incorporate
a nonskid aggregate for safety considerations.
Interior traffic membranes may or may not contain a skid-resistant aggregate depending on
anticipated end use. The system manufacturers
instructions should be followed regarding the
12 - 710.22014

type of aggregate to be used, application rates,


and timing of the aggregate application.

6.8 Testing and Inspection


Coating thicknesses are commonly specified in
a unit of measurement called mils (0.001 in.
[0.0254 mm]). Mil gauges are simple, hand-held,
often credit-card-sized instruments used during
the application process to measure the thickness
of the material being applied. ASTM D4541 is
sometimes used to test random areas to ensure
proper adhesion of the traffic membrane system.

6.9 Maintenance
After installation, traffic membrane systems
should be regularly cleaned to maintain their
appearance and so that any defects that develop
can easily be identified for repair. Areas subject
to high traffic and extreme conditions may
require periodic maintenance to maintain their
effectiveness as a traffic membrane or their
nonslip properties, especially if sand and salt
used for ice and snow conditions result in excessive wear. In many cases, it may be possible to
apply an additional topcoat to restore the nonslip
properties of the system.

6.10 Inspection and


Performance Analysis
Frequent inspections of installed traffic membrane systems will identify damage and defects
early in their development and minimize the cost
and complexity of repairs. In some cases, a
cleaning and maintenance program is a condition
of the manufacturers warranty.

7.0 Health and Safety


7.1 General Overview

ICRI 120.1 provides guidelines and recommendations for safety in the concrete repair
industry. In all cases, the manufacturers material safety data sheets (MSDS) should be consulted for all materials. MSDS are a source of
information on the hazards and handling of
hazardous materials. They are essential reading
prior to handling any materials. Potentially
hazardous materials encountered during the
handling and installation of horizontal waterproofing systems may include cleaning solutions, abrasive media, by-products of surface
cleaning and preparation, resins, catalysts, and
solvent materials (CFR 29-1910.106).

GUIDE FOR HORIZONTAL WATERPROOFING OF TRAFFICSURFACES

Numerous health, safety, and environmental


regulations address worker safetya topic beyond
the scope of this guideline. Primary among these
is Title 29, Part 1926 of the Code of Federal
Regulations (CFR 29-1926), an Occupational
Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
regulation important to the construction industry,
including the installation of traffic membranes.
Requirements may include permissible exposure
limits, respiratory protection, and exposure to
crystalline silica.

7.2 Employee Protection

Prior to the start of work, a thorough preplanning review of the specific job site should be
conducted by the contractor to determine how
various conditions will affect their employees
safety and the safety of others during the application of the traffic membrane system. The
degree of protection required for employees
and the public is dependent on the application
method; weather conditions such as temperature and humidity; type of chemicals contained
in the traffic membrane system; and whether
the area to be coated is exterior, interior, in an
enclosed space, or is a permit entry confined
space. Elevated locations may require fall
protection, swing stages, frame scaffolds, ladders, or man lifts. Engineering and task procedures should be identified and assessed during
the preplanning process and implemented as
appropriate on a particular job to reduce risks.
Examples may include:
Air quality monitoring;
Cleaning and purging;
Fall protection;
Hazard communication;
Lifting safety;
Lock-out and tag-out;
Material selection;
Pedestrian control;
Permit entry confined space;
Personal protection equipment;
Scaffolds;
Scheduling (other contractors in work area);
Traffic control; and
Ventilation.

7.3 Employee Personal


Protective Equipment
The contractor must ensure that risk assessments
are carried out to identify those aspects of the
work hazards for which personal protective
equipment (PPE) is appropriate. The contractor
GUIDE FOR HORIZONTAL WATERPROOFING OF TRAFFICSURFACES

must take all necessary steps to ensure that


employees are properly trained at using the PPE
correctly. Provisions should be made for the
storage, cleaning, maintenance, and replacement
of PPE.

7.4 Vapors
Solvents and solvent-containing traffic membrane systems may have hazards associated with
fire, solvent toxicity, and chemical toxicity. The
contractor and his/her employees should be
familiar with product labels; MSDS; product data
sheets; and guide specifications that describe
specific hazards, proper use, and storage recommendations. Flammable and combustible liquids
must be kept away from heat, sparks, flames, or
other sources of ignition, such as static electricity,
pilot lights, and mechanical/electrical equipment.
All equipment must be grounded when transferring from one container to another. The National
Fire Protection Association (NFPA 30) and the
International Code Council (2012 International
Fire Code [IFC]) have developed guidelines for
the safe storage and use of flammable and combustible liquids. OSHA has developed mandatory
regulations for the safe storage and use of flammable and combustible liquids for general
industry (CFR 29-1910.106) and the Construction Industry (CFR 29-1926.152).

8.0 References

8.1 Referenced Standards


andReports
The standards and reports listed as follows were
the latest editions at the time this document was
prepared. Because these documents are revised
frequently, the reader is advised to contact the
proper sponsoring group if it is desired to refer
to the latest version.

American Concrete Institute

ACI 201.1R, Guide for Conducting a Visual


Inspection of Concrete in Service
ACI 224R, Control of Cracking in Concrete
Structures
ACI 302.1R, Guide for Concrete Floor and
Slab Construction
ACI 302.2R, Guide for Concrete Slabs that
Receive Moisture-Sensitive Flooring Materials
ACI 504R, Guide to Joint Sealants for Concrete Structures (Note: This document has been
withdrawn by ACI and is available for informational purposes only)
710.22014- 13

ASTM International

ASTM C1583/C1583M, Standard Test


Method for Tensile Strength of Concrete Surfaces and the Bond Strength or Tensile Strength
of Concrete Repair and Overlay Materials by
Direct Tension (Pull-off Method)
ASTM D4541, Standard Test Method for
Pull-Off Strength of Coatings Using Portable
Adhesion Testers
ASTM E96/E96M, Standard Test Methods
for Water Vapor Transmission of Materials
ASTM F1869, Standard Test Method for
Measuring Moisture Vapor Emission Rate of
Concrete Subfloor Using Anhydrous Calcium
Chloride
ASTM F2170, Standard Test Method for
Determining Relative Humidity in Concrete
Floor Slabs Using in situ Probes
ASTM F2420, Standard Test Method for
Determining Relative Humidity on the Surface
of Concrete Floor Slabs Using Relative Humidity
Probe Measurement and Insulated Hood

International Code Council

2012 International Fire Code (IFC)

International Concrete
RepairInstitute

ICRI Technical Guideline No. 120.1, Guidelines and Recommendations for Safety in the
Concrete Repair Industry
ICRI Technical Guideline No. 210.3R,
Guide for Using In-Situ Tensile Pulloff Tests to
Evaluate Bond of Concrete Surface Materials
ICRI Technical Guideline No. 210.4, Guide
for Nondestructive Evaluation Methods for
Condition Assessment, Repair, and Performance
Monitoring of Concrete Structures
ICRI Technical Guideline No. 310.2R,
Selecting and Specifying Concrete Surface
Preparation for Sealers, Coatings, Polymer
Overlays, and Concrete Repair
ICRI Technical Guideline No. 320.2R,
Guide for Selecting and Specifying Materials
for Repair of Concrete Surfaces
ICRI Technical Guideline No. 510.1, Guide
for Electrochemical Techniques to Mitigate the
Corrosion of Steel for Reinforced Concrete
Structures
ICRI Technical Guideline No. 710.1,
Guide for Design, Installation, and Maintenance of Protective Polymer Flooring Systems
for Concrete

14 - 710.22014

National Fire Protection Association

NFPA 30, Flammable and Combustible


Liquids Code

NSF International

NSF/ANSI Standard 61, Drinking Water


System Components Health Effects

U.S. Department of Labor

CFR 29-1910.106, Hazardous Materials


Flammable Liquids
CFR 29-1926, OSHA Safety and Health
Regulations for Construction
CFR 29-1926.152, Fire Protection and PreventionFlammable Liquids

Referenced standards and reports can


be obtained from these organizations:
American Concrete Institute
38800 Country Club Drive
Farmington Hills, MI 48331
www.concrete.org
ASTM International
100 Barr Harbor Drive
West Conshohocken, PA 19428
www.astm.org
International Code Council
500 New Jersey Avenue, NW
Washington, DC 20001
www.iccsafe.org
International Concrete Repair Institute
10600 West Higgins Road, Suite 607
Rosemont, IL 60018
www.icri.org
National Fire Protection Association
1 Batterymarch Park
Quincy, MA 02169-7471
www.nfpa.org
NSF International
789 N. Dixboro Road
Ann Arbor, MI 48105
www.nsf.org
United States Department of Labor
200 Constitution Avenue, NW
Washington, DC 20210
www.dol.gov

GUIDE FOR HORIZONTAL WATERPROOFING OF TRAFFICSURFACES

8.2 Cited References


Aldinger, T. I., Coating New Concrete: Why
Wait 28 Days? Proceedings SSPC 1991, Pittsburgh, PA, 1991, pp. 1-4.

GUIDE FOR HORIZONTAL WATERPROOFING OF TRAFFICSURFACES

710.22014- 15

16 - 710.22014

GUIDE FOR HORIZONTAL WATERPROOFING OF TRAFFICSURFACES

10600 West Higgins Road, Suite 607


Rosemont, IL 60018
Phone: 847-827-0830
Fax: 847-827-0832
Website: www.icri.org
E-mail: info@icri.org