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HUMAN

Amtomt,

Physiology,

am)

Hygiene.

TEXT-BOOK

BY

JOSEPH

C.

MARTINDALE,

M.D.,

PHILADELPHIA

ELDREDGE
17

"St BROTHER,
Norih

Seventh

1874.

Street.

^-AJ^SlB

-^

"

la

the

OfflM

of

the

of

Llbnriiu)

it^J-"s?'^

CoDgttu

at

WutalngcoD.

Preface,

TN

this

preparing

-^

clear,

concise

technical
been
Our

"cts

and

The

of the

of

them

in

law

is

these

they
whole

we

all

act

being.

so

The

as

Laws

of

of

we

must

we

the

with

or

10999L

to

and

serve
pre-

acquainted
know

the
them.

of which

each

system

Health,

the

organs

observe

can

unity

the
how

be

organs,

produce

to

first ; because

must

closely connected
to

have

retained.

it ; and

the

from

form, that

understand
We

of

economy

subject, both

functions

can

we

of many

are

oi^iis

the

possible

in

of this kind.

given

systems, before

our

the

hypotheses

such

are

keep

can

composed
in

in

health.

of

and

readily

and

before

state

govern

body

of

before

which

and

as

the

present

Physiology

location

is needed

to

"cta

^ve

to

free

work,

general reader,

and
the

as

with

easily grasped

its part

the

be^n

body,

The

and

the

Anatomy

knowledge

laws

to

be

may

has

and

aimed

speculations

inconsistent

aa

endeavor

student

with

All

have

we

language,

terms.

omitted

book,

yet

forms
per-

the

each

tions
func-

other,

harmony

Hygiene,

are

in
not

PREFACE.

VI

applied
the

to

as

much

so

give

neither

clear

idea

pains

complete
The
the

is

following

Drowning
Glossary
A
made

of

the

in

Care

text

is
of

of

the

and

spared

useAil
the

and

1872.

will

as

the

text

to

make

and

it

for

information

Sick;

as

so

any

of

under
from

Asphyxia
their

and

Glossary

appended,
book

engravings

Antidotes

Words.

that
desired

reference

be

may

information.
J.

Philadelphia,

plication
ap-

Anatomy

in

been

Poisons

Index

their

respect.
much

Disinfectants
Diseases

the

mentioned

have
this

such

by

facts

contains
heads:

copious
to

the

expense

Appendix

separately,

hence,

after

illustrated

of

possible

as

part

learned.

fully

nor

each

system

understood

been

book

entire

the

better

be
have

Physiology
This

of

preservation
can

of

preservation

the

to

C.

M.

CONTENTS

?%X^1^

CHAPTER

Remarks.

General

PAOX

Section

1.

11

Introduction
.

Section

2.

of

Composition

tlie

16

Body

CHAPTER

11.

Motor
Section

1.

The

Section

2.

Anatomy

Tissnes

the

of

Apparatus,
19

Body
.

of

the

22

Bones
....

Section

3.

Physiology

Section

4.

Anatomy

and

of

Section

5.

Anatomy

of

the

Bones
...

of

Physiology

"

the

""

38

Joints
.

the

41

Muscles
.

...

Section

6.

of

Physiology

the

49

Muscles

CHAPTER

III.

Nutritive

Section

1.

The

Membranes

Section

2.

The

Section

3.

Anatomy

Section

4.

Pliysiology

Section

6.

Anatomy

Section

6.

Physiology

of

the

Apparatus,
Body

64
.

of

lands

the

Body

57
.

the

of

Digestive

System

69
.

the

of
of

Digestive

Circulatory

the

System

68

System

76
.

of

the

Circulatory

System

86
.

Section

7.

The

Section

8.

Absorption,

Lymphatic

System

91
.

Secretion,

and

Excretion

96
.

Section

9.

Section

10.

Physiology

Section

11.

Animal

Anatomy

of

the

Respiratory

System

99
.

of

the

Respiratory

System

103

Heat

108

....

Vll

CONTENTS.

VUl

IV.

CHAPTER

Sensory

Apparatus.
PAGl

of

Section

1.

Anatomy

Section

2.

Physiology

the
of

of

Section

3.

Anatomy

Section

4.

Physiology

Nervous

the

the
of

of

Organs

124
.....

135

Sense

Special
of

System

Organs

the

.111

System

Nervous

.....

147

Special Sense

....

V.

CHAPTER

Hygiene.
Section

1.

General

Section

2.

Air

Section

3.

Water

Section

4.

Clothing

Section

5.

Section

6.

Section

7.

Exercise

Section

8.

The

.159

Remarks
.

160

.169
.

174
.........

188

Food
.

Sleep

190

.'

...

'.

194
.........

Teeth

and

202

Organs

other

......

CHAPTER

VI.

Section

1. Growth

Section

2.

Decay

and
and

Development

Death.

and

Development

207
.......

211

Death

........

CHAPTER

VII.

Appendix.
Section

1. Care
and

of the
their

Sick.

Asphyxia

from

Drowning.

Poisons

Disinfectants.

216

Antidotes
........

Section

INDBZ

2.

Glossary

of

Diseases.

Glossary

of

228

Words
.

286

LIST

OF

ILLUSTRATIONS.
^"o5";"

no.

PAOB

Frontispiece.
1. Organic

Cells

2. Filaments

12

Tissue

Fibrous

of

3. Filaments

of

4. Cartilage

Cells

Connective

Tissue

20

5. Fibres
6.

Elastic

of

Adipose,

Tissue

Fat

Tissue
.

7. Fasciculi

of

8. Human

Skeleton

9. Human

Muscle

Bones

Skull
of

11.

Vertebra

12.

Humerus,

13.

Radius

14.

Bones

16.

Femur,

16.

Tibia

of

Keck

the

Ulna

and

Wrist

and

Thigh-bone

or

17.
18.

Bones

Section

of

Foot

the
op

Bone
.

19.

Muscles

of

the

Front

20.

Muscles

of

the

Back

21.

Elbow

of
of

the
the

Body

Ciliated

23.

Different

Body
.

Joint
.

1*

46
60

Epithelium

Kinds

37
43

....

22.

33
34

31
33

Fibula

and

31
31

Hand

the

of

28
29

Arm-Bone

or

26
27

Trunk

the

21
21

10.

20
21

or

19

of

Glands

55
68

IX

LIST

OP

ILLU8TKATION8.

FIG.

24.

PAGS

Section

of

Tooth

61
.

26.

Permanent

26.

Stomach

Teeth

62

Intestines

and

64
.

27.

Human

Livee

66

28.

Obgans

Digestive

Common

the

of

Fowl

72
.

29.

Digestive

30.

Heart

Organs
and

of

Ox

an

73

Blood-vessels

large

75
.

31.

Position

32.

Valves

of

Heart

the

Veins

THE

IN

76
79
.

33.

Aorta

and

Branches

its

80

34.

Carotid

Arteries

81

35.

Arteries

of

Forearm

the

.82

36.

Lymphatic

Trunks

92
.

37.

Cartilages

38.

Vocal

of

Larynx

the

99

Membrane

99
.

39.

Larynx,

40.

Air-cells

Trachea,

Bronchi

and

101
102

...

41.

Brain

42.

Base

Spinal

and

Cord

114

Brain

the

of

115
.

43.

Left

Half

of

Brain

the

116
.

44.

Section

of

46.

Anastomosis

46.

Human

the

Spinal

Cord

121
.

Nerves

between

121

Eye

137
.

47.
48.

Muscles

of

Section

of

the

Eyeball

138
.

the

Eyeball

140
.

49.

Human

60.

Section

61.

Root

62.

Natural

Ear
of

op

141
the

Skin

144
.

Hair

145

Waist

179
.

63.

Deformed

Waist

179

u^i^

Anatomy,
Physiology,

Hygiene.

and

CHAPTER

I."

General

Remarks.

I.

Section
Introduction.

All

1.

bodies,
into

separated
The

and

rocks.

stones,
All

and

controlled

yet

bodies

according
ultimate

the

fixed

to

elements

composition

they
3.

into

ent"r

Every

origin is
in
power

of

composed

are

of
the

all
of

its

similar

parent

parts

elements

and

or

and

by

they

nourished
it is

These

subject

into

enter

when

bodies.

been
a

laws,

arranged

inoi^nic,

has

developed
be

fixed

unorganized

unorganized

living

ele-

Life-force.

any

soib,

nltimate

ultimate

bodies;

; it must

water,

All

of

vegetables;

certain

to

when

is

it is

reproduction

air, gases,

organic,

composition

all

of

be

may

nnorganized.

Life-force.

without

organized

body

and

according

called

organized

from

the

earth

the

composed

or

laws, yet
are

and

all animals

are

Vital

the

on

organized

arranged

by

matter,

comprise

bodies

organized

combined

ments

; the

comprise

bodies

2.

the

bodies

unorganized

ores,

of

masses

clasaea

two

organized

the

or

living

growth

by
to

food

or

death.

; its

crease
in-

it has
An

12

ANATOMY,

unorganized body
no

of

power
4. All

reproduction,and

acid ; and

acid

exhale

and

from

body,

and

while

in

explains

death

life

only, and

various

changes

such

Life, and

its

growth,

takes

bodies

Two

for the

are

and

highiy magnified.

^^^

body

or

of

animals

their

; but

is the
a

their

and

cell
A

cell, called

times

at other

form

primitive

they
in

so

are

These

the
con-

cells

dergo
un-

of the different

modified

retain

they

glandular

fibrous

the

the

among

Sometimes

in the

as

cells of the

that

they

can

tissues where

the

of fine filaments.
cell in all

orj^anizedbodies

the formation
the

the difierent

speciesof animals,

the

very

are

found

vegetables.

and

unity ofplan pervading

animal

cell wall

.change in the formation

in
starting-point

body

sphericalin

primitive cell.

primitive form,

in the

7. The

of

part composed

smaller

generally

the

^f

less

more

are

These

filamentaryappendage.

much

IS

scarcely be recognized,as
cells

the

phenomena

most
are

nuclcus,

nearly

and

the

Bubmaxiiiarygiand,

parts

body during

place.

organic cells,which

second

oiv

from

same

in it.

on

the

or

contents, with

ceHs

is the

its movements,

^F^^
Rg.

of

its organs

body

of the

treats

primitive form, having

ganic

one

of

anatomy

^j^^
1.

carbonic

organized

an

positionof

phenomena,

death

organized
of

meat

as

carbonate

parts of

constantlygoing

are

Vital

when

Fig.I.

exhale

their nourishment

ammonia,

as

and

Physiorogy

which

called

end

6. All

The

explains

are

obtain

they

the structure

life.

changes

Vegetables absorb

of the component

of rest.

in

as

and

oxygen

mals
ani-

of lime.

treats

state

absorb

; and

food,

in ttoo classes

comprised

their support.

phosphate

growth, no

no

dea'th,

Animals

oxygen

Anat'omy

5.

parent,

no

are

unorganized substances,

lime, and

HYGIENE.

they require organic food, such

vegetables,for

and

life,no

no

vegetables.

carbonic

in

has

organized bodies

and

AND

PHYSIOLOGY,

similar

difiers but

; thus

little from

of them

whole
the
the

is alike.

It

all ; thufe showing

organic world.

corresponding parts
composition of bone

that in another

and

In
of
in

this is

GENEBAL

of the

true

muscles, the skin, the hair,the blood, and

of all parts of the


is united
8.

into

in the

there

Thus
in

the

is also

othet

the

distinguishone

is great

diversity
of those

differ in size,

blood-vessels

in the different

diversityin

animals.

This

to

an

established

an

that

another, and

enables
tinguish
dis-

to

even

species,and

same

of

development

species,and

the different

of the

the

conform

to

speciesfrom

individuals

composition

general arrangement

and

it is made
to

structure.

lungs,the muscles, the bones, and

the

type, that gives rise


to

heart

It is this

organs.

animal, by which

us

the

indeed

kingdom

similarityof

similarityin the

arrangement,
with

case

the

animal

animals, yet there

form, the shape,and

shape,and

the whole

that

so

is great

of all

structure

structures.

in

body,

general class by

one

Although

of the

13

BEMABK8.

know

them

apart.
9. Each

speciesof

animals
of

general arrangement

Physiologyof
of every

other

characters.

yet reference

size,in shape, and

in

hence, the Anatomy

more

vary

or

less from

species,although all will conform

will be
aid

in

province

our

Anatomy

will

reference

structure

species will

one

It is

of the

varies

and

Physiology of

made

in

other

to

the

this work

in

to

general

speak principally

the human

of

the

and
those

species;

species,whenever

illustration

in

theme

such
under

consideration.
10. The
human

study

body

may

of th^

The

three

divisions

are

the bones, the

Apparatus, which
and

of

The
a

includes

Mo'tor

the

joints;

everything that

is

divisions,

of the system.

the

Nu'tritive

relates to the support

; and

by

prises
com-

the

Sen'sory

of motion,

means

consciousness.

Cell is the

livingbody.

three

of the

Apparatus, which

protects the individual

Primitive

part of the body


2

the

muscles, and

sensation, volition,and
11.

the functions

preservation of the entire body

Apparatus, which

Physiology

the

naturallybe separated into

chapters,correspondingwith

or

and

Anatomy

startingpoint

Tis'sue is the

composed,

and

texture

in the formation
of which

is itself formed

from

any

the

14

primitive cell.
of

one

the

or

taken

tissues,and
When

When

differingm

two

structure,

Appara'tns, as
When

12.
become

with

the

finite mind

The

of form

and

the

manifold

law

by

Being

and

is

the Creator

the

plan,

Although

greater than

all these
all this

amid

things.
diversity

regularityexhibited

nature

the

and

in

unchangeable

forth

Omniscient

an

Ruler

and

One

arranged
and

order

live,and

comprehension, yet

living thing brings

every

an

governed, we

unity in

that

exists

everywhere
; the

organs

called

we

it is

in its

know

to

operations of

as

in which

which

by

is limited

kind, unmistakably point to

its

world

the

of all its parts.

shape

which

are

arrangement
man

nervous

several

when

or

together,they

the laws

conceived

that

harmony

the

are

apparatus.

understood

have

must

structure

there

of

be

in

the fact that

system in the

and

Sys'tem, as

systems,

contemplate

we

can

similar

taken

acquainted with

enough

organs

more
are

specialfunction, as

of

the nutritive

impressed

man

or

part of the body composed

any

called

are

HYGIENE.

capable

several

together,they

system.

are

Origan is

An

more

lungs.

AND

PHYSIOLOGY,

ANATOMY,

according
and

to

tent
Omnipo-

of the universe

I
,

-""3ij*;oo-

QUESTIONS.
SECTION

1. Name

the

each

class

Give

the

does
2.

3. What

into

classes

comprise

which

the

all

matter

be

may

separated.

What

?
of

composition

are

I.

organized bodies.

distinguishingfeatures

Of

between

unorganized
organized

and

bodies.
ganized
unor-

bodies?
the

classes

the distinctions

between

4.

Name

6. Define
6.

Define

in the
7.
of

their
8.

what

may

What
does

form

of animals
said

similarity of
is said

organized

bodies

divided.

are

State

Physiology.

primitive
be

which

them.

Anatomy.
the

formation

What

into

and

of the

structure

of the

this difference

of

organic

How

are

they

modified

vegetables ?

primitive

cell in

organized bodies

What

difference

give

cells.

rise ?

of structure

in organized bodies

To

do the Anatomy

Why

9.

of another

each

speciesdiffer from

one

those

the

are

and

Anaiomy

Physiology naturally divided

Define

division.
In

11.
An

of

Physiology

and

species ?

How

10.

15

BEMABKS.

GENEBAL

is the

what
A

organ

world

An

system

is said of

What

12.

primitive
the

cell the

starting point
?

apparatus

unity

tissue?

in the

the system

of

and

is

What

of the

creation

jJ^OO

(
Section

II.

Composition

1. There
which

the

into

Body.

the

TJl'timate El'ements,

fourteen

axe

enter

of

of the

composition

human

these, Ox'ygen, Hy'drogen, Car'bon, and


all

in

plants, and

animals.

all

The

Cal'cium, Potas'sium, So'dium,

are

but
the

ultimate

they

Prox'imate

first class

second

exist

constitute

Flu'orine.
alone

each

in the

body

other, forming

the fluids and

all

all

solids

4. The

of

are

often

albumen, fibrin,and

proximate
of

Chloride

of

comprise

sodium, and

elements

and

called

"protein compounds,"

Chloride

and

Potassium,
of

fat.

of

The

comprise

stances
sub-

of lime.

organic

third

"albuminoid"

class
stances,
sub-

such

stances
sub-

casein.
of the

firstclass

Carbonate

of Potassa,

are

Water,

of

Lime,

Phosphate

of

Soda, Phosphate of Potassa.

is present in all the solids and

gives fluidityto

such

phosphate

Sodium, Phosphate of Lime, Carbonate

Magnesia, Phosphate
5. Water

inorganic, and

into three classes.

crystallizablesubstances

are

organic, and

as

divided

are

comprise starch, sugar,

or

It

elements

remaining

Chlo'rine, Phos'phorus,

with

El'ements

are

class

origin,and
are

which

water, chloride

as

The

elements

in

body.

3. The
The

seldom

variously combined

are

proximate

of the

elements

Of

body.

Ni'trogen,exist

Sul'phur,Sil'icon,I'ron, Magne'sium, and


2. The

substances

or

the blood

and

fluids of the

the secretions, so

that

body.
they

16

move'

in their

6. Water

and

is estimated

entire

drink,

all

and

enamel

be about

to

the

from

the

It forms

firmness

and

body.

gives them
of the

bones

all

animals

the animal

kinds

9. Carbonate
It

the saliva.

helps

It exists in most
of it is formed
10.

mostly
11.
bones
12.

other

obtained

Carbonate
of the

ear

Carbonate

lymph.

It

the

from

and
is

but

in

tissues of the

only
tion
direc-

any

exists In all

all fruits.
the

in
the

blood, and
the

blood.

greater part

found

the

body.

in

muscles,
It is

the

readily

fluid form.

It is

the food.
is found

formed

of Potassa

helps to

in

albumen

is found

always

of Lime
are

out

body.

fluids

and

teeth, and

of lime

bones,

vegetables;

of Potassium

in water,

soluble

dissolve

The

fluids of

dissolved

be

nearly

in the

fruits and
in the

Chloride

blood, and

to

in

is found

of Soda

kind
man-

freely.

and

be bent

phosphate

vegetables,and

and

addition

an

it.

bones

then

may

The

animal

classes of

of it

may

solids

acid, leaving behind

muriatic

breaking.

of meat

of the

solidity. It

substance, which

without

the

It is useful

as

and

races

partake

large part

dilute

by

body by

exists in all the solids and

of Lime

Phosphate

the

through

Its use,

digestion.

among

the lower

of fluids

system requiresto be frequentlysupplied with


8.

as

After

food.

the

four

taken

of the teeth.

passage

it aids in

the food, is universal

of it taken

in all the fluids and

is found

body, except in the


helping to regulate the

even

in

thirds

organs.

of Sodium

mepibranes, and

two

amount

its office,it passes


other

than

all the water

comprises

of the

; and

their

perform

more

The

is contained

performed

7. Chloride

to

the solids

keeps

can

calculated

been

This

that

lungs,the skin,

in

they

body.

system, has

poimds.

and

has

water

that

constitute

to

of the

weight

the

half

it

readily.

more

daily into

HYGIENE.

; and

body

condition, so

natural

functions

of the

the

easilythrough

more

AND

PHYSIOLOGY,

ANATOMY,

dissolve

almost
is found

in the

The

bones.

entirelyof

small

it.

in the bones, blood, and

the albumen

in the blood.

13.

of

Phosphate

in very

14. The

of

Magnesia,

quantityin

small

17

BEMABKS.

GENERAL

all the solids and

fluids of the

of the second

elements

proximate

Soda, and of Potassa, exist


daaa

are

body.

Starch,

Sugars, Fats.
is found

15. Starch
for food.

form

It has

of starch

16.

food, and

vary

is derived
abundant
in the

occurs

The

both

somewhat

in the

in

both

them

body

; but

human

it

body

fat for its support.


are

Fibrin,

Pepsin, Pancreatin, Mucosin,


Melanin, Biliverdin.

in the blood

is the substance
to

of the

of the third class

elements

position.
com-

vegetable food.

The

and

sugar

ties
varie-

chemical

and

bones.

vegetable

several

their

animal

of the

marrow

and

are

adipose tissue

Casein, Globulin,

Fi'brin

causes

brain, in the

animal

Ostein, Cartilagin,Musculin, Hematin,


19.

is converted

human

There

fruits.

from

proximate

Albumen,

the

in

from

containingboth

requiresfood
18.

found

been

it
digestion,

used

granules.

it, which

It is most

of

process

particularlyfrom

17. Fat

also

nearly all vegetablesubstances

is obtained

Sugar

of

the

During

into sugar.

in

and

lymph,

coagulate spontaneously when

which

removed

from

circulation.

the

Albn'men

20.

in

occurs

serous

temperature

of 160",

of

21.

by

the
22.

an

23.
the

in

and

the

in milk.

juicesof

stomach.

the

Glob'nlin
the

forms

is the
into

Pep'sin is

found

mucous

Os'tein is the
substance

the

coagulatesat

respects resembles

the

It is

the

coagulated by acids, and

principal part

in the

of

the

red

puscles
cor-

gastric juice; Pancreat'in, in

of

in the secretions

of mucus,

membranes.

substance

of the

cartilage;

both

bones, and
of

gelatin,or glue,by long boiling.


2-'

and

blood.

the different

24.

It

body.

many

pancreaticjuice; and Muco'sin

from

lymph,

igg.

Cas'ein exists

of

blood, the

cavities of

fluids of the

white

the

which

Cartilag'in
are

changed

18

ANATOMY,
Mns'cnliii

25.

It has

fibre.

AND

PHYSIOLOGY,
is the

the power

26. Hem'atin

HYGIENE.

of the muscular

principalsubstance
of

contractility
during life.
of the red corpuscles
coloringmatter

is the

of the blood.
M ela'nin is the

27.
and

the

; but

races

less

the

to

exposure

changes
The

29.

to

is the

tissues of the

brown

and

of

bile.

the

fluid condition, it absorbs

On

oxygen,

color.

grass-green

albu'minoid

black

hair,

races.

coloring matter

air, in
a

white

yellow and

eye, the

the

in the

abundant

in the

so

Biliver'din

28.

and

It is very

skin.

in

coloring matter

form

substances

large part of the


regularlysupplied for its

be

body,

and

must

They
preservation.

are

found

in the

cereal

grains,in meats,

in milk.

in eggs, and

"""io"

QUESTIONS.
SECTION

II.

1. What

is said

of the

ultimate

2. What

is said

of the

combination

3. How

the

are

elements
of the

elements

proximate

in the

the

6. What

is remarked

6. What

is said

of the

7. What

is said

of

8. What

of the

9. What

of the

10.

What

of the

Chloride

11.

What

of the

Carbonate

of

Lime?

12.

What

of

Carbonate

of

Potassa?

13.

WTiat

of the

Phosphate

of

Magnesia,

14.

Name

the

15.

What

is said

of

Starch?

16.

What

is said

of

Sugar

17.

What

is said

of

Fat?

18.

Name

the

19.

Define

proximate

the

Hematin.

29.

What

of the

use

quantity of

Chloride

of

Phosphate
Carbonate

of

Soda

proximate

Fibrin.

20.

of

Define

each

class.

in the
in the

water

in the

body
body

?
?

system ?

?
?

Potassium?

elements

of

Soda,

of the

second

of

third

and

of Potassa?

class.

elements
Albumen.

Muoosin.

Melanin.

is remarked

elements

first class.

water

Sodium
Lime

proximate

27.

of the
of

of

Pepsin, Panoreatin,
26.

elements

divided

4. Name

body

ultimate

of the

class.

Casein.

21.

24.
28.

the

22.

Ostein, CartOagin.

Biliverdin.

albuminoid

substances

Globulin.
25.

23.

Musculin.

20

AMATOMY,

5.
of

Connec'tiTe,

fibrous

AND

PHYSIOLOGY,
Are'olar

or

which

tissue

tissue, is compoHed

interlace

or

soft

tensible

i||l that

"

'''t^

"

9Sm

"i

other

and

yet

muscles

the

It

which

uihfjmB^^'"
Car'tilage

whitish
than

harder
the

parts

as

of

have

7.

but

the

they

cartilages

^^Rk^^R^'A''
ji
ifll'

of

the

but

between

place

at

such

to
time

same

form

and

ftom

them

to

form

the

the

the

consists

of

oarti-

into

in

glass

bone.

solid

die-

to

permanent

changed

of

skelelon.

cartilages,

not

are

in

are

temporary

matrix,

appearance.

"

matrix

contains

nucleated

cells,

"

are

**^^'^*^^
iminddeii

in

comprises

fibrous

tissue
the

of

union

of

9-

mum.

are

in

arranged

cousists
I'i'brtHiaT'tilage

matrix
every
and

strength

the

single, or

oval

groups.

hiBiiiy mBgniBei

It

and

body

the

Cartilage

jaj^i^fa^'^'"'
which
'MMMB||M9a
jg

bone

adaptation

its

ossify

soon

'^^

than

stance
sub-

motion.

bones

8.

together

flexible

middle

^s"^i"''li"gground

of

difierent

tissue

elastic

tissue

appropnately

ig

softer

shape

in

li^es, which

^Hd^gBHggnmi

kept

tinguish

4,

Rg,

Bonneviixe

hence

called

are

called
smooth

the

is

bodj

,t

holds

bone

degree

first,all

cartilage;
These

be

to

moderate

At

the

i|gn(.g

and
It

and

tissue

require

is

appearance

hgament

fibrous

"""

g;nBtIe

or
m

'

their

the

connects

parts
~

places

impeding

' movements

so

and

their

in

ex

bonea

nerves

vessels

is

strong

very

skm

without

It

slightly

holds

it

blood

'

of filaments

each

cross

white

^R^

HTGIENB.

form
the
of

with
of

pure
the

cartilage.

bones, accompanied

tissue

it is well
with

fibfOUS

cartilage

intermixture

fibrous

cartilage ; and

imbedded

of

between

the

cells.
pure

Fibro-cartilage combines
with

the

adapted

moderate

to

elastic

the

erty
prop-

firmest

flexibility.

APPARATUS

MOTOR

Elas'tic

10.

of

usually

not

of

of

the

tissue
the

and

of

is

posed
com-

beneath

the

called

body,
the

the

giving

the

to

balls
eyewhere
every-

skin,

beauty

fat.

cheeks,

almost

the

and

the

behind

occurs

''''''''^""'^"

are

among

in

and

it

roundness

stitution
con-

which

epacea

hollows

the

temples,
;

does

yellowish substance,

occupies

muscles,

It

cells,

connective

it

size.

tlie

to

organ.

delicate

with

all the
and

any

is

alone

tissue,

essential

be

of

found

or"t

human

Fig.
It is

form.

never

in

the

brain,

eyeballs, the

the

6,

AOipi

lids,
eye-

or

the

cord.

Bpinal

Mus'cnlar

12.

fibres, called

Both

tissue

by

these

into

and

; and

or

faseiculi

tissue,wliich

viewed

fibres

through
distinctly

are

of

soft, red

these

bwidleg

the

connective

When

together.

composed

fibres

together
fibres

the

is

muscular

collected

are

found

fibres

fojutiimU.
are

rounded
sur-

holds
the

them
scope,
micro-

striated

marked

transvereely; tberefbre, they

eiriated

muscular

are

or

called

fibres.
Fig.

muscular

Tlie

13.

intestines, and

posed

cular
are

of

fibres

UpoD

this

called

power

and

the

stomach,

blood-vessels,

which

possess

shortened,

of

coat

the

fibres

therefore,

arc,

posed
com-

ftbroua

important

any

to

seem

It

tbe

seldom

is

Ad'ipose,

filled

with

substance

tougli, duE-yclIow

fibres.

mingled

masses

11.

is

coarse

'tissues, and
in

tissae

are

striated,

not

umtrifUed
the

power

their

depend

are

^''^.'""dlai

and

"'""'i-

fibres.

All

contractility, hy

extremities

all the

"It

com-

muscular
of

brought

motiona

7,

the

of

nearer

the

which

they
cf

together.

body.

22

HYGIENE.

AND

PHYSIOLOGY,

ANATOMY,

QUESTIONS.
I.

SECTION

2.

what

the

3.

Into

4.

What

5.

Describe

the

6.

Describe

cartilage.

is said

what

7. From

cartilages,and
8. Of

may
of

the

are

why

Of

what

fibro-cartilage.
elastic

11.

Describe

adipose

12.

Of

is

name

given

to

these

tissue.
is it found

Where

tissue.

tissue

is muscular

composed

How

it appear

does

under

is said

What

What

cartilage consist?

Describe

13.

is it ?

tissue?

10.

microscope

use

formed

bones

Describe

the

fibrous

tissue.

9.

what

of

filaments

the

converted

be

animals

of

tissue

fibrous

connective

does

what

body.

tissue.

fibrous

the

Bescribe

the

of

tissues

the

1. Name

of

the unstriated

muscles

What

is

power

possessed

fibres ?

by muscular

""HOO'

II.

Section

Anatomy

1. The

Bones
of the

interior

of

hard

are

body,

and

where

Bones.

the

firm, and

they

serve

are

as

placed

in the

frame-work,

or

Skeleton, for preserving its general shape, for the protection


of its most

The

muscles.
is to

important

periods of

life.

the

child ; yet

one

bone

is two

the

to

are

for

body

the

what

of

attachment
the

frame-work

building.

Th'e number

2.

bones

and

organs,

in the
hundred

of bones

Many
they

of them

afterwards

adult.
and

in

The

the

body

are

in two

grow

number

eight,

besides

varies
or

at

more

difierent

pieces in

together, forming but


of bones
the

usually given,

thirty-two

teeth.

Of

be divided

as

in the

vertebrae.

4. The

like

its shaft
The

the

An

5.

elevation

and

color, and

which

or

to

the

chalk-white
and

air

the

as

rounded,

bone

in

and

as

at

the

in

the

is called
bone

called

are

body they

removed
the

the young,

that

advances

they

of

from

in

bluish-

the

body,

the bones

blood

atid

posed
ex-

assume

tough,

are

easily broken

not

are

cess.
pro-

foram'ina.

are

the

from

is called

light,they gradually
In

elastic, so

person

orifice

in the

are

appearance.

somewhat

on

apertures

When

is in them.

tremities.
ex-

largerthan

are

slightlytinged with pink

are

bone

its

of support

is

bone

are

long

called

are

base

broader

or

more

the bones

6. While

but

two

ends

long bones

prominence

or

part of

as

head.

single aperture

fora'men,

white

of the

of the

end

is called

the

upper

and
cylindrical,

main

and

body,

or

furnishing a

joints. When

thigh-bone,it

The

tube.

in the

as

irregularbones,

the

less

or

may

skull ; the short

in the

as

; and

more

are

extremities

shaft, thus

the

bones,

ankle

and

long bones

mostly hollow,

broad

wrist

in the

bones,

is called

; the

limbs

long bones,

the

limbs.

form, and

differ in size and

body

classes

four

into

lower

and

in the

bones

3. The

the lower

sixty in

limbs, and

the upper

sixty-fourin

in the trunk,
head, fifty-four

in the

bones, thirtyare

these

23

APPARATUS.

MOTOR

life,they become

and

harder

brittle.

more

7. The

bones

composed

are

are

nearly twice

of animal

but

until

with
which

In

adds

increase,

matters

of the material

easilyfractured

more

equal;
of the

in old persons

young.

bones

the

cavities ; in the

fat; and

are

In

matters.

is about

matters

fully three-fourths

hence, they

Fishes,

of these

They

water.

as

mineral

older, the mineral

grows

compose

in the

than

few

person

they

bones

the

as

and

matters

early life,the proportion

heavy

as

in

are

Mammalia,

Birds, many

to their

perfectly solid
many
of them

lightness.

of
are

; in

them

Reptiles, they
are

hollow,

hollow,
but

are

and

contain
are

filled with

filled

air,

24

ANATOMY,
8. When

bones

bon"ilack

called

burned,

are

become

they

matter,

but

when

of

bones

When

mineral

matters

animal

or

which

matter,
which

bone, and
into

dissolved

are

in

out,

dilute

is

entirely

white

pure

muriatic

leaving only

retains

is very

then

are

matter

of

are

animal

color,

commerce.

steeped

are

the

char

brittle,and

animal

the

HYGIENE.

to

as

very

parts left

yield the phosphorus

9.

so

black, and

consumed, the mineral


and

AND

PHYSIOLOGY,

the

acid, the

the

cartilage,

original form

flexible,so that it may

of the
be tied

even

knot.

The

10.

bones

is firm

which

loose and

; and

compact

exterior

an

interior

an

layer,

layer,which

is

spongy.

The

11.

and

of

mostly composed

are

of the

shaft

substance, but

compact

The

and

filled with

are

their

bones

spongy.

long

bones

long

is

extremities
in the form

are

more

are

of hollow

boft,"yellowfat, called

of the

mostly composed

less

or

cylinders,

mar'row

or

medul'la.
The

12.

broad

with

layer

bones, and

short

bulk

is

13.

the

substance

compact

of spongy

bones

that

in

strength,as

in the skull.

The

where

an

muscles.

also

helps

thin

The
of

layer

the greater part of their

in the

the

the

is needed
reduce

to

bones

of the

shafts

substance

spongy

near

enlarged surface
It

have

long

increases

increasingtheir weight

abundantly

most

occurs

intervening.

thin, yet require considerable

are

size of the bones, without

stance,
sub-

compact

gives strength to

abundantly

most

of

material.

substance

compact

bones, and

it

substance

irregular bones,

of spongy

it is found

hence,

layers

two

externally,while

composed

The

have

bones

joints,and

therefore,

in all bones

for the attachment


the

force

the

of

of

falls

and

blows.
14.

The

is covered

exterior
with

early life,this
but

it afterwards

surface

fibrous

membrane
becomes

of the bones, except

membrane,
may
so

be
blended

called

at

joints,

perios'teum.

separated from
with

the

the bone

the
as

In

bone
not

;
to

26

ANATOMY,

be

from

easily detached

which

nourish

lines the

it.

bone,

the

muscles

for the

AND

PHYSIOLOGY,

contains

serves

as

of

the

blood-vessels

the
medium

ligaments.

surface

interior

it

and

and

It

HYGIENE.

ment
of attach-

similar

long bones,

membrane

and

is called

the

endos'teum.
first all bones

At

15.

deposits of calcareous

points, called
continue

the

16.
and

The

in

in the

grow

the

of

short

cartilage,but

made

are

in

whole

all the

bones

bone

is

of the

wards
after-

or

more

deposits

fied.
ossicoijjpletely
is not

body

pleted
com-

twenty-fifthyear.
in

grow

length by

continuous

cartilageat

their

extremities

manner

from

their

same

bones

one

These

ossification.

the

the

bones

ossification

bones
but

about

long

of

until

Ossification
until

matter

centres

increase

to

of

composed

are

from

grow

; the

edges

all parts

of

growth
broad

borders

or

their

external

surfaces.
17.

deposits continue

Calca'reous

throughout

life ;

added, while

the

The

bones

during
18.

of

The

old

and

of the

bones

The

the

median

line

part of the
a

situated
and

across

containing

orbits,and

decays, and

of the

constantly
is removed.
times

many

into those

of

eight bones
of

and

the

for the

the

the

base

the

the

the

Fari'etal

two

united

nose.

the

forehead; the

and
at

of

the

cranium,

of the

bones,

together
the

in

the

posterior

and

having

spinal cord

; the

Sphe'noid bone,

from

side

important foramina
base

Tem'-

containing

spinal column,

passage

of the

numerous

bone, situated

of

two

cranium,

the

ear;

head,

the

Occipital bone, occupying

forming

behind

divided

are

side

the

to

foramen

bone,

Eth'moid

is

ear.

skull, resting on

large oval

Fronfal

top
the

Head

each

on

one

the

at

bone

in the

therefore, changed

are,

composed

leading

orifice

situated

the

is

Skull

poral bones,

made

bone

new

bone

efiete

be

life.

skull, the face, and


19.

of

growth

body

the

long

thus,

to

to

; and

brain, between

side,
the
the

28

AHATOMY,

24.

The

bones

PHYSIOLOGY,
of

face, which

the

mouth

and

the

of

bridge

forming

cheeks.

25.

Eftoh

the

of
the

named

and
four

nose

in the

contains

feur

They

are

An'vil,

the

the

bone

the

that

only

weigh

together

in

aid

which

small

very

trils
nos-

bones,

Orblo'nlftr

the

"he

part

Hal'let,

so

are

each

of

hearing.

and

Btir'mp,

the

prominent

bonea,

sense

of

roof

Halar

two

Ear

small

very

the

the

most

the

forming

bones,

the
the

of

ing
ITa'sal bones, form-

two

and

two

wall

loner

Tnr'binated

two

; the

Laoh'rjrmal bones,

two

; the

two

back

the

of

the

on

the

Bituat"d

jaw,

the

jaw

upper

part

greater

of

pairs, are

bonea,

upper

orbit

in

the

Pal'"te

one

HYGIENE.

are

Snpe'rioT Max'illary bones, forming

the

AND

few

grains.
The

26.

pelvis, and

the
the

of

root

The
of

Spinal

1,

pbltis."

bra

to

It

Ih
one;

riba;

12,

10,

in

the

shape,

\(yy;^^

at

the

main

is

which
with

surface

Each

the

the
verte-

part,ealled
half

upper

nearlyJ

projections,

posed
com-

called

from

extends

KTf.

seven

is

Colunm

pelvis.
of

consists

*||^^"""the body,
?niH;T,DteTi-

called

twenty-four bones,

vertebrsB.
skull

num,
ster-

bone

tongue,

the

bone.

Hy'oid
27.

the

of

ribs, the

the

spinal column,

Tnmk

the

those

into

separated

are

of

bones

cylinder
and

the

it has

flat:
"

which

These

Ver'tebraB

The

28.

Their

classes.

spinalcord.
three

into

the

classes:

the

the

with

each

lower

other.

The

processes

is called

the Atlas, from

turns

lower
31.

surface

Lum'bar

the thorax

from

vertebrae

and

32.

to

vertebraB
the

the head

their lower

Between

each

attached

neck, and

so

that

falling,seldom
thickness, so

as

and

fiimish
them.

to

their
and

The

surface
two

of the
are

processes

vertebrae

other

both
is

extend

number, and

of the lumbar
their bodies

vertebrae.

are

Their

flat.
a

plate of

fibro-cartiholds
the

them

spinal

the force from

walking, running, leaping,or

produces

injury.

to

spinalcolumn.
8*

rotates,

their upper

lage,called an Interver'tebral ligament, which


to
gives elasticity
firmly together,and which
colunm,

the

longer,and

are

less horizontal, and

of either

those

number,

are

five in

are

pelvis.

longer and

are

larger,than
upper

; and

flat.

both

are

in

vertebrae

of the

those

larger,than
The

dorsal

of the

twelve

are

ribs which

twelve

the

processes

bodies

head

the

the Axis, because

Dor'sal vertebrae
for

support

supporting

its

it.

on

30. The

li^^Sil.ttbC^.""

vertebra

is called

vertebra

Fig.ll. avertebeaopthbNeck.

nearly horizon-

first cervical

second

surface
interlock

The

tal.

is

they

short,and

aU

surface

that

so

convex,

are

smaller

are

upper

and

concave,

the

canal,

of the other

of either

those

than

and

number,

in

seven

The

; and

Cer'vical vertebrae

The

29.

or

form

vertebrae.

lumbar

are

vertebrae

back

dorsal, or

divided

are

to

as

ments.
liga-

vertebrae; the

neck

cervical, or

so

of the vertebrsB, for the

the bodies

behind

arranged

are

processes

and

for muscles

attachment

pointsof

as

serve

29

APPARATUS.

MOTOR

give the

any

forward

and

These

plates vary

backward

curve

in
to

30

Yellow

33. The
number

inclose

Ante'rior

34. The

length of

vertebrae,and

the

of

Poste'rior Ver'tebrai

bind

them

side.

Ribs

They

ribs; the

In

in

the

from

36. The

childhood

to

while

its form

are

is called
its apex
into

these

an

same

Pel'vis is

The
and

coccyx,

The

the two

Sa'cmm

hip-bones,at
front

the

two

ribs

are

to

the

but,

eighth,and

in

width, they

several

thorax.

It is in

united

in later years

the

the

Tho'rax,
neck

at the

time

ribs,

tightlacing often
admirably adapted to

the blood-vessels
to

bone.

one

It is conical

Chest

or

in

; but

It is

oval.

into

vertebrae, the

dorsal

by

pieces

permit

the

which

are

of

movements

organs.

38.

39.

at

by cartilage,

lowest

the first to

protect the lungs, the heart, and


it,and

the

true

breast-bone,is situated in the middle

or

cavity formed

shape, with

other

the

the first to the last.

from

these

spinalcolumn.
called

are

each

the twelfth

eighth

each

on

with the breast-bone,

united

are

the

the sternum,

within

helps to

; twelve

with the

from

; but

changes

The

therefore, called i\iQfloatingribs.

are,

part of the

37. The

number

ribs increase

Ster'num,

of the front

in

spinalcanal, and

back

united

ribs
falfie

gradually diminish

and

front of the bodies

posteriorpart of the

and
cartilage,

are

front,and

length,the

decrease

ribs
of

means

three

called

are

the

the

in the

upper

by

next

united

not

all united

seven

sternum,

and

the entire

firmly together.

covers

twenty-fourin

are

are

In front,the
or

ligament

combine

firmlytogether.

The

35.

them

joining

of the vertebrae,within

bodies

extends

ligament

spinalcolumn, covering the

the

They

of motion.

freedom

Ver'tebral

between

they join together

spinal canal.

the

considerable

great strength with

situated

are

behind, which

of the vertebrae

entirelyto

as

HYGIENE.

sue,
ligaments, composed of yellow^elastic tis-

twenty-threepairs. They

the arches
so

AND

PHYSIOLOGY,

ANATOMY,

and

column.

of four bones

hip-bones.
is a triangularbone

the back

convex

composed

; the

situated between

part of the pelvis. It

behind, and

is

the

sacrum,

continuation

is

concave

of the

the
in

spinal

40.
In

The

wards
41.

into

united

They

ligaments.

the

In

cavity,

thigh-bone
42.

is

They

two.

Fig. 13.
"niculau*

Fig,li,

is

are

the

TraHmmng."

Ta.

the

TmWubi

in

bony

socket,

or

the

head

which

in

by strong

sacrum

each

clavicle,

number

extremity

upper
the

scapula,

the

early
union.

cup-like
of

the

t"

thirty-

humerus,

the

Fig. 14.

Fig. 13.

nt

after-

are

by ligamente

deep

acetab'alnm,

of

Fig. 12.

Hg.ia,

sacrum.

placed.

bones

The

theae

together, forming

hip-bone

the

called

the

to

front

in

grow

each

of

aide

attached

are

united

are

afterwards

life, but

pieces, but

four

of

the

of

end

lower

the

to

bone.

one

Hip-bones

The

joined

coasists

Jt

life

early

is

Coc'oyx

31

APPABATD

HOIOB

i,The"haf[i2,tb8h8adofaiBhi

-1, The

elbow;

'hicb
tiro

u^

I1"SD,

"

1. The

phaluig"fl Df

the

2, tlie

qIhb;

artlculatea

at

carpal,

orwriitbo

thumb

and

nt

the

the

flp.

2, tb"

metB-cupiil

32

ANATOMY,

ulna, the

and

radius

AND

PHYSIOLOGY,
the

carpus,

HYGIENF

the

meta-carpus, and

^ptwr

langes.
43.

ClaVicle,

The

part of the thorax, and

upper

Its

scapula.

the

towards

drawn

in

It is held

Hu'merus,

TJl'na is

The

is

and

little

the humerus

being

part of the thorax.

the muscles
is

arm-bone,

or

which

envelop it.

long, cylindrical

glenoid cavityof

the

the

scapula to

is

the

Car'pus

The

These

rows.

and
49.

The

palm

They

fingersand

Fhalang'es
in the

bones

stronger than

required

limbs, and
52.

The
the

of

with

at

the

eight bones, arranged

Meta-ear'pas is composed

bones

The

articulates

stronglybound

are

in

ments,
togetherby liga-

are

those
to

the wrist

from

the three
The

lower

in each

bones

the

fingers are

the

to

extremities

are

extremities

the

of the

weight

finger,and
the

named

little finger.

of the upper

support

bones, forming

the thumb.

thumb.

of tho

of five

extend

index, the middle, the ring, and


51.

also

ulna, both

the wrist.

of the

The

two

composed

bones

the

to

wrist-joint.

the

of the hand.

first bones
50.

form

is

with

side of the forearm

outer

or

It

wrist.

the

at

carpal bones, forming


48.

It articulates

side). It is attached

and

forearm,

hinge joint.

the upper

on

side of the

radius.

elbow, forming

the

at

inner

or

the

than

longer

(the thumb
elbow

the lower

on

Ba'dius

The

47.

are

from

to

of the forearm, at the elbow.

46.

the

back

upper

positionentirelyby

The

bones

the

the

at

bone, extending from

two

sternum

the sternum.

bone, situated

45.

the

from

prevent the shoulders

is to

use

extends

gular
Scap'ola,or shoulder-blade, is a broad, thin,trian-

44. The

the

collar-bone,is situated in front of the

or

larger

and

they

; because

trunk, the upper

the head.
bones

of each

lower

limb

are

the femur, the

tibia,the fibula, tho tarsus, the meta-tarsus,

and

tella,
pathe

phalanges.
53.

The

Fe'mnr,

or

thigh-bone, is

the

longestbone

in the

MOTOR

It

th^^ia,
54.

placed

extends

The

front
to

the

cavity

deep

of

is

kneecap,

or

the

musclesof

the

the

lower

to

kase

t, tin

edge,

bone,

edge,

upper

tendon;

thelegbya

Fig. 15.

at

hip-bone

chestnut"haped

At

knee-joint

of the

some

le

the

in

knee-joint

Patella,

ID

attached

from

the

at

33

APPARATUS.

it is

while

Fi)r.ifi.

eitemal

apkle

it ia connected

with

tibia

the

by

strong

ligament
55.

of the
the

Tho

TiVia,

leg.

tibia

and

The
the

or

dun-bone,

tibia
fibula

joins the

join

the

and

Fib'nla

the

femur
tarsus

at
at

the

the

the bones

are

knee

; and

ankle.

both

34

56.

The

the

and

the

middle

of

composed

of

which

bones,
These

are

the

form

heel

foot.

the

Keta-tar'sas

is

of

These

the

HYGIENE.

sereti

together by ligameDts.

instep

The

57.

is

Tar'su
bound

strongly

AND

PMYSIOLOQY,

ANATOMY,

foot.

five

of

composed
and

the

bones, forming

tarsus

arranged

are

Fig. 17.

BO

the

give

to

as

spring, giving
the

of

force
58.

elasticity

falls

and

toes, and

arched

an

to

the

which

step, and

like

acts

serving

to

break

jars.
three

bones

in

great

the

are

bones

two

form,

the

sudden

Fhalau'ger

The

smaller

foot

the

in

each

of

the

toe.

QUESTIONS.

SECTION

1.

What

IB

remarked

2.

What

is

said

3.

Hov

are

bones

the

long

Describe

6,

What

ie

6.

What

is the

7.

What

of

process

their
is

the

the

4.

remarke'l

of

of

said

color

II,

the

bonea?

number

of

clMaified

bonei

booM.
?

of the

foramen

bones

?
id

and

oat

of

the

bod;?

What

elasticitjf
of

the

weight

tutd

compoaitioD

of

the

boD"s

is

34

56.

Telt'sus

The

bound

strongly
the

and

57.

of

is

are

heel

the

form

These

the

and

hones, forming

five

of

composed

These

foot.

the

of

vhich

bones,

aeren

foot.

the

Heta-tar'suB

The

of

composed

together by ligaments.

instep

middle

the

is

HYOIENE.

AND

PHYSIOLOGY,

ANATOMY,

tarsus

arranged

are

FIR. 17.

BO

as

spring, giving
force

the

58.

of

Fhalau'ger

the

bones

two

step,

which

and

acts

serving

to

like

break

jars.

are

the

form,

the

sudden

and

toes, and

smaller

arched

an

elasticity to

falls

The

loot

the

give

to

three
the

in

bones

in

great

toe.

each

of

the

QUESTIONS.

SECTION

1.

What

ia remarked

2.

What

3.

Uov

4.

Describe

6.

What

6.

What

ia

What

of

the

the

long boitai.

process

their
is said

color

of

clawified

bonea

bonea?

number

the

the

is the
of

emarked
7.

are

said

of

of

the

II.

bonea

fbrtunen
bonea

?
in

and

oat

of

the

body?

elasticity T
of

the

weight

and

oompoeidon

of

the

bonea?

What

ia

8. What
9.

What

is the^'eflfectof

10.

What

is the

of the

bones

11.

What

long

bones

steeping

bones

the

in acid

?
,

the

between

difference

bones

the

burning

from

produced

are

35

APPARATUS.

MOTOR

exterior

the

and

interior

layer

is said

What

between

difference

is the

12.

What

is said

of the

13.

What

is remarked

the

of

shaft

the extremities

and

of the

marrow

in the

layers
of the

the

broad

compact

bones

In the

substance

Of

short

the

bones

stance
sub-

spongy

?
14.

Describe

the periosteum.

The

15.

How

is

cartilage changed

into

completed
16.

How

17.

What

18.

How

19.

endosteum.
bone

At

what

grow

is ossification

age

?
do

different

the

is

change

classes of bones

always taking place

the

bones

of

Describe

the

bones

which

20.

How

the

two

21.

What

is said

of

22.

What

of

23.

How

are

are

the

divided

head

the

compose

the

bones

?
skull.

in the

bones

Describe

the

layers arranged

of the

skull

sutures?
of

shape
bones

many

the

in the

in

skull

the

the

face ?

single bones

of

the

"ce.
bones

of the

24.

What

is said

25.

What

is remarked

26.

How

27.

Of

28.

Name

29.

Describe

30.

The

dorsal

31.

The

lumbar

32.

The

intervertebral

33.

The

yellow ligament.

34.

The

anterior

35.

Describe

the

ribs.

36.

Describe

the

sternum.

37.

Describe

the

thorax.

are

what

the

bones

is the

the

of
of

spinal

three
the

the

which

are

composed?

in

pairs ?

ear

separated

trunk

the

face

in each

bones

column

classes

cervical

of the

Describe

the

vertebrse.

of

vertebraj.

vertebrae.
vertebrae.

and

ligament.
the

posterior vertebral

ligaments.
"

38.

Describe

the

pelvis.

39.

Describe

the

sacrum.

40.

Describe

the

coccyx.

41.

Describe

the

hip-bones.

42.

What

43.

Describe

the

44.

Describe

the

scapula.

45.

Describe

the

humerus.

46.

Describe

the

ulna.

47.

Describe

the radius.

is said

of the

extremities?

upper

clavicle.

vertebrae.

36

ANATOMY,

PHYSIOLOGY,

48.

Describe

the

carpus.

49.

Describe

the

meta-carims.

60.

What

the phalanges

are

61.

What

is said

62.

Name

the

63.

Describe

the

femur.

64.

Describe

the

patella.

66.

Describe

the

tibia.

66.

Describe

the

tarsus.

67.

Describe

the

meta-tarsus.

68.

What

of

the

bones

the

are

of the

lower

of

the

fingers?

extremities?

limbs.

lower

of the

phalanges

HYGIENE.

AND

toes?

3""KOO-

III.

Section
Physioloqy

1. The

Bones
its

preserve

; and

muscles, thus

united

fiirnish

adapted

afford

places

the

to

of

offices

portant
im-

most

of attachment

varied

for

They

are

movement;

yet

strength,having
all

moulds

who

by Him

to

serve

the levers of motion.

of wonderful

several

body, and

protection

admit

to

as

examples

to their

of the

they furnish

becoming

together,so

they

the framework

shape. They

organs

the

are

Bones.

the

of

been

things

in infinite wisdom.
2. In the
that

they

The

compact

shafts

of the

in the

pelvis,which

body

3. The

but not
where

spongy
their

they

lees liable
the

long bones,

in the

; and

for

is

substance

sustain

increases

at

dislocations.

force of falls and

the

joints,so

This

blows, and

in the

strength;

for

of the

the bulk

; it also increases

articulate

is porous

weight of

the

is

the

exposed to injury,

is most

skull, which

weight

to

required to

exterior

abundant

required

are

observe

may

their interior
is most

substance
which

we

Their

special use.

substance, and

of compact

spongy.

of the bones,

structure

designed

are

composed
and

general

the amount
that

substance
thus

they

bones,

of surface
are

helps

to

much
break

prevents injury. In

that

animala

contain

bones

material
4.

; as

be

may

rod ; for

solid

it is

known

truth, that

column

will

column

ofmaterial.
of

example

this

in the

rye. and

light,yet have
support

the

solid

same

familiar

occurs
principle

culms

or

of

wheat,

as

which

are

very

strengthenough
ripenedfruit,

their

about

in

crsuiam

is

waved

when

even

much

stems

corn,

tube, and

hollow

well-

the

plants,such

many

alligators.

hollow

than

coDtaining

amount

is

spongy

same

support

greater weight

and

in

be if in

iKine would

weight of

to

the

stronger thau

bones

long

of the

amount

in snakes

noticed

shaft of the

The

much

small
(."omparatively

tha

to

the
falls,

injury from

less liable to

therefore

are

close

remaio

bodies

whose

or

creep,

ground, and

371

APPARATUS.

MOTOR

passing breeze.

5.

The

htunan

in

ovate
similar

form,
the

to

thp,tit

egg,

so

The

smallest

is moat

is

and

ia

and

in

altogether,it

is situated

injuryfrom
reduce

to

is

Si

resist pressure

to

strongest end

it tend

very

siiape of an
well adapted

liable to receive

sutures

Fig.18.

the

bony

case

force

all sides.

"ont, where

in

external

on

The

violence.

of blows

exactlysuited

and,
to

it

sidered
con-

proteet

the delicjite ijrain within.

6. The

spinal coltimn

is the back-bone

of the

support for the head, and a basis


ribs,the muscles, and the pelvis,which
a

the

all the

circulation.

cord;

important
It

it admits

also
of

organs

provides
varied

of
a

of

body.

It furnishes

attachment

support and

tect
pro-

and
respiration,digestion,
canal

movemont,

tnal jH
protect the spinal
backward, forward,

to

iird.

38

ANATOMY,

and

either

to

helps

to

AND

PHYSIOLOGY,

side; and, by its cushions


the

secure

brain

from

HYGIENE.

of

it
fibroHiartilage,

shocks

the

occasioned

by

to the

poses
pur-

walking, running, leaping,or falling.


7. The

for which

they

and

the bones

to
elasticity

is

hand
but

are

The

for locomotion,

are

give

to

as

for

are

facilitate the

to

as

limbs

the lower

limbs

upper

shaped

so

arranged

so

adapted

are

designed.

object;

of any

extremities

are

the

prehenBion, and
grasping

lower

and

upper

firmness

and

the step.
-""o'i9"oo-

QUESTIONS.

SECTION

1. Mention

of the

some

2. What

is said

of

substance

oompact

general

is remarked

4. What

is said

of the

of the

shaft

bones.

the

of

structure

abundant

most

3. What

of

uses

the

III.

the bones

Where

is the

spongy

substance

of the

bones

long

in the

bones?

Illustrate

by

familiar

example.
5. What

is remarked

6. What

are

7. To

what

the

of

the

of the

uses

the

and

of the cranium

use

column

spinal

the upper

are

purposes

and

shape

?
the

lower

limbs

adapted?

-oo^O^oo-

Section
Anatomy

or

Physiology

and

1. The

joining together of
while

between
called

the

dovetail

so

or

the

more

skull

to

overlap

are

and

; but when

other,

as

union

joints are
Those
and

toothed,

the frontal

sutures

each

Some

the

immovable,

are

sutures

Ser'rated

by

less motion.

or

other, as between

as

formed

bones.

more

possess

these

called

are

bevelled,

of

When

into each

bones, they
aire

others

bones

sutures.

two

Joints.

the

of

articulations,are

joints, or

immovable,

IV.

so

are

as

to

parietal
the

between

edges
the

parietal

and

39

APPARATUS.

MOTOR

occipital bones, they

Squa'mous

called

are

sutures.

The

2.

have

in the

jointsof

ankle-jointshave
lateral motion,
3. Some
vertebrse

The

4.

socket

wrist

and

the

together with

between

as

the

head

of the bones

the two

is

of the

rotated

forearm, by

which

joints,in

head

the

another

fullest

bone,

admit

of

of

bone

one

in the

as

free

motion,

the

are

fijtsinto

shoulder

almost

in

movement

and

direction.

every

The

5.

flexion

two

and
bone

extension.
toward

the

as

in the flexion

of the

leg backward

upon

oppositeof
The

synovial
been

forward

upon

thigh.
It

which

All

membranes.

it is

attached,

the

arm,

is the

Extension

brings the

back

limb

and
ment
move-

to

an

tended
ex-

into the

enter

composition of

ligaments

the

of these, except

the

ligaments,

described.

and

of fibrous
are

band-like

help

to

band-like

the

tissue,and

joined to

forming

The

At

which

bones, cartilages,
fibro-cartilages,
ligaments, and

capsular

the bones

with

ligaments surrounding the jointsare

7. The

8.

flexion.

structures

joints,are

the

forearm
the

of the shaft

is the movement

bone

other

called

hinge-jointsare

straightenedposition.

or

have

the

Flexion

one

6.

in

movements

of

with

rotary motion,

.admit of the

hip-joints.They

the

The

knee-joints,

rotated.

are

cup-shaped cavity of

the

the

Some

side.

skull, by which

jointswhich

halt and

and

toes.

either

to

articulations

the hands

which

the

elbow

of motion.

hinge-like motion,

motion

to

in the

as

fingersand

joints have

also in the

and

the
the

or

next

in their kind

jointsvary

motion,
hinge-like

and

movable

the

the

strengthen
the movable

the

ligaments. They

are

flexible.

very

edges

joints,so

ligaments

of two

of the articular

as

the

are

The

to

form

lateral

kinds
are

posed
com-

capsular

surfaces

of

cylindricalsacs.
ligaments

which

joints.

joints,the

which
fibro-cartilage,

ends

gives

of the bones
to

them

are

very

covered

smooth.

40

ANATOMY,

polished surface,and
of

At

friction.
forms

which
both

around
the

These

ends

the

bones

External

joint.

The

the

forming

so
joints,

lower

movement,
lateral
10.

in

as

the

closed

attached

are

them

sac

the

to

securelytogether.
is lined

with

oily fluid,called

an

still further

reduce

the friction in

The

forward

and

11.

The

the head

but
hinge-like,

it may

rotated, thus
hand.

which
13.

The

The

joint,and
is the

is the

largestof

hinge-likein
14.
Creator

much

In

and

no

more

is the

joint,in

the

atlas

which

from

side to side, as

freedom

to

for

joints,and

as

of

hinge motion,

grasping objects.

the head

best

also

well

the movements

have

the

body.

femur

of the

instance

of

ball

strongest jointin the body.


the

the

the

glenoid cavity of

joint in

thumb

them

hip-joint,where

acetabulum,

and

is between

socket

in the

be moved

admirably adapts

are

hinge joint;the wrist-jointis

fingers

side,

the head

occipitalbone

ball and

movable

giving

of

movements

the

moves

elbow-jointis

; and

vertebrae.

shoulder-jointis

12. The

upward

chewing.

or

of the head

the first two

It is the most

mouth

closingthe

between

and

do"vnward

backward

and

of the humerus

scapula.

the

and

the rotary motion

the axis, or

of

in mastication

as

occur

temporal bone, forming

to the

admits

opening

movement,

atlas ; but

the

of

capsular ligament, are

secretes

is attached

jaw

hinge-like,and

be

at

joint.

hinge joint, which

or

the

is open

edges

capsular ligament

which

synovial membrane,

9. The
a

the

to

making

to hold

as

that

bag

; thus

to

of the

surface

internal

Syno'via,to lubricate,and
the

like

amount

capsular ligament

joined

are

of the

is

there

joint

HYGIENE.

great degree the

band-like,or lateral ligaments,which

bones

the

each

surfaces

articular

in

lessens

cylindricalsac,

ends.

AND

PHYSIOLOGY,

both

it and

the

The

in

moves

and

socket

knee-joint

ankle-jointare

their movements.

part of the

human

clearlyexhibited,

of the

movable

is the

frame
than

joints,and

in

wisdom

of the

tlie admirable

their

adaptation to

struction
con-

the

42

ANATOMY,
2. The

muscles

and

the

and

its insertion.

while

generally the
bluish-white

inelastic.
the

form

thus
of

these

the

flattened

4. Each

muscle

which
"ei8'cia,
is

muscles

their

is invested

holds

its fibrils

in

enveloped

flattened

in grooves

in the

beneath

the

the

phalanges.

or

the

over

those

at

The

6.

between

entirely

bones,

or

holds

the

kept

in

the wrist

the tendons
are

more

pass
or

muscles

and

confined

places by

ing
pass-

which
fingers,

the

beneath

ligaments of
the

less invested

synovial bursse, which

fibrous

together.

often

of the

of

ligaments,

with

reduces

serous

the friction

points,
muscles
the

supplied with blood-vessels,which

are

muscular

give to

fibres

and

are

appearance,

which

muscles

the

flesh of all warm-blooded

only moderately
blood-vessels

These

the

their

red

or

sensitive.

nerves

; hence

The

run

them.

parallel to

abundantly supplied with

muscles

their

tinue
con-

group

firmer

their

in the tendons
at

each

are

The

few

others

sheath, called

and

of

but

from

insertion, and

and

is characteristic

are

; but

fibrous

together;

are

ligament

bones, they

blood-vessels

they

are

points of attachment,

cylindricaltendons

or

When

called

membrane,

or

flexible,but

still stronger

ligaments,as

beneath

pass

yellowish

ing.
glisten-

origin or

with

sheath, also called fascia,which


5. The

is

lengthwise,and

the

to

to

movable, and

aponenro'ses.

called

are

width

same

able,
mov-

of

cylindricalcords

or

is least

gradually narrowed

are

muscles

of the

origin

spinal column

bundles

very

of the tendons

Most

its

spinal column.

are

and

strong

the

is most

tissue,striated

very

fleshypart

and

the

sinews,

or

fibrous
are

from

called

are

to

point that

farthest

one

to the bones

point that

the

nearest

one

is the

tendonfly

They

origin is

The

the insertion

muscle,

HYGIENE.

their tendons

by
of

attachment

generally the

is

3. The

attached

are

points of

and

AND

PHYSIOLOGY,

animals.

nerves,

tendons

their white

although
contain
color

and

insensibility.

7. The

names

of the muscles

are

mostly

their attachments,
shape, their position,

or

derived
their

from

their

physiological

44

ANATOMY,
Some

action.
each

penniform
and

in

muscles

circular

all

twelve, which

9.

bend

to

in the

and

the

muscles

the individual
all the
without

in

The
a

their

be

in the

them

the

or

move.

body.

The

are

the

The

Fal'pebral Orbic'ular

The

O'ral

voluntary

only

move

embrace

embraces

the

control

in

and

the

act

heart,

continue
of the person.
admit

respiration
;

but

of the mind.

Neck.

elevates
muscle

as

nearly

which

always independent

12.

are

classes,called
The

organs

will, as

Head

as

hand,

some

involuntary muscles

muscle
Occip'ito-front'al

of

laxes,
re-

so

involuntary muscles
class

The

act

act

the

; and

will, and

other

the

they

two

They

This

11.

13.

into

of the

to

from

of

Muscles

other

straightened.

arm

divided

of the

regular movements

in

straightenthe limbs,

or

control

some

the

elbow

the

the

of

pair act

shuttingof

involuntary muscles.

influence

an3 performs the

are

exception

of each

the

the

the

contracts

during life,without

action

limited

muscles

extend

they

the intestines,and

their movements

in the human

pairs, with

at

arm

the aid of the will.

the stomach,

in

run

mouth, and

fiexors, because

opened,

wishes

muscles

in

joints,as

may

under

act

feather,

produced.

of the

is

voluntary and

muscles

of

the

at

bending

The

10.

others

muscles

one

called

are

the hand

when

as

is

extensors, because

called

entire

an

the

five hundred

; when

motion

the limbs

ranged
ar-

therefore,called

; and

around

arranged

other

each

muscles

Some

like

single. The

are

thus

and

arranged

are

than

are

oppositionto

are,

their fibres

sphincter muscles.

more

are

These

body.

feather, and

at

triangular,

are

have

; some

the muscle

direction, as

8. There

; some

bi-peniiilbrmmuscles

orbicular, or

called

some

tendon

muscles
of

HYGIENE.

spindle-shaped,terminating

are

flattened

side

one

called

are

them

radiated

called

are

like

of

of

extremity

and

AND

PHYSIOLOGY,

the

closes

eyebrows.
the

eyelids,

winking.

Orbic'ular

muscle

closes

the

mouth,

and

46

the

by
mouth,

Tem^pond

The

15.

draws
the

toward

face is turned

Muscles

17.
and

The

18.

The

aids

The

muscle

the

20.
the

When

draws

downward

arm

the

ward,
for-

ribs.

of the

abdomen.
and

organs,
of

depress the

side

one

They
only act,

side.

of

Part

draws

backward,
muscle

and, with

shoulder

the

Straight Abdom'inal

the

front

Back

the head

backward,

contracts,

Trunk.

the

the muscles

that

the

Latis'simus

sides contract,

the

draws

abdominal

Trape'zius muscle

The

of

muscle

and

the

to

of

spine,and

21.
and

is turned

The

the

chest.

sides

compress

Muscles

produce

side alone

one

Part

Oblique' and

respiration.

body

both

respirationby elevating

the

occupy

ribs in

in

External

support and

the

opposite side.

muscle

Ser'rated

Great

and
19.

the

across

when

Front

Pec'toral

Great

forward

but
the

the

of

muscles

muscle, when

downward,

head

the

of

angles

the

jaw.

Stemo-mas'toid

The

16.

elevate

Mas'seter

and

lower

in the

movements

ture,
aper-

smiling.

in

as

of the

shape

lips.

muscles

Zygomatic

The

14.

of the

movements

HYGIENE.

in the

changes made

various

the

produces

AND

PHYSIOLOGY,

ANATOMY,

Trunk.

the shoulder
to

or

draws

the

the

back

toward

side.

one

downward

the humerus

pectoral muscles,

is the

chief

agent in climbing.
22.

Ehom'boid

The

muscle

draws

the

scapula upward

and

backward.
23.

ribs, and
thus

Supe'rior Ser'rated

The

the

both

Infe'rior Ser'rated

assist in

Muscles

24.

The

position.

Dertoid

muscle
muscle

aids
in

in

elevating

depressing

the

them

respiration.
of

the

muscle

Upper
raises

Extremities.

the

^rm

to

horizontal

MOTOR

forearm

the

on

the

on

bend

or

the

forearm

straightensthe

or

bends

Vl'no-car'palFlexor

the
of the

direction
28.

extends

Sa'dio-car'pal Flez'or

; and

wrist

flex

arm.

The

27.

muscles

arm.

Tri'ceps muscle

The

26.

Brachial

Bi'ceps and

The

25.

47

APPARATUS.

bends

hand

the

on

the hand

in

the

on

the

ulna.

La'dio-car'palExten'sor

The

the

the wrist

extends

forearm.
29.

the

on

Flex'ors

The
back

in front of the

fingers,close

of the

Muscles

30.

The

retain

the

31.

The

of

Olu'teal

the hand.

open

the

thighs outwardly, and

position.

muscle

Sarto'rius

the Exten'sors

Extremities.

rotate

erect

an

and

Lower

the

muscles

in

body

and
fingers,

flexes

the

the

leg upon

and, with the aid of the Orac'ilis muscle, draws

thigh ;

leg across

one

the other.
32.

Vast'us, Internal

External
the

the

leg upon

38.
on

Quad'riceps Ezten'sor, composed

The

the
34.

pelvis,and

flexes it
35.

foot
in

on

they

are

the

leg,and

the

unite

turns

the

bend

toes

and

extend

and

into the bone

raise

in other

tendons
form

and

the

thigh

leg outward,

the

foot

the TiVial

antagonistsof

Oastrochne'mius

The

The

muscle

of the

muscles, which

jumping,
38.

bend

outwardly.

Ferone'al

Ante'rior

the foot ; and

37.

muscles

and

on

the

leg,

the toes.

The

Peronelal

it

rotate

Exten'sors

The

Crural'is,extends

thigh.

the

on

but extend
36.

Adduc'tor

and

Bi'ceps Flex'or

The

the

Eec'tus,

thigh.

Fectine'al

The

Vast'us, and

of the

Sole'us

body

active

upon

tendon

of the heel.

SJuyrt

muscles
the toes

extend
in

the

walking,

movements.

of the Gastrochne'mius
the

and

Long

bend

the foot.

and
the

the

muscles

of

and

Achilles, which

Sole'us

cles
mus-

is inserted

48

ANATOMY,
39.

Di'aphragm

The

from

the abdomen
in

it,which

muscular

thorax.

Three

for the passage


The

cava.

; for it aids

muscle

is

the

are

the inferior

and

AND

PHYSIOLOGY,

in

HYGIENE.

partition separating
important orifices

of the

oesophagus,the
is

diaphragm

ist
ex-

aorta,

important

very

respiration,
coughing, yawning,

ing,
sneez-

sighing, singing, vomiting, hiccoughing, sobbing,

and

crying.
oo5"?o"

QUESTIONS.
SECTION

1. Describe

the muscles.

2. How

the

are

and

origin

terms

the fascia.

6. How

the tendons

what

kinds
8. How

9. What

is said

11. What

is the

21.

quadriceps

The

are

by

is meant

synovial bursse

in the

nerves

muscles

muscles

derived?

How

the

Define

ferent
dif-

the

and

they arranged,

are

how

fingers ?

35.

The

diaphragm

The

30.

and

The

14.

12. The

of

pectineal
the

toes

muscles

and
36.
?

adductor?
The
38. The

poral
tem-

great pectoral
The

24.

27. The

flexors

34.

peroneal
tendon

trapezius?

sartorius

31. The

The

15.

triceps?
29. The

palpebral

serrated?

The

extensor?

^.

oblique?

26. The

gluteal

soleus

17. The

23.

muscles

involuntary

zygomatic
?

external

radio-carpal
33. The

gastrochnemius

brachial

and

extensors

The

rhomboid?

The

biceps

28. The

muscles

sterno-mastoid

19. The
22.

muscles

occipito-frontalmuscle?

orbicular

oral

extensor?

Extensor

voluntary

16. The

25. The

What

What

and

the

body

of the

use

latissimus?

of the

37. The

muscles

masseter?

flexor?

39.

in the

great serrated?

deltoid

of

names

of the

13. The

The

flexor

the

flexor

are

and

place

blood-vessels

muscles

10. What

18. The

bones?

act

orbicular

endowed

of muscles.
many

they

to the

in

kept

of the

are

they

are

4. Describe

7. From

do

insertion

is said

what

attached

the tendons.

6. What

With

muscles

8. Describe

are

V.

?
The
and

The

carpal
radio-

and

tensors
ex-

32. The

biceps
tibial

of Achilles

?
?

50

ANATOMY,
4.

When

creased

muBcle

in

length,

becoming
it is increased

changes
muscle

the

is

The

5.

As

the

the

the

muscle

other

on

side

the

the

on

one

side

relax

in

muscle

these

bent,

of

of

and

must

the

and

flexor

while

the
when

the

antagonistic

flexion
so

the

but

softer;

is relaxed

are

contracts,

elbow,

firmer,

op^posite sides

movements

By

and
and

muscles

two

softer.

is

smaller

the

the

ness,
thick-

relaxes,

arm

larger

extensor

and

and

the

and

muscle

smaller

When

flexor

breadth
a

shoulder

is de-

fleahy part

When

becomes

becomes

placed

are

but

HTGIENB.

or

in

firmer.

becomes

and

jUxor

produce

to

and

extended,

o^er, and
as

and

relaxes

arm

and

body

increased

observed.

contracts

extensor

it is

between

be

may

but

length

arm

its

contracts,

larger
in

the

grasping

AND

PHYBIOLoaY,

ex-

ewA

to

joints, so
extension.

the

corresponding degree

muscle
;

on

both

thus,

Fig. 2t.

^^muscles are

although

moment,
each
6.
may

under

the

influence

their

movements

of

the
are

mind

at

the

same

directly oppo^te

to

other.
The
be

manner

iUitMraied

by

vikick

by Fig. 21,

muscles
wAicA

produce
represenis

these
the

mevements,

elbov"joinL

The

tendon

at

end

one

scapula,while

the

the ends

brought

are

to

be moved

of the

muscle,

towards

regvlate all

the movements

sittingand

standing ;
This

limbs.

upper

to take part
life,

of

with

This

is done

whenever

in the

vocal

our

we

in

as

in

of the

movements

in the duties of

to engage

us

mxiy

be

we

learn

to

The

sustenance

in

organs

The

surgeon.

of the

result

educated

tion
conversa-

musician, and

; and

ways.

the

skilful

heart

of the

exact

of

movements

into

enter

be

may

skater, the

of the

involuntarymuscles

circulation

various

education

of this

lungs, in respiration
;

in the

in

ing
perform anything requir-

graceful movements

of the

movements

in

and

leaping ;

pastimes, to provide for the

their movements.

the

forearm

voluntaryrrmsdes,

manifold

enables

voluntary muscles

witnessed

motion

friends.

our

The

8.

the

the

boimd

positions of the body,

all the

exercise

to

all

walking, running, and

power

in its

bodies, and

our

in

the

over

and

in

and

liftingweights ;

attached,

are

the shoulder.

the vdll

of

hence,

in

tracts,
con-

scapula is

that

so

muscle

they

the

origin in

is inserted

the

to which

But

its

end

When

the bones

not

has

the other

at

other.

as

the power

By

7.

muscle

forearm.

each

to

end

drawn

are

the

of it and

so

is at the other
hand

of

nearer

the thorax,

to

of the flexor

the tendon

bones

of the

one

51

APPARATUS.

MOTOR

and

of the stomach

the

ments
move-

and

vessels,
blood-

intestines,

digestion.
9.

It is

provision made

wise

should

respiratorymuscles
of the will.

engaged

When

without
either

food

suspend

or

the

or

drink,

breathing for

our

; but

listen

to

or

either with

Creator, that

the

the

aid

without

or

when

our

minds

are

tinues
pastimes of life,the respirationcon-

attention

our

our

asleep,or

are

we

in the duties

act

by

short

when

desire to swallow

we

attentivelyto
period by

noise, we

any

the effort of the

will.
10.
in the
a

The

size and

same

great

measure

person

strengthof the
at

upon

different
their

use.

muscles

periods

may

vary

very

mueh

of life,depending in

Exercise

tends

to

incre^

52

them

soft and

become

to

individual

an

strength,while

size and

in

them

depends

weak.
the

upon

HYGIENE.

of exercise

want

The

size of the

muscles, the

of the

AND

PHYSIOLOGY,

ANATOMY,

of endurance

power

and

development

in

training

the size and

and

nerves,

permits

tivity
ac-

of the brain.
nmscles

When

11.

tired,and for
is

lose their power

time

regained again by
become

to

exerted

tired

when

depends

will remain

tendons

for

in their small

; and

skilftil arrangement,

would

inconvenient,

the

fleshy muscular

hand

would

foot,what

hands

be rendered

adjusted the bones,


of the

body

and

harmony

the

large and

the

delicate

vocal

will

find

nature's

of the

muscles

by

much
God!

the

the
to

eye

sounds

and

lead

and

our

of the

when

we

thoughts

would

of life.

tendons

entire

calf of the
those

or

study

leg ;

of the

and

body

human

from

unity

they be

wonderftiUysweet

Every part
Creator,

ear

the

beauty

whether

in the

the

in

the

and

in their movements,

which

made.
of

of

the

organ

they

produce

to

the

the Infinite mind

joints,the muscles,
as

feet.

for

purposes

skill has

so

the

The

pose.
pur-

muscle

tendons

destroyed,and

for many

arranged

are

the
make

powerful Gastrochnemii,

organs,

impress

the

of action

are

the

All

be

nice mechanical

what

for

would

they

and

bulky

their

that

to

substituted

be

the

to

bulky

hands

hand, what

feet would

entirelyunfit

With

power

muscles

more

the

fibres

foot

and

the

if substituted

monstrous

no

possess

the

attach

in

as

human

be ; and

the muscles

of

where

power

in the

; but

moderate, they

effort

admirably adapted

are

prove

tendons

both

they

convey

small

weak,

are

size,their great strength,and

They
Suppose

power

longer period.

to

serve

the

follows

soon

the

much

and

tone

this

the muscles

the muscles

and

at the ends

of corUractility.
They

13.

their
When

strong

are

contracted

The

12.

of

required for

time

upon

they become

of covdractUity
; but

great effort is made, exhaustion

the muscles

bones

The

rest.

their contraction.

by

when

or

kept steadilycontracted

are

it

monious
harbears

aright,we

nature

up

to

MOTOR

53

APPABATUS.

QUESTIONS.

SECTION

1.

What

2.

Of

this

doe3

all

these

may

depend
fleshy

the

changes

5.

Describe

6.

Explain

the

do

7.

What

8.

What

is

are

produced

9.

How

do

the

What

is

11.

What

is said

12.

Of

13.

what

their
What

tendons
6*

we

of

is
of

and

of

their

relaxation

How

use

is

is

the

the

the

bones

by

Upon

contraction?

what

How

the

size
of

the

voluntary

act

at

feet

what
of

strength

the

What

ments
move-

?
Of

muscles?

muscles

and

elbow-joint.

muscles

in

contractility

tendons

of the

in

muscles.

extensor

voluntary

muscles

and

the

produced
the

the
loss

hands

and

involuntary

of

body?

the

affected

flexor

of

respiratory

the

muscle

educating

remarked

the

the

make

are

affect

of

by

of

muscles

observed

remarked

in

of

part

movement

use

use

remarked

action

said

10.

about

be

how
use

is

contraction

of

the"contraction

movement

is

of

power

What

does

How

4.

is- the

use

excited

How

consUtate

muscles

the

what

power
3.

and

do

VI.

ends

the
of

is this

use

the

muscles

muscles
the

?
?

muscles

What

arrangement

of

the

bones

Joints,

muscles,

CHAPTER

III."

Nutritive

Apparatus.

I.

Section

The

1. Tbe
and

Membranes

meiabranea

the

of

elements

membrane,

and

The

From

varieties

and
3.

from

to

one

and
in

and

the
4.

The

the

Coliim'nar

fiat

blocks

divided

the

nar,
colum-

are

of
of

consists

of

hexagonal,
It is found

pavement.

into

membrane

mucous

cells, which
of

the

layers

many

Epithelium

cells, pointed

membrane

of

Epithe'linm

The

Ciliated

that

cilia, or

fine

attached

at

the

is similar

filaments, arranged
to

the

free

of

consists

Epithelium

columnar

mucous

are

the

of

ia

of

of

membranes.

serous

hexagonal
in

like

same

Epithelium.

pavement,

the

Pave'ment

surface

called

consists

in

is found

layers

arranged

are

free

is

the

squamous,

The

nose.

four

basement

epithelium

the

form,

Epithe'linm

mouth

layer, a

in

It

eermu

the

and

Squa'monB
scales.

the

occupies

epithelium.

thin

ttie

possess

membranes,

the

as

cellular

ciliated

the

The

broad,
the

dilference

both

into

layer.

Layer

mucous

the

several

fibrous

divided

are

Tliey
are

Body.

the

body

; which

Cellnlar

and

serous

the

raembranea.

mucous

anatomical

2.

of

It

end.

one

and

stomach
to

single layer

the

extremity

of

is found
Intestines.

columnar,
like

somewhat
the

of

cells.

except
the

lashes,
eye-

Thtoe

APPARATUS,

NUTRITIVE

have

the

thia

means

foiuid

of

power

the

bronchial

the

tubes,

pharynx,

5. The

Base'meiit

thin

as

Bome

cases.

the

fibrous
elastic

i_

and

layer,

cellular

6. The

of

the

The

by

organs
and

shining,

lubricates

or

few

state

of

of

health.

The

investing

brdh-

MEnuBjut

ducm';4,

ihe

iu^uai"jar,
therefore, closed
is attached

inner

goes.

other

to

surface

is smooth
which

senun,

extensible.

without

of

They

sodium,

basement

contain

only

lymphatics

they

when
is

secrete

of

consist

thin

sensibility

which

serum

chloride

and
in

composed

phosphate

of

Ume,

Boda.

lungs;

membrane

numerous

are

principal
the

have

they

albumen,
of

tissue.

transparent,

They

epithelium,

of fibrous

they

and

thin

are

; but

The

peritoneum,

araclmuid

cUm-.

liquid,called

of pavement

layer

although

pliosphate
8.

the

and

blood-vessels

water,

aud

layers

more

rves,

the

seroua

membranes

serous

membrane,
a

a^

are,

but

CiiiAiiD
teb

of

Mucous

"'"*'"

membranes

tissue

Tn

epitbiltuu

without

and

moderately strong, elastic,and


one

the

mem-

are

serous

secretes

Fig. B2.

.1

it,

The

7.

and

"

line all tbp

communication,

connective

in
is

basement

which
l"iidy,

of

bo

penetrate

never

UembraneB

surface

outer

is

fibrous

lound

are

the

or

the

blood-vessels,

they

layer

cxtfirnal

any

but

and

tact
con-

It

J.

Se'rons

cavities

in

of

nerves,

tbin,

membrane

The

It is

the

detection

this

tissue.

lymphatics,

the

and

layer, composed

and

fibrous

is

of

trachea

by

^'

layer.

Beneath

of

another.

to

the

and

ear,

UembranQ

difficult

be

to

of

in the

cellular

the

with

and

forward,

place

one

part

upper

layer, beneath

homogeneous

and

membranes

mucous

and

nose

from

liquids

convey

in

backward

moving

membranes

serous

the

lining
of

are

the

pericardium, surrounding
the
the

cavity
brain

of

; the

the

two

the

abdomen;

synovial

pleura,
heart

'

56

of the

and

joints;

the

HYOIENE.

AND

PHYSIOLOGY,

ANATOMY,

lining membrane

and

of the

heart

serous

membrane

blood-vessels.
9.

cartilages. It

secretes

joints,it

of the

fringes,from
of the

therefore, never
with

the

with

The

11.

to

them.

each

other

membranes
; but

they

and

of

consist

They

fibrous

with

alkaline

mucus.

than
vessels,
blood-

more

from

vary

white

of blood

latter of which
The

glands.

salts,and

surface

basement
epithelium,i|P^

an

layer,the

minute

and,

transparent

the amount

upon

passages

free

their

less

They

the

is

in

brane,
mem-

abundantly

secreted

mucus

viscid

clear, colorless,transparent,
water,

synovial

all continuous

are

supplied with

nerves.

margin

is secreted.

; and

are

are

more

communication,

They

sacs.

dark-red, depending

supplied

external

an

lymphatics, and
color

synovia

liquid,or secretion, called

viscid

is

the

line all the cavities and

with

mucous

membranes

serous

of the

closed

form

At

folds, called

more

or

have

skin, and

is bathed

one

Membranes
which

body

covering the articular

not

membranes.

serous

much

which

Mu'cous

10.

forms

of

fluid,called synovia, which

that of other

than

form

but
joints,

interior of the

liningthe
viscid

is

Membrane

Syno'vial

is

liquid, composed

of

proximate principle,called

miuiosin,
12.

The

principal

line the front


the trachea

membranes

mucous

of the eye, the

and

the

deep parts

bronchial

leading from various glands,and

of the ear, the nose,

lungs,the

in the

tubes

which

those

are

the whole

ducts

alimentary canaL

QUESTIONS.
SECTION

1. How

are

the

membranes

of

I.

the

body

divided

What

do

they

poBsess?
2. Describe
3. Of

what

epithelium ?

the
does

cellular
the

layer.

squamous

Mention

its varieties.

epithelium

consist?

The

pavement

68

glands

sweat

it

branches
bunch

of

tubee

may

4.

The

5.

The

be

form

principal glands

Tii'hiilar glands

FIj,

the

the
be

may

and

of

the

These

the

the
is

gland

convoluted

Con'Tolnted

simple form,
as

at

mass

the

kidneys.

8.

The

Eac'emose
and

The

of

tubes

one

in the

as

in

branched,

glands

the

palate,

and

in
the

principal ducts,

sweat

glands
appearai^ce

glands

are

have

present
and

the

resemble

fibrous

of

the

tonsils, the

soft

the

pharynx,

glands.
rolled

into

are

the

by being
of

one

form,

compound

cluster

and

into

forms

two

complex

collect
walls

sebaceous

root

glands

rendered

glands

racemose

which

They

mucous

the

follicular

tubular

to

skin,

the

tongue,

are

end.

The

of

glands

secretion

the

the

duct,

conveyed

of

of

glands

into

or

which

surface

bottom.

open

canal

or

more

the

at

membranes.

The

the

glands

glands,

divisions

through

are

and

Follic'ular

common

the

the

nose,

small,

divided

of

branes
mem-

the

tubular

lesa

fibrous

intestine.

6. The
are

the

in

mucous

the

stomach,

reticular

uniform

in

of

7.

tubular,

the

and

imbedded

large

the

aa

short

layer

23,

minal
ter-

branching

the

or

racemose,

are

the

liver.

usually

They

more

kidneys

classified

the

are

rendered

vesicles, resembling

into

in

as

convoluted,

throughout.

diameter

in

Balivary glands;

network,

HYGIE

and

as

dilated

the

in

as

grapes,

branched

convoluted,

may

follicular, the

the

become

may

by becoming

complex

AND

PHYSIOLOGY,

NATOMY,

grapes.
or

lined

more

with

The

membrane.

mucous

59

APPARATUS.

NUTRITIVE

principalracemose

glands

lachrymal, lingual,salivary,duodenal,

the

are

tracheal,

pancreas,

bronchial.

and

only Eetic'tQar

9. The

these

several lobes, and

It is divided

gland is the liver.


subdivided

are

these

lobules

finallyconverge

principalducts, which

have

fibrous

walls

Ducts

the

membrane,

mucous

same

the

as

lobes

into smaller

from

lobules.

and

are

into

into
lined

or

the
with

glands.

racemose

-ootO^oo-

QUESTIONS.
SECTION

is

1. What
2.

Describe

3.

What

gland

the

is

of

structure

the

is said

What

simplest

II.

the

form

of

the

glandular

secretions

glands.
of

gland

How

this

may

form

be

varied?
4.

How

the

may

5.

Describe

6.

The

follicular

the

7.

The

convoluted

8.

The

racemose

9.

The

reticular

principal glands
tubular

be

classified

glands.

glands.
glands.
glands.
gland.

"^"?oo.

III.

Section
Anatomy

1. The

and

System.

Digestive

the

oesophagus, the stomach,

formed

by

pancreas,

the

mouth,

the

the

Moufh

is the

space

the

palate,the

teeth, the pharynx,

small

liver,and

the

intestine,the

spleen.

The

pharynx, oesophagus,stomach,

intestines,is called the alimentary

2. The

mouth,

tongue, the salivaryglands, the

large intestine,the
canal

the

Digestive Organs include

tonsils,the
the

of

bounded

canal.

by

the

lips in front.

60

ANATOMY,

pharynx behind,

the

and

the cheek

inclosed

of the mouth

teeth, and

has

the

and

roof

of the

the

upper

teeth

arch

having

palate,and

the

soft

of the roof

of the hard

of

the

small

called

hard

; but

lower
cepting
ex-

highly vascular

palate

the

the

the

hard
the

covers

is back

softpalate
Both

glands.

TJ'vula,hangs from

the

floor

mouth,

; called

parts

The

racemose

the

The
a

freelymovable.

is

palate,and

numerous

of two

mouth

; the

is

epithelium.

squamous

palate.

mouth

and

it.

teeth,is everywhere lined with

floor below,

the

The

the alveolar

by

Pal'ate is composed

3. The

body,

side.

arch

HYGIENE.

palate above,

or

tongue restingupon

membrane,

bones

each

on

is inclosed

the
mucous

the roof

the alve'olar

by

AND

PHYSIOLOGY,

tain
palatescon-

small, tongue-like
middle

of

the

soft

palate.
4.

Ton'sils

The

throat.

They

kernel, and

They

lubricates

5. The

the

is

and

gland,
liquid,called
7. The

and

; named

the

the

angle

gland, which
tooth

of

and

food.

the

floor

the

resting on

aids

It

which

fuller
treat

three

tains
con-

probably

glands

parotid gland, the

sublingual gland. They

gland, which
of the

is one-half

description
of the

Organs

jaw.

jaw, is

the

The

gland

of
of

the

about

size of

each

on

lary
submaxil-

all secrete

tongue
Sense.

largestof

external

ear

parotid duct
opposite the

two

inches

will

the
and

from
second

long,and

goose-quill.In

becomes

Special

the

of the

into the mouth

opens

this

is much

in front

lower

of the upper

called mumps

which

mv/ms^

saliva,

Parotid

in diameter

almonds.

secrete

glands

consist of
the

salivaryglands,is situated

molar

called

of movement,

follicular

Salivary glands

side of the mouth

this

almond

an

mucus,

6. The

behind

freedom

side of the

the stomach.

to

organ

swallowing

and

racemose

often

are

in its passage

much

of

shape

glands, and

muscular

It has

mastication

both
secrete

food

the

Tongue

of the mouth.
in

follicular

each

on

and

size

popular language

compound

are

which

in

the

about

are

glands,one

two

are

the disease

enlarged.
be

found

in

the

Sections

NUTRITIVE

Snbmax'illary gland

8. The
of

the

lower

jaw,

duct,

two

slender

and

and
inches

communicates
9.

the

The

the

its

crown

the

into

socket
the

and

root;
is the

of

the

the

the

by

six

mouth

in

the

by

of

of

means

of

socket?.

bony

is called
24.

inserted

portion
is

ducts.

arches

p,

jaw

tongue,

small

alveolar

one

is situated

the

eight

angle
by

gland

side

or

the

the/an^

part clasped by the

or

gums

neck.

10.

In

small

the

interior

pu^p,

and

nerves

each

with
and

of three

ivory,

Enam'el

(the

known),

covering

both
a

of

organic

Sen'tine

bone

bulk

stance,
sub-

teeth
:

dense

hardest

soft

The

substances

principal

is

containing

resembling

the

tooth

blood-vessels.

composed

forming

of

filled

cavity,
named

or

fixed

tooth

the

body;

or

mouth

jaw-bone

of

exposed portion

within

SnbUa'glial

beneath

the

lower

juat

with

The

mouth

firmly

are

and

upper

The

long.

with

Teeth

is situated

communicatea

floor of the

the

on

61

APPARATOS.

the

J.

and
tooth

j,^'^ TbTi^Mm'

substance

tooth;
bone

11.

horse

and
In
and

become
In

that

and

uneven

and

manner

12.

in

Man,

with

tim

milk

teeth,

Beptiles
ceed

hog,

one

in

and

the

fishes

another

almost

as

of teeth;

the

the

second
have

through

numerous

life.

as

arranged

of

in

surfaces

the

the

ranged
ar-

food.

cat, the
the

same

being.

all other

set

triturating

animals,

human

first aet

the

aa

alternately

grinding

are

tlie

near

feng.

are

the

tho

a,

cemo'nt-

aritj.

animals,

the

worn

omnivorous

of

the

herbivorous

substancea

teeth

of

palp

thinnest

substances

are

enamel;

i, tto

of

end

facilitate

thus

these

well

as

sets

and

the

three

teeth

and

the
as

the

as

carnivorous

dog,

these

ox,

of

the

tooth,

tlie
the

grinding-teeth

the

so

towards

the

layer

of

fang

thickest

the

thin

the

covering

of

crown

Cament',

and

enamel

the

mammals,

ia called

is called
set"

the
of

the

is

provided

temporary

permanent

teeth, which

or

t^th.

62

13.

On

The

temporar;,

each

teeth;

appear

irom

fifth

the

the
14.

the

of

infency;

to

the

The

which

teeth

pennajteat

jaw

and

Ihese

then

are

remoyed
succeeded

and

lai^r
in

five

are

gradually

are

thirty-two

are

number.

molars.

two

both

are

Fig.

lower

the

year,

in

twenty

are

and

they

but

fourteenth

teeth,

of

canine,

one

In

permanent

teeth,

and

upper

iucisora,

two

teeth

by

side

milk

or

HYGIENE.

AND

PHYSIOLOGY,

INATOMY,

stronger.

number.

On

25.

Fig,

36,

4, moUra;

ATii"rorTnPoHiNI]rTT"nB.~I,
B, wl"loint"Uij

side

each

of

incisors,

two

15.

The

because

to

great

size

the

and

16.
the

and

canine

the

being,

are

rough

Their

have

small

between

which

points separated

has

four

crown,

by

mght

are

or

teeth

named

so

teeth

molars.

named,

so

are

them.

grooves.

their

animals.

eye-teeth,

teeth.

surface

and

of

called

are

placed

are

from

tribe

dog

grinders,

each

large

and

stomach

grinding

S.blcnnplds;

is,therefore, adapted

canines

called

are

three

oanine'

canine,

grinders, have

and

been

upper

groove

jaw

teeth,

The

in the

hions'plds,or

front

food.

the

canines

points, with

lower

the

!, rBulnes;

mul.

or

and
bicuspidsf,

two

and

strength

teeth.

fang,

wedge-shaped,

incisors,

lower

The

i"

of

the

are

cutting

or

human

the

canine,

one

crown

the

next

and

upper

inoi'sors

the

biting

to

In

the

Inrl9,"r";
Iho

;.

"-.,"!.," mivn;

placed
consists
The

next

of

to
two

molan,

or

grinding

surface,

The

molar

last

is called

and

The

17.

the wisdom

while

roots, and
The

Phar'ynx,

about

four

inches

mouth

to

18.

of

both

and

inches

the

behind

of

which

the

is much

the

the

abdominal
the

above.

The

the

layer
of

that

pharynx

all
are

Its

diameter.

nine
course

of the vertebrae,but

in front

walls

The

layer ;
layer

of

of the

cesoph-

middle

layer
brane,
mem-

mucous

of the mouth

that

ing
extend-

It is about

ynx.
phar-

or

glands.

racemose

large cavityin
the

tube

the

body,

Within

pelvis.

it

ing
extendfound

are

intestines,the liver,the spleen,the pancreas,


These

called

as

over

large accumulations
Stom'ach
the

is
small

form

the

ahdominal

viscera,

Feritone'um, lines the inner

from

to

is folded

is called

the

and

the

called

are

contains

to

from

muscular

in

internal

to

This

oesophagus

pharynx

with

stomach.

fibrous

is the

viscera, so

The

fifth

internal

an

glands of

scattered

apron.

21.

the

layer externally;

; and

inch

an

an

few

abdomen,

peritoneum

the

paler than

membrane,
of the

walls

kidneys.

serous

fibrous

the

part of

into it from

two

cavity,

level with

into the

the heart.

diaphragm
the

stomach,

and

on

opens

thorax, is

; and

Abdo'men

The

from

is

The

exteraal

an

It contains

have
each.

the back

is continuous

to

and

is muscular

20.

from

open

it.

nearly

and

the trachea

which

roots

one

follicular.

is

neck

the

consist

agus

three

which

pharynx

long, and

through

have

QSsoph'agus,or gullet,is a

The

from

jaw

is muscular

openinginto

raeemose

19.

jaw

consist of

pharynx

cavities

the

cavities

membrane,

mucous

lower

larynx

layer,which

middle

the

only

throat, is the funnel-like

or

The

the nasal

of the

walls

of

oesophagus,which

the

below, and

bicuspids,have

long, extending

vertebra.

cervical

molars

the

of the upper

those

year,

tooth.

incisors,cuspids, and

each;

root

the twentieth

about

side,usually appears

each

tooth, on

63

APPARATUS.

NUTBITIVB

is reflected

them
a

closed

the

sac.

portion of

intestines,like

Omen'tum,

and

in

the

upon

fat

broad
persons

of fat.

large pouch, extending


intestine.

It is situated

from

the

in the

left

64

side

of

the

stomach

from

is from

still

stomach

irom

the

twelve

to

the

quarts

but

it

The

larger.
ia

called
into

stomach

long,

be

may

the

and

"om
It

will

and

eo

intestine

the
is

to

hold
to

as

oeaophagus

the

orifice;

small

four

distended,

from

ca/diac

The

diaphragm.

largest part

opening

the

HYGIENE.

the

inches

at

diamet"r,

two

beneath

just

nine

iu
to

one

become
the

abdomen,

inches

five

AND

PHYSIOLOGY,

ANATOMY,

into

opening

called

the

pylor'icorifice.
Fig.

22,

26.

The

tvalk

composed

are
"serous

cuUir

of four

external

or

coat,
BO

in

fiiiTous

strength;

lining membrane,

and

and

6.

iho

iwrmni

2,

tiiB

the

They

riiio-

of

juany

tiie

ih6iuioeniiiugj"ion;B

(i,nt,

cX""tt^"igmoidflJure;
ii.eiifi

of

of

the

""""""

secrete

24.

The

Small

Intestine

tube, extending

from

is
the

are

are

sup-

phatics.
lym-

are

ous
numer-

very

simple,
lined

and

with

similar

to

membrane

These

glands

gaMric juice.

cylindrical and
stomach

tric
gas-

glands

lining

stomach.
the

tured
punc-

the

and

epithelium,
the

ing
be-

membrane,

mostly
them

and

richly

mucous

are

columnar
"vormLforni
a]i|"e'niig*i
B, UiB
7,

is

gastrie

iTts-

miiiiciii

of

23.

in

Flg.M,

minutely

blood-vessels

and

soft

its

by

f plied with

tubular,

is

mammillated

It

The

or

touch,

orifices

glands.

it

mucovs

the

everywhere

the

gives

caused

the

tract
con-

which

to

ranged
ar-

it to

the

exhibits

by

fibres

which

coat,

appearance,

mus-

direction

which

its

every

pulpy

the

enable

to

as

the

coata:

coat

having

stomach

the

of

to

the

much

targe

luted
convo-

intestine.

66

ANATOMY,

through
inches

The

the

orifice

Lirer

ia the

It ia flituated

againat

the

It haa

firm

brown

in

small

tinged

lobes

five

the

large

lobe

the

left

as

The

right

lobe

is

Ita

nine
and

lobe

is of

reddish-

is

twelve

weighs

divided

four

tive
connec-

inches

from

parts,

being

and

together by

to

unequal

two

below

ligamenta.

substance

held

are

is situatod
It

liver.

which

passes

about

four

three

about

and

body.

three

four

to

called

the

five

or

long,

right

times

as

one,

of the

bUe,

four

the

in

organ

joined bj

surface,

from

right

Qall-bladder

duodenum,
duct

into

about

abdomen,

it ia

which

broad,

the

duodenum,

the

yellow.

ia

inches

left

30.

called

six

It is divided

pounds.
and

liver

The
to

with

of

which

smooth

HYGIENE.

stomach.

side

to

lobules,

or

the

largest glandular

right

texture,

tissue.
from

the

AND'

into

of the

diaphragm,

color

into

duct

pancreatic

the

from

29.

PHYSTOLOOY,

contains

the
the

through

inches
inches

from

the

on

the

long,

and

under

side

secretion

of

stomach.
of

the

duct

hepatic

the

liver,

into

The

the

of

diameter

the

hepatic
of

goose.quill.
31.

just

The

Spleen

below

usually

four

ia situated

diaphragm.

the
or

five

inches

in

the

left side

It varies

long

and

much
three

of

the

abdomen,

in

size ; but

or

four

is

iDchea

NtJTRlTlVB

broad, and
in the

use

about

weighs

six

is not

system

67

APPARATUS.

It has

ounces.

no

duct, and

its

them

the

known*

H"o("^00^

QUESTIONS.
SECTION

1. What

do

alimentary

the

inclnde?

organs

Which

of

form

canal?

2. Describe
3. How

digestive

III.

the

is

month.

the

divided

palate

Describe

each

is

What

part.

the

nvula?
Describe

4.

5. Describe
6. Name

the

tonsils.

the

tongue.

the

7. Describe

the

parotid gland.

8. Describe

the

submaxillary

9. How

the

teeth

fixed

in the

pulp

of the

teeth.

part

are

of the

How

11.

the
these

are

13.

Describe

the

temporary

14.

Describe

the

permanent

15.

Describe

the

incisors.

16. Describe

the

bicuspids.

is remarked

the

stomach.

duct.

The

is

name

given

to each

the
The

Describe

the

in

of the

structure

animals

herbivorous

teeth.
?

In

The

pancreas.

teeth.

canine

The

molars.

the diflferent

teeth

19. The

stomach.

What

three

29. The

oesophagus.
Its orifices.

gastric glands.

its

teeth.

its coats.

Describe

31.

sets of teeth

two

pharynx.

23.

Describe

intestine?
Describe

sublingual gland*
What

teeth.

have

21. The

peritoneum.

25.

of the

roots

many

18. Describe

the

secrete

AVliat

The

jaws

arranged

12.

How

they

The

gland.

substances

animals

carnivorous

17.

do

tooth?

10. Describe

of

What

salivary glands.

are

villi ?

portions.
liver.

30.

27.
The

The

abdomen.

the coats

Describe

Describe

24.

the

22.

20"

26.

Describe

the
What

small
is the

its coats.

gall-bladder. The

spleen.

-^^j^^It^

tine.
intes-

large
28.

hepatic

68

IV.

Section

Physiology

1.

of

is that

Digestion
canal

is

does

take

not

in

place
into

readily absorbed
animals
and

are

before

more

they
The

2.

of

such

characters

into the

it for

prepare

in its passage

As

the

their

is

of them

one

indigestible
parts
The

3.

more

food

always

and
man,

complex

more.

Vegetable
animal

or

becomes

larger in

of

usually

digestiveorgans

it meets
the

mouth

with

five

; the

different

the

very

; and

that

so

of
the
the

certain

to

its passage

differentspecies of
food ;

than

in the

similar
mixed

digestive
the

but

they

are

camivora.

indigestiblethan

more

through

gastricjuice,in

digestive

large intestine.

canal

in carnivorous

are

of the food

other

alimentary

carnivora, although his food is of


4. In the passage

their

are

than

through

consists

less confined

the

herbivora

herbivorous

each

all

by absorption,leaving

in the

hence, the

food

digested in

in

vary

in

same

certain

The

discharged from

the naiure

substances

substances

the

to be

digestiveorgans
according to

animals

change

passes

composition,

it is removed
through the intestines,
the

the

and

absorption.

also differ in

digestivefluids
of food.

stances
sub-

these

undergo

mouth

variety of substances, differingfrom

kinds

other

bread, meat,

as

of digestionare

alimentary canal, meeting

of each

be

to

and

food ; and

must

upon

as

man

such

process

feed

form

But

their

solid,and

is taken

food

action

This

they

the

by

be absorbed.

can

fluids,which
a

are

their circulation.

less

or

general

The

cases.

the

in

tary
alimen-

the

absorbed

because

vegetables;

portion

in

of the system.

require organic substances,

vegetables,as

be

it may

that

which

inorganic substances,

food

which

by

process

the blood-vessels

and

lymphatics

System.

Digestive

the

changed

so

HYGIENE,

AND

PHYSIOLOGY,

ANATOMY,

is

longer

animals.
to

those

In
of

the

character.

the

alimentary canal,

fluids

stomach

the

; and

saliva, in
the

bile.

NUTRITIVE

the

69

APPARATUS.

pancreatic juice,and

the

intestinal

juice, in

small

the

intestine.
In

5.

the mouth

tication

and

be acted

The

thorough

the

process

in

The

into fine

food

parts of it may

part

undergoes

msalivation.

grinding the
fluids.

the food

of

the
6.

stomach, and
the

During
mixed
is

the

saliva
the

by

the

four

sight

The

7.

three

or

stomach.

the
of

not

at

in

food

is

oughly
thor-

more

rest, but

little

during

hungry,

will

expressed, make
"

of saliva secreted
Dalton

by Pr,

or

abundance.

are

we

liva
Sa-

is secreted

more

is often

the saliva

in

in

twenty-

be

to

rather

the food, thus

is to moisten

lubricatingit so
the

digestionis only a physical


that

it passes

saliva,without

food

may

easily

more

dry food, such

Hard,

salivq- to

inoisteii it; soft and

and

puch
liquids,

but
requireany n^oistening,

The

its
facilitating

gtomach.

requiresless moistening ;

milk, do

irritation.

and

fluid,rendered

remain

as

hastily

pounds,

oesophagus to

food

moist

is

salivaryglands.

food, when

amount

crackers, requires much

as

the

jaws

estimated

function of

the

of

The

important

an

which
ptyaliriy

saliva,and,

been

mastication, and
down

of

water."

Its action

one.

from

digestive

sublingual glands. Only

the

odor

or

pain
the

mastication, it flows

the flow

hours, has

less than

while

of

mouth

the

of

source

named

and

the

long time undigested

mastication

saliva

submaxillary

is secreted

stimulate

of

substance

movements

Even

the

all

that

so

food

when
a

colorless,slightlyalkaline

less viscid
from

it remains

process

with

for

mas-

cutting and

the teeth,

of the food is

digestion;

becomes

in

readily by

more

mastication

swallowed, in large masses,


in

first consists

particlesby

upon

operations;

two

be moistened

Wterfeying with

the

p^ss

by

at pnce

water

chemical

as

soup

into

instead

changes

in

digestion,
8. In
which

is

the
a

st(mach

food

vdth

meets

cjea^i colorless fluid having

principallyof
the

the

cUgride

"iid

water,

holding

salts,and
phosph^tic

acid

an

in

the

gastric juice,
taste.

solution
a

It

lactic

sists
con-

acid,

peculiar principle.

70

ANATOMY,

called
a

The

pepsin.

be

gastricjuice may

bottle
glass-stoppered

it differs from

AND

PHYSIOLOGY,

kept

fluids

long

time

gastricjuice is secreted in greatestabundance

9. The

digestion.It begins to
depending
juice acts

the

upon
as

from
of

quantity

solvent

food

the

twelve

hours,

The

gastric

substances, such

of

gluten

to

eaten.

the albuminoid

on

flesh,cheese, eggs, and

nine

during

after the introduction

few minutes

continues

food, and

of

flow in

in

In this respect

putrefying.
of the body.

without

all other

HYGIENE.

as

vegetables,changing

digestedmass, called albuminose


; but it does
not in the slightest
degree digeststarchy or fattysubstances.
in the stomach
are
simply melted by the heat
Fatty matters
of the body; and
are
gelatinizedby the
starchy matters
into

them

as
they
gastricjuice,the same
10. During digestion the

be

by

fibres

of

the

water.

muscular

coat

relaxation,by which

and

contraction

alternate

undergo

would

the

thoroughly incorporated with

through the stomach, and


the gastricjuice. This

called

of the

food

is carried

the

and

forth

movement
peristaltic

The

stomach.

is
is

length

according to Dr. Beaumont,


requiredfor digestion,
half hours, depending upon
the
to five and
a
one

of time
is from
kind

back

of food

eaten.

hours,
quantityof gastricjuicesecreted in twenty-four
estimated to be about fourteenpounds. This is mixed

11. The
has been
with

food

the

with

food

the

and

again

secreted,and

when

it has

it is re-absorbed
digestion,

its oflice in the

performed

it is

rapidly as

as

the

enters

along

circulation; therefore,

the digestivefluids are


constantlyflowing
during digestion,
from the blood-vessels to the alimentary canal, and from the

alimentary canal
12.

Although

it does
stomach
when

and
death

attacked, and

plausiblereason
life has

the

act upon

not

been

again to the blood-vessels.


gastricjuice is such a powerful solvent,

back

living animal

intestines
takes
more

are

place,
or

for this

given.

not

the

less

substances

injuredby
coats

of

it

the

therefore,the

during

the

digested by

protectionof

life ; but

stomach

this

are

fluid.

stomach

No

during

13. The

by

the

the

starchy and

intestine,where

and

has the property of

The

Pancreatic

rapidly convertingdarck

juice is

into

estimated

to be

Bile

the

is

in

the

is neither

known

hours

days

without

particularuse

has

yet been

not

that this secretion


be mixed

with

the small

that
a

; but

the

constant

has

been

in the

kept

twenty-

food, or

death

that

bile

will

of

process

experiments

discharged into

the

to

the

prove

and
intestine,

finallyresult.

undergoes

tion,
diges-

It is

change

some

along with

the

in

chyle

circulation.

albuminoid

the above

we

substances
the

the

fat into
starch

together in
of

is its

secretion,however, is

bile in the

find the food

substances, during digestion. The

name

animal

tains
con-

bile, unlike

The

it amounts

and is then absorbed


intestine,

17. From

mixed

It

halfpounds.

of the

be

an

Its

determined

must

the

probable,however,

change

alkaline.

nor

digestion,is

in

food.

and

been

pounds.

acid

after

even

nearly tu}0

to

16. The

changes

of the

amount

Jaundice.

assist

so
during digestion,

the

The

gives the yellow color

as

which

continues

twelve

increased

into

it is the

golden-brown fluid,having

viscid,dark

disease

secretion, and
or

tiw

It is this that

fluids

other

four

and

sugar,

peculiar principle,called biliverdin,which

coloringmatter.

ten

It possesses

twenty-four hours, has

in

less than

rather

bitter taste, and

very

the

into

milky fluid,called chyle.

15. The

body

taining
fluid,con-

agent in the digestionof fattysubstances,converting

pancreaticjuice, secreted

into sugar.

alkaline
clear, colorless,

property of converting starch

them

the bile.

called pancreatin.
peculiar principle,

active

the action

subjected to

are

into

unchanged

pass

alkaline fluid,
juice is a clear,colorless,

Intestinal

The

they

digested

not

are

juices,the pancreaticjuice,and

of the intestinal

the

fattysubstances

the

gastricjuice; and, therefore,must

small

14.

71

APPARATUS.

NUTRITIVE

into
the

chyle,whence

; and

sugar.
small

they

are

changed

into three

gastric juicechanges the

into albuminose

chyle

is

; the

the mixed
All

these

pancreaticjuice
intestinal
substances

intestine, under
taken

into

the

juices
are

general

the circulation.

72

ANATOMY,

18.

of

All

food

taken

into

following classes,

the

AKD

PHYSIOLOGY,

the

belongs

system

the

to

starchy

fats, the

albuminoid

HYOIBNE.

one

or

more

matter,

substances

and

the

or

the

cess
pro-

Fig. 28.
be

these

which

by
summed
1st

The

m"uth,

food

It

into

juice, which
in

As

rapidly

in

the

smaU

the

and

starch

into

the

small

4th.

The

gmall
the
"obfowl."

the

juice, the

bile,

which

gest
di-

the

t"i

whole

the

the

chyle,
ance,
appear-

digested
is called

intestine

chyle U

into

and

milky

by

the

abaorbed

the

mass

chyle.

Jrom

lacteals

the

and

blood-vessels,

[.

i.ThefMophagni;

4,

tbs

giziurd;

b,

The

ishment

and

where

circulation,

iateillns,

5th.

them

intestine

jected
sub-

with

the

into

is

inose

mixed

that

BO

is digested

fat, changing

album

gives

it

fluid,

and

sugar,

are

food

where

and

The

which

IhB

them

it passes

intestinal

starch

sugar

albuminoid

the

pancreatic

ohyle.

itomtch

gastric

changes

stomach,

the

the
the

38.

the

the

as

interne,

to

Hg.

it is

albaminose.

Sd.

in

of

it, and

agus
(esoph-

Here

action

digests

substances

the

stomach.

the

to

mouth

the

and

pharynx

the

subjected

into

from

passes

the

through

thus

is

deglutition.

for

prepared

the

tion
mastica-

undergoes

insalivation, and

and

2d.

into

taken

is

it

where

may

follows:

as

up

digested

are

and

taken

into

it furnishes

support

nour-

the

to

the

whole

system.
innutritious

large intestine, to

and
be

the

excreted

undigested parts
from

the

pass

body.

on

into

74

ANATOMY,
into

thence

Abomasus,

the

and

digestivestomach,
acted

it has

digested until

Rennet

or

then

into

fluids in

the

by

upon

AND

PHYSIOLOGY,

(5), which

the

each

HYGIENE.

small

intestine.
but

stomach,

true

It is

is not

ftdly

all.

them

passed through

is the

-OOX^OO-

QUESTIONS.
SECTION

1. What

is

animals

By

What

digestion?

kind

is needed

of food

by v^etables?

2.

State

3.

What

animals

IV.

general

the

characters

is remarked

of

of the

digestion.

digestive

in

organs

different

of

species

4.

Mention

5.

What

is said
6.

digestiveflnids

the

of

mastication

When

is

food

the

the

does

operations

in the

food

alimentary
while

undergo

insalivated?

canal.
in the

Describe

the

mouth

saliva,

and

What

when

secreted.
is said

What

7.

8. Describe

the

of time

is

gastric juioe

the

Describe

10.

required

for

11.

quantity

12.

What

is said

of

action

the

does

How

of

the

it act upon

stomach.

the food

What

length

of

is secreted

the

What

gastric juice

on

becomes
the

coats

of

it ?

of the

substances

of

14.

Describe

the

intestinal

15.

Describe

the

bile.

16.

Of

use

is the

17.

Into

18.

Of

kinds

what
what
what

place
While

6th.

secreted

gastric juice

What

3d.

saliva?

digestion ?
of

13.

takes

of the

peristalticmovement

What

stomach

function

the

gastric juice.

is the

When

9.

of

What

is all food

while
in

the

becomes

the

in

changed

is in

into

the

digested by

The

during digestion
the

4th.

gastric juice

system
?

2d.

What

'

composed

While

in the

becomes

of

1st.

What

stomach
the

undigested portions?

Describe

digestion

20.

Describe

digestion in the ruminating

animals,

as

the ox,

chyle?

in birds.

19.

sheep.

the

pancreatic juice.

the^mouth

intestine?

small

not

digestion ?

taken

food

of

juice.

bile

food

is the

are

deer, and

NUTRITIVE

APPARATUS

Section
Anatomy

1. The

of

Circulatohy

the

of

Organs

V.

Circulation

auJ
arteries,the capillaries,
2. The
hollow

Heart

is the chief

muscular

thorax,

but

conical

in

to

the

shape, and

is

more

it is attached

means

of the

extends
the

to

and

to the

the

rib.

The

heart

is

about

half

3.

The

heart

is

ten

the

stronger
and

the

into

the

U)

Is directed

ward,
up-

^*'
s

'.",'

the

Its

are

Ihe
a

two

larger
the

side
an

base

Pig, 30,
"""

cle,
ventri-

its apex.

than

base

by

ounces.

each

heart, and

^utricles

spinal column

right and

the

next

to

base,

the

of
separated by

next

its

three

interior

again separated

of

at

It is

is opposite

about

the left side ; and

anriole,

The

aide.

the

forward,

inches, and

parts, called
is

right

in

is

apex

partitioninto

muscular

lungs

five inches,

weigidis

average

front of the

the

length of

the breadth

and

the

It is

the

cartilageof

sixth

and

the

to

left,and

the

to

to

the

everywherefree,except

from

downward,

directed

between

eighth dorsal

and

vertebra;

heart, the

agent in the circulation.

left than

to

and

tlie

veins.

largeblood-vessels.

backward,

fourth

comprise

situated

organ,

where

right,and

the

System.

tllUaiticb-

The
and

J],,,cHor\"rt'i"i2,ViJioo"u
'

auricles;

leit side of the heart

is largerand

stronger than

the

'

76

ANATOMY,

II

Btoon-THSUJ."

PHVSIOLOQY,

1, The

AND

HYGIENE

NUTRITIVE

right side.
inches
The

of

Each

ventricle

blood, equal

capacity of

77

APPARATUS.

will

in

amount

auricles

the

hold

from

to

four to six cubic

two

is rather

three

or

less than

ounces.

that of the

ventricles.
4.

The

right auricle has thin, translucent walls,and has


superior and the inferior cava
opening into its cavity.

the
The

left auricle

has

pulmonary

the four

right ventricle
and

it

It

has

of

valves, and

consists

of

sides

against the
but

three

close

which

ventricle,when
ventricle,and

They

ventricle.

arranged
shut

orifice between

in

The

circle,so

Hi'tral valve

separates

left ventricle.

It consists

tricuspidvalve

to

the

The

6.
are

in various

of that
which

sac,

The

dinm.

tissue; but

organ.

external
the

The

as

to

valves
the

act

the

left

folds,
from

are

the

like the

auricle

the

right

they

left auricle

folds,which

the

and

of

the walls

the

heart

arrangement, crossingeach

produce

heart

the

is inclosed

layers,and

ments
peculiar move-

in

is called

fibro-serous

the Pericar'-

of fibrous
strong membrane
one
membrane,
layer is a serous

layer is

internal

and

is shut.

in their

so

of two

consists

portion of which
7*

ways,

is open,

membranous

orifice when

the

fibrescomposing

muscular

springs from

orifice between

the valve

exceedinglycomplex

other

of two

close the

ventricle,when

springs from

close the

to

as

valve

Semilu'nar

The

the

pressed

are

auricle

the

it

of the

rightventricle.

the

of three

composed

are

the

ventricle,when

aorta, where

gives

Tricus'pid

The

folds, which

it

it

tricuspidvalve,

valve.

is shut.

The

lungs.

exert.

membranous

valve

in the

they

The

thick ;

thickness

from

the

inch

an

right auricle

of the

the

mitral

pulmonary artery, where

in the

are

the

cavity.

the

The

the

are

walls, and

thick ; and

force which

heart

of

to

the Aorta.

the

the

separates the

valve

fourth

pulmonary artery
walls nearly an
inch

valves

semilunar

the

into its

the

proportionto

The

5.

opening

about

large artery, called

is in

walls

less translucent

and

veins

has walls

gives off

left ventricle

off the

thicker

has

closelyinvests

the

heart, and

the

other

78

ANATOMY,

lines the inner


surfaces
are

thus

tends

of

of

epithelium

layer,which

is

the heart

oily fluid,which

an

is lined

with

The

the

to

is similar

endocardium

pavement-like cells,and

closelyunited

smooth

very

Endocar'diimL, which

the

the two

them.

blood-vessels.

lining the

an

heart

called

membrane,

that

to

of the

that

pulsationof

with

the friction between

interior

7. The

bathed

are

HYGIENE,

layer,so

each

rubbing togetherat

lessen

to

serous

of the external

surface

smooth, and

very

AND

PHYSIOLOGY,

consists
flbro-elastic

muscular

of

structure

the heart.
8. A
the

human

and

heart

human

of

Arteries

ventricles

the
the

blood

The

firmness

waUs

is

the

muscles

smaller

Cap'illariesare
gQ^j^to

to

the

Pul'-

The

other

middle,
muscular

tribute
dis-

thus

of

course

they are

soft parts.

each

other

The

by

moses,
anasto-

affording several

nels
chan-

part of the system.

composed of

are

from

of fibrous

coats:

tissue,giving

thickest

or

three

coat, which

tissue,giving elasticity,
internal

the

is similar

to

coat, which

the

is

lining membrane

of the heart.

arteries

similar

; the

bones, where

to every

mainly

elastic,and

interior

the

thus

strength ; and

most

the

and

the

of elastic and

of the
As

is

from

Aor'ta

the

body.

with

the arteries

strength;

and

thinnest

branches

of

spring

branches, and

and

of the blood

of

and
contractility,

the

mostly along

coat, which

and

composed

smaller

off

give

connecting branches,

external

11.

ining
exam-

that

to

great trunks

two

all parts of the

to

for the passage

the

in

frequently communicate

or

10.

by

similar

right ventricle, and

They

protectedby

arteries

is

heart
the

larger arteries

better

is very

of

appearance

cylindrical
tubes, which

of the

left ventricle.

the

which

the

be obtained

valves, may

ox,

are

artery from

monary

its

an

and

structure

being.

9. The
the

of the

heart

the
the

idea

good

pass

the

branching

until

minute
of
j7j\jq

from

they

are

the

heart, they give off

of

tree, and

called

inch

in

become

capillaries.The

blood-vessels,ranging
an

thus

diameter, and

in

size from

connecting

the

termination

the

veins.

of

In

netvxirk
the

the

and

liver,

the

of

12.

Tlie

the

more

auricles

and

The

those

Anastomosis

other,
The

eoaU,

from
ascends

right
it

to

of

and

the

heart,

into

given

off

from

right

coronary,

carotid, and

body

the

rior
supe-

the

the

right

four

puN

set, which

$et, which

veins.

between
the

upper

with
^2,

f^

each

to

of the

run

usually

than

common

blood.

three

of

arteries.

the

heart

It

arches

from

the

column

abdominal

the

of

the

^-

lumbar

The

arteries

aorta,

coronary,

the

aorta,

tlie fourth

arteries.

left

; then

body, receiving
and

arch

the

the

companion

provided

the

spinal

the

iliac

the

in

deep

opposite

of

opposite

the

empty

into

called

more

are

of

and

aorta

finallydivides

called

they

as

large artery springing

the

through

trunks,

armposed

lefl ventricle

left of

the

from

mperfmil

and

reflux

are

is

of thoracic

vertebra

common

veins

Aor'ta

descends

names

the

prevent

the

together,

those

the

at

left auricle,

are

ia

pairs

those

from

arteries, but

larger veins, particularlyin

to

the

to

that

ing
wound-

commence

terminate

the

of

and

veins

in

the

lungs

skin

similar

Tke

brane,
mem-

together

the

run

which

into

extremities,

arranged

very

14.

the

of the

lower

walls

mucous

without

like

until

venous

consist

arteries,

Many

as

in

numerous

close

so

or

heart,

empty

between

so

anywhere

converge,

the

veins

the

accompany

valves,

form

the

They

cava,

from

beneath

immediately

the

of

most

skin,

are

made

large

two

inferior

larger

arteries.

they

of the

veins, which

13.

and

in

and

monary

the

numerous.

gradually

finally terminate

auricle;

single layer
They

are

cylindrical tubes,

are

and

cava

where
be

them.

capillaries,and
approach

only

; but

of

commencement

membrane.

kidneys,

the

the

have

body

cannot

Teins'

larger

are

the

muscles,

finest puncture
some

with

they

structure,

all parts of

in

lungs,

the

arteries

the

elastic, structureless

transparent,

79

APPABATUS,

NUTRITIVE

are

the

left subclavian

the

show

"

im

tutu

^"^

^"^

innominate,
artery.

^^'

the

left

80

ANATOMY,

15.
the

The

left

right cor'oaaiy arteiy

oor'oiiary artery

innom'inate

AND

PHYBIOLOQY,

arteiy ascends

to

the

about

goes

to

left side
one

and

HYGIENE,

the
of
a

right side,

the

half

heart

and

The

inches, then

82

AHATOMY,

the

part
the
the
lower

facial
of

artery

the

head,

the

to

the

temporal artery
internal

^elid,

AND

PHYSIOLOOY,

parotid

to

the

maxillary
the

the

face,

upper

occipital artery

arteries

the

to

The
the

It

off

gives

the
to

the

orbit

19

The

each

side,

The
branches

the

muscles

and

the

ulnar

rKurrantBrtorjr;

7, interoiwiiu

gives

the

spinal
and

pleura,
neck,

the

chest

to

the

brachial

the

the

radial

side

of

reach

the

palm

the

of

""''"'^

the

^y

palmar

arch,

*'*'^
which

and
the

radial

'""

tl*^

give

side,
the

along
until

they
Here

hand.

arteries, forming
""^^i

artery

outer

forearm,

ceives
re-

artery.

The

artery

the

it

supply

hand.

ulnar

ner
in-

artery

which

along

passes

the

brachial

the

the

where

arm

of

name

and

along

passes

thn'm"P^"**"
u^'^ia^"t'^w''ih'B
i8imin",""rio.ioih.flngBr".

artery

gives

artery,

the

eating

the

tery
ar-

ftz'illary artery

and

^^

axillary

brain,
the

each

chest,

inner

*ey

when

and

the

iut""

forearm

Z.i"^* Ml^r!^; I

rib,
of

ears,

elbo^v,

the

divides

voii-

one

outwardly,

the

of

the

artery

arteriei,

first

and

side

Fig. 30.

to

artery

oplithalmic

curve

to

shoulder,

and

orbits.

abdomen.
The

artery

cerebral

of

branches

the

artery

the

subclavian

the

column,

20.

and

name

to

id

its contents.

the
the

the

gums,

carof

the

and

head,

nose.

rabda'vlan

assumes

At

the

and

over

pass

the

brain

and

braiu,

on

and

intemai

supplies

the

teeth, the

lip, the palate,


18.

of

region

back

the

to

parotid gland,

the

to

temporal

artery

Fig. 33.

HYGIENE.

communithe

deep

superficial
branches

the

to

21.

be

and

aorta

the

to

aorta

descends

last

in the radial

easilycounted

thoracic

The

and

gives small

branches

is then

the

oesophagus,the pleura,and
abdom'inal

The

in

descends

then

Its branches

artery

splenic artery

to

arteries,which
the two

the

supply

the

mesenteric

large intestine;
diaphragm

; the

and

the

kidneys

of the back

muscles

the

coronary

liver,and

two

the

the

fourth

iliac arteries.

the

the

supply

supply

the

gives the

pancreas;
and

right,and

to

two

hepaticartery to

spleen and
supply the small

iliac

external

into

iliac artery.

internal

of the

contents

the

inner

the

femoral, and

the

poplitealartery.
and

The

in front of the tibia and

over

the back

of the

anterior

The

leg to

hollow

the

to

and

to

25. The

the toes

Ths

the

and

of

the

curves

the

upper

to

is called

the middle

of the

tibial and

descends

under
it

the

upper

along
inner

the

joins with

plantararch

which

the

gives

of the foot.

its branches

to the

iliac passes

instep,supplying the

the bottom
and

supplies

iliac

tiliialartery descends

foot, where

forms

iliac

the knee, is called

the anterior

anterior

of the

of the heart

veins

into

heel, and

the

cor'onaryvein

the walls

behind

internal

part

posteriortibial artery

tibial artery, and

branches

its upper

passes

divides

posteriortibial artery.
parts of the foot.

external

part, towards

its lower

then

the

thigh,where

poplit'eal
artery

knee-joint;

The

and

pelvis;

side of the

24. The

the

artery is divided

the

26.

the

the

muscles.

little to the

axis, which

arteries, which

23. Each

from

It

aorta.

abdomen.

of the

ankle

abdominal

into

the

arteries,which

lumbar

and

coeliac
the

the

through

spinal column

phrenic arteries, which

renal

two

inclines

it divides

the stomach,

to

the

spinal column'

the intercostal

to

front of the

the

are

wrist.
of

arch

it passes

the

the

at

pericardium, the bronchi,

aorta

vertebra, where

lumbar

the

at

called

to

artery

commences

vertebra, where

dorsal

fingers. The

the

the left side of the

along

diaphragm,

22.

and

of the hand, the thumb,

palm

pulse may

83

APPARATUS.

NUTBITIVE

convey

the

rightauricle.
limbs

converge,

or

blood

84

together,and
into

unite

vein

one

is

ulnar

vein, below

vein

above

that

27. All
form

has

arm

axilla.

the

at

from

the

its blood

with

from

the

from

the

interior of the

remaining portion of
After

the

innom'inate

veins,

Superior Ca'va,
The

deep

and
arteries,
inner

veins

orbits,and

unites

the

lower

the

head,
unites
blood

the
from

the

internal

the

vein;
to

right of

and

the

form

the

the

aortic

the heart.

of

limha

into

the

accompany

the femoral

also unite

into the femoral

empty

pelvis,where

the

vein, on

veins
superficial

and

body

with

side, unite
on

the

The

into

the

right auricle

of

thigh.

ascends

then

in the

of the

returns

each

descends

thus

external

It then

neck.

innominate

the

on

which

the

towards

they pass

basiric

the neck.

vein

finallyunited

are

of the

side

which

one

terminates

arch, and
29.

subclavian

the

which

and

the face and

it is called

jugular vein,

the

axilla,and

receives

the

skull

the

at

the exterior

with

28.

and

cephal'icand

unite

arm

portion of the face and


internal
ju'gular vein,

and

deep veins,

radial,the median,

the

vein, which

subcla'vian

ju'gular vein

these

joint.

the veins of the

the

Besides

elbow, and

the

veins, but these

companion

two

superficial
set;

there

HYGIENE.

larger as they approach the shoulder.

thus grow

artery of the

Each

AND

PHYSIOLOGY,

ANATOMY,

as

vein,

it is called

the

iliac vein.

iliac veins, one

30. The
form

the

column

Inferior
to

the

auricle of the
and

right of

of the

31. The
the

from

from

the

largerin

from

Pul'monary artery

artery which
veins

goes
goes

then
to
to

the
the

Pul'monary veins
the
left

ascends

in front

of the
in the

terminates
than

diameter

the abdominal

spinal
right

the aorta;

viscera

and

the

back.

artery which
The

limb, finallyunite and

each

the aorta, and

the veins

rightventricle,and

32.

which

It is

heart.

it receives

muscles

Ca'va

from

rightlung, and
lung. They all

ascends

about

divides

into

the

right lung, and


left

lung.

are

the

the two
terminate

two

left

inches

two

from

right pulmonary

the

left

nary
pulmo-

right pulmonary
pulmonary

veins

in the left auricle.

85

APPARATUS.

NUTRITIVE

QUESTIONS.

SECTION

1. What

2. Describe

circulation

Its size

the heart

is the

3. How

each

of

do tlie organs

V.

interior

of the

and

comprise

weight.

heart

divided

What

is the

capacity of

cavity ?

The

the

Describe

4.

right auricle.

The

left auricle.

The

right

ventricle.

left ventricle.
the

Name

5.

semilunar

of the

The

mitral

valves.
is said

What

6.

valves

of the

heart.

Describe

the

tricuspid valve.

walls

the

heart?

The

valve.

muscular

of

Describe

the

pericardium.
Describe

7.

8. How

arteries ?

in

What

10.

Describe

11.

How

12.

What

13.

What

the

of
the

do
are

arteries

the

are

the

their
walls

of

is remarked

veins

Of

the

what

branches

is said

the

walls

composed

Describe

15.

What

16.

The

common

carotid

17.

The

external

carotid

and

its branches?

18.

The

internal

carotid

and

its branches

19.

The

subclavian

20.

The

axillary artery

of

the

the

arteries

arteries

the

valves

course

What

of

innominate

The

artery ?

?
brachial

The

larger

aorta.

coronary

arteries

the

artery

its branches

and

hand?

and

arm

is said

of

course

of

course

capillaries.

their
veins

of

14.

the

the

of

sets

two

their

are

the

and

its branches?

21.

The

thoracic

22.

The

abdominal

23.

The

iliac arteries

24.

The

25.

What

is said

of

26.

What

is said

of the

27.

What

of

subclavian

28.

What

of the

innominate

veins

29.

What

of the

veins

lower

30.

What

of the

iliac veins

31.

Describe

the

32.

Describe

the

aorta

and

aorta

and

the

the

its branches

their
and

popliteal artery

Describe

What

of

of

be obtained

heart

the

arteries.

branch

veins ?

of

is said

What

connecting

arteries

the

of the valves

idea

good

may

What

9.

the endocardium.

branches?

its branches
vein

coronary
veins

of the

of the
and

and

the

pulmonary

artery.

pulmonary

veins.

the

leg

and

?
limbs?

upper

jugular veins

and

the

to

the

limbs

superior

inferior

cava?

cava?

foot ?

to the

86

ANATOMY,

AND

PHYSIOLOGY,

VI.

Section
Physiolooy

1. The
of the
a

is called

red

bright

color

in the

color

in

nearly black
its

parts

and

colorless
The

2.

white.

blood

The

diameter

the

-globulesare

of

of

of

^^jj^

of

red

the

mammals
than

they

in

less

much

The
and
from
3.

and

globule
is the

plasma
the
In
487

three

to

every

parts

1000
are

The

they

which

the

and

in the

the

1.

513

parts of globules, containing

2.

487

parts of plasma, containing

most

larger

but

proportion of
red

globules.

blood-globulesfloat

is absorbed

tissues of the

parts of the blood, 513 parts

plasma, having

the

structure

In

rather

are

blood, which

organs

average

generally smaller

are

the

the

resemble

size and

hundred

four

and

an

animals.

red, being

part of the

by
capillaries

into

blood-globules,

shape

different

or

liquid in

nutritive

it is the

in

and

globules
the

than

water,

is divided

small, having

; but

white

numerous

white

one

circular

are

The

man.

in

vary

than

kinds, the red

two

of the stores.

globules

purple, or

plasina,

very

inch,

an

water-cracker

common

are

liquid,of

dark

cells,called

of minute

liquid,called

blood

The

1055.

red globules

of

It is heavier

the veins.

multitude

blood-vessels

and

thick,opaque

arteries,and

specificgravity being

two

It is

blood.

System.

iu the heart

circulates

fluid which

body,

Circulatory

the

of

HYGIENE.

are

body.
globules

followingcomposition:

1000

4.

When

the

blood

is removed

which
coagulation,or clotting,

twenty

minutes.

This

from

process

process

the
is

body, it undergoes

completed

in

depends entirelyupon

about
the

the blobd.

fibrinin
contract

to

the clot is fairlyformed, it

After

and

continues

the

whole

of

the

dot

and

the

time

which

the

parts; called

fibrin leaves the

plasma

for ten

and

the clot; hence, the blood


1.

87

APPARATUS.

NUTRITIVE

twelve

or

is

blood

In

with

unites

hours, during

separated

serum.

this

the

begins

into

two

change,

the

globules,forming

coagulation is separated into

after

| Globules.
Fibrin.

Clot, containing

f Water.
Semm,

2.

blood-vessels,
a

clot is

which

checks

nature

and

it may

the

limb

the

wound

in the

body

and

in

of

of

the blood

in solution

of
are

the

contraction
as

one

heart

obtained

through

begins

immediately
of the

movement.

upon

coagulates

this

tion
coagula-

; but

in the

needed.

are

is estimated

weight

entire
and

of the

sixtypounds

blood, equal

from

and

organs

the

chyle

conveyed, by the blood,

are

to dreulaie

and

blood

nearly

to

all the materials

tissues

heart, by its alternate

of the

vessels,

pressure

person

hundred

one

twenty pounds

holds

materials

The

the

by

mea;is

by elevating

as

man,

only

healthy

through the vessels, to all parts of


8.

In

hours

ten

to

the

the

halfpints.

blood

intestine,and

; such

death,

in

smaller

twenty-four hours

to

weighing

man

formation

the

four

of the

by making

one-eighth part

about

have

7. The

These

the

hence,

sixteen and

for

twelve

Salts.

the

ways

and

After

quantityof blood

The

would

from

Albumen.

is retarded

one

large blood-vessels.

animals, from

is

hemorrhage

by bandages.

be about

to

This

formed.

it is wounded,

when

requires from
6.

the blood

of

be fiicilitated in various

heart

lower

the circulation

Whenever

5.

containing

extends

The

and

to

and

auricles

body.

in

the

small

dilatationy
forces

at

The
the

may

of each

be

tion
contracsame

the ventricles, so

ventricles

contraction

the

its circulation

the blood-vessels.
two

of

system.

contraction

in the

auricles

the

in

necessary

ment
mo-

that

the

considered

cavity is

imme-

88

ANATOMY,

diatelyfollowed
the auricles

they

and

about

are

the auricles

through the valves


two-thirds

and

full.

cUtemate

Then

and

beating,or pulsation. They

pass

in

successive

hence, when

stream;

flows

from

pulse

beats

is

it in

from

when

contraction

of

the heart pro-

force

the

the

in them

jets.

In

the

sixty to eighty times

in the

in

the

children,and

laries
capilsteady

blood

flows

the

blood

adult

healthy

in

to

arteries,thus

moves

wounded,

blood

artery is wounded,

this in

of

movements

pulse however

is

an

successive

frequent than

more

vein

it ; but

steadilyfrom

is no

the blood

the veins, and

or

also

through

waves

There

the

dilataiion

its

the jmlse.
constituting

into

ventricles,until

the alternate

duce

jets or

of

continued.

are

contraction

period

steady stream

into the

thus

dilatation

c"5nies

flows in

begins again, and

of contraction
9. The

the blood

HYGIENE.

Then

its dilatation.

by
which

during

repose,

AND

PHYSIOLOGY,

the

minute

; but

rather

less frequent

it

in old
persons.

The

10.
auricle

of the

course

of the heart

large veins.

two

receives

pulmonary
is

artery

to

the

the

The

11.

left auricle

as

blood

the

is

and

the

pulmonary veins, the


to

and

blood is

changed

to

into

the tissues and

them.

In

the

the veins, in the

arteries

from

it.

venous

organs

from

the

into the

sends

it through

It is then

conveyed

transmits

veins

capillaryvessels,between

acid

right

of the heart

and

the

blood

to

sends it through
which

it returns

to

the

the

pulmonary artery

right auricle.

circulation.

blood is

venous

blood, by absorbing oxygen


carbonic

body

this blood

system, from
the

the

In the

12.

and

all parts of the

The

"

circulation.

contracts

and
capillaries
called the Systemic

through
This

to

left auricle

the left ventricle,which, in turn, contracts


the aorta

of the

and

lungs.
to

follows

sends

in turn, contracts

pulmonary veins
called the Ful'monary

through
This

the

By contractingit

rightventricle,which,
the

circulation is

from

changed

the air and

into

giving off

capillaryvessels,between
systemic circulation,the
body

and

giving off

the

arterial

blood, by absorbing carbonic


of the

terial
ar-

acid

oxygen

90

ANATOMY,
blood

to

stream,

and

the

cause

the

blood

to

chest

towards

the

the

veins, while
the

force

its

on

the

by

it

presses
them

by

the

draw

gently

onward

veins

tinuous
con-

to

contraction

of

the

through

the

its return

prevent

the

it enters

return

is caused

veins

the

heart;

in

veins,

respiration,which

in

valves

which

with

in

which

voluntary muscles,

the

into

HYGIENE.

capillariesin

the

through

pass

the

of

movements

the

flow

circulation

The

heart.

AND

PHYSIOLOGY,

from

; and

the

by

capillaries.

^"^c

QUESTIONS.
SECTION

1. What

is said

2. Describe
3. State

the

the

of the
What

4.

place

said

of

globules

globules.

plasma.

of

the

blood
after

coagulate
death

of the

quantity

7. What

of the

materials

the alternate

is remarked

of blood
for

contraction

pulse ?

11.

Describe

the

systemic circulation.

12.

What

13.

the

Which

contain

of

the

of the

quantity

15. What

of the

velocity

In

small

veins

veins

blood-vessels

16. What
17.

the

What
?

of the
causes

What

position
com-

takes

is this

use

is

What

the

body?

dilatation

How

often

of the

does

the

heart

pulse beat?

the

blood

system

while

in

the

capillaries

of

the

?
contain

arterial

blood

Which

What

14.

the

circulatory organs

blood

venous

blood

the

circulation.

in

capillaries of

the

Qive

body?

and

pulmonary

In

plasma.

what

nourishing

the

the

of

Of

in the

Describe

lungs

of the

occurs

divided

10.

change

and

coagulation

during coagulation
the

coagulation

9. What

the

blood

plasma.

Of

does

Explain

The

proportion

6. What

8.

is the

of the

blood

5. When

How

blood-globules.

is remarked

in the

blood

of the

VI.

What

of blood
of the

in the

blood

of the

veins
the

in

relative

and

in the

arteries?

capacity

In

of the

arteries?
the

large

ries
capillaand

the

?
time
the

required

to

circulation

make

the

through

round

the

of the

arteries

circulation

Through

?
the

NUTRITIVE

VII.

Section

Lymphatic

lymphatic glands, both

The

lymphatic
of the

of the
of

consist

lymphatics.

of

tissues

the

follow

and
have

none

brain, the spinal cord,


and

deep

vessek

called

in most

the

superficiallymphatics

the

while

are

lymphatic

blood, except that

substance

in the

deep lymphatics

The

set.

found

receive

eyeball. They

the

or

of which

are

that

body

detected

been

vessels

of

consists

system

and

organs

System.

Lymphatic

The

1. The

91

APPARATUS.

of

course

mostly

are

superficial

the

arteries,

found

the

near

skin.
The

2.

finer lymphaMe

pareiU tvhes,and
veins.

the

or

vessels

of them

Many

scarcelybe detected, unless


into
thus

and

them.

become

thorac'ic duct

and

ascends

in front

the

chest, where

the
in

veins.

The

length,and

and

from

the

duct

; but

the

into

empty
4.

right

Nearly

all

in

are

size from

the

the

right

that

to

of

the

into

empty

head

all other

of

clavian
left sub-

and
goose-quill,
those

to

half

is about

the

the

the apex
the

coats, similar
duct

the two

inch

an

The

vein.

and

the

of

neck,

right lymphatic

parts of

the

body,

duct.

in their

of

of

other,

diaphragm,

right subclavian

side

smaller

moderately

each

the

can

jected
first in-

duct, and

into

empties

three

lymphaticsfrom

lymphaticglands
glands

of

the thoracic

thoracic

the diameter

arm,

with

justbelow
and

eiuptiesinto
the

unite

the

right lymphafic

lymphatics from

they

liquid is

spinal column

the

curves

composed

are

that

larger as they approach

commences

It is about

vein.
its walls

it

colored

; called

of

either the arteries

small

so

gradually

larger and

lymphatic trunks
right lymphatic duct.

are

some

They

graat

3. The

than

numerous

more

are

long, ihread-like,trans-

are

course

hard

vessels pass

through

great trunks.

These

lymphatie
to

the

bodies, of

hemp-seed

to

a
an

pink color,and
almond.

They

vary
are

92

ANATOMY,

Tig. 3S.
left

lubcljiTlaii

lyraphait"
InnomlnBIe
the

To

of

tmuno
vein:
iha

4. the

psLyla;

right

T, of

3, Thonck

"1.

Tbdvii.

Ij^mphstiD

ibe

ialti;ll,rJBtit loaopiliuita

dlAplirAgm^

AMD

PHYSIOLOQY,

bsck;

doet

duct;

8, of

tbe

HYOIENS.

6, IrmpbUIn
cheit;

In

a, Iti tarmlDitiOD
of

6, "nperior

nln:12,aon";13,lii(erlor

Iha

thl^j

""

"iiin;14"*ft

onilforlgln

"it

most

along the

numerous

and

the

in

abdomen.

the

inflamed, and

are

5. The

called

fibrin,and

The

albumen.

of the tissues which


and

from
6. The
is

absorbed

then

are

When

plasma.

obtained

similar

remarkably

from

separates into the clot and

During

the

digestionof

lacteals, the

giving it

white

it is
digestion,

and

four

and

pounds

of which

7. The

are

pure

villi,which

liquid.

and

lymphatics, called

refuse

8.

the
of
to

the

and

the

The

both

it, except

blood.

the

as

the

milky chyle,
intervals

the
In

ing
weigh-

man

total

of

of

amount

throughout

numerous

the

capillaryblood-vessels
During

the

passage

intestine,it

the

the

is

blood-vessels

and

of the

the
intestine,

of the

small
food

only

remain

teals,
lac-

to

large intestine.

capillary circulation
those

the

indigestible
part

chyleabsorbed
the

by the
of

fat, are

blood-vessels is carried
the

liver, by which

changed
previouslyexistingin the

right side
lungs,where
not

by

coagulates,and

lymphatics,in twentyhalf pounds, nearly four

chyle, through

or

blood

the

the

lacteals.

that, at the termination

into the

pass

very

and

so

the

duct,

lymph.

are

digested food,

of

the

colorless

intestine,contain

gradually absorbed

of

during

the small

of the

be eliminated

absorption by

; but

length of
the

to

same

its

addition

chyle passing through


six

it

the

forty pounds,

hours, is about

integratio
dis-

the

the thoracic

body,

food, and

the

clear and

matters,

fluid form,

as

composition

the

appearance

hundred

one

lymph

from

the serum,

the

has

lymph

to

less,
color-

from

changed

pure

the

to

taken

they

the secretory organs.

by

when

lymph,

is obtained

are

is

saline

water,

into the circulation,so

the system

when

which

lymphs

lymph

the

neck,

kernels."

"

fluid, consisting of

transparent

the

glands swell

contain

lymphaticvessels

of

sides

These

then

are

largerblood-vessels,

of the

course

groins, the

axilla, the

and

bronchi,

93

APPARATUS.

NUTRITIVE

of the heart, and


the

fat

known.
definitely

into

blood.

substances
It then

through
all parts
similar
passes

to

of the
through the capillaries
disappears; but what becomes of it is

94

ANATOMY,
The

9.

chyle
duct

thoracic

absorbed
the

into

by the
left

heart, and

right

side

of the

lungs

where

the fat

chyle

is absorbed

is active, the

the

in

changed

various

muscles, the

the

blood

the

from

and

growth
needed

re-absorbed

by
so

as

fat is removed
of the

none

the
flow
the

the

to

like those

bones,

lungs, the

heart,

the

the

supply
food

system, they

in

body

nourish

absorbs
its

own

any

within

form of fat;

be

but

when

is the

case

obtained, this fat

is

body.

are

deposited

are

This

is

again

into

explains why

the

conveyed

orbits, the cheeks, and

the

than

system, which

cannot

the

absorbed

are

lymphatics, and

other

parts

protractedillness.
all pass

outward
is that

from

the

lymph

and

the

The

without

hence,

imoard, and

peculiarityof
chyle always

the thoracic

is towards

duct.

lymphaticvessels

in

are

of the veins, which

readily towards

through

the

the

duct,

lymph, therefore, does

or

not

like the blood.

The

its flow

of the

waste

when
the

materials

direction, which

one

circulate

pass

Thus

for

right lymphatic

13.

by

needed

lymphatic system
in

absorbed

are

the

reaches

particularmaterials

from

from

pass

ingredientsof

each

lymphatic vessels

The

changed
un-

digestion is

organs,

body, during

12.

other

body.

nerves,

and

eye,

parts of the

sickness,and

the blood

when

be

can

found

other

insufficient to

are

of the

of these

more

in different

they

it

disappear.

the

tendons,

supply

to

digestion

development.

When

11.

the

to

parts of it

tissues

the

the

containing this nourishment

liver, the brain, the

the

it

nutrient

and

organs

of

blood

the

the
capillaries,

the

in

all traces

When

10.

assimilated

soon

capillaries

it is then

portion of

general circulation; but

is

and

blood,

the

When

it goes

rapidly than

more

the

through

the

by

vein, whence

disappears.

lungs, and

in the

completed, it

of the

HYGIENE.

lacteals is carried

subclavian

the

to

AND

PHYSIOLOGY,

an

the two

provided with valves,arranged


allow

is caused

by

The

and

chyle to

which

prevent

lymph

great ducts,

oppositedirection.

these vessels

the

but

passage

the movements

of the

lymph

of the chest

NUTRITIVE

the
respiration,

in

the force
These
pass

forces

contraction

the

are

of the

it is absorbed

which

with

95

APPARATUS.

same

the small

by

those

as

voluntary muscles,

which

and

lymphatics.
the blood

cause

to

the veins.

through

QUESTIONS.

SECTION

found

the

What

3.

Describe

lymphatic

of the

the
into

empty

the

is said

of

5.

What

of the

lymph

6.

What

of the

of

do

in the

lymph

lymph

the

duct.

right lymphatic

What

glands

between

blood

the

is said

What

body?
villi contain?

intestinal

and

lymph

the

during digestion ?

changed

in the

lymphatics

is there

is the

quantity

7. What

phatics
lym-

are

The

lymphatic

resemblance
How

lymphatics

duct.

duct

AVhat

finer

thoracic
each

4.

plasma

Where

consist?

system

?
is said

2.

vessels

does

what

1. Of

VII.

Of

what-

the

blood-vessels

use

these

are

vessels?
8.

Wliat

9. AVhat

is done
with

with

the

10.

AVhat

is done

11.

What

is remarked

12.

What

is

13.

What

causes

the

chyle
of

peculiar
the

absorbed

this

with

in the

lymph

by

deposits

flow

of

to flow

lacteals

the

in the

nourishment

the

by

absorbed

chyle

of

blood

chyle

fat?
and

lymph

lymphatics

the

through

"oo""4o*"-

VIIL

Section
Absorption,

Excretion.

and

Absorption takes place through the different membranes

1.
of the
The

Secretion,

body,

food

both

by

is absorbed

alimentary canal, and


this way,

the

lympJiaticand

through
gases

contagious and

the

capillary vessels.
of the

membrane

mucous

that

of the

matters

and

through

miasmatic

the

lungs.
other

In

impu-

66

ANATOMY,

rities in the

AND

introduced

into the system.

air,are

arsenic

particleswhen

fine,such

and

wall-paper,have

from

membrane

mucous

and

life may

even

patient in
if

skin

When

should

be

cuticle

is

The

liquidpoured

inflamed,

removed
have

stances,
sub-

into the

system

handling poisons,that

when

the

and

dropsy, is
and

ofl"n

the bones

and

of

excretions

the

human

6. Saliva.

2.

Sebaceous

3.

7.

Gastric

Perspiration.

8.

Pancreatic

4.

The

tears.

9.

Intestinal

5.

The

serous

5. Several

weighing

fluids

small

intestine.
and

juice,are

into it

in

again

great activityof the

always going
6. These

on

they

are

the

along

estimated, in

fortypounds,

that

then
in

and

the

from

twenty-four

tary
alimenwith
a

the

person

twenty-five

over

hours.
the

blood

and^

This

exhibits

absorption,which

sorbed
re-abthe
are

livingbody.

formed

are

assist

secreted

secretion

in the

fluids

and

It is

juice.

into

the blood

into

juice.

Bile.

discharged

are

juice.

saliva,gastric juice,bile,pancreatic juice,

mucus,

intestinal

10.

re-absorbed

hundred

one

pounds of

fluid.

are

the

from

matter.

of these

canal, and

organs,

when

absorbed.

disintegratedand

1. Mucus.

chyle

to local

the muscles

even

principal secretions

are

membranes

serous

joints,the pleural cavities,the pericardium,

the

by absorption;

4. The

the

by

out

peritoneum, giving rise

the

been

body

in

as

and

where

the

is unbroken.

3.

and

in water;

body

removed, various

be absorbed

may

taken,

the

thirst

that

prolonged by immersing

be

the

the

through

produce poisoning.

to

as

by immersing

finelypowdered,

care

absorbed

place through the akin, so

takes

sometimes

milk.

so

solid

Even

artificial flowers

from

been

lungs

partiallyrelieved

be

hence,

as

of the

Absorption also

2.

may

green

HYGIENE.

PHYSIOLOGY,

from

conveyed
the

the blood
into

physical

the
and

by

the

different

alimentary canal,
chemical

changes

98

ASIATOMTy
The

10.
The

lifeof the body

food is taken

them, becomes

from

longer be

no

of

in all parts of the


life

faster than

until it becomes

claim

much

and

waste

ends

the

changes

decay

; but

It has

been

"

and

teach

the

us

or

the

body

comes

and

to

"

wonderfully made
due

Him

to

on

the

of life
these
own

our

conceptions

we

indeed

are

May

and

in

understand

is

who

can

feeble,while

feel that

to

age,

one

in the midst

"

in them

behold

we

strength

finallysteps

come

grows

life is

on,

more

death

of

powers

neither

and

trulysaid,

busy

ever

; in middle

woman

more

we

are

in size and

old age

be made

reverence

like

its presence

youth, the

death, and

as

when

clearlyshall

and

to

ing
perform-

death, constantly occurring in

of life and

fearfullyand

"

In

until

on,

of the Infinite One, and


both

death

evenly balanced,

still go

scene

bodies,how

of

those

growth becomes

in death

are

we

it remains

life and

full-grownman

more

body,

living,where

living frame.

are

the

Here

the

Thus

use.

advantage

the wane,

it is assimilated

decays ; hence, it increases

it

these forces

of unceasing change.

and
time, then it loses its vitality

among

stronger than

are

life.

with

allotted

an

be removed

can

round

tissues of the whole

and

endowed

its office for

is hut

HYGIENE.

into the system, where

the different organs

must

AND

PHYSIOLOGY-y

these truths
and

over

above

all!
"o:"co"

"

"

QUESTIONS.
SECTION

1.

what

By

does

vessels

absorption through

VIII.

membranes

mucous

2. What

of

absorption through

3. What

of

absorption

4. Name

the secretions

5. What

is said

6. Whence
7.

do

'^hat change
be

not

removed

skin

fluid and

9. What

is remarked

come,

amount

of the

changes

of bone

excretions.

must

of the

is said

the

serous

secretions

fluids

what

is said

of the

the

What

place?

re-absorbed

that

are

and

what

is their
in the

constantly taking place

is

8. What

10. What

of

and

of the
these

take

absorption

function

body?

If the

and

secreted

tions
excre-

result?
of material

growth

of life and

and
death

absorbed

decay
?

in the

living body^

of

APPABATUS.

MHTBITIVE

IX.

Section

Anatomy

of

The

1.

Bespiratory

trachea, and

the

muscles

in

2.

used

the

and.

hyoid

into

opens

produces

it

"Adam's
the

3.

the

at

is

situated
and

bone,

prominence

front

upper

the

above

the

the

below

at

pharynx

Th/roid

The

together with

the

and

The

in

the

larynx

cricoM
mm:

thorax,

of

top
the

and

the
the

ia the
the

the

It

and

thyroid,

is situated

consists

unite

which

epiglottis.

the

largest,and

larynx.

It

neck, called

of

cartilage
of

below

of the

composed

tongue

trachea.

trachea

middle

ia

the

the

cartilagea,and

part

of

root

arytenoid

37.

in

of

two

front,

and

Fig. 38.

ClITiLiau

38.

larynx,

behind.
ne"

Hg.

the

the

the

and

quadrilateral, wing-like plates,


diverge

of

breathing.

apple."

cricoid,

System.

consists

system

lungs

Lar'ynz

The

Respiratory

the

"nUrior

portloa

Viiwof

Tmt

c"rUUge

a, tljhl

(..rrtraofdMrtUn^i

al

of tho
^

toc*1

ut""oM

Biucl*.

halt
;

4,

of
iBft

tlw

"rtllBg"

Tbrreld

cvtiUgH.

T, ltuuTleno[d

L^tl
mambtinB

"1,

LtRTnl.

Tni

c*rtlla(a;

Mdi"rabi.-1,

TociL
hilf

cricoid

OP

thyroid cutUife

lulf

of

th*

"mr

t-

100

ANATOMY,

4. The

being

Cri'coid cartilage resembles


fourth

behind.
with

of

wide

inch

an

It is situated

below

HYGIENE.

AND

PHYSIOLOGY,

in

the

seal-ringin shape,

front,and

inch

an

wide
unites

and
thyroidcartilage,

the first ring of the trachea.

Aryt'enoid cartilages,two in number, are small,


situated
the posterior
at
triangular,and curved, and are
5. The

of the cricoid

summit
6. The

is an oval-shapedplateof fibro-cartilage
Epiglot'tis

projectingabove
it in the

of

act

the aperture of the

swallowing.

The

the mouth,

and

is towards
the

All

larynx.

membrane

Vo'oal

7. The

from

cricoid

cartilageto

called
8.

the

chink,

from

It is about
inch

an

dorsal

vertebra, it divides

the

to

each

into
largeblood-vessels,

and

subdivided

branches
smaller
9.

of

; thus

The

trachea

are

and

strong

bron'chi

The

pass

they are

and
the

air

membrane.

having

Numerous

racemose

the

mucous

The

composed of carbUagmovs
the
nected
oesophagus, and con-

membrane

beneath

divided

cells.

pinkish-whitemucous
minute

behind

tubes.

fibro- elastic

the

of

smaller, like the

tubes, are

epithelium.
surface.

three-fourths

bronchial

trachea, the bronchi, and


with

to

agus.
oesoph-

branches, called bronchi,

reach

are

next

and

of the

ing
pass-

end, oppositethe third

bronchial

bronchi

larynx.

lungs,where

they

called

rings,imperfect behind,
together by

the

the

cylindricaltube

growing smaller

tree, until

divisions

lung.

chords, is

the vocal

long,

into two

of the

edge

upper

arytenoid C9.rtilages.

to

its lower

at

strongly

tissue,and

of elastic

neck, in front

inches

; and

passes

of the

opening

the

four

in diameter

of which

one

bases

down

mucous

epiglottis,
are

of the

windpipe, is

or

larynx

sides

is the

glottis
epi-

towards

lined with

are

aperture between

or

and
glottis,

the

and

the

surface

concave

composed

are

front

the

Tra'ohea,

The

the

of the

life.

advanced

Chords

extend

narrow

surface

convex

parts of the larynx

ossifyin

to

larynx,and closingupon

all parts, except the

; and

disposed

The

cartilage.

membrane,

glands
and

open

The
all lined

are

upon

ciliated
ded
imbedits free

are

separated from

blood- vessels.

They

root, where

they are
ligaments,and

The

shorter

but

rightlung
the

than

each

the

free

are

attached

left

the

to

is wider

by

other

and
ooe.

left lung is divided

heart

the

the great

and

everywhere, except
to

the

bronchi, to
arteries

pulmonary
somewhat

the
and

nary
pulmoveins.

larger,although

It is divided

into

only

lobes.

into

their

at

two

three

it U

102

The

11.

of

lungs

eolor.

pmkish^gray

capacity, according

about

is

readily

to

as

The

12.

are

once

float

in

water.

ends

terminal

the

of

their

and

weight

weight
about

capacity
contain

hence,

they

bronchial

lobules,

one-twelfth

part

or

more

light

so

are

tubes

pidmonary

the

and

average

always

inflated

they

aubstanee,

health,

their

and

They

in

the

sex,

aduk,

pounds,

inches.

much

the

the

half

aponge-like

vary

age,

In

cubic

after

air

less

the

to

and

two

hundred

three

They

individual.

the

of

size

of

composed

are

HYGIENE.

AND

PHYSIOLOGY,

ANATOMY,

ealkd

are

and

the

are

of

inch

an

'^

of

number

air-cells,

or

each

other

The

air-oells

size,

thin

they

of

2, portiunot

tube;

ni

oi"en

wiiiiin

ceiia

cells

"m lo iiio^tUe

air-

and

"lucous

membrane.

the

free

lungs

are

number

six

fourteen

The

Pleura

is

lung.

One

layer

the

chest,

during

of

respiration.

the

is

in

fine

blood-

closed
covers

so

that

of

the

lung

the

two

which

The

whole

the

large

tissue,

have

with
square

sac

is

structure.

the

with

Between

elastic

and

contact

hundred

lung

while

millions;

than

leas

walls

inch.

an

lined

there

of

nutnerous,

very

which

13.

the

elasticityto

surface,

not

each

and

firmness

to

their

of

bj^

are

lobulcs

the

II.

in

the

about

capillary

vessels,

quantity
gives

of

an

v."wo,Am"nl^MAan.

PKB."i.Bioiichini

loid

in

much

part

network

lobule

partitions.

surrousded

are

from

approach

diameter

They

cavities,

vary

one-hundredth

of

sists
con-

separated

by

yet

average

Hg.M,

lobule

E^h

diameter,

in

been

mated
esti-

extent

air,

is

air-

of

bly
proba-

feet

serous

while
sur"ces

for

membrane
the

rub

other

lines

together

103

APPARATUS.

NUTRITIVE

QUESTIONS.
SECTION

the

1. Name

IX.

respiratoryorgans.

2.

Describe

the

larynx.

3.

Describe

the

thyroid cartilage.

4.

Describe

the

cricoid

5.

Describe

the

arytenoid cartilage.

6.

Describe

the

epiglottis.

7. What
8.

What

9.

Of

ibeir

the

are

is said
what

the

the

are

membrane

lining

11.

Of

are

the

12.

Describe

the

pulmonary

and

13.

the extent
the

The
in

voice

lungs composed

What

is said

Respiratory

double

function

the other

to assist in the

the vocal

when

chords

the

produced by
the

looser

to

vibrate

the

sound

larynx

and

tense

the size of

diminish

except
is heard

drawn
the

are

closely

aperture, the

passing through it,and

these

of the

singing,are

in

changes
and

production of
and

the

they

tions
vibra-

the voice.

chords,

vocal
the

as

different notes

The

2.

so

made

are

respiration.

When

chords.

but

produce

of the

part being

one

condition, during expiration,no

to

is said

System.

gently passing through

air is made

wei"?ht

X.

the

produced by

other,

of

pleura.

of the air

each

is said

their

of

What

air-cells ?

and

that

to

What

air-cells?

the voice, and

relaxed

composed

lobules

of the

of

is

glottis?

bronchi

Lar^ynx performs a

produce

is the

lungs.

Physiology

to

larynx lined

its branches

Section

1. The

is the

the

Describe

and

and

trachea

Describe

number

What

trachea

10.

what

what

With

chords

vocal
of

cartilage.

the

in

in

the

low

human

the

length and

notes, the
than

the

of the

narrowness

glottiswider

in

voice,

chords

when

the

tension

of

ing
glottis.Dur-

are

notes

longer and
are'^^

104

ANATOMY,

It is estimated

higher pitch.
voice

human

AND

PHYSIOLOGY,
that

ordinary range

of

the

HYGIENE.

vocal

capable of

are

fortydifferent degrees of tension.


3. The
strengthof the voice depends

chords

in

hundred

two

and

and

chest

muscles

of the
the

upon

is bass

soprano.

The

depends

In

voice;

in

pends
pitch de-

of the vocal

woman

her

voice

the

size and

large and

are

hence,

is contralto

shape

or

of the

producing

coarse,

smaller, producing

they are

woman

in

than

man

upon

these

man

thickness

and

size of the

The

speaking.

tenor, while

or

tone

organs.

coarse

greater in

are

his voice

vocal

in

length,breadth,

These

chords.

used

the

upon

finer

softer voice.

and

4. Articulation,

sounds,

and

consonant

and

words, is made
teeth, and

the

vocal

The

5.

those

of the chestyso
and

but

through

it.

with

prevent

By

various

freelyinto

pass

and

the

entrance

trachea

the air is forced


of

the

all the

of the chest, both


as

the

in

sort

of

guard

of

food

and

and

out

piratory
ex-

respond
cor-

intensity.

the

over

so
glottis,

stances
foreign subthey would be a

other

where

respiratorypassages,

the

movements

time

glottisare

the aperture ; but

passive,and

the

co-operation of

sounds,

such

as

laughing,sneezing,and
from

dghing from
sobbing and
and

the glottis
inspiration,

of irritation.

source

occurs

larynx co-operaiewUh
is alternately
glottis
enlarged

the

effort to open

stands

into the

6.

air to

are

those

Epiglof tis
to

the

inspiratorymovements

movements

as

in

During

the

active,requiringan

The

in

it relaxes
expiration,

The

syllables

palate,the tongue,
conjunction with the

act

that the size of the

contracted.

the

distinct

larynx.

permits

during

into vowel

throat, the

the

lips,which

the

of the voice

produce

to

as

respiratorymovements

and
opens

so

by

of the

organs

formation

the

or

want

of

the

larynx

lungs,

yawning, sighing,sobbing,crying,
coughing, are produced. Yavrfdng

fresh

air, and

often

emotions

of

irritation;

from

of
depressed feelings,or the want
from
emotions
crying mostly come

latighterfrom

the

with

fresh
of

joy; sneezing and

air;

sadness,

coughing

106

PHYSIOLOGY,

ANATOMY,

on

that

so

death

of oxygen

to

or

greater

system

less

air is removed,
The

about

and

inch, which

cubic

13.

half

pounds.

The

quantityof

and, therefore, absorbed


an

acid

the age,

with

In

great

in

as

14. The

the

and

the

close

of

acid

from

the

alcoholic

much

less

life.

sleep

is

of

amount

during

when

the

respiration,is,
in

twenty-four

lungs

varies

considerably

the

health

exhaled

is

amount

of the

nearly

vidual.
indi-

twice

awake.

doubled.

more

as

it diminishes

an

t^vo-thirds
T!ie

of the

of the

as

the

Tea, coffee,

quickly, but

from

the

day.

much

quantity is
in

is exhaled
also
low

lungs is

The

is less muscular

lungs, and

reduced

the

during
there

than

hour.

acid exhaled

than

carbonic

increases

effect.

same

until

greater then

their effects very

half

carbonic

the

generally

the

have

during

less stationary,

or

increases

Food

rest.

and
nigh.t,
or

life it is

to increase

that it is one-third

night

at

it is sometimes

nearly

hmgSf

The

exercise

than

more

in diseases
is

the

one

feet.

after which

liquors,produce

only one-half
as

adult

drinks

organic diseases

where

at

most

is slower

that

In

Active

lungs,so

last

seldom
The

given off by

acid continues

fortieth year,

body

quantity,and

15.

of carbonic
youth.

the

the

half

cubic

size,and

quantity

atid

less than

inch, and

the

by

blood, is

woman.

until

they

the

man,

off

rather

man.

during

air

the

by

the

in the

life in

ike

air, at each

fourteen

the

sex,

amount

childhood

when

given

energiesof

support

to

or

acid

the

remains

to seventeen

cubic

one

about

to

amounts

of carbonic

and

nearly

average,

hours

by

blood
the

from

amounts

carbonic

When

of the oxygen

taken

feet in twenty-four hours,


a

all

and

left will not


oxygen

hours.

venous

one-half

the amount

quantity of

one

cubic

so

twelve

degree unchanged,
When

HYGIENE.

respiration,and, therefore, absorbed

each

on

six to

is decreased, the

depressed.

are

12.

in from

occurs

the amount

AND

ration
respiaction,

during

diminished
forms

in

of fever

creased
one-half; but it is mostly in-

skin, and, in

cases

of

small-pox, it

blood

in

the

membrane

capillaries
by

the

carbonic

the

oxygen

acid

The

the air.

the

of

Both

of

form
the

changes

of these

action

17. When
cent.,

per
of

is

estimated

absorbed

are

them

the

in

hence,

produced by

are

the

globules.

in the air is increased

acid

the oxygen

acid

the

is decreased

to

ten

to ten
cent,

per

volume, the air is then unfit for breathing,and

sustain

the oxygen

blood

the

use.

to

combination

blood

away

own

blood

conve}"d by

the

to

disintegration

venous

chemical

the blood

their

the

the carbonic

of

carbonic

the

blood, and

is carried

to

from

by

are

not

on

gases

when

its entire

cannot

and

color

the

the
or

formed

globules,and
in

the blood

by

is carried

solution,and

"rom

pass

appropriated

mostly

the oxygen

blood

the

by

is

tissues,and

lungs.

them

by

acid

of water

obtained

air to the

the

from

vapor

oxygen

carbonic

Tha

passes

and

the tissues,and

to

of the lungs is separatedfrom the


thin memJbrane.
Through this

air in the air-cells

The

16.

107

APPARATUS.

NUTRITIVE

life.

As

the carbonic

decreased, with

that

each

acid

it
respiration,

every

individual

increased, and

is

will,on

an

been

has

render

average,

abotd

eightcubiefeetof air unfitfor breathingin every minute,


four hundred
and eightycubic feet in every hour.
When

or

less than

this amount

small

exhaled
and

quantityof

with the breath.

oppressive odor

several

are

persons

one

is

air

supplied,more

or

less

result

injury must
18.-4

of fresh

mattery in

It is this

of

badly

breathing.

of the most

animal

which

the

the

heavy

in

room

animal

form^ is

gaseous

causes

ventilated

This

injuriousof

is

matter

exhalations

which

from

ably
probthe

lungs.
ooJ^Coc

"

QUESTIONS.
SECTION

1. What

Toioe
2.
joiany

doable

produced
Uow

are

function

is

X.

performed

by

the

larynx

How

is the

?
the

degrees of

different
tension

are

notes
the

of the
vocal

human

voioe

chords

or*^"**

jnodaoed

Of how

108

ANATOMY,
3.

The

what

Upon

these

are

5. With

the

function

of

sounds

6. What
the

often
8.

What

10.

What

11.

How

be

may

we

of the

pure

much

carbonic
cause

lungs

16.

What

separates the

carbonic

acid

17.

When

needed

to

air

during

occur

the

larynx

respiration?

in

respiration?

atmosphere?

during respiration ?
How

system?
the

by

given

does

decrease

lungs?

off from

the

in the

amount

increase

in the

lungs?

blood

exhaled

amount

from

lungs

of

acid

carbonic

the

is remarked

What

blood
of the

What

oxygen

gases
and

the

air unfit

for

breathing

supply each

individual

is said of

the animal

What

of

co-operation

of the

the

air in the

membrane

in the

is

an

decrease

is the

larynx co-operate?

cause

this

affect

acid

What

through

this

changes

is absorbed

conditions
the

in the

sounds

in the

place

15.

18.

pitch ?

system?

l.'{. How

from

words

the quantity of air needed

oxygen

oxygen

What

distinct

by

composition

takes

change
affect the

exhaled

these
What

of

much

pass

The

is remarked
is said

into

produced

cause

How

14.

depend

the epiglottis?

breathe

does

oxygen
12.

formed

respiration.
do

9. What

of

voice

respiratory movements

What

lungs?

7. Define
How

the

of

strength

sounds

do

what

is the

with

the

does

HYGIENE.

tone

4. now

What

AND

PHYSIOLOGY,

What

of fresh

amount

air is

exhaled

matter

from

the

body

-o-di^oo-

Section

XL

Animal

1. All
to the

have

mbstanceSy

influence

of

plants,but
the
of

scale, we

both
it is

is

produced
is known

each

they

greater
and

stronger

in

heat

find

maintaining

which

to

power,

living vary

in which

atmosphere
the

not

Heat.

in

as

less

animals

species to
the

Animal

and,

possess

so

Heat.

as

livingthings

to

is feeble

power
as

we

ascend

the inherent

peculiar to

body

but

degree,of resistingthe
This

cold.

temperature
in

placed ;

are

or

temperature, according

itself.

maintain

in
in

power

The

heat

this

perature,
tem-

NUTRITIVE

2. ATiimals
of their

bodies,

animals

and

into

uniform

nearly a

or

their temperature
in which

the water

3. The

they

while, in birds,it varies

atmosphere
107"

only

111", which

the

The

the very

of the

much

in

below

80"

4"

an

from

swallow,
of any

in

to

from

is about

thorax
the

in temperature

range

varies

blood

100"

100",

der
un-

the

axilla, 96", while

6" cooler.

When

from

is raised

body

human

becomes

80", the individual


of the

body
1"

of cold

any

110",

to

insensible,

well

so

2"

is the

body

the very

be increased

may
or

human

and

yoimg

as

old cannot

or

2"

The

it is 110"

in

by

all

at

same

resist the
The

middle-aged.

the

1"

during sleep.

disease; for while

6. The

the

in the

the temperature

the

in the

of the

temperature

it is reduced

in

while

fowl, it ranges
; and

exercise

temperature

lock-jaw,it is

; and

varies
often

in cholera.

of the

heat

long

body

is probably

series of chemical

process

of

produced

changes which

nutrition; but

these

take

changes

in the tissues

placeduring
are

not

well

understood.
7. In
much

follows.

depressing effects

by

from

are

about

to

soon

ages ; but

heat

the

the Arctic

be 107"

to

body, mostly

it is 98", and

feet

and

death

5.

with

97" to 105"
In

111".

to

than

100", while

to

the temperature

and

is from

climate

higher

temperature

tongue

is lowered

or

98"

The

102".

cause

much

common

of the human

tissues
from

hands

varies very

are
reptiles

livingcreature.

4. The

to

maintain

the

found

In the

is

the

live.

been

14".

birds and

fishand

the

100"

110", according to the

to

it reaches
other

of

from

has

temperature

warm-blooded

The

of temperature in mxmvmals

range

fox, the

; but

temperature

and
cold4"looded,

temperature

warm-hlooded, and

are

man,

the

animals.

cold-blooded

the

the

according to

classes; called

two

indvding

mammals,

air

be divided

may

109

APPARATUS.

the

animal
is

kept

10

coldest
heat
up

to

of winter

weather
that

the

the

temperature

the natural

standard.

body generates
of the
In the

internal
lower

so
gans
or-

ani-

110

ANATOMY,

mals, the heat


natural

is maintained

covering of

himselfin

woollen

places of
In the

8.

is

but

summer

season,

of the

by

of the

means

glands

sweat

evaporated,and
from

body

be

may

and

cause,

in

this

When

colds.

cold

and

more

of

state

be

garment

slowly,injury will

so

on,

body

is prevented

heat

of

the

fruitful

its
of

source

perspirationfrom

removed,

or

take

that the

any

remain

we

place so

idly
rap-

temperature,
but if

surely result;

will.almost
put

the

its natural

below

body

sickness

other

additional

an

the

perspiration

evaporation from

evaporation will

of air, the

reduce
or

; and

the

by

increased

standard.

it becomes

is in

by exercise,

or

of the

temperature

reduced

the temperature

This

body.

Its
ing,
cloth-

by

or

perspiration,in

part of the clothing be

to

as

weather,

warm

the natural

body

is warm,
100".

artificial heat

of the

account

the

draught

rise above

coolingprocess

rapidly

On

surface.

does

the

the

risingabove

Evaporation is

9.

the weather

out

thus

comfortable.

although

the

the surface

upon

warms

perspiration. Whenever

by

pour

equable

an

preserve

not

clothe

forced to

himself

regulated then, not by

abundance,
is

body

of the

means

artificial heat, and

to

make

to

as

so

is increased
the

resorts

man

to

as

HYQIfiNE.

body by

; but

wool

or

also

abode

the temperature
warmth

hair

in the

goods or furs so

He

temperature.
his

AND

PHYSIOLOGY,

cooling goes

on

follow.

seldom

-""o"0=Io"-

QUESTIONS.
SECTION

XI.
t

1. What
2. How

is remarked

animals

may

of

the

be

classified ?

of

the

range

What

of

the

temperature

the

6. How

may

6. How

is the

heat

of

7. How

is the

heat

of the

8. How

is it reduced

9.

What

is said

temperature

of

the

of

the

of

during

the

evaporation

is said

body

human

the

body

maintained
summer

from

substances?

be

of each

class ?

in birds?

and

in mammals

body produced
body

of

What

of temperature

3. What
4.

temperature

changed

during
season

the surface

the

season?

winter

?
of the

body

CHAPTER

IV."

Sensory

Apparatus.
I.

Section

Anatomy

Fer'voTU

1. The
the

of

System

and

the

body

; and

lympathetic

ganglia, mainly
General

The

called

The

br^

has

white

substance

white

substance

the

white

the
for

its

of

composed

all

exterior,

but

the

of

the

its

the

and

of

spinal
of

the
and

nerves

body.
Nerves.

of

nerve

substanee.

gray

exterior,

spinal

the

the

kinds

the

for

systems,

parts
of

two-

and

substance

its interior

for

two

brain,

to

viscera

substance

gray

the

Structure

is

system

of

into

them

by

the

to

and

nervous

matter;

divided

ByBtenii composed

distributed

Character

2.

off

^ven

nerves

the

be

may

System.

syitein, consisting

oerebro-Bpinal

cord,

Nervous

the

cord

and

the

has

the

substance

gray

for

its interior.
3.

The

tubular
into

while
in

white

fibres, of

fragments

the

by

nerve-fibres, and

The

sizes,

average

of

composed

and

slightest

nmilar
than

inbstance

gray

cells, nuclei,

more

various

is

soil

so

to

These

violence.
about

as

transparent

the

be

broken
called

are

g^'^j

of

inch

an

diameter.
4.

are

avbstance

and
in

is

granular
structure

two-thirds

the

their

of

nerve-fibres,

The

matter.

to

of

composed

white

diameter.

gray
but

in

The

nerve-

nerve-fibres
gize

are

not

nerve-cells

112

ANATOMY^

more

nuclei, and
the

kind
nuclei
5.

spinal cord,

and

At

body.

their

cords; and
until

and

in

nerves

The

from

come

of fibres

bundles
of

from

and
from

corao

Three

unknown.

are

and

the

the

of

modes

of

enclosed

in

neuri-

similar

are

to

or

from

its

spinal cord, to

tissues.
root, when

one

or

the

undivided

brain,

two

two

-fibreSy

nerve

brain, except that they

in the

by

ariHe

termination

the

various

organ,

of

nerves

remains
the

it ends

point ;

one

an

tissue, called

of the

with

is said to

nerve

course

in the

other, and

these

-fibre

nerve

its termination, where


7. A

of

substance

it connects

origin,where

each

elastic

-fibres

Each

larger.

are

drical
cylin-

their

lymphatics

bundles

composed of
and

nerve

the

distributed

in

supplying

with

the

like white

appear

fine filaments

nerves,

from

off

organ.

are

of the white

those

numerous

thence

are

off branches
to

company

connective

of

lem'ma.

and

given

are

origin,they

arranged nearly parallelwith


sheath

fiimishes

matter

-cells

nerve

pairs,and

The

of that

blood-vessels
The

in

they give

organs.

generally found
6.

the

finallyreduced

they are

tissues

which

in

granular

nerves
Cer'ebroHBpi'nal

The

the

to

The

imbedded.

are

brain

are

matrix,

of

granular contents^ and one or


probably the most
important element

substance.

gray

HYGIEKE.

wall, with

delicate

have

of

AND

PHYSIOLOGY,

or

roots, when

more

The

points.

more

is for

nerves

all its fibres

the

its
ner
man-

moat

part

termination, however, have

been

detected.

First,by the Pacinian

8.
and

forming

By

They

toes.

the

the hands

and

forming
nerve-fibres.
or

two

consist of concentric

cavity,which

Tac'tile

nerves

contains

corpuscles found

feet.
a

They

in the

fingers

layers of fibrous tissue,

single nerve

in the

consist of

cavity,which

-fibre.

papillaeof touch

single layer of

contains

2d,

from

one

in

brane,
mem-

to

four

3d, By Spherical corpuscles, containing one

nerve-fibres,and

9. The

corpuscles found

of

the

found

in the

eyeball and

Sympathetic System

the tongue.
are

mostly

APPAfiATUS.

13,
and

comprises about
the

whole

brain, and

Bkull.

the
or

is the

Cer'ebmin

The

The

six-sevenths

length

conforms

in

cerebrum

and

lobefl ; the

part

of

anterior

its entire
of

the

shape exactly with

is divided

each

of

breadth

jUmire
great longitadinai
lower

lai^estdivision

in

into

two

its upper

hemisphere,

is

lobe, resting above

mass.

upper
the

brain,
It

tends
ex-

part of the

cavity of

the

hemiapheres,
by
part

Beparated
the

the

of

The
into

baae,
three

position of the

116

ANATOMY,

orbita;the

middle

briiiu ; aud

tlic

14.

The

The

Bubstauce;
form

the
course

of

its

portion of
tbe

tlie

cerebellum,

of

; but

gray
a

of all its

is

layer

of

uniform

eonvolutiona,and
a

which

tht'ir

where
every-

separated from

are

These

comjwsed

substance, which

surface; and

hemispheres is
convolutions

course

variea

are

in

the

in different iudividuala.

and

Cer'ebram
a

tbe

fissures.

in diameter

hemwphercs,

of

sonvolutione

by winding

other

15.

surface

into

up

nearlyuniform
two

middle

postuiiortube, restingftbuve

external

raised
each

lobe,occupying the

HYGIENE.

part of tbe skull.

the back

at

AND

FHYSIOLOQY,

of

two

kinds

oceupies its

of

nerve

exterior

is

Ihickness, following the


extending

white substance, which

ovcf

the whole

fills all its interior

portion,
16.

At

ihe bottom

of the

deep longitudinalfissure,which
Fig.43

SENSORY

cerebrum

separates the
of

body

white

It is about

median

line.

17.

Beneath

the corpus

horns; and

named

by

other

the

is

these

substance

white, sphericalbodies
erv!ra

diverging

of

the

ventricles,is
the

for'nix;

the

third

backward,

layer of
the

beneath

and

third

the

form-

ventricle, and

op'tic

the

are

rise

giving

mis-

com

the

to

optic

two, small,

are

; and

posterior perforated ^ace

the

of the

pellu'dd

the

thin

each

funnel-shaped body of gray

which

cerebrum,

front

in

separated from

miliary eminences, which

mam'

; the

into

extends

matter, called

nerve

infundil/ulum,^

the

nerves;

cavities

are

uniting tKe optic tracts, and

sures,

the

cavities,called

two

are

cavities

Below

before

inch

an

It is transversely

triangular cavity, called

^rain.

ing its floor,from

of

hemispheres, by prolongations,

lateral

narrow

ventricle of the

the

of

named

n^tter^

nerve

fornix,

Each

of
jpartition

Beneath

sep'tum.
white

thin

convex

cor'pus callo'sum.

three-fourths

callosum

the two

longitudinalfibres along

some

lobes of the cerebral

three

the

the

hemispheres together.

has

lateral ventricles.

the

called

long, and

inches

striated,but

hemispheres, is

two

matter,

the two

unites

wide, and

into

nerve

three

117

APPARATUS.

entering

and

pons,

bodies

large

two

are

cerebral

the

hemispheres.
18.

Pour

the cerebral

separated from

are

the

from

third

the

It is remarkable
19.

about

It is divided
the

valley.

gray
those

to

one-eighth of

the

substance, and
of the

entire

cerebrum,

while

into

sand-like
in
of

mass

deep

of

nature.

size,and

the brain.

groove,
is

called

composed

convolutions, similar

the interior is

of

pine'algland.

the
a

body

eminences

anterior

of the cerebellum

is raised

small

of

leading

passage

the cerebrum

hemispheres by

exterior

the

is called

is next

into two
The

and

two

containing grains

Cerebellum

The

comprises

for

the

ventricle, and

third

ventricle.

on

quadrigeminal bodies,

the

by

crura

fourth

is situated

substance

gray

to

the

behind

situated

gem'inalbodies, are

substance, called the quadrir

of white

eminences

composed

of
to

of the

118

when

from

is

Oblonga'tais

bellum,
cere-

bridge,

portion of

the

diverge

cerebellum, and

form bodies,

and

into

the

from

extend

of the

one

brain.

is situated

ing
pass-

the

long, and

It is

composed

lateral

bellum,
cere-

anterior

the

by

of the

and

portions,which

pyramidal, olivary^and

medulla

its upper

inch

in front

Fibres

posterior pyramids.

the

from

emerge

about

fissure into two

divided

further

part, forming the


the

of

behind

oblongata

which, therefore,connect

cerebrum,

like

lower

It is divided

the pons.

posterior median

and

The

of the

crura

nerve-substance, and

matter

the

nerve-fibres,which

of the divisions

beneath

are

the

substance, situated

extending,

of transverse

Medulla

is the smallest
of white

to

and

hemispheres.

its

The

21.

gray

appearance

the other.

to

side, forming the

into

the

of white

body

cerebellum, and

composed

each

the

small

hemisphere

one

pons

is

of the

front

at

arborescent

HYGIENE.

vertically.

cut

Pons

The

20.

of

arrangement

substance, gives an

white

in

The

substance.

white

AND

PHYSIOLOGY,

ANATOMY,

redir
nerve-

the pons,
of the

crura

spinal cord

with

the

brain.
22.

The
nerve

the

to the skin

power

trunk, and

oblongata, at

the

inches

long, and

from

before

the

cervical

these

and

about

half

cylindricalin form,

backward.

It presents two

the

with

correspond

and

large

distributed

portions,to

be

The

cord

to

eighteen
The

ounces.

but

is flattened

enlargements, called
lumbar

the

medulla

to the lower

fifteen to

is somewhat

enlargement,

the

it extends

and

one

nishes
fi-

of the neck,

with

It is from

vertebra.

weighs

muscles

It connects

occipitalforamen,

the last lumbar

spinal cord*

to the

and

the extremities.

part of

which

occupies the spinal canal, and

Spinal Cord

nerves,

the

enlargement,
emanating

upper

and

from

the lower

limbs.
23.

opinal

posteriormedian
these
the

are

each

lateral, and

is divided

fissures into
subdivided
the

two

into

by

the

anterior

and

symmetrical halves;
three

the
and

columns, the anterior^

posterior columns, by the

anterior

and

posteriorlateral

the

each

from

rise from

which

fissures.

of the cord,

side

brain

and

membranes;

the

dura

Du'ra

The

mater.

and

is

of th6

mater

thus

cavity usually
26.

contains

consist
28.

of twelve

beneath

the

They

or

are

distributed

to

mater

This

fluid,

serous

It is

cord.

vesting
closelyin-

composed

before

from

of

pair of

the brain.

of

the

brain,

backward.
are

nerves,

and

cerebrum,

the

of

fibrous

of

originatingin

membrane

the

situated
tributed
dis-

are

part of the

upper

of smell,

nerves

optic commissure,

membrane,

nerves

first

lobes

mucous

closely

pia

interlacingbundles

pairs,named

Op'tic,or

The

dura

the

space.

of

ounces

spinal

nerves,

anterior

the

the

to

into all the fissures of

Olfac'tory,or

to

tough,

membrane,

serous

delicate

the

it extends

The

brane,
mem-

membrane.
is

and

Cra'nial

The

27.

with

one

the subarachnoid

several

Ma'ter

brain

tissue ; and

inner

looselyattached

blood-vessels,with

numerous

29.

delicate

cavity called

Pi'a

The
the

nose.

is

the arachnoid

by

It is very

pia

corresponding with

one

the

the

is its exterior

tissue.

the outer

bones, and

the

and

arachnoid,

of fibrous

mater, and

forming

secreted

the

spinal cord.

dura

liningthe

posterior roots,

enveloped by three

are

of the brain

layers;

Arach'noid

The

25.

originate

nerves

and

anterior

by

mater,

composed

periosteum of

the

spinal

spinal cord

the

Ma'ter

consists of two

and

The

corresponding lateral fissures.

the

The

24.

119

APPARATUS.

SENSORY

second

and

pass

the retina

pair of
into

of the

diverge

nerves,

orbits

the

where

eyeball. They

are

from

they
nerves

the
are

of

vision,

30.

Oc'tdo-mo'tor, or

The
between

the

pons,

and

distributed

They
31.
behind

motor

are

The
the

pair

of

of the cerebrum,

from

are

third

crura

to

the

muscles

nerves,

and

originate

in front

moving

the

of the

eyeball.

nerves,

Pathetic,

or

fourth

pair of

quadrigeminal bodies,

superior oblique muscle

of the eye.

and

nerves,
are

They

originatefrom

distributed
are

mc^

to

nerveti

the

120

ANATOMY,

32.

Trifia'cial,
or

The

unequal
three

from

roots

in

terminates
nerves

branch

skin

the skin

unites

33.

the

Tnotor

of taste

Fa'cial, or

medulla

the

neck, and

to

the

lips,and

These

chin.

emotional
The

The

ear,

from

roots

in the

tongue, the
is sen-

is motor.

arise

between
tributed
dis-

are

of the orbits.

and
The

the

at

the

ear,

arise

nerves,

They

the

and
also

nerves,

to

and

they produce

are

the

root

fifteen

the face.

originate

nerves,

distributed

are

of hearing,

nerves

of the

oblongata,

of the

lining membrane

membrane

mucous

They

tongue.

arise

nerves,

side of the medulla

each

muscles, and

nerves

oblongata, descend

are

part of the

expressionsof

They

are

internal
of the
sensitive

of taste,

Pneumogas'tric,
to

between

sides,and

upper

oblongata, and

ear.

from

distributed

ten

move

root

ninth pair of
or
Glos'so-pharyn'geal,
six

or

pharynx,
37.

is divided

large root

nerves,

3d,

trifacial

that

the

The

eighth pair of

or

the

the tonsils,the

nerves,

the

the small

pair of

motryr

are

Au'ditory,

36.

are

and

the

of

changes

labyrinth of

and

of

ear,

lip.

oblongata

the sides of the medulla

five

pharynx

temples, cheeks, forehead, eyelids,nose,

the

by

and

nose

the muscles

to

pair of

seventh

the muscles

to

the

root

straightmuscles

to

from

Snpe'rior

2d, The

and

the

forehead, the

oblongata in front, and

medulla

distributed

35.

to

checks, the

external

.sixth

or

distributed

small

the lower

iierve

emanate

Max'illary nerve/which

the

to

the external

and

pons

all the

nose

going

one

which

nerves,

The

34.

the

other

the

and
to

'

the

Abdu'eent,

The

pons

are

branches,

also the

dtive, and

the

large root

of the

the

to

with

teeth, the chin, and

lower

of the

the Infe'rior

forms

and

jaw,

muscles

two

The

from

nerve

by

arise

the pons.

teeth, the mouth,

upper

into two
the

and

HYGIENE.

of nerves,

ganglion

distributed

which

and

nerve,

of

OphthaI'mic

1st, The

nerve

lip,the

pair

side

semilunar

the

iris,the eyelids,and

upper

fiilh

each

lachrymal gland, the


Max'illary

AND

PHYSIOLOGY,

roots

or

tenth

from

through

the

pair of

nerves,

each

side

of

the

neck

and

thorax,

arise

by

medulla
and

are

122

ANATOMY,

unite

by

trunk, which

The

41.

spinal

otheVy with

indeed

plexuses;and

Nerves

study.

fibres pass

other

to

The

42.

much

and

with

front

parts,

wUh
the

of the

each
nerves

The

43.

number

the whole

of

The

systems
44.

Many

of the

these

Solar, in

I)elvis. These
networks

; but

the

the aorta

each

side

the

spinalnerves

of

the
of

number

united

are

; thus

the

together.
the

the

and

off many

on

of nerve-fibres

far

plexuses:

the

The

spinalcolumn,

this system follow

by

abdomen;

give

around

originin

organs.

the

the

nearly with

very

from

nerves

three

form

ganglia.

and

containing many

nerves,

ganglia

closelyconnected

of the

usually

are

side.

ganglia and

blood-vessels
to

with

length of

cords, composed

are

of their

some

cerebro-spinalsystem,

consists of two

each

on

narrow

or

System.

of tho

spinal column, corresponds


by short,

when

S3rinpathetlc System

those

extend

spinal nerves.

more

intricate system

most

numerously provided

more

being

nerve

anastomose

said to anastomose

than

ganglia. They

their

muck

nerves

Sympathetic

sympathetic system

the

fibres from

nerves.

nerves

smaller

much

two

very

nerves,

all

almost

are

The

one

parts of the body.

other, thus presentinga

each

less with

are

and

great sympathetic system, forming networks, called

of the

of

cranial

of

composed

anastomose

nerves

common

anterior

an

supplies the

the back

of the

some

is

branch

anterior

posteriorbranch

the

and

The

roots.

form

fibres,and

of which

each

HYGIENE.

separated into

is afterwards

posteriorbranch,
both

their

intermixing of

an

AND

PHYSIOLOGY,

the

greater number

Car'diac, in the
the

smaller

course
tribute
con-

thorax

Hypogas'tric, in
plexuses,which

the
form

larger blood-vessels,extending from


to

their

termination

in the diflTerent

123

APPARATUS.

SENSORY

QUESTIONS.
SECTION

1. Define

the two
the two

2. Name

and

the brain

4. The

6. Of

of

spinal

cord

the white

the

which

How

nerve-matter.

is divided.

system

nervous

they arranged

are

in

nerve-substance.

nerve-substance.

gray

is said

5. What

into

kinds

in the

3. Describe

systems

I.

what

of the
the

are

cerebro-spinal nerves
composed

nerves

?
of each

is said

What

nerve-

fibre?
is said of

7. What

8. Describe

the origin of the

pacinian corpuscles.

the

The

of their

What

nerves

tactile

tion?
termina-

corpuscles.

The

sphericalcorpuscles.
9. Describe

the

of

nerves

10.

Describe

the ganglia.

11.

Of

does

12.

Describe

the brain.

13.

Describe

the

14.

What

what

the

the

sympathetic system.

What

its divisions

are

cerebrum.

is said of
the

the

external

and

the

surface

of

white

Describe

16.

Describe

the corpus

17.

Describe

the cavities,commissures, and

gray

the

substance

15.

the

consist

cerebro-spinal
system

cerebrum
in the

cerebrum.

callosum.
other

parts

at

the

base of

brain.

18.

Describe

the

quadrigeminal

19.

Describe

the

cerebellum.

20.

Describe

the pons.

21.

Describe

the medulla

22.

Describe

the

23.

How

bodies.

pineal gland.

oblongata.

spinal cord.
From

spinal cord divided?

is the

The

what

do

the

spinalnerves

originate ?
membranes

24.

Name

the

25.

Describe

26.

Describe

the pia mater.

27.

Of

do the cranial

28.

Describe

what

arachnoid

the

of the

brain.

Describe

membrane.

nerves

the olfactory nerves.

29.

The

optic nerves.

30.

The

oculo-motor

31.

The

pathetic

32.

The

trifacial

33.

The

abducent

34.

The

facial

35.

The

auditory

36.

The

nerves.
glosso-pharynoreal

nerves.
nerves.

nerves.
nerves.

nerves.
nerves.

consist ?

the

dura

mater.

124

ANATOMY,

AND

PHYSIOLOGY,

37.

Describe

the pneumogastric

38.

The

accessory

39.

The

hypoglossal nerves.
spinal

HYGIENE.

nerves.

nerves.

40.

The

41.

What

42.

Describe

43.

What

is remarked

44.

What

is said

nerves.

is said

of

the

the

sympathetic
of

of

of

anastomoses

the

nerves?

nerves.

the

plexuses

of

the spinal nerves?

and

ganglia

nerves

5l*^00-

Section
Physiology

The

1.

of

nor

chemical

the

heart, the lungs, and

2. The

in their nature.

It docs

other

of those

The

to their

highest in

however, is
than

with

development

it is in

present the
The

entire

and
4.

Every

symmetrical
collection

centre; hence, the


are

them

of

brain, the

They

all nerve-centres.

by

certain

halves

gray

nerves,

and

composed

are

the

connect

to

; and

system consists of nerve


latter

of motion

tem,
sys-

development corresponds

in this respect.

The

scale

of the lower

some

highest type

serve

also the

in

digestiveorgans

nervous

in the

sympathetic

of the

commissures.

fibres,and

Its

man.

vegetative

power

The

the scale.

of the

in size in
portion
pro-

increases

highly developed

more

animals
the

ascend

we

sensation, and
intelligence,

the

being

As

body.

loeomo-

the

the

S3rinpathetlcsystem presidesover
of the

is to

functions

intellectual

animals, the cerebro-spinal


system

and

its purpose

Cer'ebro-spi'nal
system presidesover

of

3.

; but

like
itself,

for

act

physical

organs.

nutritive functions

not

not

organs

or

man

neither

System are

sensitive,and
tory, respiratory,

body.

System.

Nervous

the

the Nervous

functionsof

influence the action

II.

of white

of the brain

is caUed

spinal cord,
they

nerve-

and

the

nerve-

ganglia,

impressions brought

send

spinal cord.

nerve-mMter

receive

does

centres, nerves,

hemispheres
of the

man

out

to

expressions by

Other

nerves.

; but

centres

the

to

the

Nerve-power

thus

transmission

of

the

How

nerves.

is

nerve-centres,

be

excited

in

this

neither

unless

the

nerve-

sively
belongs exclu-

power

entirelyunknown

nerve,

originates in

this nerve-power

evident, because

is

125

APPARATUS.

SENSORY

is

yet, that it is

motion

duced
pro-

so

sensation

nor

with

it communicates

in

produced

can

nerve-

centre.

5. AH
be

communication

through a

nerve-centre

substance

foreign

which

centre,

sends

muscles

reflexaction

"om

reflected

carried

and

inward

that

to
a

must

nerve-

that

power
its

sion.
expul-

system

nervous

the nerve-centre,

to

its

to

centre

in

needed
of the

body

produced by

sensations

reacts

is first sent

the

in

organs

glottisare

various
the

information

is then

and

the

immediately
is called

This

two

thus, the

in

the
activity

calls into

because

between

appropriate

destination.
The

6.

excited

at

origin,in
a

distributed

nerves

the

of sensation

skin, they produce


in

knoMrn,

as

7. All

visible

either

excitabilityor
f

surfaces

of

are

the

body

this

change

takes

their

at

to

sensitive

body

place

shows

to

carry
nerves^

to

one

the

in
itself

the

one

of

are

extend

the

from

from

impressions
and

nerve-fibres.

Hence, there

extend

is not

to

or

two

as

sets

sensitive

sions
impres-

the nerve^^ntres

outward.

second

carry

tinct
dis-

two

of sensation,

power

nerve-centres,
to

their

at

conveyed

in the

and

extremity,in

sensation

is

power

or
sensihilityy

the other

and

muscles,

called

entire

the

extremity ;

their

at

corresponding

of motion.

power

the

inward,
to

nerve-fibres

or

nerves

as

excited

are

in the

nerve-power

forms

this is

excited

are

fibres at their

How

brain.

the
no

when

oppositeextremity. Thus,

the muscles

of the muscular

nerves

origin

of

to

system.

brain, by the impulse of the will,they produce

the

contraction

when

and

throughout

extends

its effects at the

the

of

organs

peculiar ftmction,

extremity,it

one

and

the

connecting

communication

tissues

with

length,producing
when

the

endowed

are

of

organs

with

nerve-centres

They

are

nerves

are

The

first

callArl Mol^r

126

ANATOMY,
Both

nerves.

in the

but
motor

sensitive
it

endoumieiit

destroys or

and

organ

gland

when

How

The

10.

light falls
pupil

the eye

of

glottis,it

of the

means

When

11.

but

be

months,

are

12.

as

organs

tvith

afwio-

into

action

secretion,
tion
contrac-

causes

to

tributed
dis-

nerve

excite

these

causes

various

to

called
which

sympathy

Thus, when

organ.

contraction

foreignsubstance

be

may

the

by

another

for

when

muscles,

so

as

is

produce
ent
the differ-

existence, is established

our

in

lodged

to

between

of the

by

system.

nerve-fhreis

cut

or

broken, its function

and
re-uniting,

of

in this way

man,

several

to

complete

this

in

In

recovered.

required

usually accomplished
inferior

operate

sympathetic connection

the power

it has
may

; and

nervous
a

excited, it

of the

retina, it

necessary

so

organs,

thus, when

nerves

way,

has

body

excites

This

coughing.

the

indirect

the

upon

is called

is

place,

elapsed.

this function

of many

an

of the

organ

takes

explained.

function

activityin

into

the

be

cannot

reaction

that

so

nerves,

endowed

will be

is excited, it produces increased

of the fibres.
functions

the

have

It may

injury, often

of the body is

muscle

special

power

severe

hours

nerves

as

is distributed.

nerve

pain, until

the

in the

is manifested
irritability

of
irritability

tissue

to

nerve

irrUabUity
;

the nerve,

irritation,but the

the

of
irritability
to

one

the

until several

bo

not

in

shock, from

The

of

produces sensation, and

of this

continued

rest.

the function

inherent

and
peculiar to itself,
the

and

which

suspends

may

9. Each

by

to

HYGIENE.

movement.

patientexperiences no

which

tion

power

by

regained by
the

the

organ

exhausted

be

it

nerves,

produces

but

in the

have

nerves

is
irritahUity

Nervous

only

of

sets

nerves,

8.

AND

PHYSIOLOGY,

few

days,

weeks,

its function
and

even

but

process;

in

ceases;

the young

it is
of

the

animals.
The

spinal cord

ihe

trunk, and

and

the muscles

the

sends

out

nerves

extremities, and

of about

nine-tenths

to

these

supply
embrace

of the whole

the

neck,

the

skin

body.

All

these

parts

The

13.

in

have

in

rest

This
and

in

varies

lips,the tip of

this

When

14.

injure the

shin

For

enough
of

is

The

pain

from

external

of
15.

The

through

the

excite

pain

the

their

into
to

the

the

the

while

nerve,

sions
impres-

place in

most

of

temperature

lose

the

the

pain

while

the

and

it is hot

when

only

to

as

sensitive

be blunted

may

impressions ;

nerves,

tissues

activity.

gland, is

on

; the

prodv^d.

is

of pain

feel

and

sense

duced.
pro-

still

we

lessen

may

still

nerve

etJier

mains
re-

make

may

destroying his

impressionsmade

proper

into

nerves,

nature

cold ; but

or

pain without

sensitive

the

functions

nerves

of

to

it.

to

conscious

things.

various

to

nerves

taken

such

injurethe skin, we

to

sensitive

insensible

person

ness

hot

neuralgia in

subject to

at

fingersbeing

subject to sensitive impressions. Opium

remain
the

regard

the

of the

judge

can

enough

sensation

of

take

to

seems

of its temperature,

judging

is

the sensation

moderately

cold

or

small,

sensitive

of

the ends

is
it is

their distribution

to

is different from

instance, we

that

body

in

the

upon

may

parts of the surface of the body.

other

pain

they

whether

learn

we

things

according

just mentioned, and


cases.

other

foreign substance

of

sensation

This

effect

soft,large or

or

depends

its nerves,

or

bodies,

the tongue, and


than

sensitive

foreign substance

many

acuteness

mation
infor-

some

thus, when

smooth, hard

or

obtain

we

the

our

of sensation

power

more

motion, and

in

or

which

impre"-

receive

to

us

and
qualities,

with

contact

cold, rough

or

their

to

systems

our

upon

t)rought
hot

regard

enables

things,by

external

from

sians

depend directlyor indirectly

sensation

of

power

the

spinal cord.

in the

the nerve-centres

sensation,and

of

the power

of which

of motion, both

power
on

with

endowed

are

127

APPARATUS.

SENSORY

to

The

mouth,

brain, and

the

organs,

efiect

increase

tlie motor

salivaryglands, which

so

the

is carried
nerves

when

as

by
are

the

set

their

ment
excite-

nervous

motor

excite

to

as

of this

its secretion

fact

nerve-centres,

conveyed by

are

and

the

upon

at

food

is

sensitive

wofk

respond by imeammg

to

4i^

128

ANATOMY,

their

And

excited

are

the effect

16. The
and

in

Sometimes
when

the muscles

The

roots

the

trunks

of

sensitive

is

the

of the

roots
nerves

and

carried

the

which

The

pass

from

by

of

the
A

may

cord

and

by
the

ttoo

teriory
pos-

In

the

nerve-fibres,the
but

in the

Spinal
tive
sensi-

both

having

to

sensitive

the

to the

brain

anterior

of the

the

right.
one

pass
The

side

to

columns

in the

brain

will

the

cause

anterior

on

the

columns

spinal
by

nerves

tissues

or

is

organs.

decussate,

part of the medulla

gata;
oblon-

the left,and

of the

those

is,

brain, produces loss of

opposite side of the body

When

to

roots

brain

result of this decussation

of the

the

by communicating
the

anterior

the

posteriorcolumns

impression from

motor

right side

like

impressionmade

of the anterior
nerve-fibres

injury to
in the

spinal cord,

posteriorcolumns, like

nerves

to

the

the

its destination

to

of the

pass

body.

there

separated.

are

nerves,

side to side,at the lower

left side of the


the

of

-sets

fibres

and

thence

off

motor

those

any

these

the fibres of the

passes

19.

and

mingled together;

are

sensitive

by

it is carried

left side

both

sensitive,

are

cord.

along

cord, and

motion

Tnotor

are

is carried

in

sensation,as

spinal

exclusivelymotor

columns

spinal cord,

fibres

the

from

nerves

motor,

anterior

posterior roots,
of the

of

not

apoplexy.

fibres.

roots,

the skin

of

exclusively sensitive, in function.

the

motor

anterior

that

is

spinal nerves,

The

18.

and

suspended

or

attack

an

therefore,called mixed

are,

conneetedy
closely

are

of motion.

arise

which

spinal

and

relax,so

or

paralyzed ;

are

not

which

motion

motion,

face

nerves

anterior

supply it

to

as

so

increase

needed, the

it to contract

fainting,or

of the

spinal

motion,

and

loss of

is

generally impaired

loss of sensation, and

17.

or

is

there

is to

lungs

impressionsgiven.

are

fit of

HYGIENE.

oxygen

causes

the

functions

together,as

more

of sensation

nerves

their

be

muscle

on

the

on

increased

to

correspond with

to

effect

thus, when

movement;

lungs

as

The

of saliva.

amount

AND

PHYSIOLOGY,

thus,

paralysisof
columns

the

of the

injuryto
right side

the
of

spinal cord

130

The

24.
inward

irritcfhilUy
of the
hours

several
sensibility
The

25.

brain

is the seat

of sensation

brain
and

The

oblongata, and
These
and

like

it

of the brain
26. The

the

and

28.

and

and

The

the

over

as

supposed

The

actions

of

and

the

The

reasoning.

and

the

drink

and

not

from

hungry,
alone.

cell,the

intellectual

the

injured

parts

sensibility.
of

powers

manifest.
in

any

body.

of

way,

It

muscular

the

ciated
asso-

preserves

movements,

life.

presiding

nerve-centre

destroyed,respirationceases,

and
The

without

desire

for

bird

silk-worm

classed

be

when

builds

such

are

reference

to

drink.

perience
ex-

creates

The

food

to satisfythe desires,
instinctively

life ; hence, all animals

drink

actions

any

reasoning of the mind

any

support

thirst,a

taken

are

instinctive

may

Thus, the feelingof hunger

judgment.

desire for food, and

to

all other

cerebrospinal system

performed blindly,and

are

spinal cord,

be the seat

to

is the

it is

cerebrum.

correspondingly affected.

of various

oblongata

the

which

of the

movements

the

results.

or

is

is

medulla

themselves
is

gata,
oblon-

the

reasoning or

make

the individual

respiration. When

instinctive

as

of

it

cerebrum.

and
irritability

imperfect,or

harmony

medulla

death
29.

is

the

of

crura

absolutelyindispensableto

are

of

through

judgment

and

seiisatvyns

which

medulla

parts of

of the

is the instrument

oerebellum

unity

of both

is the seat

of
intelligence

the

of the

destitute

the cerebrum

The

porUom

are

reason,

27.

sensitive

but
subject to irritability;

faculties.It
When

The

continuation

nervous

; and

are

cerebrum

memory,

anterior

the

cranium

crura

part of the

but

are

place.

the

of motion.

the

are

lose their

may

part of

cavity of

part of the

the lower

portions

that

rmihotd

from

ceases

takes

posteriorparts

upper

portions

motor

nerves

death

all

the

and

the

are

the

before

within

HYGIENE.

parts of the body

comprises

83rstem contained

of the

sensitive

hence, the external

AND

PHYSIOLOGY,

ANATOMY,

they

are

its nest, the

spins its

coccoon,

that
eat

they
when

thirsty,from
honey-bee
and

the

are

sary
neces-

they

are

instinct

constructs

its

spider its web,

SENSORY

without

experience or

judgment, and, consequently,without


centuries

improvement, although
these

first set

The

30.

of
first be

in

by

regard

the cerebrum.

in

adapt

the

three

The

which

by

him

the

to

the

upon

mind

facultyof

of God's
the

how

act
sation
sen-

reasoning in

human

profitfrom

to

the

upon

It is this

given offby

nerves

of

classes; nerves

motor

brain, but

must

understood, before

depend

not

operation
co-

gard
re-

is enabled
which

reason

creation,in

this

experience of

those

divided

into

nerves,

and

passed away.

have

31.

does

crowning glory

world, and enables

since God

sensation

experience,decide

or

ends.

to

means

man

who

the

of

nature

its effects be

action

that sensation,

to

makes

and

The

it.

to

rolled away

from reasoning,require the

The

judgment

our

produced

to

result

comprehended,

can,

we

which

have

work.

to

creatures

adiona

131

APPARATUS.

the brain

special sense,

be

may

sensitive

nerves.

1. The
and

motor,

of

nerves

hearing. They

or

are

The

Olfactory,or

The

Optic, or

The

Auditory,

2. The

nerves

their

only

convey

pair

of

The

Pathetic,

The

Small

The

Abducent,

The

Facial,

The

Accessory, or

The

Hypoglossal, or

or

third

or

fourth
of

root

or

ing,
smelling,see-

nerves.

sixth

pair of

pair of

of sensation, called
of the fifth

The

Glosso-pharyngeal,or

The

Pneumogastric,

or

nerves.

nerves.
nerves.
nerves.

tenth

nerves.

Sensitive

pair of

ninth

nerves.

pair of

twelfth

are

nerves.

pair of

eleventh

Large

nerves,

pair of

pair of

The

nerves.

pair of

the fifth

seventh

root

nor

nerves.

If otor

of motion, called

Oculo-motor,

nerves

pair of

eighth pair of

or

sensitive

of

special sense

first

second

or

neither

are

The

3. The

Sense

Special

nerves,

are

nerves.

pair of

pair of

nerves.

nerves.

32.

The

motor

nerves,

originatingfrom

the

brain,

are

the

"

132

ANATOMY,

same

in

They

are

fanctioriy
as
purely

after

they leave

from

the sensitive

both

The

33.

then

and

the

of

from

nerves

The

tongue,

as

branch

less

the

great sympathetic

touch,

On

35.

is

of

account

to cold

for

even

days

production
considerable
36.

Three

it

its

sensitive

special

; and

with

acts

sense.

to the

the

sends
Pneu-

less force and


;

presides,move

ternal
hence, the in-

slowly and

very

to pain, or
sensibility

their

of

or

remains

dampness

when

they

time
kinds

inflammations,

aft"r the

to

in

are

are

the

reflex
one

exciting cause

; and

is not

manifested

not

stomach

organ

the sym-

some

hours

the effect of

felt for hours,

of the

slowness

they usually

in

remain

or

the
a

is removed.

cause

of reflexaction

ganglia,from

in

movement

the

often

Because

afterwards.
these

in

in that

produced
to

of

application of

sympatheticsystem: 1st,The
through

the

nerves

the deglurespiration,
tition,

inflammations

after the

irritation is

exposure

of taste

this slowness

internal

thus, indigestible food


before

other

state.

time

some

from

branch

one

scarcelyperceptible,except

patJietic
system,
for

spinal cord,

Glosso-pharyngeal also

nerve

extent, and

limited

very

which

origin,the

cranial

of

cerebro-spinalnerves

the

tive
sensi-

the stomach.

The

over

of the

pair,sends

the voice, the

digestionin

rapiditythan

the

fibres

ofi* nerves

nerve

the

inflamed

an

and

organs,
to

; the

as

mogastric presidesover
34.

give

the fifth

of taste

its

from

motor

trunk.

Each

identical; but

are

also

the tongue,

to

less

having

sation,
capable of sen-

are

spinal cord.
roots

less,

or

same

ganglion, near

nerves

from

nerve

the

or

the brain

large root,

from

respects the ftmctions

spinal

brain, but

nerves,

in the

the brain

from

more

In these

nerves.

spinal cmi.

the

mixed

mingled

the sensitive

by

receives

origin from

become

fibres

through

is done

and

and

those

the

they receive fibres,more

nerves

as

HYGIENE.

from

nerves

their

at

nerves,

passes

as

motor

sensitive

same

nerve

motor

sensitive

the

same

the

the cranium

and

motor

AND

PHYSIOLOGY,

organ

take

phce

through

action

which

takes

to

another

the

.place

thus, food

and

lymphatic

organs

The

of
activity
of

sympathy
the

the

means

in

uneasure

internal

the nutritive

health

of

that

Through

they

and

known

to

others.

of all the

so

the

to

of

of

Deity, and

divine

!
12

sense

bound

together

harmony

of

with

one

action, throughout

to

the

do

we

of
preservation

pervading

them

The

our

connecting
can

be made

it
to

can

be

feel and

link

take

we

; for

between

is made
are

can

the

impressed with
that

the
template
con-

human

the animal

cognizance of

relations with

know

in

the world

brain

in the

fect
per-

than

part of the

every

existence

own

things divine

all its manifold


; and

ends,

faculties,
by which

It

more

acquainted with

nerve-centres

the

find

certain

produce

become

we

spiritualworld.
and

of time

unity

nerves

intellectual

of the creature, and

in

frame

to

through

be

this

By

name.

other, are

necessary

things earthly,and
seems

their fiinctional

hence, its

act

that

means

them

us,

is

of the individual.

system

around

and

even

There

other.

which

by

each

from

in the human

Nowhere

intricate

mind

from

action

which, anatomically considered,

organs,

producing

adaptation

seat

news

sympathetic feelingis presided

this

apparatus,

the life and

body.

them

sympathetic system

thus

another;

the

sorrowful

each

upon

feelingamong

so
physiologically,

38.

the circulation

disturb

and
of circulation,digestion,

the organs

entirelyseparated

are

duce
pro-

may

convulsions,or

cause

may

ternal
in-

gestible
surfaces; thus, indi-

sensitive

the

activityis regulated,and
by

odors

reflex

The

to the

surfaces

or
joyfiil

as

same

stomach

in the

ahsorption,depends

over

absorption.

blindness.

temporary

increased

impressions may

to

organs

food

excites

sensitive

the

appetite. 3d,

the

away

internal

37.

mental

and

takes

to

the

intestine

thus, disagreeablesights or

the
digestion,

and

the

from

action
;

nausea,

capillaryvessels

the

reflex

2d, The

small

the

in

in its

movement
peristaltic

causes

food

coat, and

muscular

often

canal

intestinal

the

in

133

APPAKATU8.

8EN80BT

the life

the

things

the

truths

they are

truihfi

134

HYGIENE.

AND

PHYSIOLOGY,

ANATOMY,

QUESTIONS.
II.

SECTION

1. What

is said of the

2. Over

what

What

5.

How

called

6. What
7.

In

is

two

does

both

of

by exciting

function

of

10.

How

is the

function

excited

11.

What

occurs

12.

What

parts of

13.

What
this

does

power

body

the

power

depend

is said of the

What

14.

be

does

an

the

made?

be

organs

What

itself?

into

by sympathy

tion
func-

sensation

of

pain

spinal

cord

?
the

enable

sensation

action

is broken

supplied by

are

of

nerves

show

excited

organ

nerve-fibre

two

?
irritability

nervous

is the

the

nerves

9. How

when

pathetic
sym-

all nerve-power

sets of

is remarked

in animalfl

produced

are

forms

possessed by

8. What

action

The

preside?

between

communications

reflex

effects
what

the nerve-centres

of

all

must

composed

system

nervous

system

nervous

their development

is said of

is remarked

is this

Why

is the

what

4.

What

system
3. Of

the

cerebro-spinal system

the

does

of

functions

to

us

How

do ?

Upon

this

may

what

sensation

blunted?

16.

motor

17.

spinal
18.

the brain
19.
the

kind

of

of

20.
21.

May

the

do
of

Where

in function

between

the

sensitive

the fibres

in the

and

roots

of the

trunks

the

fibres

the

are

to

spinal

the

brain

composed

columns

impressions

Motor

How
from

columns

decussate

fibres of the posterior columns

decussate

anterior

fibres of the

What

is

this ?
do

the

nerve

be

irritated

of

the

along

its

course

is the

Where

sion
impres-

What

is said

23.

Describe

24.

How

25.

In

motion

connection

result

22.

the

impressions carried

Where

made

sensitive

what

sensitive

are

of

is remarked

nerves

Of

the

nerves

What

through

made

impressions

by examples.

is said

What

the

with

Illustrate

nerves

and

is done

What

15.

does
what

associated
the

action

of

each

of

the

brain

cerebrum

the

are

what

is the

Of

27.

The

cerebellum?

28.

The

medulla

associated

sensations, and

of sensitive
irritability

parts

26.

nerve-fibre

oblongata

seat ?

the

nerves

?
movements.
cease

functions

of

sensation

and

SENSOKY

29.

Define

30.

The

31.

How

the instinctive

the

special sense.

32.

What

is said

33.

What

of

cranial

What

34.
35.

Explain
What

of

is

sensitive

the

Name

nerves.

nerves

What

classified ?

be
The

motor

nerves

of

the

functions

the

of

nerves?

action

of the

slowness

sympathetic

of

movement

of

reflex

kinds

three

nerve?

operates

the

on

system.

produced through

action

the

system

What

the

brain

nerves.

class of

spinal

this

the

are

sympathetic
37.

the

how

cerebro-spinal system.

the

the

motor

sensitive

and

is said

36.

The

of the

the

nerves,

of

from

nerves

of

nerves

actions

actions.

reasoning
may

135

APPARATUS.

said

of

the

of

sympathy

feeling

internal

the

among

organs?
What

38.

is remarked

of

the

of

adaptation

to ends

means

"i-0"?00

III.

Section
Anatomy

The

1.

of

fece

and

the floor of the

to

and

its

tip

upper

sur^Eu^e of the

called

the

2.

The

tongue
taste.

papillsB of

taste

vallate, the capitate,and

the

form

of

from

way

its

All

the

covered

of three

The

and

with

papillae. The

dozen, and

face,
sur-

are

circumCircnni-

arranged

two-thirds

of

in

the

which
Capitate papillae,

more

of the tongue

papillaeof taste, and

sur-

eminences,

; the

kinds

eminences, and

still smaller

under

part of the

small

tongue, about

its root

of the surface

two-thirds
3.

are

anterior

numerous

conical

about

small, red

which

are

the

across

tip to

numerous,

are

are

are

the

papillaenumber

vallate

part of its

the

Upon

its root

by

its sides, its upper

while

mouth,

composed
is situated

It is attached

jaw.

the middle

papillseof

and

membrane,

free.

are

of taste, is

organ

mucous

by

Sense.

Special

of

is the

of the lower

hyoid bone,

the

to

by

covered

the arch

within

which

Tongue,

muscles

Organs

the

of

the

the spaces

simple papillse. From

cover

numerous,
next

the

Conical

its

tip.

betw""'
'

pillae,
pathe

136

that

surround

conical

the

rises in hair-like

of

they usually become

4. The
branch

of the

nerves

coated

"

hair-like
in health ;

in sickness.

of taste

and

the

of these

the

to

These

furred

or

nerves,

each

also

papillae,and

the

admirably adapted

tasted.

special sense

from

Filaments

nerve.

epithelium

squamous

are

be

HYGIENE.

velvety appearance

"

pair of

fifth

of the

which

liquids to

the tongue

projectionsgive
but

the
papillae,

appendages,

imbibition

the

to

AND

PHYSIOLOGY,

ANATOMY,

the

are

lingual

glosso-pharyngeal

nerves

into

pass

membrane

mucous

all

of

the

tongue.
5. The

yet it performs
of

composed
skin.

At

cartilage,which

separated from

cartilage. The

the

pharynx

which

other

or

and

its

They

eyelids

orbicular

muscle, which

of

mucous

bone,

the

sight, and

the

in

one

other

of

skin

the

to

which
plates of fibro-cartilage,

number

hairy

eyelid and

edges

with

in

and

winking
then

the

; next

the

the
front

externally; then
in

the

lashes.
eyethe
the

lining or

conjunctiva.

Fal'pebral cartilages,one
next

the

are

upper

their free

is concerned

placed

includes

curtains, situated

two

are

called

Fal'pebral glands

into

groups;

and

eyebrows

internal

are

bone

through

ethmoid

in two

wall

glands;

eyelids,and

the

inner

palpebral cartilages and


8. The

smell, pass

are

between

composed

membrane,

of

The

fringed at

are

orifices,

of the throat.

They

the

appendages.

eyeball,and

and

nostrils.

arches, situated
The

that

plate of

Eye is the specialorgan

forehead.
of the

of the

muscles

throughout by

nerves

cavities.

wall

by

It is

externallyin front,and
with

or

to

the voice.

nostrils,or

two

lined

of the cribriform

of the nasal

of smell

partitionconsistingof

are

olfao'torynerves,

the outer

brows,

by

is continuous

is distributed

eyeball

the

nostrils open

of which

7. The

is covered

are

behind, and

the foramina
the roof

part

each

and

6. The

special sense

part in the respirationand

its lower

membrane,

of the

is the organ

Nose

in each

the

preserve
to

about

their

eyelid,are

free

twenty

to

shape

of the

margin.
each

thin

The

eyelid.

138

ANATOMY,

inch

long,

continuoua

AND

PHYSIOLOGY,

and

lined

with

with

the

mucous

with

that

of

the

lu"hrymal gland

enter

and

below

between

they

the

the

through
12.

The

in

front

in

shape,

three

with

humors,
the

are

vitreous
13.

The

muscles
are

with

the

in

front

iris

the

the

then

pass

angle,

where

conveyed

orbit, with

behind

in

it

in

cornea

and

the

spherical

eyeball

three

ia

which

eoate,

the

front;

the

eyelids

coats,

or

The

eye.

is

The

envelopes
the

the

It

diameter.

humor,

aqueous

the

are

choroid

retina.

three

The

crystalline lens,

and

humor,

of

the

eyeball
The

oblique muscles.
superior,

They

muscle.

"t

inch

of

eyelidg,

from

thence

are

the

in

of

humors

mTudes

and

situated

an

inner

nose.

concentric

coat,
the

the

angle,

the

and

the

toon

outer

to

canals,

cushion

three

sclerotic

coat,

is

its

at

which

of

The

nose.

eyelids

into

nearly

is

of
the

tbe

duct

it, aud

and

composed

the

nasal

membraae

eye

lachrymal

Eyeball

of

enclose

and

eyeball
the

eater

the

membrane,

mucoua

above

HYGIEKB.

arise

the
at

are

divided

straight

muscles

inferior, the external,


the

optic foramen,

into

of the
the

and

and

straight
ball
eye-

internal
inserted

are

Fig. 47.

into
draws
the

the

sclerotic
the

external

coat

the

near

eyeball upward,
draws

it

cornea.

the

outward,

inferior
and

The

superior

draws

the

it

internal

muscle

downward,
draws

it

The

inward.

united

eyeballback

the

14.

There

the

and

optic foramen,

orbit
and

It ends
then

in

its

tendon, which

the external

outward

and

and

backward,

15.

At
nerve

its back

the

sclerotic

into which
The

the

of the

wall

lined

within

lamina, lined
and

very

and

the choroid

blood-vessels
17.

The
with

the

of

It

fibres, forming

regulating

of the eyeball.
the

circular

red

aperture
its

membrane

situated

membrane

It consists

with

the fifth part of

about

thin,vascular
coat.

optk

watch-crystalin

transparent, fibrous

flat

choroid

dilates

is

part is

occupies

presents

by

iris presents various


black.

wall

is continuous

nerve

Albinoes, this black

The

light received

is

strong white

very

of

vascular

smooth

is very
is

matter

color from

the

absent,

numerous

it.

I'ris is

ciliarymuscle.
^npil, which

In
coat

in

pigmentary layer,which

black.

the

inserted,like

sclerotic

by

of

conjunctiva.

coat

the

the eyeball,

protrude

exterior

the

its front
is

the

Cho'roid

16. The

of the

into the outer

orifice,
through which

of

eyeball,is

by

The

angle

is inserted

composed

an

cor'nea, which

in front

next

At

cornea

frame.

the internal

and

forms

sheath

coat.

the

is

part is

The

passes.

tween
be-

opposite directions.

which

membrane,

pulley,

is inserted

and

oblique muscles

Solerot'ic coat

The

fibrous

it in

rotate

side of the

through

outward,

from

passes

part of the eyeball. The

origin above

the inner

passes

the

superior straightmuscle.

the

and

inferiorobliquemuscle
orbit

and

backward

turns

its

has

along

course

superior and

; the

oblique muscles

two

draws

orbit.

superior oblique muscle

Tlie

inferior.

straight muscles

of the

action

into the

are

139

APPAKATUS.

8EN80KY

or

its size.

by

coat

iris has

retina.

tints

or

so

whitish

as

In

shades

structure

circular

circumference

central

contracts,

the

fibrous
a

disk, whose

with

layer

aperture,
to

nected
con-

called

the

named

regulate the

different
of

zone,

is

blue,

amount

individuals
gray,

unstriated

around

the

the

the

brown,

or

muscular

pupil,

and

140

ANATOMY,

18.

Eef

The

ina is the inner

nearly colorless membrane,


which

expands

Figi48i

Section

4, crystalline

choroid
a

and

thk

of

spreads

Eteball.

is formed

the

over

1, Sclerotic

"

5, hyaloid memhrane

0, cornea

by

2, choroid

7, iris

8, optic

soft,

opticnerve,
of the

surface

inner

coat;
;

the

8, retina;

coat;
nerve

9, aqueous

humor.

10, vitreous

humor;

in

lens

and

It is

of the eye.

coat

and

HYGIENE.

AND

PHYSIOLOGY,

coat, ^

far front

waving margin.
all

it receives

the

as

it ends

ciliarymuscle, where

It is the

of the

sensitive coat

impressionsmade

by external

the eye

upon

eyeball,

things.
19. The
the
filling

space

The

occupied by

two

space

between

the

clear,colorless,
watery liquid,
and

cornea

the

is divided

this humor
anterior

parts; called the

of the

is

A'qneouBhumor

and

lens.
crystalline
by the iris into

posteriorchambers

the

eye.

20. The
in

lor

le

Crys'tallinelens

an

the vitreous

front, and

between

It is

onion.

Ntanoe, enclosed

7if

reons

the

in

humor

space

the aqueous

behind.

humor

lens,composed of concentric

oonvex

"f

is situated

layers,like

perfectlytransparent

capsule,and

the

and

surrounded

is also clear and

within

It is

retina

and

the

color-

by

the

and
colorless,
the

ciliary

SENSORY

muscle.

It

IB

called

structure,
22.

The

divided

viscid

Ear

into

liquid,and
the

ia the

the

141

APPARATUS,

is contained

specialorgan
the

cate
deli-

ineinbritne.

hyaloid

external,

within

hearing.

of

and

middle,

It may

be

tlie internal

ear,

labyrinth.

or

Fig.49.

23.

The

t"?rual

Eztemal

auditory

consists

Ear

canul.

The

cartilage,cloaclycovered
the

in

ear

is about

from

portion
bone

of

outer

also

with

the

is
;

the

24.

inch

one

tym'panum

parts

which

oavity,
and
It is

continuous

Tinth

in

the

the

the

Eustach'ian

that

the

lined

by

Ear,

of the

inner

abort

tube,

fibro-

pharynx,

portion
of

hairs, and

which

mucous

or

outer

enr-wax.

of

delicate

tends
ex-

skin

consists

both

canal

and

The

Tlie

or

ex-

part called

brain.

numerous

Middle

of

middle,

skin.

with

tlie

auditory

the cennnen,

secrete

everywhere
with

lined

is the

external

towards

are

called

the

skin, and

The

and

composed

and
fibro-cartilage,

is furnished

glands,

auricle

ia

narrowe-st

inward

of

both

part

The

air.

auricle

composed
and

the

by

long, is

the

auricle

language.

common

of

throat.

of

the
tain
con-

brane,
mem-

142

ANATOMY,

Tym'pannm,

The

25.

bony cavity between


is

called

membrane,

bones, called

the

to

the

order

connection

inches

The

Eusta'chian

and

is

longer part

brane, formed
The

27.

into

end;

with

the

from

curved

are

Ear,

Two

circle.
and

of

that

there

the canals
this

the

of

the

Canals
canal

into

the vestibule

at

is of the

each

auditory

nerve

called

parts

and

; named

the

tween
be-

situated

They

than

more

into

the

serous

as

to

canals

end

liquid;
the

and

at
;

go

in

membranous

the vestibule

this

Both

canals.

liquid.

serous

half

the vestibule,

other

three

called

shape

is distributed

its

canals.

at

the

mem-

from

of the other

one

bag,

is also filled with

fibrous

extremity

contain

same

its lower

cavity,communicatiiv^

rather

from

or

tympanum

three in number.

are

half

the cochlea.

window,

forms

openings
pouch

and

; but

bony

three

the vestibule

and

canals, and

oval

the

five

labyrinth,which

into

small, oval

open

are

tube.

canals, and

are

liquid floats

the

continued

one

cartilageand

conjoinswith

opens

is

the semicircular

each

the third

end, and

one

is

and

them

with

tympanum

about

Lab'yrinth, so

or

divided

by

that

so

the

chain, while

the fore part of the

trumpet-shaped

Semicir'cular

The

29.

canal

of

tympanum

form

is attached

of the

of

composed

Ves'tibule

the cochlea

is

tube

vestibule,the semicircular
The

and

ear.

complex character, is
28.

stirrnp,are

thus, forming

portion

Internal

the

small

communicating

Its upper

Three

mallet

end

one

vibrations

extends

pharynx.

The

and

ear,

thin, translucent

tympanum,

window,

the

the internal

long, and

the

to

which

by

at

other

to

carried
26.

the

at

ear

internal

anvil, and

named.

oval

stirrupjoins the

the

irregular

an

membrane.

part of the

in the

is

ear,

canal, by

mallet, the

tympanic membrane,

internal

and

tympanic

upper

of bones

chain

the

the

the

in

situated

the external
the external

from

separated

of the

drum

or

HYGIENE.

AND

PHYSIOLOGY,

and

branch

membranous

^"byrinth.
80. The

Cochlea, named

from

its resemblance

to

snail-

form

to

as

80

into two

membrane

only

other
of

the cone,

The

31.
the

is the natural

Skin
of

organ

It

touch.

thickest

and

the soles of the feet ; and

muscles, the

bones, the

beneath

The

is

The

32.

is

skin

epidermis ;

the

more

glands ;

the hairs, and

so
electricity,

Its outer

flesh."
which

vary

longest
Each
nerve,

as

on

in

number

the

palms

papilla
and

of which

forms

nerves,
a

it

; but

; while

persons
in the

aged.
the

glands,

sweat

it is furnished

influence

the

with

of

with

size,being

of

terminal

dense

cold, fear, or
of

"goosepapillaB,
and

numerous

the soles of

filament

of

The

blood-vessels, and

close network

muscular

tactile

most

It is

skin.

phenomenon

looped capillaryblood-vessel.
with

the

placed

few unstriated

of the hands, and


the

hands,

nails.

is fiimished

and

contains

richly supplied
each

surface

in

eyelids

nerves

mainly composed

the

produce

to

the

of

and

the

is

is

protectionto

deeper layer of the

under

contract

the

individuals

kinds

two

is the

and

layers, the dermis, and

tissue,although it contains
which

fibres

as

serves

of two

pinkish cream-color, and

fibrous

auditory

thickness

on

less wrinkled

or

composed

Der'mis

The

33.

thinnest

in different

it contains

appendages,

two

tympanum,

body,

in

flexible in young

the sebaceous

glands, and

it

varies

and

harder

the

somewhat

blood-vessels,and

mostly smooth, soft, and

it becomes

of

skin

each

back, the palms of the

the

lips,and

it.

covering of

varies

and

on

extremity

of the

branch

body, being

the

parts of

different

with

the

into

axis,

separated by

the lower

opens

cochlea.

the

to

is

of

hollow

communicate
At

into the vestibule.

is distributed

nerve

around

cone.

of the passages

one

the other

and

of the

It consists

canal

which

passages,

the apex

at

This

spiralcone.

times

three

nearly

wound

canal

bony

of the vestibule.

in front

shell,is situated

143

APPARATUS.

SENSORY

of vessels

the feet.
sensitive
dermis

is

lymphatics,
near

its

terior
ex-

surface.
34.

The

is without

Epider'mis
nerves

and

is the

external

blood-vessels

layer of the skin.


therefore,it

is not

It

sensi-

144

ANATOMY,

tive

the

to

consists

and

touch,

of

AND

PHYBIOLOGT,

it will
; the

bleed

not

soft

two

layers

Soft

Epider'tnic layer

HYGIEHI.

injury.

upon

epidermic

and

layer,

It
the

cuticle.

35.

The

It ia

composed

dermis

; and

of

cuticle.

the
black

The

pigmentary

complexion

in

individuals

of

coloring
36.

epidermic

of the

eame

race.

ia almost

Cn'tiole

ia

Fie. M.
'

layer

which

skin

the

if

different
In

the

external

^* ^^

composed

epidermic

and

pressing

In

ita

found

in

the

cuticle

are

is the

skin

is subjected

friction, the

to

and

ed,
harden-

inflammation

by

beneath
"

of

part

called

their

Sweat

number,

thus,

corn,"
the

body,

glands,

They

are

in

is estimated

man,

blisters

the

every

skin.

called

scales,

is called

nearly

soft

ii

sur"ce

the

or

the

or

dermis

what

epidermiB.

to

so

an

be

are

ous
numer-

ordinary"
about

two

tat

"losiHED.

1,

"

of

ths

millions.

Epidormia;

iiermia,

glaud

con-

JC!^gI^r?L"tdTci'"*"
less

"qMninganiiiegnrfuearth"
i**^

Boh

it

excites

glands,

that

"Drtkce

and

skin,

the

on

different

from

thickened

small

^'^^d

scales

pressure,

producing

the

When

then

of

akin, thia

When

removed.

37.

of

flakes

becomes

in

white

from

the

to

\m

or

absent,

dandruff.

or

cuticle

Bn"^iam^

of

fonn

shades

and

very

the

to

various

layer

small

to

Of

theae

applied
part

more

layer;

of

scurf,

contains

entirely

not

form

scales

races,

denm
from

dry

the

gives

shedding

TioN

into

changed

are

matter,

the

matter

The

cells
soft

the

polyhedral cells, formed

delicate

these

above

next

diameter,

and

consists

''^"' ^"*^

the

tubes

^'^

of

are
an

diameter

average

of

Spirally to

These

in

Their

tube,

*^"
the

which

ascends
suriaco

inch

in

is coUed
more

of

the

about

is

the

,^5

length.

or

skin,
of

an

The

146

ANATOMY,

bedded

in

At

bottom

the

the

both

dermis,
of the

cells,which,

these

new

cells

push

the

hair

42.

from
of

from

thus

is extracted, it is

which

tains
con-

the hair

soft,polyhedral,
the

bottom

out, and

The

Nails,

papilla.

of the

it grows

reproduced by

fingersand

the

on

They

epidermis, and
the

the nail

edges

of

while

the

resting on
matrix,

are

imbedded
ends

remaining part

grow

in

length by

grow

in

thickness

the

or

addition

root,

As

they

in

length.

the

papilla

homy

are

hoo"

bed.
in

in

ages,
append-

of other

mals.
ani-

plates,continuous

depressed

The

in

grooves
free

border.
the

with

surface

root

of cells at

addition

the

by

toes,
and

flexible,translucent

are

dermis, called

claws

the

corresponding with
the

papilla,which

composed
the

at

it.

follicle.

hair

and

further

hair

is

formed

are

tissue beneath

produced

are

HYGIENE.

connective

follicle is

of the hair

root

AND

blood-vessels, and

nucleated

When

the

or

hair

and

nerves

The

grows.

PHYSIOLOGY,

root

of ceils to

of

the

and

lateral

the

matrix,

The

nails

; and

they

their

under

surface.

QUESTIONS.
SECTION

the

1. Describe

and

strnctare

2.

Describe

the papillseof

3.

Describe

the

4.

Which

5.

Describe

the

nose.

6. Describe

the

nerves

are

III.

position of the tongue.

taste.

simple papillse.

the

of

nerves

of

taste?

smell.

7.

Describe

the

eye.

8.

Describe

the

palpebral cartilages and

Describe

the conjunctiva.

9.
10.

Of

what

does

the

lachrymal

glands.

apparatus

The

consist?

eyelashes.
Descril^

the

lachrymal glands.
11.
course

Describe
of the

the
tears.

lachrymal

canals.

The

nasal

ducts.

Descsribethe

12.
coats

the position and

Describe
and

its humors

shape

Describe

14.

The

oblique muscles

15.

The

sclerotic coat

16.

The

choroid

17.

Describe

18.

The

retina.

19.

The

aqueous

20.

The

crystalline lens.

21.

The

vitreous

22.

Name

23.

Describe

the external
does

of the

of the

the

cornea.

iris.

humor.

humor.
of the

ear.

ear.

24.

Describe

26.

The

eustachian

27.

The

labyrinth.

28.

The

vestibule.

29.

The

semicircular

30.

The

cochlea.

31.

Describe

the skin.

32.

Of

is the

33.

Describe

the

dermis.

34.

Describe

the

epidermis.

35.

Describe

the soft epidermic

36.

The

37.

Describe

the

sweat

38.

Describe

the

sebaceous

39.

With

40.

Describe

the

41.

Describe

the root

42.

Describe

the

the

the middle

consist?

ear

chain

The

tympanum.

of bones.

tube.

canals.

skin

composed?

layer.

cuticle.

what

are

glands.
glands.

all parts of the

shaft

of the
of the

"

body

Physiology

hair.

IV.

Organs

the

of Taste

palate,the fauces, and


endowed

less covered

nails.

of

sense

or

more

hair.

Section

other

is said of its

coat.

25.

also

What

eye.

The

eye.

Of

1. The

eyeball.

of the eye.

the divisions

what

of the

the straight muscles

13.

what

147

APPARATUS.

SENSORY

with

of

is confined

the

pharynx

to

Special

tongue, the

the

; but

Sense.

these

similar
general sensihility,

parts of the body.

Before

substance

can

organs
to

be

that

soft
are

of

tasted.

148

it must

in

be

the

with

excited

not

in many

as

and

tongue,

limited

the

of

part

stomach,

producing

parts

the

face, the

The

3.

of

sense

taste

generallywholesome.
habitual

the

The

stimulatingdrinks, and
a

liking for

is the

almost
with

case

the Cannibal
The

4.

excited

the

who

of Smell

sense

without

the

impress those

and

articles do

yet undergo

and

those

in

no

an

also supply

as

guide in

palatable are
perverted
tobacco,

as

and

generally;

acquired by habit, as
drinks

to the

whale-oil, and

from

the

this

odor,

form

contact

od(yr is

even

for months
Volatile

usually emit

more

the

with

substance
we

be

It may

nose.

in

appreciablechange.

gaseous

a^
are

coming

odor

What
emit

these

as

fiesh.

is confined

the

nerves.

be

who

substance

but

olfactorynerves;
because

human

eats

or

involuntarilydistorted.

substances

Esquimau

the

on

margin

which

nerves,

articles,such

article may

any

the

taste, however, becomes

pungent

this

as

tastes ; and

articles that

of certain

use

posteriorpart

but

naturallyto

appears

because

of food ;

the selection

pair of

the

glosso-pharyngeal

the

is often

countenance

The

sour

This
of

sympathetically

and

the fifth

supplied by

are

posterior third

-vomiting;

acutelysweet

tip perceivesmore

sugar;

impressions; and

act

and

nausea

as

salt.

common

tip.

to bitter

impressions often

these

nerve,

the

supplied by

is

tongue

comprise

acid; the sweet,

and

margin

of taste

sense

saline,as

to

sensitive to salt and

more

by

the

; and

its

to

the

tartaric

as

sour,

be

to

seems

sense

18

the

excite

which

bitter,as quinine

the

heavily coated,

of sickness.

substances

classes:

four

is

sand ;

glass or

is

tact
con-

of taste

sense

as

the tongue

in

come

can

therefore,the

perceived when

cases

The

2.

it

substances, such

insoluble

will it be

neither

of taste

nerves

by

that

of solution^so

state

HYGIENE.

AND

PHYSIOLOGY,

ANATOMY,

must

tell;

cannot

and

years,

substances
odor

than

solids.
5. SmeU
to

aids much

rejectsuch

which

articles

generallyare

in the proper
as

have

unfit

to

choice

rancid

be taken

or

of food^warning
a

putrid odor,

into the stomach.

us

and
It

SENSORY

oho
which

The

6.

animals

the

such

dog

fields and
and

the deer

as

of their natural
I

7. The

It

is

of the
in

contributes
it

By

of

acquainted

all these

have

dreams, which

diseases

nervous

8.
does

and

needs

the intervention
visible.

of

9. All

kind.

Its

them

the

from

The

away

"

the

different
those

to

these

in

powerfully

also

are

we

as

sources,
to

as

But

produced

with

a'

substance,neither
; but

that substance

it

receive

the

impressions

even

from

the

fixed

from

the earth.
made

to

upon

impressionsof

lightis

colors of

colors, so

so

the retina
other

every

great, that it not

but
objects,
as

stars,

to

only

ing
also the shad-

readilydistinguish

another.

retina,which

eyelidsand
18

nature

eye may

is insensible

blending of

one

10.

The

of miles

to
sensibility

appreciatesthe
and

impressionsfrom the light are

the eye, which

of

internal

other

and

objects.

the

by which
agent, called light,

great distance,

millions

are

form,

movements,

from

of another

objectsbecome
which

color,the

the

require contact
emanation

require any

light from

happiness.

our

of the brain.

Vision does not


it

alone.

comfort

external

of such

approach

and

to

Impressions similar

impress us.
by

often

the

specialsenses,

impressionsfrom

are

animals,

eye.

size,the position,the distance, the

may

herbivorous

of the

with

physical propertiesbelonging

for miles

to the

important
our

and

tance;
great dis-

animals

of smell

sense

with

lion

Vision, is confined

or

great degree to

become

we

the

by

Sight,

most

from

other

the

several,

The

sheep, often discover

the

enemies

sense

one

the fox and

but little;

compared

man

of

tomed
accus-

where

rooms

animals.

thickets; and

the most

become

may

their prey

scent

track

can

gases,

notice them

to

as

inferior

of the

some

other carnivorous

through

we

congregated.
sense
of smell is very feeblein

it is in

what

; but

ventilated

poorly

in

case

are

breathed

of these odors, so

many

is the

persons

be

unfit to

are

to
as

odors from
againstoffensive

us

warns

149

APPARATUS.

the iris.

is

so

When

sensitive to
the

is protected
by
light,

lightis greatlyin

excess,

150

ANATOMY,

the

eyelidsmay
part

is

PHYSIOLOGY,

partiallyor

all of

or

pupil to

contract

occasion

as

rays

entirelyclosed, thus

its rays ; but

moderate, the

more

the

be

iris

when

The

is not

The

size of the

mixed

they

particlesof blue

together,give
with

examined

and

white, give

or

black

the

minute

together;

when

mixed

substances

when

If these

color.

gray

close

yellow powder,

and

more

intensityof

placed

microscope, the

light

fore,
pupil is,there-

the

to

are

of

color;

green

under

fewer

capable of distinguishing
very

objectsindividually,when
thus, fine

of

amount

dilate,and thus admit

or

requires.

retina

the

ing
exclud-

regulates the supply by causing

constantly varying, according


lightfallingupon the retina.
11.

HYQlENE.

AND

color

mixtures

of

the

be

different

grains is easilydistinguished.
12.

for

Impressions made
short

stick,lit
the

time after

at

spokes
13.
lens

focus

reach

they

and

causing dimness
the

glassesmore
rays

of

14.

from
eye

We

the

change

If the

wheel

be

ance
appearwith

solid.
the

upon

crystalline

focus,just at the surface

it will

convex,

being

convex

to

be

too

bring the

flat,the

collected

into

of vision.

by

or

concave

focus

the

use

to

This
of

rays
and

rays

will

focus, also

condition

of

spectacleswith

suit the

exactly at

case.

the

The

retina,or

be clear.
see

two

objectsat differentdistances from


the

time; therefore,whenever

objectto another,
which

to

depends

lens

confusion

come

not

cannot

same

one

by

less

light must

sightwill

the

at

or

it the

circle,

the retina, causing dimness

is remedied

lens
crystalline

in

when

appears

lightto

reach

before

retina

thus, when

give

to

fire ; and

vision

rays of

of vision.

the

of

If the lens be too

before

conftision

of

objectremain

any

removed

long enough

distinctness

by

rapidly around

rapidly,it

converging the

object is

ring

around

moves

of the retina.
to

remains

unbroken

an

The

the

end, is moved

one

impression
of

the retina

upon

it is

is efiected

adapted
has

to

given

change
view
rise

must

that
to

sight
take

is directed

place

object; but

much

us

how

discussion.

in the
this
The

usual

change the
thus

edges, and
less

inches

six

from

fixed stars, the

The

15.

be

may

without

seen

small, near

is

the

from

removed

but

eye,

be closed and

thus

keep

they

front of the

while

and

eye

irritatingsubstances
; and

them

cause

depends

the

upon

with

The

it may

the

sense

of
the

is

These

external

of hearing,like

third agent, which

be

liquid,or

not

is needed

produce
before

any
a

is

sorrow,

then

the

in the

strike

carried

brought

are

sense

It

ear.

phere,
atmosor

against

along
in

the

contact

of sound

is produced.

vention
ofsight,
requiresthe interusuallythe atmosphere ; but

noise ;

hence,
be

or

that

body.

can

joy

vibrations,

and

ear

the

solid

sound

the

the flow of

to

excited

sound.

where

of

confined

they are
labyrinth,and

are

the cheeks.

waves

or

of a
a

tiva,
conjunc-

tears, which

The

eyelidsincrease

roll down

Hearing

auditory nerves,

the

18.

to

dust,

eyelids,which

awake.

tympanic membrane;
of bones

as

lachrymal gland, lubricate

the

and

waves

the

to

may

the

the vibrations
the

the

emotions, whether

of sound, enter

chain

does

of

sense

called
waves

it is

parent,
conjunctivamoist and translightfreelypass through it. Any

of

mental

by
are

the

under

to overflow

The

17.

we

keep

that the rays

so

of these adhere

removed

constantlysecreted by

It

in size the farther

such
all foreignparticles,

any

quickly

are

winking
coiftinually

tears

the eyes.

sight

out

When

sand.

ashes, and

the

objects

eyeball is protected by the eyelids,which

16. The

are

increases

of

the organ

which

positionof

the

changing

tance.
dis-

the

itself to

circle within

is the

fieldof vision

in the

as

away,

is

but

imperfectly seen;

perfectlyadapt

can

eye

object

an

of miles

millions

to

even

it is

eye,

objects,

near

When

far away.

the

of

for

convex

of

distances

varying

ever

more

for those

inches

six

within

is made

lens

convex

the

it to

adapt

The

objects.
and

ciliaryligament and ciliary


convexity of the lens by compressing its
the

explanation is,that

muscle

151

APPARATUS.

SENSORY

A
a

bell rung
medium

produced.

of

in

vacuum

some

kind

152

ANATOMY,
The

19.
human

which

sound

varietyof

great ; for it

is very

ear

AND

PHYSIOLOGY,

be

can

distinguishedby the

detect

can

HYGIENE.

various
and

quality, intensity,pitch, duration,

the

The

sound.
sounds

not

as

so

ticking of

the

however,

ear,

notice

to

; this is often

them

of

accustomed

clock, the rumbling of

direction

become

may

degreesin

the

to

with

case

and

the

capable of educatum;

the

wagon,

rattlingof machmery.
The

20.

senses
jivespecial

imich may
of

raised

may

be

and
of

be

trained

so

other

so

sounds

their

judging

does
rather

the

; and

depend

not

fingers;

acquire

can

by

their

upon

the

of teas

judge

to

means

the

musical

observed

not

by

ear

notes

the finer variations

taught

are

perceptiveand

the

upon

nose

articles

many

be

may

learns

soon

their

distinguishvarious

to

as

read

can

feel with

shape, which

; the- tongue
taste

the blind

they

; the eye

color,size,and

vision

that

which
letters,
educated

all

are

the

by ordinary
and

habit

odor.

This

organs

of

wines

of

by

correctly

ever,
education, how-

special sense,

but

discriminatingfaculties

tred
cen-

in the brain.
21.
the

The

surface

than

of Touch

sense

of the

elsewhere.

touch, which

They

have

twenty thousand
the

been

When

two

when

with

provided

are

estimated

on

the

number

to

inch

in the

acute

more

hands

papillaeof
less than

not

palmar

the

surface

The

of

inches

on

needle

may

23.

The

of

impressionsare

an

needles

brings

us

by

one

inch,

the

back

inch

of

into the
which

two

apart,

we

on

an

touch
most

learn

be

must

the

part of

produce
sense

fingers,

ends

palm of the hand, four times


far,or

of the

needles, touching the

together .than this,only

nearer

perceived.

as

it is

to the square

one-twentieth

but

; but

all parts of

fingers.

22.
are

body

possessedby nearly

is

as

twice

far

on

as

the

forehead, and
the

body,

in

one

felt,

impression is

far apart

on

timet

lips,
twenty
not

less than

order

the

two

each

that

impression.
is the
intimate
whether

simplestof the
relations

they

are

with
hot

senses;

yet it

external
or

jects,
ob-

cold, hard

154

ANATOMY,

28.

The

from

shin exhales

its surface, and

having, in

AND

PHYSIOLOGY,
both

this respect,

and

from

oxygen

function

acid

carbonic

absorbs

HYGIENE.

animal

the

atmosphere,

similar

very

matter

that

to

of the

lungs.
"OOJO^OO-

QUESTIONS.
SECTION

is said of the

1. What

be in

state

2. To

solution

of

what

sensitive

kind

IV.

of taste

sense

Why

tasted

the substance

must

impressions

of

the

are

of

parts

the

most

tongue

does

3. How

the

act

taste

selectingfood

in

guide

as

How

it

may

be perverted ?
4.

What

5.

How

is necessary
does

6. How

is the

9. Where

12.

Do

13.

be

the lens

of

What

16.

How

17.
of

tears

Upon

accustomed

22.

How

different

other

From

objects made

animals

what

other

source

retina

the

eyelids

close

and

together
there

remain
of

vision

the iris ?

affect

tiie retina?

depend

seeing objects at different


of

field of

the

How

the

can

distances

is

How

objects ?
vision ?
from

dust

sand

and

What

is said

of

hearing depend

How

do

the

waves

nerves

in the

agent is needed

of hearing ?

sense

the variety of sound

To

what

may

the

ear

come
be-

this education
is said

depend

of the

far apart must


of

the

the

of

is remarked

parts

of

sense

auditory

the

is said

What

of

distance
the

does

what

What

21.

with

to gases

of sight?

sense

eyeball protected

19.

does

the

distinctness

of

of

third

what

the

the

to the

What

What

sight?

regard

18.

20.

In

reach

sound

of

sense

food

compared

man

protected by

upon

does

is said
is the

in

objects placed

remedied

adapted

15.

the

minute

of

excite

is remarked

What

the

come

retina

what

smell

of smell

sense

choice

impressions

impressions

Upon

dimness
14.

do

in the

of

to

all

are

is the

How
Uow

of

is needed

8. What

11.

sense

impressions

these

10.

aid

is remarked

7. What
may

smell

the

excite

to

body

sense

the

special senses

Upon

of touch

objects
?

of

education

be

to

?
make

distinct

impressions

upon

SENSORY

23.

Of

24.

What

are

25.

What

is remarked

what

is the

use

the

does

of toach

sense

fimctioiis of the

26.

How

27.

What

elevation

28.

What

substances

the

165

APPARATUS.

of

the

skin

perspiration?
the

perspiration regulate
of

temperature
exhaled

are

can

from

borne

the

by

absorbed

or

of

temperature

be

by

body

the

human

the

body

skin

-oo^^Xoo-

Development

startingpoint from

The

is the

changed

modified

or

the

in

of

whole

more

is

composed
of

This

of

one

or

are

This

be

may

less

different

the

liquids

of the

solids

formed

from

organ

every

oped,
develor

the

up

Some

others

more

in the

tissues,which, in turn,

more

cells.

organic

form

make

system.

together; but

being is

cell is

to

as

tissues

singletissue,while

tissues united

or

human

the

shape, so

These

body.

the solids of the

composed

which

Tissues.

primitive organic celL

of

tissues
and

of

two

body

are

understood

are

posed
com-

by

the

following.
'

of

Tissue
in

cells,floatingf Blood,

liquid.

( Lymph.

Epidermis.
Cuticle
Tissue
in

of

cells,arranged
layers.

of hair.

Nails.

Epithelium.
Pigment.
Enamel.

The

Primitive

Organic
Cell

of

Tissue
in

is

Adipose

cells,collected

Every

gan
or-

in

the

tissue.

masses.

Gray

formed

tissue.

nerve

from

developed
into

tissues.

Nerve
Tissue
form

cells, in

of

fibres.

Muscular

the

fibres.

Capillaries.

of tubes.

Lymphatics.
Dentme.

Tissue
form

Tissue
bedded

of

cells, in

the

of filaments.

of
in

cells^ ima

solid.

f Fibrous

( Elastic
f

tissue,
tissue.

Cartilage,

( Bone.

is

body

Marrow.

or

one

more

these
tissues.

of

166

ANATOMY,

Grouping
The

following exhibits
which

organs

or

AND

PHYSIOLOGY,

}"Osseous

Muscles.

j-Muscular

the

Organs.

natural

the human

compose

Bones.

of

System,

grouping

MuZf"

e m

e m

of

the parts

body.

Motor

Serous

HYGIENE.

Apparatus.

System.

System,

Membranoua

branes.

Salivary glands/
Gastric glands.
Pancreas.

Glandular

System.

Liver.
Spleen.
2P
Ki

idneys.

Mouth.
Palate.
Tonsils.

Tongue.
Digestive System.

Teeth.

Nutritive

Pharynx.

Apparatus.

(Esophagus.
Stomach.
Intestines.

MAN.

Heart.
Arteries.

Circulatory System.

Capillaries.
Veins.

Lymphatic

ves-l

Lymphatic
glands.

Lymphatic

System,

Larynx.
Trachea.

"

Respiratory System.

Lungs.
Cerebro-spinal
nerves.

Nervous

Sympathetic

System.

nerves.

Sensory ApparatoA.

Tongue.
Nose.

Eye.
Ear.

Skin.

Organs
sense.

of

Special

SENSORY

QUESTIONS.

GENERAL

1. What
2.

From

3.

Into

4.

Which

liquid
5.

is the

what

all tissues
classes

two

substances

formation

in the

startingpoint
are

what

157

APPARATUS.

formed
the

are

in the

divided

tissues

body

of

composed

are

cells

cells in

7. Which

of

cells in the

form

of

tubes

Which

of

cells in the

form

of

filaments

of

cells in

Which

floatingin

is the

blood

11.

What

is the

lymph

12.

What

is the

epidermis ?

13.

What

part of the hair

15.

is

epithelium

16.

What

is

pigment?

17.

What

is enamel

18.

What

is

19.

What

What

is cartilage?

the

does

Where

tissue?

adipose

What

are

nerve-fibres

are

muscular

22.

What

are

the

23.

What

are

the lymphatics ?

24.

What

is fibrous

25.

What

is elastic

26.

From

what

27.

What

are

What

Where

uses?

tissue ?

Of

what

use

use

they ?

are

is it ?

use

what

is it ?

use

formed?

Where
of

is their

what

Of

organ

bones

the

use

What

Of

tissue ?

the bones?

are

use

capillaries?

lower

body?

fibres ?

is every

the

is its

is its

in the

occur

use

What

What

the

it

is its

What

20.

Of

use

21.

Name

is its

cuticle ?

is the

What

limbs.

nails placed ?

Where
What

are

is its function

What

is its function

What

14.

the

are

head.

situated

they
Of

What

trunk.

the

Of

their

are

the

upper

limbs.
muscles?

Where

flexor

the

are

situated?

they

are

muscles

situated?

What
The

are

extensor

muscles?
29.
are

What

they
30.

Where

solid substance

What

their

cells

masses

10.

28.

of

arranged in layers ?

of

uses?

composed

are

6. Which

9.

livingbeing?

Which

8.

of

the

are

found

What
are

membranes

serous

are

they

the
found

membranes?

mucous

salivary glands

Where

are

the

gastric glands

Where

is the

32.
33.
34.

Where

is the

35.

Where

is the

14

function

What

is

their

Where

function?

are

Where

is their

the

31.

What

What

pancreas?
What

liver ?

spleen

What

What
What

is their
is their

is its function

is its function
is its function

function
?

?
?

function

?
?

158

ANATOMY,

AND

PHYSIOLOGY,

36.

Where

is the

mouth

What

is its function

37.

Where

is the

palate

What

is its function

38.

Where

are

39.

Where

is the

40.

Where

are

41.

Where

is the

pharynx

42.

Where

is the

oesophagus

43.

Where

is the

stomach

What

44.

Where

are

the

45.

Where

are

the

46.

Where

is the

47.

Where

are

the

arteries

48.

Where

are

the

veins

49.

Where

is the

larynx

50.

Where

is the

trachea?

the

tonsils

What

tongue

What

are

teeth

What

is their

the

small

cerebro-spinal

53.

Where

are

the

sympathetic

55.

is the

66.

Where

is the

ear

57.

Where

is the

skin

58.

Of

eye

is the

membranous

The

The

system?

circulatory
The

a^re
are

What

is their

its functions

function?

function

functions?

its

its functions

The

gUndular
The

system?

system?

nervous

is their

What

composed?

The

its functions?

system

osseous

function?

nerves?

are

What

muscular
?

system

lymphatic
Which

system?

The

digestive
The

system?
are

the

organs

spiratory
re-

of

sense?

special
Of
?

60.

system

system?

59.

function

is their

are

What

function

its functions

nerves

What

is their

is its function

What

What

nose?

function?

are

are

is the

is their

62.

Where

What

is their

the

function?

What

are

is their

What

Where

Where

function

What

Where

function?

is its function

51.

54.

What

f
?

is its function

What

lungs?

function

is its

What
?

function

is its

intestines

its functions

What

intestines

large
heart

What

the

what

is their

HYGIENE.

Of

what
The

what

is the
sensory
is Man

motor

apparatus

apparatus

composed?

composed

The

nutritiYe

ratus
appa-

Hygiene.

v."

CHAPTER

I.

Section
Remarks.

General

produced by

doubt

In very

Hygiene.

or

sickness which

ofthe

1. Mv4ih

hence,

understood;
and

in the

and

are

2.
which
upon

3
in

the

The

human

becomes

and

in

is

daily occurrence,

of

of which

is to

might

be avoided

which

laws

inquire into

both

moral

for

and

present the

to

aid

in the

the

influence

physical,have
best

preserving its

composed

function.

deranged, the

alone, but it extends

digestionis
and

more

more

all the tissues and

or

of various

When

the

for

means

functions

in

or

less upon

Moral

differing

organs

function

effect is not

of

confined

less to the wTiole

impaired, the blood

corresponding degree.
act

or

body

and

thus, when

system

clothing,in exercise,

in

natural

imperfectly

are

existence.

own

our

laws

of health,

laws

of health.

organ

organ

the

surrounding agents,
the human
body, and

structure

one

diet,

dwellings,are

of

objectof Hygiene

ITie

developing
state

in

errors

by carefullyobserving
preservationof

these

cases

many

by diseases,many

followed

out
family is with-

human

neglectof the general

ventilation

the
afflicts

organs
and

the whole

receives

of the

to that

system

less

body

any

ishment,
nour-

suffer

in

fore,
physical agents, therebeing, either directly

indirectly.
169

160

the

in

Physiology
and

the

previous chapters,so

that

of each

organ

and

of the structure

the function
of

dependence

one

organ

understood.

When

have

acquainted

become

and

The

5.
human

body,

and

have

the

the

up

be

the

study

faHj

different

of

their

Hygime^
ence.
exist-

own

influence

most

body,

chapters, and

of

functions

the

in

these

preservationof

upon

the

mental

clothing,food, sleep,and

air, water,

are

the
take

to

the

to

which

agents

with

ready

its laws

apply

to

studied

and

knowledge

another, may

upon

pupils have

will be

they

organs,

HYGIENE.

subject of Anatomy

whole

presented the

have

We

4.

AND

PHYSIOLOGY,

ANATOMY,

physical exercise.
"o"04cx"

QUESTIONS.

SECTION

is said

1. What
2.

What

3.

What

4.

Why

is said
has

What

dependence

whole

subject

pupils

may

agents

have

the

human

in the

of the

the

When

sickneHs

object of Hygiene

is the

?
5.

of the

I.

of

of

one

organ

the
intiuence

study
the

on

another

upon

and

Anatomy

commence

most

family?

Physiology
of

been

sented
pre-

Hygiene?

human

body

-OO^^KOO-

II.

Section
Air.

The

1.

air ia

carbonic

acid

preserve

the

the

amount

We

have

of fresh
feet

gas,

health

already seen
air

; and

will suffer.

gases

supply
a

of

want

nitrogen^and

; oxygen,

of oxygen

is
or

oxygen,

an

necessary
increase

to

in

acid, will be injuriousto the system.


that each

minute, and

every

hour

due

; but

of carbonic

every

health

composed of tJiree

person

needs

four hundred

this amount

must

eight cubic
and

be

feet

eighty cubic

supplied,or

the

162

PHYSIOLOGY,

ANATOMY,

first tested
will

by

and

When

life.

support

is fit for

lighted candle

; and

unhealthy

it

contain

to

bums

it bums

when

HYGIENE.

found

and

the candle

when

breathing ;

AND

brightly,the

dimly,

the

air is

burn, the

to

ceases

air tbat
air

impure

air will not

support life.
add

Carbonic

8.

expirationfrom

every

Pure

air must

done

by

lungs

be

it is

given

rendered

in all the

the

body;

off

to

and

this

When

badly

ventilated

phere,
atmos-

breathing.
only

can

be

buildingsoccupied by

rooms

time, the efiect of the carbonic


in the

hurried

more

headache,

causes

and

and

the weak

10.
still

When

of the

the

in

to

teachers

juries in
poorly

the

to

they

exhalations

Much

typhoid, and

12.
thus
is in

who

the

gas

attention

13.

as

to

for

increased

are

of

of

ache,
the head-

restlessness,

in

long

both

air.

odor.

small-pox.

in

by sickness^

fever, such

demanded,

gases
to

This

is

typhus,

as

Fresh

for the

will prevent

have

air in

sick, and

its

An

them.

example

its deleterious
to

us

to

make

effects.

vitiaied

of this

It is very

disagreeable

enables

and

exposure

odor, and
offensive

an

illuminating cities.

fatal; but

its presence,

Continued

extent, it

of pure

unpleasant

very

is directed

used

oft;en

body

fever, and

an

remain

the want

to

forms

of the poisonous

attention

our

low

of

in attendance.

are

Many

and

means

scarlet

is imperatively

cases

for thoee

in

case

the

and

all who

by

due

from
emit

sometimes

especiallythe
these

places,is

sensation

school-room, by judges and

the

and

great

so

languor.

pupils in

court-room,

ventilated
The

11.

and

noticed

faint*

giddiness,dulness, sleepiness,
yawning,
by

healthy to feel oppressed,

vitiated

produces depression and

be

for

circulation,the

and
intellect,

oft-times

air is not

air may

increased

the strong and


delicate

occupied

are

in the

acid

breathing,the

dulness

the

fulness,which

and

at

beings.

9.

felt

and

the

unfit for

constantlysupplied ;

free ventilation

human

the

is,therefore,soon

which

in

eonsUmtlyformed

odor
use

rious,
inju-

attracts

of such

"

atmosphere wHl always

163

HYGIENE.

disturb and

bring

depress the
disease

some

on

The

grave.

all become

their

14.

Uie

conbinued

consumption.

This

of

means

supply
well

Animals

air and

this way,

behold

we

the

in

the death

while

oxygen

death

of

16.

is

no

and

good, all

the

until

other

means

but

of the
where
everyoxygen.

in the air is
How

the

kept

clearly

animal

and

Carbonic

amd

of the

other!

be

to

of the climate.

giving off

life of

animals, but

Persons
the

ftmctions
air.

human

plants;
the

causes

that

is

more

or

be

attention

may

warm,

vitiated,have

and

the

be

human

given

beings.
rooms,

respiratoryand

depressed,and, therefore,feel
Habit

is pure

impressed

imventilated
their

vitiated

restoring the

feet cannot

places occupied by
to

for air that

preserving
This

productiveof

family,than

exchanged

for

accustomed

atmosphere

more
physical,

or

little.

of all

for fresh

food, and

plants are

gases

sustains

best

unlimited

an

another.

to

The

the oxygen

it ; but

each

the

this is

the ventilation

other

ill ventilated

have

dependence

agent, moral

all,so

where

in

is to

these

life of

but also

disease.

acid, and

animals, but

stronglyupon
17.

tem,
sys-

man,

latter

nutritious

to

upon

sufferingto

health, will avail

to

this the

sustains

and

atmosphere;
and

of

cles,
mus-

plants.

There

sickness

acid

generation

vegetable kingdom

causes

the

depressesthe

the vicissitudes

the carbonic

one

of

want

properly to

cease

confined

when

plenty of

eat

proportion of

from

unchanged
may

the

from

only with

not

die of the

off carbonic

giving

digestion,

nerves,

air

everywhere consuming

are

consuming

too

is the case,

often

air,to

the

be the result.

must

preventing consumption

of pure

untimely

an

diseases,but particularlyto scrofula

protectedby clothingfrom

16.

In

disease

animals, which

places,very

body,

hreaihingofimpure

many

the inferior

brain, the

the

functions, and

to

with

to

suffers

system

part of the

every

giving rise
and

the

them

through

indeed

perform

when

deranged

and

ite victim

hurry

later

or

sooner

the circulation,and
respiration,

air ; and

pure

to

will

and

vital powers,

the

depressinginfluence

less need
of the foul

164

ANATOMY,

air dull their


smell

by

or

of

sense

in the

they

overtaken

do

recognize,either by

not

breathing; hence, they

are

practiceof breathing
by

effect of the

serious

some

the

apt

are

vitiated

to

air until

disease.

There
!7^d/eepin^aj9arfm"nfodA(mZ(26et(;e/?t;en"t^a^.

is but

little
to

In

air.
and

they

HYGIENE.

increasing infirmity,the

they

continue

18.

that

so

senses,

impurities which

are

AND

PHYSIOLOGY,

having

his

room,

well

vigor and

the

restored

of

danger

the

by

cold

taking

when

is

person

tomed
accus-

sleeping-room freelysupplied with


ventilated,the sleep is

strength of

the whole
The

night'srest.

dry

refreshing,

more

is

system
mouth

fresh

fiilly

more

and

throat, the

headache, and the languor felt in the morning, would

often be

prevented by sleepingwith

window.

19.

The

bed

When

heaters

should

always

be pure,

opposite

to

and

other

the

is introduced

the

where

be

air

warm

the

near

an

the

open

enters

one

by

room

side of

the

on

air, which

warm

into the

flues

two

or

byproperlyc(mstnicted

are

used, and

are

should

pipe, there

door

open

for ventilation

means

flues.
of

an

the

remove

the

for heating a

room,

there

as

room

the

near

to

ceiling,so

means

floor,

impure

air.

When

20.
be

some

fresh
The

air into the

of the
21.
in

; thus

As

to

the

found

impure

air of

flues.

draughts of

be

circulation

placed.

opposite
in the air

if its full value


it would

there

is

boarded
as

health

for

kept

for the sake


preserver

it does
Too

open,

in
not

and
the

ing-room
sleepcreate

often, however,

of appearance

could

next

removing

particularlyvaluable

fire ; because

no

up

be

means

injure the sleeper.

to

always
When

It is

firepUuiecomes

open

always

excellent

room.

air

fireplaceis

It should

most

where

22.

air should

constant

of ventilation,the

means

be

the

insuring a

impure

is

stove

apartment.

value

will

of the

escape

the

where

room

should

ceiling for introducing

the

near

part of the

flues for the


stove

is used

provided

means

the

to

stove

be

; but

comprehended,

be left open.
romn

has

neither

flues nor

recourse
fireplace,

165

HYGIENE.

be had

mvst

be

opened

to the doors

that

so

The

inmates.

admission

by

room

introduction
The

23.

become
"om

then
and

lungs

the

of the
24.

The

air

ads

bums,

is slower;
more

above

these

range

be mmnfmned
between

the

air of the

the

men

The

of the

burning

phere
atmos-

of

of

from

summer.

in

all be

moist.
the

influenceupon
the

and

the

body

and

This

them.

cityof Quito,

air

ration
respicustomed
ac-

experience but

to

as

the

become

may

ration
respi-

the

mountains,

density,so

ration.
respi-

comes
earth, the air be-

oxygen,

human

from

Wounds,

is the

which

is

case

9,540 feet

sea.

within

great; for there


heat

frequentlypass

country, varies

much

less oxygen,

of

the

from

one

air,

100** to

which
is

human

in

120"

yet, both

place to
many

between

lifecan

wide

equatorialclimes

regionsof perpetual snow

and

ratus,
appa-

probable that salves,


good by excluding

ascend

of temperature

of

It is

more

contains

changes

is very

temperature

winter

heating

poisons,should

an

we

inconvenience

any,

The

when

hurried.

more

the level of the

26.

should,

kept covered.

mines

contains

and

the inhabitants

with

and

but

rare,

to

if
little,

into

dense, and

is

feverish

the heated

to

the parts soft and

the air has

descend

we

more

becomes

be

the air.

keeping

densityof

As

and

dry

moisture

inflamedmxrjaeesby evaporating

do
dressings,

other

thus

The

all

upon

exclude

to

as

air,and

25.

off moisture

give

it is apt to
the

other

or

occupied
un-

the direct

containingwater

stove,

or

ture
supply of mois-

of

much

and
scalds, erysipelas,

ointments, and
the

vessel

hence, they should

covered, so

the

hall

artificial means,
too

the

upon

room.

their moisture
sores,

due

never

window.

skin, producing

therefore,be kept upon


that it may

contain

by

blow

through

through

absorbs

of the system.

so

air

it is heated

air will

air

should

these

door, is better than

breathe should

and

dry,

condition

of

means

we

when

the

of fresh

of the external
air

but

of cold

draught

but

vdndows;

or

difference

and
are

the cold

inhabited,

the other.

parts of

our

the extremes

Even
own

of

166

ANATOMY,
The

27.
In

AND

PHYSIOLOGY,

HYGIENE.

temperature of the air favors certain kinds


the

climates

warm

membrane

tendencyis

the stomach

of

to

and

of disease.

inflammations of

the

intestines,giving rise

diarrhcea,dysentery,cholera, and diseases of the liver.


also

acts

languor

the

upon

and
listlessness,

and

physical and
In

28.

tory

mental

such

the

air

it is

times

always

of the

avoid

respmh

Sometimes

the

of

in

most

oped
fully develdecline

; and

disease.

by

the

dry

so

quickly

to

but

at

evaporation

perspiration.

is

amount

as

body;

moisture, that

but

the

on

it is

it acts

is not

moisture, but

contains

is bathed

always depressing;

are

and

is enfeebled

system

with

the skin

and

ceases,

vigor

powers

exhalations

loaded

so

whose

old, whose

all the

to diseases

depressing agent,

young,

continuallychanging.
evaporate

brain, producing

general dispositionto

tendencyis

invalid, whose

The

29.

is

the

the

; upon

Heat

pleurisy,pneumonia, bronchitis, and

as

injuriouslyupon

upon

the

Cold

consumption.

the

to

labor.

cool dimaies

organs,

of

centres

nerve

cous
mu-

Moist

other
almost
air is

dry air,is exhilarating to

pure,

the system.
80.

Sudden

be endured
and

the

changes
the robust

by

dryness

much

so

of the

changes, before

Regulating
and

31.
than

for

means

from
with

benumbed

cold room,

and

while

heat to cold

by

suitable

sudden

of fire,

means

clothing,are

depressed,the
with

temperature

endured

any

not

will almost

rubbed

be

can

When

cold, it should

the

by

the

itself to them.

houses

our

bodies

cold to heat.

fire,or inflammation
system is much

of

or

protection.

Changes from
those

it is the

accommodate

can

our

the young

cold, the moisture

disease, as

temperature
of

the

or

causes

the system

the temperature
best

our

air, that

but

injury ;

delicate, often suffer greatly.

the

the heat

the

much

without

old, the feeble and

It is not

of the atmosphere can

the condition

in

be

part of the

towels

should
so

of the

better

as

room

to

be

the

If the whole
taken

excite
is

is

body

exposed directlyto

surelyfollow.
person

much

into

lation,
the circu-

gradually

in-

167

HYGIENE.

creased

; but

in cold

water,

if

is restored.
A

32.

only

and

part is benumbed,

should

This

be

is the

change of air from

at

two

or

the

will

seaside, on

produce

appetite, and
of

the

upon

33.
and

seems

parents

should
the

during
exercise

Ufe, and,
be

held

for

expirations
lungs

more

and

without

air, as

open

breathing is

than

half

be

that

aif of

fresh
of

the

city ;

country,

they

may

enjoy

tend

the
and

at

least

such

free

health

their

improve

to

acts

results.

the

the

for

necessary

breathing.

into

of

the

be

taken,

from
This

to

water
are

if five

so

to

as

or

cannot

six.

one

to

save

able

two

others

then

minutes

may

useful

when

becomes
or

poisonous
from

gases,

drowning.

by long practice to

three

or

four

deep
the

empty

impure air, and

smoke,

respiration for

breath

the

fact

filled with

support of human

the

; but

minute

taken,

pearl-divers of Ceylon

time.

which

into

possible of

as

The

will

inspirations

in

process

The

ordinary circumstances,

and

the

where

ety,
soci-

strength.

passing through places


diving

children

of

generally healthier

are

than

house,
farm-

augmented

change

good

large cities.

season,

inspiration

elapse

their

completely

as

full

send

their

under

country

week

quiet

surroundings,

invigorating

summer

Constant

in

the

at

or

the

bene-

Even

feelings,an

producing
the

sensibility

often proves

It is the

other

in

those

more

develop

the

reared

in the

34.

of

than

stronger

mountains,
of the

placed

preweuting frost-bite,

weather.

warm

be

until

country

weight.

system,

nervous

country

and

and

Children

the

increased

an

scenery,

the

to

buoyancy

for

means

town

ficUdy particularly during

rubbed

gently

best

it should

minutes

pend
sus-

at

168

PHYSIOLOGY,

ANATOMY,

HYGIENE.

AND

QUESTIONS.
SECTION
what

1. Of

by

2. What

places

6. What

effect do
the

can

8. What

becomes

9. What

are

is said

air

of the

12. What

of the

odor

diseases

14. What

unchanged
16. What
human

17.

Why

18.

What

19. What

of

keeps

agent

probably produces

family
do

is said

of

heaters

used

are

best

should

What

air ?

are

and

oxygen

carbonic

acid

in the air

air act

25. How

does

the

sickness

most

for the

and

air while

sufferingto

How

breathing

it?

flues when

fire-placeas

windows

can

stove

ventilator

ventilators

as

moisture?

inflamed

on

of the

be

room

ven*

is used ?

How

moisture

may

be supplied

range

parts of the body ?

rarity of
of

air affect the

temperature

within

respiration?
which

human

life

27.

What

diseases

are

28.

What

diseases

by

29.

What

is said

of

human

is the
does

the

density and

is said

maintained

are

the

room

does

34. What

atmosphere?

air contain

the

air in

24. How

Why

vitiated

ventilation

arrangement

doors

the

for

means

and

33.

by

ventilating sleeping-rooms

best

the

are

of

32. How

recognize the impurity of the

not

we

22. What

31. What

in sickness

body

of

30. How

is remarked

be

lungs?

proportion of

is the

26. What

in the

the

gases

affected

consumption

21. What

to the

the air ?
tested ?

be

formed

from

poisonous

20. What

Why

more

upon

places

acid

the

tilated when

23.

they

are

produced by breathing impure

are

of

preventives

What

have

room

other

exhalations

vital powers

the

matter

slightly vitiated produce

does

are

Why

breathing impure air

effects from

the

and

carbonic

the

of

11. What

13. How

hastened?

matter

residence

as

lights in

the

air in wells

10. What

the

air is needed

vegetable

all refuse

with

done

be

should

Id.

fresh

5. What

7. How

acid

and

unhealthy

are

night

at

carbonic

of

sources

decay of animal

is the

4. What

can

the

are

3. How

the best

much

How

person

unhealthy

composed

air

is the

gases

II.

should

best

produced by
cold

dry

and

is remarked

of moist

treatment

air?

of

spend

sudden

for persons

of air from

children

climates?

beings affected by

change

climates

warm

'town

the

suspending

summer

the

changes

benumbed
to

in the weather?

with

country

prove

in the

country

process

of

cold?

beneficial?
?

breathing?

170

ANATOMY,

many

substances

these

water, and

is

7. Ihire water
and

purposes,

good water,

and
be

the

in

lottingthe

water

with

gravel,or

more

during

of ice renders

The

of

use

water,

This

from

water

in

dug

the lakes
shotild

and

readily be

done

by

barrel, filled with

sand

or

may

charcoal.

Rain

should

purposes,

or

be
The

weather.

warm

palatable,and

cooking,is
doubt

any

the

poison

should

is not

snow

filtered
addition

injurious,

essential to

as

exists
be

body

blood
is

becomes

lower

the

the
of

influence

of

the

instead

pure
Im-

standard

increased

sometimes

poisonous

heaMi

into

matter

subject to

the

the character

to

as

good

carefullyfiltered.

and

more

impuritiesare

until the water

wells

vicinity.

by slowly introducing organic

These

as

obtain

usually

organic matter,

it

have

to

free from organic imparities,for

waJter

health, so that the

is called

quantities.

Whenever

system, may
disease.

taken

the

less

the

drinking-water,it

of the

in their

more

in moderate

air.

pure

water

to

generally supplied with

are

drinking

of drinking and

purposes
as

the

Owing

water

springs and

coarselypowdered

way,

9.

the

through

pass

in

used

the

used.

for

when

country

or

kept

same

in

lakes

water, when
the

be

months

fUteredbeforebeing

lime.

should

cities

summer

rivers contains

of

common

for drinking and for cooking

times, from

or

most

sulphate of

essential

people

The

substances, the

means

all

HYGIENE.

less unwholesome.

or

the rivers

During

8.

more

every

at

from

water

mineral

is very

; but

earth

the

the

possible. People

as

pure

it dissolves.
and

of these

the presence
hard

which

the carbonate

are

AND

PHYSIOLOGY,

of

in amount,

healthful

drink.
10.

It is

Waier

is very

that

the

should

of grease

and

important

through

freelyescape
skin

clean

and

ablutions
the

skin

for cleansingthe body.

useful as

in

skin

the open

soap

healthy

many

and

state

be

that

dirt, so

soft,shuts
with

means

pores

kept
the

; for

free from

perspirationmay
"

who

he

keeps

gates against disease."


water

; and

are

when

mulations
accu-

necessary

these

are

to

the

quent
Fre-

preserve

neglected,

171

HYGIENE.

painfiildiseases

of the

skin, or of the internal organs,

apt

are

follow.

to

vigor of the system

The

11.

ofbathing; and

course

of

means

When

body, it should
12.

be taken

of- the

serious

kinds.

sometimes
13.

sideration

for

but

reaction

the

body

should

The

in

the

greater

should

be rubbed
Unless

the

best

evening, before
beneficial

the

yet any

time

meal, while

immediately

after

digestiveorgans,
15.

The

determined
kind
half

by
hour

agreeable
hour

; but

bath

this is not
until

the

case,

glow"

"

by reaction,the

to

and

our

hours

before
A

retiringto sleep.
when

taken

answer

dinner;

bath

will

in

the

fore part of

except

the

hours
tl;iree

should, therefore,be avoided.


tim"

for remaining

circumstances.
which

will

when

will

three

fast;
rrwrningbeforebreak-

taken
digestionis taking place. When
is apt to derange the
eating,the shock

length of

of reaction
an

The

entering a

towels

in the

to

one

be most

the amount

the system.

is followed

timsfor bathing is

probably
after

it

carefulcon-

our

upon

coarse

shock

most

the system, that

demands

When

with

the

of the

hours.

less shock

follow.

soon

often

to

its accumulation

injuriouswhen

prove

or

forenoon, from

day

few

is in

body

prevents the

and

body,

requirements of

in the
in

the

the

while

be beneficial.

cannot

14.

death

to

will be sufficient.

inflammations,

bathing will

suited

produced.

bath

from

heat

invalid.

it is simply

of the water

contact

temperature of the bath

receives

body

entered

be

the

when

week

important

strengthening the

; but

great is this shock

So

is not

of heat

baths

never

internal

produces

The

of

judicious

an

of

powers

day

every

two

or

animal

rise to

gives

or

once

of perspiration. The

escape

feeble

for the purpose

baih shcmld

The

state

is

is used

the skin, one

cleanse

to

promoted by

it,consequently,becomes

strengthening the

the bath

be

may

not

Much

follows.
be

too

When

long

it may
feelings,
the reaction

is

will

even

in

bath

depend
this

is

time, and
be

feeble,ten

the

upon

vigorous, a
when

prolonged
or

be

must

very

for

an

fifteen minutes

172

be the fiill extent

five

ten

minutes

The

cold bath ahoiUd

or

16.

strong, than
a

cold

The

place.

depend

the

upon

the

be used

when

the

system

promptly

soon

alter

will prove

The

tepidbath

reaction

and

shock

from

who

its

bath

must,

therefore,

bath
bath

It is the bath

It calms

hence, when
overwork,
at

or

from

excitement, and
the young,

the
it is

body

the

its

other

an

tinued
con-

to

for

regularlycontinued,

be used

unless

The

the

it will

by

bath,

warm

calm

to

It may

be used

advanced

help

hot bath is

advised

of the

journey, from

suited

those

lations
accumu-

disposesto sleep;

refreshingsleep.

invigoratethe system.

depressed.

are

constitution,the

by

90"

languid

the surface

from

90", is well

middle-aged, and

those

invigorate

to

with

and

excited

enfeebled

by

day by day,

removing

from

in

less

temperature from

of life

excitement,

and

used

tend

persons

powers

long

receives

system

in

range

used

to

It is less

preferred.

nervous

substances

of about
induce

is too

regularly employed

the

when

never

the

grateful

and

should

that

depressing,that is,when

in

is tired, and

temperature

is

nervous

one

is felt

temperature from 75"

is to be

commonly

most

of dirt and

body.

is too

should

in whom

circulation, and

in

vigorous reaction,it will

warm

This

96".

assured

rest

may

range

if

strengthen the system.

to

we

Unless

of warmth

glow

should

fatigue.

should, therefore, be

and

The

and

tepid bath

followed

18.

system, and

sufferingfrom

is

of warmth

and

by

in the

vigor

bath

; and

delicate

are

already in

is

system

effect of

of the

reacts,

; it

use

the

direct

will fail

and
effects,

its

depressing in

The

and

robust

reaction

body

cold

the

returning, then

the

to

to

that

should

glow

50"

injurious.

use

the

cold,

depressed so

taking the bath,

When

90".

weak.

when

of

amount

is

water

temperature from

adapted

and

coldness

not

17.

be

state, it may

take

better

is

depress,and

is to

in

range

the delicate

to

bath

feeble

to

It

the

long enough.

will be

Fahrenheit,

75"

When

of time.

should

HYGIENE.

AND

PHYSIOLOGY,

ANATOMY,

to

the

by

in life ;

strengthen

stimulating,and

physician.

173

HYGIENE.

19.

Sea-bathingseems

in

fresh water

to

the cheerful

; but

this

is

in

due

probably

of

the

system, and

sea-side resorts.
a

in salt water

from

than

salt bath

is less liable

person

great

swelling surf, and

always attending a plunge

any

our

invigoratingthan bathing

more

the

company,

scenes

bath

to be

into

the
the

is less

rating
exhilaat

ocean

depressing to

take

to

measure

cold

from

in fresh water.

one

^x""i"

QUESTIONS.
SECTION

is said

1. What
2. How

long
should

lived

persons

Why

4.

What

is said

5.

What

is remarked

of

6.

What

is the

of hard

is pure

8. What
summer

What

cause

and

body?

water

in nature

soft water

rain, or

water

obtained

water

sick

of water

purity

food

without

in the

in the
the

country

and

in cities ?

and

the

rain

be

done

with

be

done

with

all

impure

regard

to

keeping

river

in

water

the

How

water?

does

it affect

What

is remarked

11. What
taken

of the

should

system

10.

of water

use

be given to the

water

should

season

9.

be

have

and

amount

3.

7. How

the

of the

III.

good

in

results

bathing?

from

come

the

skin

How

clean
often

?
should

baths

bath

in

when

12.

Why

13.

What

14.

What

of

15.

What

of the

16.

What

is remarked

17.

What

of the

use

of the

tepid

18.

What

of the

use

of the

warm

19.

What

is said

16

not

enter

of the

is remarked

"

the best

time

length

of

state

temperature

bathing

for

of time

of the

for

sea-bathing?

of the water

remaining

bath

bath

perspiration?
used

cold

of the

use

of

?
?

in the

bath

bath?

for

bathing ?

174

AND

PHYSIOLOGY,

ANATOMY,

HYGIENE.

IV.

Section
Clothing.

1. All

that

heat, 80

toUhaut

bodies

they

kept

are

and

give

within

heat

The

2.

the air

The

in which

vxjter

off from

to

heat
but
this

of their
is

man

bodies

is

compelled

heat

from

resort

natural

animal

the

escapingtoo rapidly;

clothing of

to

of

water.

or

with

provided

that

continually

air

surrounding

are

prevented
to

is

of feathers, by which

covering of hair, of fur, or

is

power

is usuallyhigher than

animals

among

effects of the

strongly marked.

more

the

also

of generating

means

plants, this

they live; hence,

bodies

their

orders

lower

In

air.

animals, it is

in

the

as

animals

and

resistingthe

temperature of animals

or

given

they have

external

gaining

temperature

same

themselves, thus

feeble ; but

very

; but

off heat

of the

temperature

the

at

Living plants

surrounding atmosphere.
receive

constantlylosing or

lifeare

kind

some

for

purpose.

3.

The

while
from

temperature of the human

the

of the

that

120".

blood

to

the cold

During

by clothingso
When

of the

temperature

body

perishes from

the

reduced

to any

point between

more

less

or

below

kept

at

body

is reduced

depressing

to

and

be

must

100*';

varies

range

of

well

tected
pro-

temperature.

80", the individual

effects of the

98"

tx"

country

uniform

98"

making

zero,

the

from

in this

climate

weather
to be

as

of the

the heat

20"

is

body

cold ; and

when

80", the system receives

injury,corresponding with

the

reduction

of the

temperature.
4.

elevated

water,

body

often
is
and

the hat.

cause,

any

to

or

frequently to
to

wear

temperature of the body

perishes.

In

becomes
110"

the

individual

110", the

to

the

raised

from

When,

wet

its

overheated, and
The

112".
bathe

the

sponge

best
head

or

cases

of

temperature

preventive of
ai^d face

towel

in

the

is

stroke
sun-

is
stroke
sun-

with

cold

crown

of

175

HYGIENE.

less in

effects
of cold,is
than

the middle

it is in

necessityfor
of

means

the

sick, whose

should

standard,

of

the winter
the

at

the

consequently,more

covering

when

system

awake.

The

sunrise

has the most

effects of
the

by

body
cold.

severe

necessitywhich

We

they

as

wear

is the chief
the

to two

one

circulation
in

reduced

activity;

during sleep,than
depressedduring
midnight

and

in resisting
the
difficulty

all made
for

find

we

well

of the

for it is between

are

the

feeble, and

to be most

night ;

the

as

body from

is necessary

the latter part of the


that

the

time

seems

below

of life.

those

same

old, by

cold, and

the

enemy

of

the

feeble and

Cold

young,

functions,even

are
respiration,

fire

season.

great

greater

The

the

the

near

the

depressed

bear

the temperature
the

and

young

are

well

the

it is to them

Sleep lowers
degrees; and all

life

cannot

themselves

6.

and

of

mortality among

and

aged ;

the

of artificial warmth.

clothingduring

cause

period of life. Hence,

powers

shelter

warm

the ing
ofresisting
depressin the aged,
children and

young

protectionof

the

clothingand

healthful

and

of generating heed

5. The power

of this fact

aware

covering towards

more

morning.
7. Exercise

body, but

much

and

is

exercised,than

heat

which

evaporates, and

it ; thus

when
skin

radiation

of

it is in
to be

perspiration on

state

covered

carries the heat

heat
its

the vicissitudes
no

other

colds, as
the

by

of

way
a

climate

so

can

the

body

rather
prevention,

amount

than

of repose.

with

of the

the
This

perspiration,
body

off with

temperature.

from the body,and the evaporation


be regulatedby the
surface,must

proper

degrees.

heat is generated,when

which, therefore,requiresconstant
clothing,

In

in the

be raised many

feet,may

preservinga nearly uniform

8. The
the

the

causes

the

of animal

largeramount

extra

of

feelingof warmth

it

face,the hands,

body

the

only increases

its temperature.
The
raises
actually
deeper parts
two
or
body become
only one
degrees warmer
; but

of the
the

not

varied

the

to

changeful as

suit
this.

guarded against
clothing; the object being

be

of

and

attention

cure

so

well

of disease.

176

ANATOMY,

9. The
heed

jyrincipdlobjectof clothingis

and

cold; therefore,

wearing
During

apparel
of the

body

best

be

weather, the clothing should

permit

of

the exhalations

to

Furs

and

the

in that
suited

way
to

the heat

surface

12.

goods

Woollen

chills.

body,

are

poor

the best

of

linen,

and

of both

in
flannel,

be

next

worn

weather

warmest

only

be

of cotton.

is,that

moisture
for

the
it

moisture;

particles,
they
heat

of the

being warm

as

of the

escape

cold

and,

the

to

cold ; and

as

are

body.

; but

their

heat

from

body.
they

They
fiimish

against the changes

climate.

13.

Woollen

absorbs

clothing,because

the

bodies

protectingour

for

means

skin,

changes.

and

heat

the

to

covering

for

of

the

pheric
atmos-

is,therefore,a poor

their

of the

the entrance

conductors

next

absorb

of

It is well

few

but

warmer

to

spoken

preventing

our

made

much

retain

frequent in

should

or

Cotton

air among

often

are

consists in

the

the

cotton.

or

of cotton

worn

suited

slow

are

considerable

goods

warmth

be

not

It is better

conductors, and

should

to

skin.

kind

are

protectionagainst sudden

more

Woollen

so

the

rapidly.

very

there

is, therefore,

linen.

they contain
poor

time

same

body quickly, and

quickly, and

too

protection against sudden


rapidly,and

the

away

yet it should

the

body'than

from

climate, where

warm

it cools

affords

kind

warmest

the

fabrics,made

moisture

conveys

changes

less

the

at

that

cold, moist

of such

freelyfrom

furnish

while

imbibes

Linen

11.

off

in

of hair, wool, sUk, linen,

materials

body

and

purpose.

light,so

; but

heavier, and

body,

pass

be

for

cooler.

much

as

made

woollen

clothing for
are

the

Clothing is

10.

the

heat

retain

to

as

this

accomplish

readily escape

may

fabrics

such

clothing should

the

weather,

warm

the heat

will

as

protect the body from

to

select

must

we

HYGIENE.

AND

PHYSIOLOGY,

the
the

to

of

summer

exchanged
The

it prevents

shape
skin,

of waistcoat

at

; and

during

then, the flannel

even

for similar

surfiice

drawers,

all times, except

advantage derived
the

and

of

articles
from

of the

clothing,

nel
wearing flan-

body

from

being

178

ANATOMY,

When

garters

are

of blood

flow

The

used.

and

of

weight

should

comfort

flannel

made

of the

skin

not

and

giving

be

as

important

as

light as

too

prevent
rise to

be

often

the materials

as

is consistent

Two

wearer.

and

with

three

or

than

warmer

singlegarment,

elastic,and

heart, often

of the

will

into

be

HYGIENE.

of the veins.

garments

the warmth

the

of dressingis

manner

All

should

the veins

toward

painful enlargement
19.

they

worn,

will compress

tight,or they
the

AND

PHYSIOLOGY,

nesses
thick-

double

that

should, therefore,be

preferred.
20.

TighUfiUinggarments

not

are

warm

so

those

as

thus

check

the

apt

are

21.

of heat

blood

head, and

from

the

the brain, and


a

are

few

It

the

cramps

The

of

action

the

multitude
as

allow

to

neither
23.
most

the

lungs

too

All
full

the

respirationnor

When

the chest is

serious

character.

lungs is necessary
is

cavity

of diseases.

for

the

for the

the

of the

small

is

of

venous

neck-ties,now
the

in

old-fashioned

productive of much
and

chest, and
be

the circulation

compressed,it

generates

of

thiB

will be

free

and
the

of air

amount

system,

diseases

; and

so

that

that

so

impeded.

expansion

health

looselyworn

so

induces

the

vessels,
large blood-

opportunity for expansion,

full

chief.
mis-

muscles, prevents

clothingshould

maintaining

wants

and

clothing presses

return

the heart

prevented by tight clothing, the


small

body,

of the blood,and

over

the chest is

expansion of the lungs,compresses


contracts

the

since.

years

Tight lacing about

restrict

produces congestion of

great improvement

very

in vogue

22.

When

sometimes

apoplexy.

even

the

they

of life.

neck, it prevents the

the

because

they prevent the free


cause
deformities
way,

the circulation

diseases.

of serious

cause

tightly against

stocks

; and

of

They

ways.

They

exercise

until the end

remain

to

Tight clothingobstructs

oftenthe

use,

healthy

the

amount

blood.

of the

of the muscles, and, in this

movement

that

and

motions

many

moderately loose;

prevent the free circulation


natural

injuriousin

are

of
of

when

the
the

this

inspiredis
the

venous

179

HYGIENE.

blood

is

then

imperfectlychanged

brings

little oxygen

too

little carbonic

too

into

acid;

arterial

the blood

to

The

Shape

of

a.

Waist

not

Fig.53.

The

Shape

of

Waist

deformed

air, the

ill ventilated

24.

In

by

chest

be

cannot

out

can

be

developed;

in

of the

any

chest

the

the

and

attain
those
other

by tight-lacing.

in

confined

when

an

all the

subject to

atmosphere.
bones

the

all these

the

lungs,

way

and

yielding,

evils,but it forces

prevents its natural


within

organs

their full size.


who

soft

are

shape, and

this is the case,

enjoyed by

lacing,or

vitiated

of its natural

blood-vessels, never

away

by tight-lacing.

it becomes

only produces

not

When

growth.

deformed

it does

as

and

tjhildren, while

tight lacing
the

same

dwelling;

evils induced

carries

air

Fig.S3.

Fig. 52.

of fresh

and

The

hence, the body suffers from

Fig.52.

want

blood.

the

the chest

heart, and

Good

health

the
never

persistin the practiceof tight


of

constricting the

free

ments
move-

180

in

the

When

25.

it

walking,

large enough

spreads out

shoes

or

they

the

compress

bunions, and
should

be

of the feet from


made

be

should

When
the
of

they

when

too

are

; because

in this

be

always

and

support

corns,

overshoes

the

lations
exha-

and

shoes

they prevent

to

the

narrow,

Qum

nails.

being evaporated. Boots

should,

ening
length-

joints,producing

the

heavy enough

fashion

feet ; and

walk

painful to

so

be

always

weather, but they should

wet

in the house

while

removed

it

becomes

It is the

movements.

ingrowing
in

worn

should

and

toes

the

the

shoe

it does

body, as

the sides, and

short

too

are

the

weight of

or

makes

HYGIENE.

little at

these

permit

to

boot

of the foot that


boots

the

foot receives

longer. The

somewliaJt

AND

PHYSIOLOGY,

ANATOMY,

protect the

respect, yield to health

and

comfort.
clothes become

When

26.
the

body,

dry

woollen

other

from

or

thus

evaporation,and
its natural

below

causes,

The

garments.

from

the

perspirationof

theyshould

be

exchanged for

wet, either

woollen

clothes

the

prevent

temperature,

so

result.

But

had, the person should


clothing is entirelydry ; or he

remain

rheumatism,

apt

are

to

be

the

body, so

are

wet.

27.

The

cording

to

the weather;

refuse
of

act

clothing

more

of life.
an

For

extra

folly;

28.

of

the

then
more

are

day, than
more

neither

when

than

being

colds,

continue

be

simply

to

the

the
who

a/y

feeble, and

the

in

full

are

in

be

to

unprovided

lay

clothes

all causes, be

seeming

to

the

exercise

to

advanced

are

nor

the fire until

must, in

who

cooled

dry clothingcannot

near

those

rapid

the

the

to

years

old, is
with

an

ficient
sufof

foundation

fatal diseases.

and

Persons

that

the

chilled while

for fear of

often

from

young,

for the young

clothing,is
permanent

the

persons

garment
and

become

but

body

should

of clothinguxyrn

amount

aged, need
vigor

it will not

that

check

cool

exhausted.

liable to take cold

more

the

in
and

The

morning

damp,
custom

and

during

because

the energy
of

the

the

atmosphere

of the

putting on

afterpart
system

lightand

is
is

thin

181

HYGIENE.

clothing,for

of serious

foundation
extra

an

both

29.
wind

of

should

put
from

body

part of

on

will seldom

cold

When

30.

it

to have

dry,and

well aired.

clothingto
The

to their

all

from

needs

and

head

The

better

the open

the

is
so

The

disease
16

protect the

to

as

this is

should

we

done,

has

be

not

was

all articles of

expose

before

careful

contracted

clothingthat

needed.

they are

and

air, both

common

neck

for

of

the lower

case

entirelywrmig

by

exposure.

or

death.

limbs

the winter

and

it

easily
be light.

are

with
ftirs,
or

with
sore

throats, coughs,
when

is removed,

thus

and

the

entering a house,
results.

oftengo unprovided vnth


they should

season

when

the child

the lower

limbs

neve^

passes

should

into
be

garments.
to

suppose

Attempts
A

when

should

upon

sickness

covering ; and

throat

overheated

covering

usually the

woollen

and

them

cause

the

the upper

covered

are

of children

rapidly that

without

It is

hardened

get cool, we

to

person

to

parts become

protectedwith

33.

so

of

largeproportion of blood, and

throat

when

as

upper

exposed

order

the hands

and

clothing. During

proper

clean

on

covering

and

; and

up

chilled

are

32.

the

neck

left bare,

they

heated, instead

on,

few minutes

ears

These

croups.

neck

draught

of the most

one

When

put

Many

contains

fabrics,is

wrapped

in

the

and

Muffling the

well

to be

only a lightcovering.

woollen

sit in

ing
different
parts of the body should be clothed accordrequirements. The face is usually left exposed at

overheated,

be

rapidly.

be

the fire for

The

is cold.

thus

garment,

putting

It would

; but

seasons

likelyto

result.

clothingis

entirelydry.
31.

too

clean

cold

severe

the

clothing,

more

nor

this is

as

clothingin

our

cooled

being

be

stand

When

additional

an

of thinner

would

never

wkidowy

or

of colds.

off

throwing

laid

ofl^n

comfort.

should

the door

sources

Instead

evening

and

heated^we

jrom

fruitfiil

health

When

evening, has

diseases.

towards

garment

promote

and

afternoon

an

that

children

of this kind

strong child

may

too

bear

can

often
up

b6
end

against

182

ANATOMY,
but

them;

the

weak

and

Clothing, food, bathing,


the health

supplied in

AND

PHYSIOLOGY,

and

Fashion

things which

and

will

fresh

amount,

and

follyin

dress

health

produce

will

air, are

of children

growth

sufficient

delicate

the

and

HYGIENE.

needed

; and

should
and

to

these

according

die.

surely

give

be

must

sound

to

mote
pro-

ment.
judgthose

to

way

happiness.

QUESTIONS.
SECTION

1. How

bodies

does

How

the

protected

is remarked

much

may

4.

How

much

5.

How

the feeble and

of the

may
cold

the

sick

How

correspond

with

Hying

are

7. How

does

exercise
the

can

heat

is the

Of

11.

What

is said

12.

What

of woollen

13.

What

14.

Why

15.

What

other

16.

Upon

what

17.

What

clothing

What

is remarked

19.

What

of the

20.

How

21.

What

is the

22.

What

of

Why

24.

How

of

is

wearing flannel

the

wear

of

day

effect of

does

body

does

it affect

body

should

light

What

clothing?

and

when

of cotton

of

of

clothing depend
the

underclothes

?
of

use

stockings

dressing ?
injurious ?

tight clothing

expansion

flannel

wear

changing

of the

manner

free

How

flannel ?

about

the

chest?

of the

lungs

tight lacing about


a

sunstroke

made?

garments
tight-fitting

are

climate?

warmth

the

When

article of

an

should

classes

18.

of the

as

children

during

and

of

of the

regulated

be

clothing

goods

of the

temperature

clothing

of

used

is remarked

worn

23.

body

of linen

does

is said

temperature

of the

is

is remarked
should

the

the

be

materials

what

10.

body

in temperature

the aged ?

and

young

of the

of the

What

affect

object

heavy clothing

cold

the

that

sleep affect

9. What

from

temperature

affect the

does

8. How

animals

it be elevated

6. How

should

\)j heat?

body be depressed

human

the

does

of

temperature

animals

are

3. What

How

life affected

without

affected ?

2. How
ur

bodies

are

IV.

tight lacing affect

the

the

necessary

young?

The

neck?

adult?

What

of

the

183

HYGIENE.

25.

How

the

26.

What

should

27.

What

is said

28.

What

is remarked

are

feet affected
be

of the

29.

When

30.

What

care

31.

What

is remarked

neck

done

with

how

is needed
of

we

regard

after

?
?

part of the day ?


cold

prevent

taking

to clean

clothing

the

clothing

shoes

gum

needed

clothing

in the

can

in

By

garments

of

of dress

pressure

wet

amount

overheated,

and

by

different

parts of the body ? The

throat?

32.

The

33.

What

and

upper

is said

lower

of

limbs

hardening

children

by

Section

exposure

V.

Food.

The

1.

food

of them
OTOus

feed

of

entirelyupon
feed

some

and

others

and

animals, and
2.

live

Man

may

the
so

the

system

in the
is

upon

he

or

only

in

both

animal

from

another
with

eaten

be

rejected,because

human

The

body,

at

and

animal

man

that

human

obtained.

feeds

regularly

one

for each

Even

of the

while

whether

is necessary

life.

season

food

contains
that

is

year, is unfit to be

part of

part of the

same

plant
plant

may
must

injurious.

substances

must,

by

food,

of food

another

is

is done

food alone, as

climates

; and

food

little relished

scarcely be

one

it is

is frequently

animal

vegetables can

to

impunity,

albuminoid

where

vegetablekingdom;

season

be

4.

the

wholesome

consistingof vegetables

it is but

where

vegetable

destructive

eminently
at

and

the selection
or

camivoroits;

omnivorous,

live upon

may

and

the animal

food

tropical climates

where

in

called

are

herbiv-

vegetables exclusively, as

temperate

care

substances

eaten

frigidzones

3. Mv^
he

in

easilyprocured,

not

It

live upon

case

and

called

are

called

are

mixed

Some

considerably.

vegetables,and

animals,

upon

upon

varies

livingcreatures

constitute

large part

therefore, be furnished

by

of the

large

184

ANATOMY,

PHYSIOLOGY,

part of the food.

flour,and

in

The

5.

They
the

contain

by

fish,eggs,

milk,

tables.
vege-

tend

to

they

account

cold

resist the

to

and

carbon, and

this

livingin

them

animals

of

On

body.

persons

enable

by

large amount

of the

heat

extent

great

in meats,

^mished

oils,are

or

largelyconsumed
a

found

are

HYGIENE.

vegetablesgenerally.

faU,

increase

They

AND

are

climates, and

to

of

depressinge"^ts

the cold.
6. ITie sugars
makes

taste

The

of fruits

taste

The

sugar-maple

are

annually
tend
to

generated

8. Meats

well

as

and

and
9.

corn-fed

not

animals

the
the
upon

hogs, the

fleshof young

The

flesh of
but

upon

as

fattened

Cattle

articles

diflcrent

age, the sex,

large

nutritious

quality,in

old
so

ones;

that

of older

than

beef.

which

ments
experifined
con-

are

long

remain

in

long deprived

food, disease

is apt

contains

to

sugar,

proportion, is

and

of

grass
bast

food.

of
or

of
be

"t.
the

of the
food

softer,and

depends
animal

furnish

it

in

the

upon

when

which

on

grain

much

vary

are

killed,
fed.

was

the finest beef,

pork.

animals

The

They

much

; and

condition
kind

of nofurishmentyand

amount

eofnUdns

consequently,it

nutritious.

paler

is

substances, in due

contain

most

AU

not

the system

diet

of sugar

tons

animals

food, they do
of

from

the best.

healthiest,and

the

of

consequently, a

obtained

man.

omnivorous

classes

three

albuminoid

the

and

when

tain.
con-

"a.mily.

best suited to

When

condition.

of the

one

the human

one

that

prove

single article

healthy

any

by

they

mostly obtained

million

one

sweet

all nations.

grape-sugar

country is

than

their

with

large quantitiesare

More

diet is the

to

the

in this

trees.

consumed

mixed

is from

; but

the sugar-cane

7. A

articles of food

consumed

sugar

the

favorite

them

sweet

from

mostlyof vegetableorigin,and

are

meat

is

animals; except

is

more

more

of young
more

that

water

tender

than

and

aninuds

the

juicy,
is generally

readily digested,than
veal

is less

digestible

186

Bread

16.

heavy

before

less

should
in

ma^

Indian
In

preparing it

and
digestible,

is

Potatoes

18.

the

spring,when

food.

They

should

then

19.

be

those

whose

powers

They

be

cooked

substitutes

Some

20.

in

for their

Salt is needed

by

many

into sugar

gentle stimulant

excellent
21.

relish

is

persons,

and,

in

food.

One

should

be taken.

and

tea

induce

in

half

sleep.

small

in

relish

tea when

way,

pint of
Most

this

cap

for

afibrd

to

should

and

are

assist in

the

beverage

at

of

of

of coffee

latter

Mustard

seems

to

is

to

digestionof
meal

having

the
is
an

benefwialy
particularly

stimulants

people prefercoffee

food.

in moderate

stimulant

are

sun

ripening.

taken

sparingly.

gentle

tain
con-

horse-radish.

be

powerful

lent
excel-

the

kinds

other

food.

fruits

of

process

moderatelyused

They

this

suited

Unripe

mustard,

than

taste

quantities. Horseradish
winter
and
spring.

evening, the

the

for

unfit

are

indigestible;but

be used

should

adults.

to

of food.

system, and

during the

Coffeeand

In

time.

boiling,and

then

and

during the

give

the

and

diet,

entirelyripe,they
well

ways,

them

quantities. Pepper
digestiveorgans,

long

delicious

When
are

salt, pepper,

are

three

the

"

excellent

by roasting or

kinds

substances

these

Among

sprout,"they

"

more

renders

the starch

meat

for other

starch, which
converts

with

but

contain

They

subsist for

may

nourishing properties.

may

to

of convalescence.

moderately digestible,and

are

is very

mealy.

prized

are

Rice

an

cooked

and

dry

sour.

article of diet.

for food.

potatoes

best

are

Fruits

for their

the

and

of the other

any

potatoes, forming

beings

masticated

becomes

sooner

fat than

cases

used

and

human

which

and

usually associateil

are

articles,bread, meat,
upon

in

much

well

it forms

food, long cooking is necessary

for

as

because

is less nutritious

particularlyadapted

are

little fat, and

is not

more

excellent

weak,

digestionare

and

bread,

contains

an

warm,

bread

Rye

HYGIENE.

when

stomach,

wheat

corn

it becomes

then

of

the

than
digestible

grains.

be eaten

not

swallowed.

being

17.

AND

PHYSIOLOGY,

ANATOMY,

most

other

is as much

in the
a

as

morning,

tendency

to

strengthenthe mind.

187

HYGIENE.

the better to fit it for mental

and

esteemed

by
and

Cocoa

most

either coffee

digestedthan

drinks

Alcoholic

22.

nutritious

are

or

tea.

should

never

to in

be resorted

in

and

it

this way
; but

system

both
The

23.

to

develop

to

be

The

food

before

such
exceptions,

The

24.

broiling
;

as

and

the

other

the

and

of

worst

way

eaten

of

Ham,

pork

is

meat

may

In

not

ical
the med-

stimulate,
of the

the destruction

to

are

custom

cmnmon

digestible
;

few

are

of

some

vegetables.

by roasting and
by boilingand frying.

the

are

juicesare

preserved,

digestiblethan
a

by

portionof

is wasted.

and

as

all kinds

there
a

so

any

the

Frying

trient
nu-

is the

the heated

and

and

hard,

called

fat penetrates the meat,

making

it very

indigestible.

other

and

forms ofpork, should never


flesh of the hog often contains

trichina

spiralis;which, when

painful and
be eaten

often
this

with

fatal disease.

worm

is

be
a

taken

stomach, multipliesrapidly and

thoroughly cooked,
then

should

by

more

but

boilingmeat

cooking. The

very

it

beef, and

more

into the water

alive into the human


rise to

of

state

its temperature

eaten

are

rendered

sausages,

worm,

easily

prescribed

conditions

some

render

broilingmeats

cooking,as

vjithovi

slender

directed

is at first to

of cooking meats

cooking.

rendering it dry
25.

they

palate. Nearly

poorest modes

are

juicespass

to

oysters,raw

raw

in

meats

way

the

they

best modes

roastingand

In

; and

increase

to

agreeable to
cooked

are

object is

its flavor ; and

more

in

when

preparation offood by cookingis the

natio^is.

among

unless

invariablyleads

use

less

are

mind.

and

body

they

unless

relief to

gives

its habitual

of

harm

much

action of alcohol

The

attendant.

literarypursuits.

needed

of sickness

cases

; but

be used

seldom

physician. They are


health, and frequentlydo
by

hence, it is highly

in

engaged

persons

chocolate

labor ;

gives

When

the

destroyed,and

the

impunity.

26. The

varies greatlyaccording to the


quantityoffood required,
and
his habits of life, A person
engaged in fatiguing

person

physicallabor requiresmore
of

it,than

one

who

nutritious

leads

food, and largerquantities

sedentary life.

The

young,

188

ANATOMY,

who

mostly active,can

are

feeble.

The

the weak
need

than

those

such

eat

he small

in

moderate

forced

but

much,

is found

loses

When

lowered

childhood, the
system, but
tim

serious

to

to

29.

also

The

food

repairing the
This

Milk, and

to

its

prevents

food

the vital

The

mind
its

; and

wasting

the vitality

peculiarly
diseases.

In

only depresses the


development and growth, and

diseases which

taken

by

not

seldom

fat and

children

the

of

body

fail to

hurry

the double

serves

the vic^

purpose

easilydigested diet.

and

always

should

compose

and
Pastry,unripe fruit,salted provisions,

eat

generallybe
from

these
to

The

last one,

at

be observed.

five to six hours

from

health.

adults
much

eating too

Regularityin eating should

day, and

Children

avoided.

frequentlythan

more

of

providing for its develop-

and

nutritious

lean meat,

be restrained

conducive

to eat

stomach

its richness

other

to

duly
un-

be avoided.

the

energy,

the blood

loaded.
over-

us

amount,
sufficient

their

in

article of food

any

functionsdepressed.

of proper

waste

drinks, should

30.

often induces

lowered, so that it becomes

requiresa

of the diet.

should

be

not

when
indigestible,

When

in

taken

early grave.

an

raent.

may

this shmM
be

stomach, it should

of fever, or

want

stomach

Habit

muscles

of the system is

leads

the

and
digestion,

liable to low forms

should

becomes

obtained

and

vigor, the

of

powers

the

the

warm.

offeebledigestive
powers,

of food

little.

too

is not

food

are

its

seldom

disagreewith

to

powers

kinds

the stomach.

upon

it is

and
of digestion,

is easy

food
digestible

of cold climates

reside where
those

that

so
quantities,

Even

28.

All

amount.

the inhabitants

who

food onlyas

the old and

digest food entirelyunfit for

to

and

Dyspeptiepersons,

should

too

able

are

HYGIENE.

food than

digestmore

the delicate ; and

food

more

27.

robust

and

AND

PHYSIOLOGY,

or

may

acid

be permitted

do ; yet
one

part

they

time.
Three

apart, will be

meals
most

evening repast, should

fore
and
should be taken three or four hours belightest,
be avoided
retiringto sleep. A hearty supper should

be the

because
dreams.

it disturbs

the

sleepand

produces restlessneas and

189

HYGIENE.

Eating

31.

productivenf mucK
but

act

once

eating rapidly is
A

32.

'mind

or

and

should

mental
tends

blood

its functional

lessen

thus

the

draw

after

and

eating;
elapsebefore

proceeding

The

33.

state

of the

mind

of digestion. Sudden
stomach

pleasant things,and
appetite and

work,

therefore

be

of

body

the stomach,

labor,

severe

for rest, before


hours

to

two

so

that

should

the stomach

the

the

air increases

mind

so

of

is

apt

to

that the wants

conversation

of

state

powers

while

the process

joyful or sad,

Light

cheerful

encouraged

Pure

34.

from

influenceon

whether

noticed.

promote

exercise

After

one

has much

news,

not

are

of

of

be allowed

destroy the appetite,by exciting the


of the

habit

its work.

properly perform

may

hard

to

teeth, the

dyspepsia.
immediatelybeforeor

powers.

meal, from

longed;
pro-

gastricjuicecan

causes

away

should

thirty to sixty minutes

from

the

in

much

confirmed

Severe

physicallabor.

or

to

be taken

not

by
the

fruitful

of the most

one

heartymeal

aftersevere

finelytriturated

all parts of the food.

on

digestionis

its

rapidly; because

more

on

is swallowed

the food

required for

it is

when

digestiongoes
at

injury. When

the time

large lumps,

fullymast'watingthe food, is

wUhout
rf/pidlyy

too

about

mind, sharpen the

digestion,and

should

eating.

the whole
appetiteby invigorating

tion
system. It purifiesthe blood and thus stimulates the funcof every
Children, after being confined all day
organ.

poorly ventilated

in

in

rooms

well

not

school-room, and

ventilated, have

persons

little or

no

after

sleeping

appetite.

i"oi":c"

QUESTIONS.
SECTION

1. How
2.

3.

What

Why

4. What

poids ?

animals

may

is remarked
is

care

are

so

the

V.

be classified
of the

necessary
three

food
in

classes

by

of

their food?
?

man

selecting food
of food

What

is said of the albumi-

190

ANATOMY,

5. What

of the

fats?

6. What

of the

sugars

7. What

is said

8.

what

Upon

9. What

of

fresh

flesh

of the

afiected

How

11.

What

is said

offish

12.

What

is said

of

13.

What

is said

of milk

14.

What

is said

of

15.

What

is remarked

meats
as

article

an

for food

vegetables

17.

is said

18.

What

of potatoes

19.

What

is remarked

20.

What

of substances

21.

What

is said

22.

What

of alcoholic

23.

What

is said

of

24.

What

is said

of the

25.

What

of the

trichina

2G.

What

is said

of the

quantity

27.

What

is said

of the

food

28.

induce

us

How

of Indian
as

drink?

?
is said

AVTiat

bread?

of rye

of rice ?

What

corn

food

of fruits ?
used

of the

drinks

food ?

to other

cofiee,tea, and

of

use

relishes

as

cocoa?

by cooking?

food

preparing

different

of

modes

cooking

meats

?
B})iralis

for

of food

required by

person
What

dyspeptic persons?

does

habit

to do ?

is the

How

of eggs

What

unwholesome?

Why

often

fish ?

bread

What

season

for f(K)d and

of wheat

of food?

and

salting meat

bread

the

depend?

animals

of young

by

16.

warm

in meats

nourishment

the

10.

is

diet ?

mixed

does

HYGIENE.

is remarked
are

AND

PHYSIOLOGY,

afiected

system
the

does

29.

is said

of food

30.

What

is said

of

31.

What

of

32.

Why

not

33.

How

does

34.

How

does

eating
take

the

for children

receive

not

children

enough

ishment
nour-

regularity in eating ?
too

rapidly?

hearty

mind

pure

afiect

of food

want

What

it does

when

meal

influence

air afiect

the

just before

or

after

severe

labor?

digestion ?
appetite ?

ai^OO-

VL

Section
Sleep.

1.

The

which

brain

is the centre

constantlyin
not

engaged
from

state

in

of

of activityduring

mental

surrounding

labor,

the

nervous

the

day.

it is still

objects; hence,

system, is
Even

when

subject to impressions
it is

never

quiet

191

HYGIENE.

while

the individual

and

needs

time

day, the

the

during

is awake.

its functional

for the work


2.

and

of

in the

on

vital

the

system,

body.

force

produced, so

that

both

the

day

; but

close of
vessels

"

the

during
work

become

mind

refreshed

and

it is

towards

weary

of

season

supplying

of the

rapidly than

more

are

processes

exercise

active

in

are

sleep,the

life force, so

ent
nutri-

that

fully restored

the

its

to

vigor.
The

3.

functions of the

yet they are

less axiive than

muscles

in

are

and

the

part of

the

is somewhat

another

strength,and

day,

must,

life and

temperature,
that

vigorous,so
in a^tate

every

of rest.

is not

the

the

time

surely ebb

vigor, be shorn

of

night

its

the

upon
of

so

how

body,

much

the

once

strength, and

the

life and

again.

comes

understand

to

and

away,

be

of course,

that

it is easy

enters

standard

proper

matter

pensated
fully com-

life force is not

the

upon

individual

the

below

as

system be continued,
of life will

is less

it made

the drain

depressed by

more

in

lowered

circulation

this buildingup
of sleepis insufficient;

entirelyreplenished; thus
of

voluntary

respirationand

completed; yesterday'slabor

for,and

work

the

The

awake.

are

or
wholly
partially,

tJie amount

is not

process

we

during sleep,

continue

organs

when

digestion
is

system

When

4.

of

process

vital

of repose,

state

reduced, the body

are

and

body

at

the

During

prepared

the muscles

important vital

is consumed

finds the system

morning
usual

continue

the

which

day.

inactive,and

during sleep,yet

rest

still going

is

exhausted

it is

and

renewed,

are

ment
excite-

by sleep ; during

pleasures of another

the mind

Although

state

it obtains

powers

the

this continued

system becomes

nervous

This

repose.

From

the

If this
powers

full of

so

reduced

to

hopeless wreck.
6.

loss

mental, follow the continued

Diseases, both physicaland

of sleep. Debility of

disturbed

the

system,

breathing,palpitationof
long train of evils,are

with

its

body

; while

the

few

insanity,particularlyin

excitability,

nervous

heart, and
of the

those

dyspepsia,

diseases

who

are

of the

perform-

192

ANATOMY,
exoessive

ing

AND

PHYSIOLOGY,
meutal

labor, is

hoik

pkyaiealand

not

HYGIENE.

result to the

uncommon

an

mind.
6. DiaeoMt^

indulgence

in

dull, the sensations


the

is

memory

and

the

torpid,when

impaired,

the

of all

the

eighthours

wasted

health, and

require more

sleep than
sleep than

more

8.

Children

systems

scarcely ever

at

to

9.

is the proper

Night

the habit

the

convert

to

in the social customs


to

o'clock,

ten

be

should

rest

hour's

prominent
10.

the

fullsupper

wholesome,

such

11.

The

in age,

life.

and

while

Their

nervous

awake,

become

they

they

are

fatigued

more

in which

repose,

energies.
it is too

period for sleep; yet


night into day, by
A

society.
This

those who

regular hour
should

is worth

the

retiring

later than

adage, that
It is

after."

two

hours

of

often

indulge

for

be

not

old

the

in

irregularityin

just beforeretiringto

feeble, a
than

shellbarks, and
but

Women

advanced

longer period of

is truth

produce

to

somewhat

are

the

upon

"

one

able,
prob-

rest, is the

of mischief.

cause

sleepfand

that

midnight

that

however,

depend

persons

in middle

adopted.

there

as

before

rest

of

less

or

however, required

sleepthan adults.

so

exhausted

their

renew

more

of the person.

; and

men

need

during the day, and

depressed,

excess.

the habits

those

rest,

become

of time,

excitable,

more

becomes

is

energy

grtai

sluggishly,

acts

energies,must

requiremore

are

physical

amount

activity,the

mind

organs

too

system

nervous

sleep to

from

is the time usually


of the twenty-four

out

The

restoring the

need

in

indulge

we

assignedfor deep.
for

whole

blunted, the

are

functions

7. About

The

deep.

mentaly re8uU

When

dreams.

light meal

will

to fillthe stomach

walnuts,

course

cannot

are

often

the

to disturb

apt

digestivepowers

always

more

prove

with

solid food.

Apples,

eaten

just before

retiring;

be recommended.

sleeping-room should
the

rest is

atmosphere

latedfso

that

vitiated

during the night

In

large^airy,and

be
in

it will

the

not

morning,

weUventir

become
the doors

much
and

194

ANATOMY,

PHYSIOLOGY,

AND

HYGIENE.

QUESTIONS.

SECTION

1.

is

Why

sleep required

2. How

does

3. How

does

4.

What

renew

sleep

affect

effect does

5. What

diseases

6.

What

7.

How

much

8.

Why

do

is the

9. What

children

10.

Why
What

is said

12.

What

kind

Why

14.

What

15.

Why

16.

What

for

beds

"

beds

the

upon

body?

sleep?

need

than

adults

ventilation

or

How

of

sleeping-room?

dreams

are

usually unhealthy

of the

on

organs?

sleep ?

is best?

is remarked

vital

sleep ?

sleep

more

body?

injurious just before sleep ?

bed

spare

of

body

of the size and


of

are

are

the

need

"

13.

want

much

does

of the

sleep have

of too

full supper

of

of the

energies

Unctions

the

is best suited

11.

vital

the
want

follow

sleep

time
is

the

result

?
the

sleep

VI.

often

produced?

covering during sleep?


the

near

floor

is said of the sick and

unhealthy

the well

sleeping in

the

same

bed?

VII.

Section
Exercise.

1. A
the
mind

best
;

judicious system of exercise


and fullest development both

of the exercise
function
the
most

that

day

to

keep

will then

individual
beneficial

system

thus

which, when

call forth
should

be

this

in

them

healthy

are

into

few, if

any,

of

to

such

exercise

as

health
will

of
be

part of the

vocations
a

the

Every

exercise

the

and

continuance

the

activityevery

general activity,hence,

be devoted

body

condition.

Such

unimpaired.

produce

to

developed, require the

it calls

when

yet there

of the

properly performed, and

be

will

is needed

of life

portion of each

is best

adapted

to

the individual.
2. The

objectand

aim

of

all exercise

should

be to

bring irUo

196

HYGIENE.

exercised
sufficiently

not

based

exercise

therefore, the

according

wisdom

is

there

no

3. Exercise

of the

of

body,

exhausted

the

by

be of much

causes

Thus,

the process

muscles, and

corresponds with
heart
too

6. Active
increases

an

of the

exercise

the

This

to

and

for

in

long

weak

and

the

heart,and

to

body.

strength of

the

renew

the

material, and

the waste

In

diseases,where
affections

some

be

may

this

injuriousby

the part affected.

invigoratesthe functionof digestion. It


stimulates
is

the

case

it

and

when

digestiveorgans,

digested,and

nourishment, which

gives tone

is the

of

obstructed, as in

of food
of

firmness

in size and

them

of exercise.

appetiteand

increase

is sent

is

the

to

be continued

brain, exercise

blood

much

body

system.

of the

the

and

adds

through all parts of

away

blood

larger amount

when

carry

bodies, as

boat.

the movements

the amount

of the

passage

Bending

to

Active

slowly.

very

supply

the

adds

strength to
the exercise

to

system
the

so
ceives
re-

weight

all parts of the


is

moderate;

but

produces great fatigue,the digestiveorgans partake


general depressionof the system, and are less able to

perform their

cise
passiveexer-

restoringstrength to

increases

increased

; but

of other

increases

greater flow of blood

an

of the

on

goes

exercise

of

and

voluntary muscles

movements

it must

be directed

of exercise

passive.

or

walking

amount,

use,

vary

developing
that

the

action

proper

must

properly used,

in

be active

and

ficial;
bene-

should

case

of

injurious.

more

carriage,or sailingin

muscles,

Active

5.

each

mind, than

may

running

exercise,in

Active

; because

time

that

body

occasioned

strength. To

the

and

of the muscles, and


elasticity

and

the

the

exercise

importance

more

body

in

as

riding in

4.

; and

by callinginto

is made

is that
when

in

improperly used, none

and, when

for

intelligence. When

of

both

strengthening

exercise

used

are

plan

appropriate and

will be

means

and

means

body, which

the

of

or

pursuits of life. Any

view

the individual

to

by

the

in

this

upon

the mind

of

(tction those parts, either

functions.

196

7. Exercise

this takes
will be

of oxygen
acid

will be

of repose

all parts will

be

allotted

will

respond, by

should

the

the

the

When

in

employed
hours

working

portionof

followed by

recommended

the

portion of

devoted

are

hours

improving

to

work,

for

work
for

those

the

creation
re-

; but

mind

mental

to

should

recreation

period for

season

labor,

be used

to

develop

physicalstrength.

9. Exercise
time

some

vrill prove

because

time,

health

be such

must

bvJt littleuse, unless

of

as

and

The

gradual growth.

very

of exercise

amount

strengthof

at

beneficial

The

that it accelerates

are,

the

to

oxygen

the
powers

the system.
richer

These

the whole

strength. A
the
from

the food

body, than

such

destroy the

labor

is

results.

air,

open

vigorates
in-

the

to

by
in

every

the presence

function, and

that the health

and

of

organ

of the
are

creased
in-

strength of

promoted.

labor

limited

body by
the

vigor,so

being are

11. Excessive

active

more

be

should

circulation; it

conveys

stimulated

being

blood, become
in size and

the blood

the

digestive
furnishinga large amount

function,thus

nourishment, which

one

any

furnishingmore

it stimulates

system;

nervous

in

thus
respiration,

the

blood; it quickens the

increased

to

exercise

from

results

the individual

always stop short of great fatigue,and it


regular every day, or it will not produce beneficial
10.

for

the result of

strength are

suit the

to

continued

it must

of

system

increased

an

sleep,eight hours

to

labor, at least

be

be

must

recreation.

to

spent in manual

the

; thus

amount

carbonic

the

physiologistshave

therefore, some

eight hours

when

kind

of every

exercise

eight hours

are

blood, and

the

to

(he bredh-

larger

air, a

pure

removed
effectually

more

8. Active

and

hastens

of action.

energy

that

in

place

supplied

invigorated,and

be

HYGIENE.

onlyquickens(he pulse,but

not

When

ing.

AND

PHYSIOLOGY,

ANATOMY,

ovi

wears

amount

and

the

drink

body

the system

of power
; and

receives

by overtaxingUs
only is supplied to

when

labor

in the way

takes

more

ment,
of nourish-

always excessive,and will,if continued,

life of the system.

197

HYGIENE.

When

12.
vital

quicklyexhausted.

energiesare

receive

from

and

food

their

work, and

organs

of the

body

and

remain

growth,

labor

required to

are

persons

young

The

nourisliment

drink, is all consumed


is left to

none

dwarfed

in

in

and

develop

consequently,they

hard, their

performing

strengthen the
in their

stunted

are

they

intellectual

and

physical

strength.
13. No

child

should

be

ever

to its fullcapacity,whether
; but

the food

by

and

the

14.

youth

system is depressed below


a

foundation

seated, continue

strengthof

for

to

the

air is vitiated,the

air

may

be

Children

16.
This

of oxygen,

should

be

should

in

is

the

of health

capable.
The

same.

; thus

paring
preonce

the health

more

the open

is of but
it does

when

impart

have

and

air ; for when

little value.
not

contain

More
a

good

but little vigor to the system.

freedom of exercise

harmless

in such

so

individual,whether

an

and

more

exercise

it will

it is

diseases,which, when

be taken

; but

inhaled

system,

life remains.

while

the

supply

still

exercise should

15. AU

in the

of which

standard

numerous

sap

body

the

lectual
intel-

force,daily supplied

reserved

energies of

to labor

physical or

overtaxed, the result

adult, are

or

be

highestdegree

the vital

Whenever

life

vital,or

the

be

labor

that

drink, should

develop it to

to

as

part of

compelledor permitted

in the open

air.

yet exhilaratingsports

as

playing ball, spinning tops,


walking, running,riding,sailing,
and

trundlinghoops, which

body

requiringmuch

without

17.

is

Walking

brings

into

action

of the

upper

and

continued,

adapted
17*

to

as

in

the

every

the reach
muscles

lower

of

may

means
beneficial

nearly all

persons.

It

neck, the trunk, and

of the

It is

limbs.

part of the

of the mind.

exertion

of the individual, and

Jumping,

to

of the cheapest,
yet most

the
the

active, to suit the


18.

one

is within

of exercise,and

control

give motion

entirelyunder

be made

either

the

gentle or

case.

as

an

exercise,is

"jumping
period

of

the

too

violent,and

when

long

rope," is injurious. It is only

youth

when

the

cartilagesare

198

elastic,and

In

In

19.

exercise

When

out-door

found

in the

20.
be

may
in

when

dbeased,

both

that

schools

our

in

so

the

improve

their

mind

the

voted

the health
of

not

vigor

kind

the

to

of the
and
the

to

body

erect

the

body

position; for
either

only

introduced

that

they

students, but

tend

the

they

erect

It

they

to

are

to
svfficient

the

muscles,

for

few

in the

productive of

of the

favors

the

"ee

or

are

less

movement

or

kept

ony
monot-

moments,

position of
much

good.
sitting,

other

fatigue.

state

An

of the

to

upright

backward,
in

give

exertion

it in any

forward,

muscles

more

muscular

are

or

the

deserve
pre-

exercises

relieve

change

tution,
insti-

of time

of such

mind

retain

it is bent

also

rapid

more

amount

not

to

requires less

than

only

not

beneficial

prove

kind, is

rather

by

into

educational

the
cities,

strengthen

muscles

tension, causing
not

exercises,so

positionis the best for the body ; whether

when

side, many

been

into every

to relax

in this way

standing,or walking.
keep

to

possible

system of physical training

of any

They

certain

; and

The

23.

frame.

school-room,

rest

the

of health;

state

activity

the fullest benefit

; and, indeed, the most


serve

adopted

are

these

have

substitute

Every

undoubtedly

to drills

that

they

gymnasium.

condition,so that there is

result would

exercise,or

to

as

cure.

colleges,the testimony is

public schools of our

the

In

22.

it in

receive

may

should, therefore, be introduced


and

enjoyed^a

accompany

in their studies.

advancement

that

be to call into

the

promote
should

mental

hroughi

violent

so

he

continue

to

physical activityof

increase

is

body

discipline of the

physical exercises

and

it is

cannot

the

as

to

and

body

Wherever

21.

but

used

produces "tigue.

soon

very

exercise should

of amusement

means

the

of

most

excess.

exercise

body,

all parts of the

legs are

"physical exercises," such

these

object of

or,

it to

schools, and

many

The

therefore, it

indulge in

to

apt

muscle

nearly every

of the

the muscles

HYGIENE.

system is,therefore,not

the

to

enjoyed by children;

It is most
are

jar

or

jumping,

running

active

into

shock

the

great

so

AND

PHYSIOLOGY,

ANATOMY,

or

of

erect

to
tinued
con-

tion
posi-

muscles, but

199

HYGIENE.

it also affords the internal

in

shape
; but

of

is apt to remain

trainingto

should

this

during
made

to

life,no

should
be

daily may
in the

hours;

three
Sve

devoted

ninth

four

year,

mental

developing

to

needs

much

care

things

should

be

the

first six

years

of

in the

seventh

; in

the

hours

two

year,

eighth year,

in the

hours;

seven

or

partly to

given

books

to

by

other

During
required ;

used

the

deformity.

body

and

after that, six

; and

hours

be

be

The

growth,

its purpose.

serve

study

hours

of

period

the

be

be devoted

strengthening the system.

through life,

so

should

should

attention

most

its

positiveinjury,of

to the

correct

from

is distorted

body

possible means

period of youth

culture; but
and

opportunity to

if possible^while

overcomCf

the

youth, it

every

regular system
The

he

disadvantage,if not

to the

individual

should
When

is young.

natural

25.

habit

stooping

the person

much

fullest

their fiinctions.

perform
24.

the

organs

tenth

year,

daily may

be

spent in study.
Seais

26.

should

roomy

the

weight

and

have

health

the

adults, should

27.

Hiding

have

passive kinds

body

brought into

rider
and

during

the

trotting.

the best

the

not

be

gentle and
28.

The

character

can

weak

and

be

the

feeble, it is

attempted by

exercise

of

admitting of

keeping

of the

muscles

it is

person,

the

of

one

agreeable change

an

mind
not

of

any

pacing, galloping,

pied.
pleasantlyoccuso

unless

them

than

equilibrium of

of

moderately strong
and

scenery,

For
should

For

the

the

preserve

movements

of exercise,

means

of air and

different

comfort

for children

exertion

All

exercise.
to

use

the

to

'support for the body.

requiresmxyre

of

be low

will support

seats, whether
as

school-

should

This

much

add

All

backs

horseback

on

the other
are

will

of the child.

for

or

in the

or

the floor.

upon

legs,and

of the

home

at

reSting-place
for the feet,or

feet to rest

for the

enough

whether

for chUdreUy

well
the

suited, and

horse

is very

easilymanaged.
from riding in

the vehicle

used.

vehicle

depends

rough, jarring

upon

wagon

the
will

200

ANATOMY,
exercise

give

those

to

gentle motions, is suited

Sailing or riding in

29.

the

during

summer

always

of

Active

tends

the

muscles, which

nutrition

the

water,

delightful

most

doors
the

; and

creation
re-

are

and

women

digestive organs
is,in

sluggishly,the
is laid

food

relieved
vantage.
disad-

exercise,all parts
firmness

and
the

easily excited,
of

powers

digestion and

foundation

the

as

the

the

without

lose their

thus, the

it

as

to

measure,

take proper

becomes

feeble, and

when

performed

be

system

act

after a full meal,

muscles

The

disorders

nervous

well

continued

on

into action ; but

neglectsto

nervous

become

the

then

may

languish.

functions

convalescent,

the

within

much

the stomach

person

strength, the
vital

of

advisable

brought

burden, labor

When

easy

pleasant, as

very

excursions

strength from

are

the system

of

afford

is not

partlydigested,and

31.

an

large cities.

our

exercise

draw

to

of its

is

account

confined

are

the

to
invigorating,particularly

very

the children
30.

boat

season,

all who

to

while

to

suited

only

aged.

experienced. Frequent

change

is

the

of exercise, on

useful means

it is

comparatively strong;

are

its

HYGIENE.

; but

muscles

of the

most

feeble,the delicate,and

the

as

to

who

carriage, by

AND

PHYSIOLOGY,

result

for

of

longed
pro-

sedentary

habits.
32.

Literaryoccupationsare
they he pursued

unless

always

are

essential

to

to

injurious to health,
especially

not

preservation of

the

neglected. Sedentary occupations


induce

dyspepsia ;

33.
and

Few

persons

it is very

suffer

the

increase

to

seem

much

so

During

an
we

but

tendency

perish from

from

that

to

the
as

cause,

met

with

injured by overstudy ; yet

but
we

kinds,

have

health, be
to

apt

are

labor

does

exhaustion

pupils

of

not

limited
seen

years

imagined.

in the

number
very

alone

schools

our

is sometimes

experience of nearly twenty


have

the

disease.

mental

pure

whether

this

of all

which

means,

of mental

the addition

doubtful

the other

and

excess,

many

room,
schoolof

cases

whose

202

ANATOMY,

PHYSIOLOGY,

14.

What

15.

Why

IG.

What

17.

What

is remarked

18.

What

of

19.

What

of

20.

What

always results
should

from

of the

be

they

be

22.

walking,

is there

Why
What

25.

To

the

for

open

of exercise?

means

of exercises

of

should

the

is remarked

27.

What

is said

28.

What

of

riding

in

29.

What

of

riding

in boats

30.

What

is said

31.

How

32.

What

does

is remarked

schools

for the

youth

of

beneficial?

should

Why

of cities

body

be

devoted?

What

is said of

used

children

by

as

of exercise

means

vehicle?
?

of exercise

neglect

be

habit?

horseback

on

should

of seats

riding

What

learning?

public

best

the

period

What

of

stooping

study during youth


of

schools

in

in the

position

erect

exercise

all institutions

26.

after

full meal

affect the

of exercise
of

?
?

system

literary occupations

What

of

sedentary

of all kinds?

33.

What

is remarked

84.

What

is

of

always

in schools

overstudy

needed

health,

for

whether

the

mind

is

employed

not

85.

as

for out-door

exercises

is remarked
what

time

into

is said

occupations

or

physical

is the

24.

energies?
air ?

running?

introduced

23.

vital

jumping?

are

What

HYGIENE.

sports of children?
of

substitute

How

in the

taken

the object of all physical exercises


21.

the

overtaxing

all exercise

is said

AND

What

is the effect of continued

applicationto study

"XKoo-

VIIL

Section
Teeth

The

1.

The
all

particlesof

food

be

the

This

may

made

of wood

of food
render
teeth.

are

be cleansed

teeth should

not

done

by

the

or

common

removed,

the breath

Organs.

other

and

aftereach meal,

from

the

mouth

and

tooth-brush, aided

soon

offensive,as well

putrefy,and
as

hasten

as

the

to

move
re-

teeth.

by tooth-picks,

goose-quill.When
they

so

the

the

particles

in that

state

decay

of the

203

HYGIENE.

2.

The

tooth.

enamel

When

tooth

thus

is

portion of

any

exposed

cold

substances

well

as

all substances

When

much

break

that

or

their

improve

soon

of

When

commenced

The

4.

When

long used, it

of
obscured.
used

is

in

sewing

engaged

softer

the

and

colors, such

this

years.

retina
of

rest

is

hausted
ex-

vision

the

white

eye
in

engaged

quickly

more

eye

many

when

black

has

body, needs

are

we

The

the

the

case

enamel.

gold-foil.In

clearness-

the

from

the tooth

wearied, the

when

night.

at

exhaust

upon

of

particularly the

by lamp-light,as

printed page,

is

becomes

the

preserved for

(yrgans

and
sensibility,

This

and
a

its

be

may

too

This

them

injury to

be filled with

other

like all

eye,

too

much

partlydecayed

tooth-picks.

prevent

injured,and

as

gritty

as

he removed.

will

cause

is

decay, it should

to

tooth

way

to

enamel

part of the

any

metal

should

and

pressing so closelytogether as

avoided,

irregularfrom being

are

them

appearance,

be

it,such

nuts, and

teeth

more

should

scratch

or

shells of hard

one

destroyed,the part of the


decays. Very hot or very

enamel, and

the permanent

crowdedy

will

the

protection to the body of the

it is

the air

to

crack

tooth-powder,the
3.

natural

is

ing,
read-

colors

than

is

when

of
it

yellow, blue, or

as

green.
6. Sudden

The
of
a

changes in

iris contracts

dilates,so

or

to

very

the retina
the loss of
The

6.

are

from

the

or

the water

of
eye-washes,

has

in

of the

roots

be

may
any

the iris
this is

when

tepid or

the secretions

inflamed, they may

by
eyes

and

; and

from

change
can

tract,
con-

continued,

follows.

he hathed

eyes should

also

water,
no

overpowered

sight sometimes

the dust

remove

and

is

the

when
before

strong lightis made

he avoided.

regulate the quantity

to

as

the retina ; but

lightfallingupon
dim

of lightshould

the amount

their

eyelashes.

frequentlybathed

be

because

frequentlyfollowed

Wlien
in

their

ever

be

permanent
use.

so

inner

as

to

angles,
the eyes

tepid or

constantlyapplied to

kind, should

physician;

from

cold under,

; but

them

used, unless

injury

cold

to

scribed
prethe

204

physician should
hearing is impaired,a skilful

the

When

7.

he consulted,and

his advice

of deafness

cure

is

dry, and

the

relief may

who

persons
obtained

be

8. The
middle

thus prevents insects and


When

an

of oil
the

insect

may

then

be

dropped
from

be removed

the

wearing

should

while

hat

invites

undue

an

baldness.

; but

flow in successive

jets.

of pressure,

until

but

the artery is

case
can

up

and

bound

artery, it will

an

it may

be

checked, by

be obtained.

should

When
be

the pressure
used

in the middle

also be made

is to be continued,

following manner

of the

handkerchief;

artery.

Next, place

that

so
a

short

the

knot

stick

or

so

that

the

by using a key padded

in the

the

limb,

or

muslin

the wound;

firmly on

larger,pressure

the artery,

on

press

as

soon

vein, it will flow in

from

comes

surgeon

trunk, either by grasping the parts

around

12.

from

as

folded

may

then

be checked

be

end.

knot

diseases.

should

fingerswill
one

many

ness
brain, causing weak-

should

In either

of

of hair

growth

bleedingartery is small, a piece of

its main

on

other

it

by

the

when

it

custom

When

11.

will kill

children,the hair should

to the

comes

when

The

luxuriant

wounds

the blood

regular stream

linen

This

ear.

warm.

In

of blood

Hemorrhage from

means

and

to the brain.

house, is believed

headache, and

possible. When
a

the

canal, a few drops

the

kept too

in the

amount

of the eyes,
10.

and

ear.

thin; because

short and

kept

the

be

not

physiciansto produce
be

external
into

ear.

immediately, by preventing respiration; and


head

The

9.

into the

of rabbit's

auditory canal,

thingsfrom passing

insect crawls
fat should

or

other

the

the external

external

the

entirelycloses

ear

doors,

drops

glycerine,in

ear

frequently

within

two

or

between

membrane

tympanic

is

much

by putting one
sweet-oil,or

fat, goose-grease,

the external

hard, which

confined

are

for the

nostrums

When

ignored.

in it becomes

wax

All

followed.

be

should

the

with

case

HYGIENE.

AND

PHYSIOLOGY,

ANATOMY,

then

will

under

bleeding is stopped.
hemorrhage is from the smaU

chief
handker-

First,make
tie it

press

the

at

loosely

upon

the

handkerchief;

twist it until the

When

the

vessels,an

im-

205

HYGIENE.

portant part of the

is the

treatment

check

formation

the further

the wound,

which

This

generally be. accomplished

may

thicknesses
the

on

of muslin

wound

water,

with

or

alum

human

vegetable life.

for

needed

It is

frame.

as

excluded

Our

from

stunted

When

it becomes

room,

blanched,

dark

14. Persons
a

it would
than
of

to seclude

they

should
each

weather

15. The

sun

an

human

frail bodies, which

of

of

must

18

of

sit in the

sun's

under

rooms,

the

sit in
a

on

rays

plea

hour
when

comfortable

vrtndow

rays

winter,

an

and

sun;

the

of

sit for

own

Him,
I

we

more

return

soon

to

All-wise

an

the

our

gratefulheart

sun's

or

the
room

them.

complicatedpieceof mechanism,

it; and

know

they lose

of summer,

weather

to

porticoin

is

body

becomes

the

pleasant weather

the

open

desire to offer up

homage

where

warm

they should
shine through

can

required
to
rightly come

we

the

severe,

duties

will

day

in darkened

admirably adapted by

most

; and

plenty of clothingand

is very

that the

appearance

put
on

are

deformed.

skin

During

day

ing
manufactur-

otherwise

cool.
on

serves

children

light, the

for invalids

themselves

and

are

health,will be invigorated

clear

During

be far better

keeping

two

them.

to

as

activity.

delicate

or

so

and
sickly-looking,

are

white

part of each

shine upon

or

of

vigor and

in feeble

by spending
can

present

less of their

or

more

to

as

growth,

of

as

and

When

it.

the

bright rays

damp,

mines

as

animal

be built

and

occupy

pale and

deprived

are

so

cold

very

Powdered

vigor of

the sun's

places,such

in their

adults

several

healthydevelopment of

for when

establishments,they are
often

with

water.

dwelling-housesshould

in dark

confined

are

80

the

generate disease in those who

to

and

essential to the

plenty of sunlight;

admit

by binding

it lint wet

to

of blood.

applied.

Sunlight is

13.

flow

clot in

quantity of lint,tightly

of alum

solution

also be

may

linen,or

or

by applying

or

to

serves

of

Creator

who

dust

the

investigateand

existence, and
to

to

of

again,the

is Ruler

over

these
more

all,the

206

AND

PHYSIOLOGY,

ANATOMY,

HYGIENE.

QUESTIONS.

SECTION

VIII.

1.

Wliat

is remarked

of

cleansing

2.

What

is remarked

of

the

3.

of

Wha{

teeth

the

the
of

enamel

when

much

too

teeth

the

teeth

crowded?

What

of

fillii% the

teeth?
4.

the
5.
6.
use

7.

do

sudden

What

9.

Why

children

sight

Why

the

eye?

does

the

the

be

eye

of

light

in

water

affect

beneficial

remedied

be

ear

What

hat

their

hair

bo

kept
of

is remarked

is

hearing

in

external

the
while

removed

thin

and

short

in

house

wounds

How

may

hemorrhage

from

large

vessels

be

checked?

12.

How

may

hemorrhage

from

small

vessels

be

checked

13.

What

14.

How

What

from

is derived

advantage
feeble

persons

are

How

may

be

made

about

plenty

of

sun-light

invigorated?

Where

human

body

the

Why

should

?
?

should

winter?

remarks

from

hemorrhage

the

11.

In

the

of

ear?

What

may

is said

impaired

10.

15.

haust
ex-

?
insects

of

the

should

the

when

done

is remarked

have

summer?

reading

should

in

8.

changes

bathing

eye-washes
What

dryness

in

is

Why

the

affect

nse

eye

How

of

continued

does

How

they

sit

CHAPTER

Growth

The

1.
from

six

to

The

inches.
but

pounds,

it afterwards

three

of

body

adult

the

feet

seven

The
the

of

the

the
;

it

to

little,and

umple
3.

it has

sounds
The

but

the
of

skeldon
a

is

limited

five

wards
after-

are

is

The

about

feet

five

inches.

two

until

about
of

weight

average

men

entirelyhelpless ;
it

spends

six

end

of
or

an

amount

it

of

two

first

to

the

age

year

it takes
of
and

more

learns

soon

months
the

most

it

notice

no

the

time

more

child

can

imitate

in

notice

communicate

can

and

pounds.

twenty-three

older, it takes

At

of

and

and

it,

one

the

time

the

attained.

continues

weight,

first

one-half

States,

atiout

the

years

ia

first,

at

forty-four pounds, avoirdupois,

grows

others.

hj

in

twenty

United

rapid

to

stature

women,

things, and

surrounding

wants

infant

but

as

of

hundred

one

about

the

eighteen

During

reaches
or

full

in

and

things

child

the

ia

height,

is

birth

at

about

gradual.

eighteen

which

hundred

first the

the

body,
at

year,

about

women

sleep
of

and

one

2. At
of

inches,

thirtieth

is about

of

men

growth

of

infant
height

in

more

; but

of

height

average

body,

the

before

required

the

and

becomes

the

years

height

of

growth

human

ike

weight of

seveu

Death.

Development.

and

average

and

Development

VI."

ita

lisp a
a

few

syllables.

infant
of

is

eoft and

strength.

yielding; hence,

Many

of the

bones

208

ANATOMY,
in the form

are

of

into

bone, and

When

three

months

enough

to

when

nine

months

year

old, it

other

support

years

of age,
At

four

old, it
stand

can

; and

able

birth, the
their

bones

edges

bones

The

has

by taking

hold

skull

to

and

and

thin
to

fibrous

two

alone.

run

very
as

chair, or

a
one

even
are

togetherby

; when

of

yet united, so

not

upright;

room

periods,between
the

child.

strength

sit

can

the

of

held

are

old, it

walk, and

the

fallingforward

about

to

are

of

infant

it from

keep

or
ossify,

to

strength

healthy

various

at

the

to

crawl

can

HYGIENE.

they continue

months

alone

it becomes

flexible,and

form

the

membranes,

skin, so that the skull is comparatively soft and

the

by

add

support its head, and

the chest ; when

and

thus

old, the

upon

sutures.

but

cartilage;

change

4.

AND

PHYSIOLOGY,

is not

yielding,and

solid, bony

like

case,

that

of

the

adult.
In

5.

covered

spaces,

is the anterior

skull, where

at

the

bones

the

the

angles
These

four

from

three

of the

top

of the

parietal bones
is situated

of the

parietal

of

years

not

are

age,

points

of

fication,
ossi-

vertebra, and

one

birth,however, the vertebrae

entirelyof cartilage;
to

these

of these

fontanels

is about

body

At

arch.

weak

too

the

at

and

the

developed

almost

is then

column

frontal

the

tissues,and

important

is situated

is in the

of the

composed

are

is

soft

most*

occipitalbone.

of which

side

each

The

head, where

vertebra

one

other

membranous

posteriorfontanel, which

the

and

several

are

and

until the child

entirelyclosed

to

angles of

the

with

6. Each

skin

Fontanels.

of the

crown

meet

sutures

fontanel, which

together;

come

the

the

by

called

are

spaces

of

line

the

maintain

the

and

body

in

the
an

spinal
upright

position.
7.

The

cavity of
lower
time

in

meet

of birth

first
is

and
mostly cartilaginous,

composed

triangular

hip-joint. The

the

limbs

at

side

each

on

These

pelvisis

are

ossified

only

hence, they are

of

three
the

union

in

bones

of the

in their

soft and

middle

the

separate

bone
hip-

pieces.

acetabulum,
and

upper

or

the

portion, at the

and
flexible,

are

unable

210

ANATOMY,
teeth

manent

in size

increased
The

12.

order

and

the ninth

give place
the

in

to

twelfth

the

the

canines

and

fourteenth

years,

the

jaw;

by

and

the last

year,

the permanent
Human

13.
be

thus

from

the

seventh
when

year,

the

From

teeth
of

teeth,
appear.

the

firstset
set ; and

first set

In

the

teeth

milk

period of yoidh.

prime of life;after

begin

teeth

Then

placed
re-

are

thirteenth

protrude firom

the

twenty-second
and

complete

of

time

infancy;
when

the

sixth

from

the

final

twentieth

the

tion
comple-

jear,

decline, and

powers
age,

or

time

is the

period of maturity, or

the

the

the

fall to the

to

eighteenth or

which

period

may
of the

appearance

childhood;

begin

comes

to

periods which

fall out, in

to

of

life,that of old

human

the

first tooth

period

temporary

to

month, is the

teeth

is the

into

birth

of the

of the stature, in the

period of

following

first molar

teeth,appear

divided

been

seventh

the appearance
or

number.

in the

the

to

both

set

distinguished.

temporary

larger

set

molar

wisdom

or

life has

first tooth, in

second

have

jaws

permanent
of

seventeenth

the

molar,

the

teeth

second

the

the

molars

two

canine

of the

from

and

numerous,

the incisor

bicuspidsof
the

year,

more

the

years^

the

years,

two

aze

this

eighth years,

tenth

mostly larger m

usually appear

seventh

and

HYGIENE.

of twenty ; and

teeth

and

seventh

also

are

accommodate

to

as

the sixth

in the

In

so

permanent

In

and

They

set

instead
thirty-two,

number

and

in texture

harder

are

the temporary

than

ANB

PHYSIOLOGY,

the
last

the

is reached.

QUESTIONS.
SECTION

1. What
of the
2.

is the

growth
What

to talk?

weight

of the

is the

body

condition

and
in

I.

height
height
of

the

of the
What

infant

human
of its
at fir"t ?

infant

growth
What

What

is said

in weight?
of

its

learning

AND

DEVELOPMENT

3. What

is said of the

skeleton

of

in"nt

an

2ll

D1BATH.

of its increase

What

in

strength?
of the

4.

What

is said

of the

bones

5.

What

is said

of the

fontanels

6.

What

of the

development

of the

vertebrse

7.

What

of the

development

of the

pelvis?

is said

of the

digestion in

8. What
9.

What

of the

10.

What

is said

What

of the

development

12.

What

of the

time

13.

What

are

children

of

second

cutting

of teeth

set

the

human

which

periods into

first set of teeth ?

of the

of the

order

and

children?

appearance

11.

respiration in

of the

the

skull

second

set ?

been

.lifehas

divided

""":oc-

Section
Decay

1. The
in

on

loss,from

by
of life
the

to

accident
be

can

the

for when

of the

some

the

The

The
entire

the

if the

newty

limb,

of

lowest

Reparation
the type of

reparation; yet
less

or

include

AracKniday
when

common

cerebral

email
or

into

is necessary

which

and

table.
vege-

animals, the
all animals

is very
into

perfecthydra

the

functions

degree.

this power

orders

developed

scorpions,can,

its head

the parts destroyed

that the

great

the

ganglion

lizard,can

its tail,whenever

can

and

spidersand

fully developed,reproduce
enailyit is asserted,

this

results.

lobsters, crabs,

include

pieces,

; and

similar

repeatedagain and again with

the

shrimps, and
; and

repaired,and

lower

greater

Orusta^cea, which

limbs

constantlygoing

livingorganism, animal

power
a

"

is cut
hy^draya speciesof jelly-fish,

be

may

process

the

in

tear

reproduced,so

general rule, the

piece becomes

each

be

be

of every

this power

2. In

and

wear

must

must

greater is the inherent


possess

"

properly performed.

existence
As

Death.

and

living body,

the

IL

their

reproduce

be

preserved uninjured.
readily reproduce an eye, an
it loses any

of these

organs.

212

ANATOMY,

3. This

earlier

diminishes

injured

of

process

the

during

PHYSIOLOGY,

in

old

of

periods

HYGIENE.

active

most

in

existence; and
that

so

it

animals

gradually

parts which

imperfectlyrepaired

are

age

the

although

reparation is

life advances,

as

AKD

lost

are

reproduced,

or

injury might easily be repaired

same

or

in the

young.
In

4.

and

man

other

warrti-bhoded

limited to certain

reparationis

skin, the epithelium of the

corpusclesof

red

reparationin

and

in the

all

body
The

5.

low

in

the

bones, and

tissues.

Besides

with

and

of the

organs
7.

as

the

have

not

and

the

with

in structure,
true

these

this power.
or

endowed

are

such

specialorgans,
of

the power

the

removed

or

facility. When

far from

each

divided, and

are

other, they

tissue,and thus its functions


ends

kept

are

decreases
divided

in

too

far

size,and
is

nerve

quickly
afterwards

are

the

connection.

nervous

8.

Life

and

death

are

organized being. Every

by

ends

injured
the

not

are

to

be

thus

united, the

the

muscle

undergoes fattydegeneration.
united

by

formed

so

as

to

continuallytaking place
tissue,

every

organ,

tissue ; and

connective
in this

too

of connective

band

re-established; but when

are

apart

soon

nerve-fibres

united

are

the cut

by

become

separated parts
Bones, when

muscle

the

reparation.

when

or

by strong, fibrous or bony belts.


broken, are repairedwith remarkable
a

and

as

united

fibres of

are

connective

cartilage,muscles,

across,

repaired; but

not

in structure

secretingand excreting glands

the

broken

Cartilage,when

accident, is

such

and

body,

on

blood-vessels, the. lymphatic

complex

glands,and

its

simple

are

also endowed

are

nerve-substance;

dermis

wTiich

these, the

are

going

are

capable of reparation;

peculiar functions,

gray

which

processes

elastic,the fibrous, and

which

also the

constantlyundergoing decay

body,

the nerves,

6. Tissues

of the

epidermis
and

of

life.

through

the

The

the power

membranes,

mucous

the nutritive

vitality,
are

vessels, and

tissues.

blood, are

tissues of the

and

or

the

animals

and

establish

in

every
indeed

DEVELOPMENT

which

from

they

existence, and

they

where
formed

from

The

their

allotted

period of

further

thus

and

others

the

upon

of

stage

life is

up

Death

by

to

be

is made

one

action

living

life of the

of persons.

community,

the

the

which

body,

cells

cells must

preserve

community

the

among

Other

use.

stage of existence, while

the

bringing

decay.

from

respects the

in

to

removed

places,and

these

work

constantly at

be

no

parts, is like

many

pass

their

In

individual.

of

be

take

to

then

must

can

have

developed

are

213

DEATH,

part of the body is subject alike

every

of

AND

is

they

one

equally busy
their

occupy

places.
relative

9. The
different

periods

youth, the
is

system

repaired,and

solid,the full

the

system

has

individual

neither

As

11.

we

of old
feeble

the
the

age,

they

and, therefore,are

by

the

tissues

and

undergo
daily diminished,
body, having

are

for

the

Him

whence

meridian

of

has

velopmen
de-

strength

repair the

of the

body.

degeneration,their
life ebbs

slowly

is
vitality,

dead,

and
!

strong

been

The

attained,

and

the

powers

of

and

the

the

and

more

powers

more

of

death,

organs,

Amctional
until

away

riod
pe-

loss sustained

These

immortal

the

approach

natural

laid in the

tellectu
in-

the

of years.

term

life and

with

pace

organs

came

in the

fore,
; there-

become

has

life become

of

to

it

tem
sys-

and

and

development,

loses for

unable

and

growth

evenly balanced,

now

powers

lost all

appointed
from

decay

highest perfection.

longer keep

no

and

size

of the individual

gains nor

pass

skeleton

its fullest

assimilation

and

nutritive

life.

stature

their

in

and

the

furnished

abundantly

the

childhood

for the

increase

body

reached

powers

is

the
of life,

prime

and

waste

the

waste

material

new

periods of

the

In

10.

natural

individual

parts of

these

during

the

with

vary

In

strong and

so

are

vigor, that

of the
all

life

death

existence.

human

of

powers

full of

so

of

life and

of

powers

"

narrow

soul

quently,
conse-

powers
at

are

last the
house

returns

"

to

214

ANATOMY,

AKD

PHYSIOLOGY,

HYGIENE.

QUESTIONS.

SECTION

from

the

1.

What

18

said

of

2.

What

is

said

of

reparation

in

the

3.

What

is

said

of

reparation

at

different

4.

What

of

5.

What

parts

6.

What

parts

7.

What

is

muscles

it

in

the

II.

the

body

the

repairing

Of

repairing

8.

What

is

said

of

life

9.

What

is

said

of

these

10.

What

of

them

in

the

11.

What

of

them

in

old

in
in

powers

of

prime
age

the

of

life

animals

reparation?

reparation?

Of

organized
childhood

life?

body

animals?

repairing

bones

nerves

death

and

of

cartilage

of

periods

of

power

in

tear

order

lower

capable

are

of

and

wear

warm-blooded

other

without

are

and

man

of

said

loes

bodies?
and

youth?

Of

pairing
re-

Appendix.

I.

Section

Carb

Good

1.

is

nursing

Sick.

the

of

important

an

and

Intelligence, good judgment,


the

among

are

by giving

comfort,
real

the

towards

gentleness

80

in

common

2. Xear

and

dear

unfit for nursing,


the

of

welfare
calm

of

fear

or

trusting
must

3.

all
Ths

sboidd
ftom
enter,

be
as

so

4.

nxli)

for

the

best

not

to

iiicummude

of

temperature

mid

seventy degree.

so

as

to

be

kept

the

free

from

room

furniture

serve
pre-

patient,

which

upou

which

in

this

we

life I

tiie

room,

liouse
as

sunlight

the

should

be

far
can

moved,
re-

attendants.

sick-room
The

the

by

large, airy
in

for

exhibition

trials

many

aiToost

exhibit

outward

needed

eheerfvl

one

dition,
con-

should

nurse

Power"

the

mci,

nervous

themselves

any

of

and

and

whether

wants,

anxiety they

cases,

Superfluous

The

render

dutita

amid

possible, and

as

mil

the

"Arm

support

the

without

aitnfortable

seieeted

noise

and

and

soothe

to

the

allay

sometinien

all

Kindness

nurse.

do,

to

illness,

severe

In

higher

most

be

sick.

ness.
sick-

of

nwea

willingness

patient's

to

of

perform

for

lean

of

account

on

the

much

cases

demeanor,

that

to

do

aU

disposition

to

friends

the

sorrow,

and

siek,

will

good

attention

imaginary,

or

of

requisites

in

part

should
should

room

all

be

kfpt
be

unpleasant

well

between
lated,
venti-

odors,

and

216

ANATOMY,

from

all

is an

excellent

impurities.

be

never

permitted

taken

best

the

room

oil,and

often

unpleasant odor,
all

6. In

sichroom
in

should

sickroom
should

the

enter

Visitors
their

be

admission,

physician.

than

less

or

more

or

No

needs
of

who

otherwise, should

be

as

; and

be avoided

talking,should

patient.
the

red, and
the

attendants
while

there.

sick; hence,

are

directed

by

the

all unnecessary

bustling,all confusion, and

All

the

of service

those

disturb

0"al-

giving light,emit

more

be

can

nigki,is by

at

disagreeableto

very

kept quiet.

room

warming

sperm-oil.

for

of sickness, the patient

cases

For

pure.

by tapers which bum


other preparations used

most

tion
precau-

every

coal.

for lightinga

means

Offensive

patient.

candles,or

sperm

an

the

immediately, and

preferableto

is

of air should

Currents

upon

the air of

keep

wood

The

5.

blow

to

HYGIENE.

or
fire-place,
chimney-place,

open

be removed

to

the room,

An

of ventilation.

means

should

matters

AND

PHYSIOLOGY,

stillness should

reign

in the

sick-room.
is

Cleanliness

7.

tumblers, and

other
be

should

sich^oom.

every

containing food, drink,

vessels

bed-linen

health, and

in

than

in

Both

frequentlywashed.

the

patient and

important

the

soiled

become

or

dress

cine,
mediof the

in sickness

sooner

should, therefore, be

Cups,

frequently

more

changed.
who

Those

8.

wait

re^it/ar/i/
through the day; and
also
of

partake

of

clothing,so
when
9.

sleep.

as

to

10.
should

who

not

attend

to

through

the wants

the

is then

important

that

of the

night they should

into

the

should

much

plenty

wear

ing,
morn-

sick ; she

watch

not

at

for want

wearied

the watcher

be

likely to

day

too

is

brought

meals

is exhausted.

the

be

the

They should

plenty of sleepduring
Whatever

their

take

towards
feel cold, particularly

to

the system

It is

during

lightfood.

nurse

because

of

obtain

as

the system

Those

night;

some

should

the sick

upon

keep awake,

so

should, therefore,

day.
needed

sick-room

during
before

the
the

night,

family

218

19.

Beef

half

Take

Tea.

pieces,add

small

off the

HTGIEKE.

of lean

pound

pint of cold water,

Skim

boor.

an

AKD

PHT8IOI"OOT,

A2fATOMTy

fio,salt

bee^

and

slowly for

boil

taste, and

to

in Tery

cat

off as

pour

needed.

wine

21.

pint of

of ^eny
wineglaasfiil

muslin, and

fresh milk

add

while

and

sugar

Sweeten

Pnnclt

Brandj

add

and

half

to

thin

through

Add

Whey.

Wine

20.

deira
Ma-

boiling. Strain

nutm^.

tumblerfiil

or

of

fiesh

milk,

tablespoonAilof brandy.

-^:"cc

Asphyxia

The

22.

the

for

treatment

suspended

or

other

breathing,
is much

causes,

same.

be not

If the weather

Ist

the spot and

on

2d.

Loosen

3d.

Turn

4th.

the

the

Lay

fifteen to

the

again.

This

in

nostrils,through

tube
this

Continue

or

as

chest

as

draw

the

tongue

the

his

nostrils.
above

arms

the shoulders

up

should

be

Blow

there

into

is

; then

repeated from
the

without

quill,or

long

the

; raise

minute.

and

Cleanse

back
draw

times

him.

face, and

time

same

down

twenty

available.

his

stantly
patient in-

moving

the neck

the mouth.

patient on

at

in

time

no

the

treat

severe,

his

to clear

as

both

them

waste

patient on

so

the head, and

bring

too

ever3rthingabout

gently forward

or

asphyxia,

drowning, coal-gas,or

from

whether

Drcwnino.

from

mouth,

them,

hope

of

as

is

exciting

respiration.
5th.

Pass

intervals, so
6th.

and

always

heart,

to

as

so

as

under

containing hartshorn
excite

nervous

the

circulation
one

to

way,
aid

the

of mustard,
application

by rubbing
from
return

nostrils,at

action.

respirationis established,endeavor

When

warmth
and

vial

the
of

the

induce

patient vigorously,

extremities
the

to

venous

towards

blood.

of bottles of hot water, and

the
The

of heated

APPENDIX.

bricks

the feet and

to

liquor,will

under

continued

parts with

patient with dry clothing as

the

blankets

dry

these

rubbing

hot

useful.

be found

Cover

7th.

legs,and

219

'

as

sible
pos-

friction may

that

preferable,so

are

soon

be

them.

Disinfectants.

23.

the

24.

by whitewashing
and
of

lime, or

gases
25.

The

following disinfectants

of half
a

water

gallon

or

of

of potassa to

26.

dissolved

pound

of the chloride
and

also

boiled.

used

of

in

Tar

and

the

made

one

; or

water

gallon of

lime, well mixed

freely.

one

grainsof

ten

quarts of

two

fluid-

one

with

the

common

good disinfectants.
clothing
solution

three

kept for several


two

of

and

an

is

bedding
in

an

be

oughly
thor-

of the permanganate

ounce

water

hours

hundred

patients should

from

gallons of

Clothing

over

of

soda, and

water

iron

of

of

quart of

one

sulphate of

Articles

be

by adding

made

of the

this purpose.
should

of chlorinated

and

of potassa to

by absorbing

the best for all other

are

acid

are

chloride

vessels in the

useful

of carbolic

water,

petroleum

solid

liquidcomposed

solution

solution

or

fluidounce

pound

purifying.

Labarraque's

permanganate

the

acid

impurities.

need

that

quart of water;

or

also

are

floors

of carbolic

lime, in shallow

other

of

ounce

by placing

or,

charcoal

of

by sprinklingthe

fluidounce

and

places

may,

tion,
purifiedby thorough ventila-

of half

unslaked

common

Pieces

rooms.

Unhealthy places

walls, and

quarts of water,

two

be

may

the

made

solution

of preventing

means

purifiedtemporarily by disinfectants.

Dwelling-honses

with

the best

are

infection.

of

spread

be

however,

cleanliness

and

Ventilation

frequently used

that
oven

degrees.

In

be

cannot

heated
bad

cases

for

washed,

to

of

perature
temcon-

220

AND

PHYSIOLOGY,

ANATOMY,

tagious disease, the clothing and


burned

of filth should

Heaps

be

done, they should

inches

chloride

by using

of

disinfect

thousand

As

if every
that

should

be

could

where

cases

relieved
be

may

of

water

irritated

by

the

After

water,

as

30.

After

as

of

and

bottle,were

be

the

will

has been

poison

its contents

as

soon

Care

common

table-salt.

commenced,

reason

to

so

as

as

throat

think

be

may

for

vomiting, the strengthof

necessary,

by

wine

or

quickly as possible.

and

continue

used

the

slipperythe

But

ing
vomit-

all been

pelled.
ex-

same

the person

brandy.

ing.
vomit-

mucilaginous

poison has

the

be

may

induce

to

warm

to

two

or

Copious draughts
the

feather, so

one

tablespoonful of

be continued, and

taken,

in this

poisoning.

flaxseed-tea,gum-arabic water,
be

be well

ing
possible. Vomit-

as

containing

has

known.

swallowed^ the stomach

water

more

plainly labelled, so

of accidental

cases

the

it would

positivelyknown.

finger,or by

is

in them

lime

generally

cure,

suspected poisoning,the services of

obtained

chloride

be

than

better

stomach-pump

supported,if
of

of

should

should

until there
A

or

vomiting

drinks, such
elm

of

warm

ground mustard,
warm

placed

speedily produced by drinking

tumblerfuls

disinfected

be

be

three

or

that
frequently,

so

should

prevent many

In all

two

not
can-

Antidotes.

occur

them

always

its contents

29.

of

for

package, box,

respect would

of the

their

poisoning
is

prevention

should

pound

and

antidotes

common

charcoal

this

gallons of running filth.

Poisons

of

when

gutters, may

lime, which

quantities. One

Cases

with

be covered

in small

; and

be removed

Sewers, drains, and

deep.

28.

either be

should

bedding

buried.

or

27.

HYGIENE.

pose.
pur-

be

may

in all

cases

physician should

be

221

APPENDIX.

POISONS.

ANTIDOTES.

Calcined
Nitric

acid

(aquafortis).
Muriatic
acid (spirits
of salt).
Sulphuric acid (oil of vitriol).

Oxalic

acid.

Prussic
Oil

of

acid.

Laurel

(hartshorn).

Potash.

Strong lye.

Nitrate

of Potassa

lime-water

ammonia

juice
be

Arsenic.

of

^fly-poison).

Scheele's

of

Calcined

of

Acetate

(blue vitriol)

of copper

solution

harky

lead

(sugar

of

lead.

white

Corrosive

Sublimate

(bug poison).

Precipitate.
Precipitate.

Pliofjphorus.
Matcnes.
19*

of

eggs,

oroak-

baking

or

mild

Give

'

and

mustard,
follow

salt, and
Salts.

JSu/phuric

teaspoonful

Give

the

by

acid

is

as

salt in

common

of four

or

Jive eggs

substitute, give wheat


with

and

water.

"ILarge

doses

followed

of

of water.

white
a

mixed

tard,
mus-

this

of water

tumblerful

or,

Vermilion.

and

antidote.

) Give
a

Give

quickly.
water

antidote.

an

emetic

Epsom

of silver (lunar caustic).

mtLS-

antidote.

an

common

an

Nitrate

and

mus-

by large doses
dote
antiThe
Magnesia.
is hydrated perarsenic

is

an

or

water

warm

drinks freely.

lead).

cream.

stomach-pump.

the

JMilk,
Use

of

Acetate

or

ofntUpalljtannin,

is

soaa.

(verdigris).

copper

and

of iron.

the

Sulphate

warm

follow

for

wine.

by

of

emetic

oxide

emetic.

oil

stomach-pump

an

Green.

Antimonial

water

warm

use

or

and

Cobalt

White

of

emetic
tard

Use

Red

weaJc

or

followed

emetic

An

Spirituous liquors.

White

freely.

tardy followed

Alcohol.

quickly.

vinegar. These
by sweet-oil,casmay
thick
cream.
or
tor-oil,
linseed-oil,

An

(saltpetre).

them

Take
warm

teaspoonful of the water


in one
pint of water.

one

of

1-

Iodine.

Tartar

take

\ Lemon
L

Soda.

and

water,

Drink

water.

Ammonia

be
substituted.
may
in copious draughts of

soap,
them

\ Give

bitter almonds.

Magnesia is the best; but


soda
(saleratus),^^"^ ^^

chalk,

soap-suds,or

of

Oticined

by mucilaginous

with

flour
milk

Magnesia,
drinks.

222

AND

PHYSIOLOGY^

ANATOMY,

POISONS.

HYGIEKE.

ANTIDOTES.

Opium.
Laudanum.

Paregoric.

Morphine.
Cordial.
Godfrey's

Produce

vomititig by

Carminatives.

tard and

(monkshood)*

Aconite

be

(nightshade).

Belladonna

continued

the

for

possible.

Lobelia.
Stramonium

Use

as
quickly as
patient awake.

the

Keep

mas*

should

time.

some

stomach-pump

Hemlock.

of

means

water, which

warm

Weed).

(Jamestown

Camphor.
Tobacco.
Nux

(strychnine).

Vomica

j Give

food.

Poisonous

mustard,

Ammonia

Sting

of

Insects.

of

emetic

an

or

or

salt.

common

be

(hartshorn) may
baking-floda made

paste with

and

water

warm

water

plied,
apinto a

be

may

kept

on

the part.
the

Bite

of

with

caustic

iron

of

Rattlesnakes

Serpents.

ligature

it is
the

Poisonous

or

on

remedies
above
of

one

air and

out

redrhot,

bitten

part.
is

This

one

known.

the
the

Tie

when

wound

limbs.

part strongly with

J-Fresh

gases.

the

out

best

the

other
a

patasaa^

freelyof whisky.

of

and

cut

Drink
Bite

part strongly; hum

}Suck

animals.

Rabid

artificial

the

Suck
mouth.

respiration.

QUESTIONS.
SECTION

1. What

Why

2.

always
said

of
4.

the

What

ventilation

sometimes

when
kind

in the

of

should
a

room

unfit to be

sick-room

should

be

be

the

sick-room

temperature

of kindness
nurses

selected

How

for

the

of

sick-room?

5. What

is said

of

lightinga

What

is said

of

keeping

6.

What

to the

should

sick ?

sick ?
a

nurse

What

is

in it?

furniture

in

good nursing?

friends

are

appear

What

3.

is said of

I.

sick-room

the sick-room

at

night ?
quiet ?

What

is said

of

223

APPENDIX.

7.

dress

What
the

of

patient

of

is said

9. What

is remarked

11.

What

What
12.

How

broth

of beef?

Beef

19.

What

is the

23.

What

is said

24.

How

25.

How

26.

What

should

27.

What

with

28.

What

is said

29.
be
30.

with

of

filth
of

cases

Lime

physician?

whey?

asphyxia

18. Essence

punch?

cleanliness

and
be

Brandy

and

water

purified ?

the

clothing

from

patients?

dwelling-houses

near

What

poisoning?

?
.

should

care

be used

to

poisoning?
be

should
?

in all

done

How

it be

may

poisoning

of

cases

continued

the patient'sstrength be

may

14.

purified or disinfected

be

be done

of

water?

21.

may

heaps

by

Wine

other

rest?

the

17. Arrowroot?

ventilation

places

retiring to

16. Panada?

dwelling-houses

produced
How

of

clothing

given

Rice

13.

may

What

the

changing

for

treatment

accidental

prevent

20.

tea?

22.

of

before

directions

made?

water

15. Chicken

milk?

food

of

preparation

is toast

of

night?

at

made

be
the

of

What

nurse?

watchers

the

of

remarked

is
the

of

for the

food

preparation should

What

What

sick-room?

the

8. What

10.

in

cleanliness

of

How

may

ing
vomit-

supported?

3"0{00.

II.

Section
Glossary

AnflB^mia.

Poverty
A

An'eTirisiiL

of blood.

soft

artery, by the dilatation


coats

produces

Ap'oplexy.
by

death

formed

tumor

of its coats.

in

the

The

of

course

rupture

an

of these

by hemorrhage.

Sudden

pressure

Diseases.

of

upon

loss

of

consciousness; usually

the brain

from

increased

an

duced
pro-

supply

of blood.

Suspended breathingfrom

Asphyxia.

of gases,

Asth'ma.
constriction

chloroform,

or

drowning,

the bronchial

halation
in-

ether.

Difficultyof breathing,caused
of

the

tubes.

by

spasmodic

224

ANATOMY,

PHYSIOLOGY,

Bronchi'tis.
of the

An

bronchial

An

inflammation

disease

causing dimness,
Catarrh'.

and

of

Chil'blain.

"

attended

with

An
bad

Chore'a.

Asiatic

severe.

more

skin.

the

on

four

The

five

or

between

time

days.
causing

disease

incessant

voluntary muscles,

of the

Chorera

with

second

witibout

in

time

Chd'era

mostly

Mdr'bus.

in

in the

Often

this

first visited

It

very
in

country

1849, lingeringuntil 1854.

The

with

attended

vomiting and

unripe

or

region,often

abdominal

young

cities.

to

disease

of

complaint

summer

confined
A

limbs.

the

produced by eating stale

; often

Pain

epidemic disease,attended

cramps

Infant'iun.
; and

An

Cholera.

contagious.

not

and

Coric.

nary
the ordi-

of the will.

diarrhoea, and

diarrhoea

eye,

contagious disease,

mild,

Dance.

St. Vitus's

Chorera.

children

attack, lasts

irregularmovements

fatal, but

the

of

epidemic disease,with

cold," but often

eruption

and

the control

crystallinelens

loss of vision.

even

Varicella.

an

the exposure

extensive

more

Frost-bite,particularlyof the feet.

Chick'en-pox.

1832

membrane

mucous

similar,but

of the

Influenza.

symptoms

with

of the

boil.

Cat'aract.

and

inflammation

HYGIENE.

tubes.

Car'buncle.
than

AND

fruit.

attended

with

cramp.

Congestive
in

marshy

Southern

the rice

places, especiallynear
States.

About

in

one

Fever.

Pernicious

Fever.

of the

occurring

plantations of

the

die.

eight cases

Conjunc'tivitis. Inflammation

fever

conjunctiva of

the

eye.

Convul'sions.

during

which

Comef

The

the

tis.

body

involuntary contraction
is

rigid,and

Inflammation

the

of the

cornea

of the muscles,

consciousness
of the

absent.

eye.

Coxal'gia. Hip-disease.
Delir'iiLm
use

Tre'mens.

of alcoholic

Mania

stimulants.

potti. Caused

by the

cessive
ex-

226

PHYSIOLOGY,

ANATOMY,

of the

Laryngi'tis.Inflammation
Tetanus.

Lock-jaw.

contraction
This

the muscles

Rubeola.

eruption

the

there

is a

muscles.

Toluntarj

of the

tinued
con-

Most

jaws.

cases

An

Mening^'tis.

contagious disease,attended

skin.

the

on

attack, lasts from

and

larynx.

in which

stifiness in

or

HYGIENE.

week.

Mea'sles.
an

disease

usuallybegins in

die within

AND

The

fifteen

to

ten

between

time

the

with

exposure

days.

inflammation

of

the

meningeal

brane
mem-

of the brain.
A

Mumps.

contagiousinflammation

Henral'gia.

Pain

in

in the

without

nerve,

when

is called^tic douloureux,

of the

in the

parotid gland.

inflanmmtion.

and
fiice,

It

sciatica,when

hip.

Fal'sy.
plete,in

loss of

paralysisor

the muscles

of

An

Fericardi'tis.

motion,

more

less

or

C(mi-

side.

one

of the membrane

inflammation

ing
invest-

the heart.
An

Feritoni'tis.
serous

membrane

liningthe

Fharyngftis.
of the

inflammation

The

of

the

peritoneum,

or

abdomen.

ordinary

throat.

sore

Inflammatkm

pharynx.
Fulmonalls.

Fhthi'sis

Consumption

continues

disease which
until there

is not

to

enough

An

the

lungs. A

destroythe substance
left to support

Fleu'risy. An inflammation
covering the lungs.
Fneumo'nia.

of

of the

inflammation

of

of

the

lungs,

life.

pleura, or
the

membrane

substance

of

the

lung.

Fleu'ro-pneumo'nia. Pleurisy and


both

ftuin'sy.

of the

Tonsillitis.

lung

and

An

the

An

pneumonia.

flammation
in-

pleura covering it.

inflammation

of

the

tonsil

glands.
Eemit'tent

spring or
slow

Fever.

Fever.

autumn,

streams

Often

of

Bilious

and
water.

fatal.

in the

Fever.

Occurring mostly

vicinityof marshes, ponds,

More

severe

than

in
or

Intermittent

227

APPENDIX.

Khen'matism.
which

column,

consider

it

Scrofula.
of the

disease

bleeding

the want

by

It is apt to end
Scorbutus.

of

; and

the

best

preventive is

epidemic fever;
half the

Sun'stroke.
A

wet

food, clothing,and

attended

general

bility
de-

vegetable food.
fatal.

often very

Fever.

spinal

The

visited

contagious.

not

in the

towel

or

lungSi.

by swelling and

and
spirits,

in

this country

with

time

tween
be-

twelve

da)rs.

very

fatal,

of the

crown

More

than

1806.

by excessive

Unconsciousness, caused

sponge

of the

vaccination.

First

die.

cases

stance
sub-

produced by hereditary

of

probably

but

of the

contagiousdisease,attended

Cerebro

Spot'ted Fever.

between

days.

the attack, lasts about

and

sore

writers

time

wasting

of fresh,

skin, and

the

the exposure
The

spinal

with

Most

The

five

disease

want

Variola.

eruption on

fatal.

Consumption

lowness

gums,

attended

skin.

of proper

produced by

Small-pox.

the

is

in

of the

curving

causes

which

tender.

very

disease

very

which

and

body,

transmission, or

Scur'vy.

Often

largerjoints,

children.

attack, lasts about

and

air.

in young

Scarlatina.

contagious.

exposure

fresh

with

bright red eruption on

the

to

swollen, red, and

limbs,

Fever.

throat, and

mostly

disease,attended

of the

or

Scarlet

an

confined

frequently become

Rick'ets.

the

Pain

hat

heat.

is the best

preventive.
creosote

will stop the

with

wet

remedy,

in the

used

same

filthyplaces.

About

Typhoid

Fever.

produced by

foul

Not

contagious.

Fever.

caused
one

is

exposed,

piece of cotton,

cloves

case

one

Fever.

by living in
in

twenty

is

good

case

other

Pertussis.

in

Jail Fever.

overcrowded

and

dies.
A

Fever.

air, fatigue,and

Whoop'ing-congh.

of

Camp

Nervous

About

small

Oil

tooth.

nerve

way.

Ship

Fever.

contagious fever,

the

the

Place

aching.

in

creosote,

Ty'phuB

When

Odontalgia.

Tooth'-ache.

twenty

very

slow

fever

depressing causes.
dies.

contagious disease, at-

228

with

tended
time

Yellow

the

It

contagious.
About

climates.

one

days.

usually

frequently

most

occurs

in three

case

six

epidemic fever, not

fatal

The

sound.

attack, lasts about

and

very

HYGIENE.

whooping

causes

exposure

Fever.

considered

which

cough,

between

AND

PHYSIOLOGY,

ANATOMY,

in

warm

dies.

""";oo.

Glossary

do'

Ab

tab'

ce

Ad'

bu'

Al
of

an

bu' mi

Tissue

the

which

composed
substance

animal

ve

nas' to

nat'

To

mose.

hip-bone.

joins the large

of

fat.

resembling

the

white

class

resembling albumen,

and

vegetable kingdom.

the animal
the

sockets

communicate

with

of

the

each

teeth.

other,

as

Tlie

my,

or' ta.

rach'

of the
The

while

body

largestartery

noid.

One

tube

te ry.

the structure

study of

in
of

of the

membranes

which

conveys

the

position

of rest.

state

the

and

body.
covering
blood

away

the

brain.

from

heart.
tic

Ar

At' las.
A

ryt' e

And'

one

another.

of the organs

Ar'

Pertaining to

lar.

both

from

artery with
A

in

the heel.

leg to

Substances.

noid

obtained

Al'
A

An

men.

the

contains

thigh-bone.

of the

sue.

It

egg.

Al
and

Tis'

i pose

part of the

front

pelvis.

of the tendon

name

of the calf

muscles

the

cup-like cavity

of the

The

chil' les.

the

in

digestiveorgans.

The

lum.

and

other

the head

It receives
A

chest

liver,and

stomach,

large cavity

the

between

body,
A

The

men.

Words.

of

la' tion.
The

joint.

first vertebra

noid.

i to ry

One

Nerve.

of

the

The

next

to

the head.

cartilagesof
nerve

of

the

larynx.
hearing.

the

229

APPENDIX.

"

An' ri cles.
il'la.

Ax

Bi cus'

tooth

having
of the

Belonging
The

chL

to

two

fangs.

liver.
the

arm.

branches

or

given

name

points or

two

divisions

two

The

cum.

to its base.

next

armpit.

secretion

i aL

Bron'

cavities of the heart

two

pid.

Brach'

Cm'

The

The

Bile.

The

of the trachea.

the commencement

to

of the

large intestine.
nine'.

Ca

Like

Cap' il la
Car' di

Feeding

The

Gristle.

brain

; the

Cer'
the

than

The

agus.
oesoph-

each

on

side of the

neck.

The

elastic substance

softer than

ligament.
which

lower

coagulatesin

and

smaller

milk.

division

of

the

little brain.
The

brum.

An

substance

bel' lum.

the

wrist.

bone, but harder


Cas' ein.

to

next

flesh.

upon

large artery

The

Car' ti lage.

Cer

orifice of the stomach

rons.

Car' pus.

blood-vessel.

small

The

rof id.

Ca

ry.

ac.

niV

Car

dog.

and

upper

largerdivision

of the

brain;

large brain.

Ce m'

Ear-wax.

men.

Cer' vi caL

Relating

Chlor' ide of So' di


One

Cho' roid.
A

Chyle.

to

the neck.
Common

um.

of the coats

milky-looking

salt.

of the

fluid

eyeball.

consistingof

food

in

digestedstate.
Cil' ia ry.
ClaV

i cle.

Coch' le

a.

Co' Ion.
Con

June' ti

and

Cor'
the

Belonging

ne

a.

The

eyelids.

part of the internal

portion of
va.

the

collar-bone.

The

covering the

eyeball.
20

The

to

name

the

large intestine.
membrane

mucous

front of the
of

ear.

lining the

lids,
eye-

eyeball.

membrane

in the front part of

230

ANATOMY,

Cra' ni

The

um.

Cri' coid.

Crys' tal

AND

PHYSIOLOGY,

HYGIENE.

skull.

cartilageof
A

line Lens.

the

larynx.

double

lens

convex

the

in

front

part of the eyeball.


Cu' ti cle.
De

taL

layer of

The

ivory of

Derm'

The

deeper layer of

from

chest

phragm.

to

The

be absorbed

Dor' saL
Dn

the teeth.
the skin.

muscle

separating

process

by which

the

of

cavity

the

food

is

changed,

so

into the system.

Eelating

de'

side to side.

the abdomen.

ges'tion.

Di

epidermiJa.

the teeth.

Pertaining to

is.

the

crossing of fibres from

Den' tine.

Di'

as

external

sa' tion.

CUB

Den'

The

to

part of the small

The

num.

the back.
intestine

next

to

the

stomach.
Du'

ra

ter.

The

eL

The

hard

am'

En
each

Ma'

membrane

external
substance

of the

covering

brain.

the

of

crown

tooth.
do car' di

En

membrane

The

nm.

lining the

interior

of

the heart.

Ep i derm'

The

is.

Ep i glot'tis.
Ep i the' li

free

surface

the skin.

the

cartilagecovering
The

um.

layer of

external

of

glottis.

serous

and

mucous

membranes.

sta' chi

En

Fas' cia.
cic'

Fas
Fem'
Fib'

ra'

Gan'

sheath

li.

Bundles

canal

or

of

leadingfrom

the

middle

small

The

muscle.

fibres.

of muscular

Pertaining
The

la.

forms
Fo

The

ral.

Fi'brin.
or

tube

the throat.

to

ear

an.

to

the femur,
of the

bone

substance

in

the

or

thigh-bone.

leg.
blood

which

coagulates,

clot.

men.

gli on.

Gas' trie.

An
An

aperture

in

enlargement

Pertaining to

bone.
in the

the stomach.

course

of

nerve.

231

APPENDIX.

Gm

ne' mi

trocll

the

forming
from

calf

An

Gland.
or

one

Glos'

ao

Olot'

tis.

Hem'

The

biv'

or

Hn'

mer

na.

Hy'

the

thin

In

ci'

In

ter

In

tea' tine.

am.

bone

taste.

top of the
part of

the

to

of

the

the

at

lower

The

aor.

liquid

larynx.

the

body.

the

shoulder.

eye.

liver,

the

beat

root

of

for

meaiis

preserviug

of health.

The

H'

pluuts.
next

8tu")yof

state

The

the

any

membrane
to

of

at

from

arm-bone

The

Hy' oid.

forth

poura

neiTe

Feetiiog on

Relating

The

Bleeding

ene.

in

body

and

secretes

opening

narrow

The

loid.

Hy" gi

cle
mus-

leg.

al.

ge

ons.

pat' io.

He

large

the

to

ducta.

plia ryn'

Her

given

name

which

rtagG.

or

the

of

organ

more

"

The

us.

of

name

cob' taL

the

front

Between

the

part of

The

of

portion

the

tongue.

small

intestine.

tooth.

ribs.

the

canal

alimentary

below

the

Etomach.

The

ria.

Je

jn'

Jn'

gu

Lab'

lar,

Lach'
Lac'
small
Lar"

Ug'
to

the

Liv*

portion

The

large
The

rintll.
ry

mal.

of the

vein

interual

eye.

iutestina

each

on

of the

pupil

amall

side

of

the

neck.

ear.

Pertaining

to

vessels

which

The

te ala.

the

tears.

absorb

chyle

from

the

intestine.

The

ynx.

upper
A

meat

of

part

the

strong, fibrous

windpipe.

membrane

giving strength

joints.
er.

large gland

just beneath
Lymph.
Mar'

nnm.

the

ring surrounding

the
The

right

side

of

the abdomen,

diaphragm.
colorless

row.

in the

fluid

in the

soft, fatty substance

lymphatic
in

the

vessels.

cavities

of the

bones.
Maa

ti ca' tion.

Med'

ul la ry.

Me
whi"-h

dnl' la

joins

Ob
the

The

act

of

Pertaining
Ion

to

marrow.

Tliat

ga' ta.

nird
siiiiial

chewing,

I.1

part

tlie brain.

of

the

nervous

eord

232

ANATOMY,

Mef
and

PHYSIOLOGY,

Oftr'pus.

The

the wrist ; the

palm

Mi' tral.

The

AND

part of the hand


of the

between

the

fingers

hand.

between

valve

HYGIENE.

left auricle

the

the left

and

ventricle.

Mo'

lar.

The

Mo'

tor.

Causing

Mu'

00U8

which

Mem'

Na'

grinder.

or

membrane

saL

fluid secreted

The

oles.

fleshyor

Pertaining to

ri lem'

Neu

tooth,

motion.

brane.

The

0U8.

Mus'

back

lining

all cavities

externally.

open

Mu'

of

name

Oc

cip'i

(E

soph' a

The

ma.

tal.

lean

the

The

membrane.

mucous

parts of the body.

nose.

sheath

Relating to

gU8.

by

of

nerve.

the back

tube

part of the head.

extending

"om

the

throat

to

the stomach.
01 fao' to ry.
0 men'

the

Pertaining to
A

tum.

fold

of

of smell.

sense

membrane

serous

covering

the

intestines ; the caul.

Op' tic.

the

Pertaining to

Or' gan.

part of

Any

sight.
body capable

the

of

special

function.

Os'

86

Pertaining to

0U8.

Os' si fy.

To

Pal' ate.

The

Pal'

Pal' pe braL

Pan'

pil'la.

Pa

rot' id.

The

Pa

tel' la.

The

Pec' to raL

and

to

palm

of the hand.

eyelids.

the

the stomach.

behind

gland

Pa

Pel' vis.

the

to

Relating

creas.

bone.

of the mouth.

roof

Relating

mar.

into

change

the bones.

minute

prominence.
largestof the salivaryglands.

knee-pan

Pertaining to

cap

of the knee.

the chest.

formed

basin

The

; the

by

the

hip-bones,the

sacrum,

the coccyx.

Per
Pe
Per

i car' di
ri os' te
i to

nm.

ne'

nm.

fibrous

The

stomach, intestines,and

enclosingthe heart.

membrane

The

nm.

membrane

serous

abdomen.

covering the

membrane

bones.

investingthe

234

PHTBIOLOGT,

ANATOMY,

Bter'

The

num.

8tom'

ach.

ola' yi

Bub

lin'

the

the tongue.

under

fluid which

bones

The

of the abdomen,

the clavicle.

jointsbetween

The

a.

8U8.

under

Situated

The

left side

diaphragnu

Situated

gnaL

Syn o' yi
Tar'

the

the

in

large pouch

an.

8n' tores.

HYGIENE.

breast-bone.

just beneath
8ub

AND

the bones

of

the skulL

lubricates

the

joints.

forming

the

heel

and

the

instepof

foot

Ten' don.

The

cord

The

chest

which

by

muscle

is attached

to a

bone.

The'

rax.

Tib' i
Tis'

a.

sue.

The

large bone

The

texture

of the

of which

shin-bone.

the

leg ;

part of the

any

body

is

composed.
A

Ton' slL

Thy'

cartilageof
The

a.

cus' pid.

Tri
the

roid.

Tra' che

in the throat.

gland

the

larynx.

windpipe.

The

valve

between

the

right auricle, and

right ventricle.

Tym'

pa

TJl' na.
TJ'

la.

vn

Vas'

cu

Van'

bone
A

middle

drum

; the

ear

of the

ear.

of the forearm.

soft

body

attached

to

the

palate.

Containing blood-vessels.

lar.
A

Vein.

The

num.

tube

which
The

tri cles.

conveys
two

towards

blood

cavities

of the

given

each

the

heart

heart

next

to

its

apex.

Ver'

te bra.

The

name

to

bone

of the

spinal

column.

Ves' ti bule.
Vil' li.

Vit'

re

part of the internal

Elevations

ous.

in the

humor

mucous

ear.

coat

of the eye.

-"*^5%^

of

the

small

tine.
intes-

Index.

rtat

AbttoHttnal

Anatmnv

ottbecl

ftarta....

Ahdvcenfaene....

Absorption.
Ihrangh

the

skin

AeeUtbmhttn..

^sAlUM.tDnibDof.

canip"H[t1oa

Animal

lieHt....

of

ArtleHlatioHtxa"iaB.U...,.
ArtteulatUttiot-KOtia

Arytenoid

cortllajtoa.

...-"-.

236

IKDEX.

PAGK

Baek'bone

37

Baldness
BtUl

204

.-

and

socket

time

of

temperature

Beds,

of.

change

of

essence

Beef'tea
teeth

Bicuspid

171

Carotid

171

Carpus

171

Carbonate

32

193

of lime

217

of

Carbonic

62

from

the

arterial

the

in

air

106, 163

lungs

162

wells

161
of

148

Cartilage

204

of

161

20, 100

larynx

99

86

palpebral

136

16

acid

sources

Blood

16
16

potassa

218

18,71

checked

81
"

BUiverdin
taste

89

of soda.

in

how

"

in

arteries

66,71

Bluer

78

circulation

BUe

Bleeding

62

Capillaries

39

for

JtatiM,

teeth

joints

Bathing

Beef,

PAOI

Canine

89

cricoid

composition

of.

86

thyroid

coagulation

of.

86

Cartilagin

17

87

Casein

17

Telocity of

89

Cell,

venous

89

100
"

of

quantity

Body,

tissues

of

in

birds

in

fishes
m

of the

ear

of the

face

Cellars

22

Cells

23

Cellular

23

Cement

28

Cerebellum

27

Cerebrospinal

in

head

26

Cerehrum,

trunk

28

Changes

22

from

matter

classes

of

in
"

color

of

growth

of

mineral

matter

number

of

in

20
54

teeth.

01

117,130

116,130
town

Chest

23

CfUck"n'broth

23

Childfwod

26

Children,

23

Chloride

heat
to

210
8ea.t8 for
of

of

potassium

of

36

Chords,

Vocal

37

Choroid

coat

36

Chyle

24

Circulation,

causes

Circulatory

system

Brain

113, 115
convolutions

of

parts of

motor
sensitive

Brandy

parts

130
of

pwnch

Bread
Breast

bone
^

187

Cleanliness.

218

Clot

185

Clothing

of

216, 219

articles

of

176

of.

177

object of

217

warmth
in

"!atuils, Semicircular

175
of.

Coato
of

177

contagious

Coagulation
142

87

174

100

65

86

Bronchi

Cascum

75

of

blood

change

89

32

167

Chicken

of.

Clavicle

Breathing
Broth,

139

eye

71

130

30

100
of the

physiology

116

16
16

physiology

Bone-blaeh

199

Bodiun

Chocolate

of

166
167
30

26

uses

cold

217

of..

of

to

country

ossification

structure

113, 124

system

from

23

22

161

cartilage
layer

of the

animal

houses

under
of

of the

of

13, 156

19

anatomy

112

nerve

primitive

"

Bimes

99

of

diseases
blood.

219
86

of arteries

78

stomach..

6i

...,

SOI

of

eUtntU,

plnnl

-.

ii.rv"..

.FtbrUt

In

Itlooil

tlbnla
Ftria

vl

tIiIod.

JIafr.
_

iMpiiis
Bant

Hrnd,

irator
lwn"

Uearlnff,

iHWUngoT.
dlgutlaaaf
iw

Gan^lleH,

fJanIHe

the

or

"iok.....

"por"o

gluoili..

Jllp-Jal,,t.
Jlvrtc-radlah...

of

hj(i"n

JWunovoMa

Jolota.

IncUar

..

Iwtb

IxttlaH

ai

";om,

taoa..

ot.....

Xiquora,

MembraneSf

J^tfimim

kinduf...

itiamaDU

Juice,

at...

liilwlliul.,.

nlli

Xl^anddralb.,...

U/tifoni-

KiAritaoat

luscin

240

INDEX.

PACK

Museiet,

itrength

tendons

of

p
""""""""""""""""""

of

Muscular

flbret

21

tiuue

"""

""""""

Falpehral

.44, 61

"

"""

""

""""""

""""""

"""""""""

cartilages

.....

136
""""""

136
"""""""

""""""

............

66

" """""""""

Juice".

"

""""""""""

71

""""""""""""

! Panereatln

17

"""""""

ynila
"

duct

217

Pancreas
JPaiuTreo^tf

centres

eo

"""""""""

"

Jferve

127

""""""

Panada

..ise,220

J^iTMal

"""

glands^

21

Mustard

"""

JPniote

62

"""

voluntary

P4B1

61

146

Parotid

137

Patella^

113

Pathetic

"""""""""

g\Hnd

00
83

"

119

nerra

"

communication

botwoen.

excitability of
MnMibility

"

of

125

PearUdivera

125

Pelvis

30

in

125

167

infant

128

Pepper

1:^6

Pepsin.

112

Pericfirdlunt,

cprebro-spinal

113

Periods

cranial

119

Periosteunt.

131

Peritoneum

Verve

fibres, decussation
union

of.

of

Nerves

of

motion

ofwnsation
of

131

sense
i"|H)rial
,

syniiMtthetic
termination
Nervmis

131

112,122
of

112

216

Nff^fe

Nutritive

apparatus

of human

life

210
24
63

|Perspiration,

office

of

145, 163

Phalanges

32

Pharynx

'

Phenomena

63
of life

\i

Pliosphates

16, 17

Phospfiorus
exercises
Phgnlcal

24
^

198

P/A2f#iolo0r2/;definition

215

"

Nutrition

77

.,

.136^ 148

Nursing.

186

"

Ill

system.

watchers
3r/(jr/it

206

the

of

12

bones

94

of

54

of the

circulation

86

of

digestion

68

86
"

the

of the

Joints

38

119

of

the

muscles

49

148

of

the

162

of the

o
Oeulo-motornervc
Odors
oflTunsivK

fEsop/iagus
Oils,

for

food

Omentum

Organ,

definition

Orgufis

of circulatiou

of communication

digoHtion

Polsotis

09

bodies

Organised

Pons,

125

rnHpi ration
colls

of

75

59

In

Prime

16
of

Primitive

12

11

IProtein

210

cell

Ostein

17

Pulfnonary

U2,

15
69

circulation.

88
102

Pulse

Ihtpil,

155
15

elements

lobules

107

105, 163

life

compounds

IHyalln

200

186

Potassa

26

Overstudy
Oocggen

118
food

as

OW/lcff
Ossification

exercise

120

nerve

brain

Potatoes,

J*rooclm,ate

OtU'door

122

nerves

220

64

of stomach

86

.55,102

PneumogastrU

156

Orgnnle

of blood

14

of.

grouping
of

of.

117
163

Ple^^ises

119, 140

nerve

119

Pleura

63

Optic

147

sense

gland

P^""""*",

119, 136

nerves

special

Plants

210,213

Olfactory

of

nmtor

Pineal

184

OWttgo

of

Pia

63

124

system

nervous

organs

..83,88
of the

eye

139,

150

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laneous
Miscel-

by mail,

book

books

six

of

set

six

Book,

for

each

entire

the

or

by

cents.

prepared

as

Book-keeping.

sold

Pupil.

per

Book,

Day

Bill

cents;

mail, postpaid,

the

Consisting

follows

as

of

Report

Price

cents.

tended
it is in-

$1.05.

Exercises.
15

ten

that

examination,

for

BLANKS.

Journal,

postpaid,

teachers

to

as

that

of

"c.,

general

same

Weekly

Recitations,

books,

Ledger,

is the

Report

Diary,

KEEPING
blank

The

School

be

on

mail,

DOOK*^

Monthly

Attendance,

Copies

by

the

of

REPORT.

singly

in

or

matter

They
sets,

as

can

may

of

practical

be

used

be

desired.

with

venience
con-

any

-"o""^o#-

Teachers
a

copy

the

of

the

Principal,
Descriptive

address

on

with

corresponding
circular
or

which

circulars

are

of

catalogue

or

with

us

of

they
all

our

arc

requested
the

school

to

of

supply
which

us

they

are

to

any

connected.

publications

will

be

sent

application.

Please

address,

"

ELDREDGE

No.

17

with

North

BROTHER,
Seventh

PHILADELPHIA.

Street,