Anda di halaman 1dari 393

LIBRARY

NEW

THE

EDITED

BY

C.

OF

W.

AIR

SALEEBY,

AND

MEDICINE

M.D.,

HEALTH

F.R.S.E.

HEALTH

AND

AIR

BY

CAMPBELL

RONALD

M.A.,
AUTHOR

OF

"THE

ROMANCE
AND

M.B.C.M.

OF
MEDICINE," "SCIENCE, MATTER,
ETC.
IMMORTALITY,"

"

METHUEN

36

ESSEX

MACFIE

STREET
LONDON

CO.
W.C.

First

Published

in

1909

u. ib
bv

CONTENTS

CHAPTER

I
PAGE

GENERAL

AND

INTRODUCTORY.

THE

ATMOSPHERE

CHAPTER
THE

CHEMICAL

COMPOSITION

II

PURE

OF

AIR

CHAPTER
RESPIRATION

PRESSURE

IN

ITS

OF

THE

AND

TO

AND

THERMOLYSIS

.25

LIFE

52

HEALTH

CHAPTER

HUMIDITY,

15

IV

RELATIONSHIP

AIR,

CHAPTER
TEMPERATURE

III

CHAPTER
AIR

.69

VI

.....

K331S917

76

vi

HEALTH

AND

AIR

CHAPTER

VII
PAGE

HUMIDITY

HEALTH

AND

CHAPTER

AIR

SOLAR

AND

VIII

RADIATION.

AIR

RADIO-ACTIVITY

AND

AIR

AIR,

102

IX

.114

......

AIR

SEWER

SMOKE,

AIR,

FOG,

OFFENSIVE

GASES
GASES

AND

GERMS

GROUND

MINES,

IN

TRADES

FROM

CHAPTER
DUST

AIR

...

CHAPTER

POLLUTED

ELECTRICITY.

AND

CHAPTER

IMPURE

92

....

135

XI

.161

.....

.CHAPTER
VENTILATION

XII

CHAPTER

OPEN

THE

WINDOWS,

CHEST

AND

DRAUGHTS

.191

XIII

AND

"COLDS"

CHAPTER

XIV

BREATHING
.

.228

239

CONTENTS

vii

CHAPTER

XV

PAGE

ARTIFICIAL

ATMOSPHERES

262

CHAPTER

XVI

CLIMATE

273

........

CHAPTER

THE

GASES

OF

ATMOSPHERE"

THE

XVII

THEIR

DISCOVERY
.

TREATMENT

OF

SCHOOLS
.......

INDEX
.........

293

XVIII

CHAPTER

OPEN-AIR

CONSUMPTION

AND

OPEN-AIR

305

329

AIR

AND

HEALTH

CHAPTER

GENERAL

INTRODUCTORY.

AND

the

OVER

volume

consist
of

of

into

nethermost

accustomed

think

air
it

but

though
from

nothing,

potency,

and

and

even

"

of

judge
is

invisible

has
if

atmosphere
tremendous

we

could

from

be,

of

it

without

are

that

senses,

little

but

is

as

men

it

to

Yet

nothing."

physical
live

them

investigate

to

their

ascribe

they

the

odourless,

of

first

by

of

are

generality

things

remove

one

the

The

certain

bottom

aware

the

They

state.

They

sea.

of

conditions

penetrate

hardly

are

one

remarks
to

the

we

Boyle,

properties,

because
and

Robert

deepest

high.

atmosphere.

or

gaseous

the

vast

miles

present

to

the

heaped

air,

also

reach

the

and

invisible,

Hon.

their

of

they

and

soil,

is

under

retain

surface,

and

pit

tasteless,
the

the

the

as

constitute

hundred

which,

pressure,

the

on

earth

least

collectively

and

lie

the

of

ATMOSPHERE.

which

oceans

at

gases

substances

various

only

distance

so

of

temperature

not

and

surface

known

gases,

THE

continents

geographical

These

obtrusive
un-

removes

many

mechanical

and
it

we

should

AND

AIR

be

and

deaf

black

dumb,

sky

with

us

now

Let

it

properties:

it

directions ;
cold ;

of

its

the

about

that

reckoned
which

the

tremendous

are

millionth
cubic

takes

like

of air at

round

molecules"

and

o"

numbers

(Henry
SPEED

than

de

Varigny).

OF

MOLECULES.

o"

or

the

one-

"

cm.

per

one

pressure,
of

Velocityat
second.

33"259

41,735

Water

56,522

square

about

C. in

dioxide

39,155

Hydrogen

to

of

inch)

Oxygen
Nitrogen

pressure

give

21,000,000,000,000,000,000

Average Molecular

The

Waals

760 millimetres

Molecules.

Carbon

cules
mole-

fraction
is

air

Thomson

der

in

the

in
These

Van

to

second

William

(a millimetre

millimetre

centimetre

less

being

been

has

each

place

Sir

and

second,

collisions

or

4,700,000,000.

Maxwell, and

as

containing in
these

which

exceedingly small,

of

impacts

with

"It

subjected during

is

recoil

dimensions

mile

second.

of

number

(Lord Kelvin),Clerk
their

yards

something

to

about

inversely

about

darting

fastest

150

molecule

each

amounts

the

"

is

molecularly, it

Regarded

molecules

with

contracts

temperature,

pressure.

various

slowest

and

all

in

equally

presses

constant

atmosphere.

special dynamical

heat

with

velocity

tremendous

it

elastic ;

principal

the

the

has

atmosphere

at

of

some

propertiesof

expands

proportional to

the

and

is

volume,

its

consists

briefly at

the

starry

sun.

look

gas

earth, under

frozen

blue

characters

mechanical
As

on

HEALTH

169,611

of

the

inch, or

13,800

tons

atmosphere
about
to

the

2,000

at

sea-level

Ibs. to

square

the

mile, and

is

15

square

the

Ibs.

foot,
total

GENERAL

weight of

the

layerof

for the

fact that

upwards

Ibs.
animals

weight

of

and, since the molecules

given

any

level.

atmosphere
decrease
be

of

is

steadilyfall

half

only

with

pressure

demonstrated
as

following

table

barometer

at

This

necessary

from

by

are

the

of

increase
of

means

above

altitudes

total

Such

it

not

were

directions,
well

as

the
sea-level,

total

less

less than

at

pressed,
com-

on

sea-

of

pressure

sea-level.

elevation

the

easily

can

increases.

height

the
This

barometer, which

sea-level

as

diminishes,

therefore

weighs

pressure

man

tons.

overhead

gives approximately

various

within

to

in all

18,000 feet the

height

the

air

of air

of

15

plants,if

atmosphere

volume

height

the

At

than

above

of the

globe.

exposed

is exercised

ascend

we

is

and

downwards,

as

of the

more

"

pressure

As

and

volume

the

well

as

without.

from

crush

surface
sea-level

34,000

would

pressure

whole

by Mendele"ef

weight equivalent to a
a
layerof water 34 feet

"

estimated

deep, or

living at

about

of

pressure

been

tons

inches

the

over

size

average

has

million
30

mercury

deep, spread
of

INTRODUCTORY

atmosphere

million

5,000

as

AND

of

will
The
the

:
"

relationshipbetween

altitude

above

sea-

height of

level and
To

actuallyfall

did

equals

column

to

the

square

ascent

of 900

feet.

the

Even

barometric

of

the

does

so

below

descend

we

Sea, which
800

the

air would

cut

it with

be

and

increase

is

it

decrease

other

by

humidity, and
"

its volume

heated
as

to

air at

level.

The

decreased
metres.

at

in

pit

rise when
the

of

over

miles

50

could

we

Dead

is

pressure
or

of

sea-level,

mercury

40

mercury

in

atmospheric
besides

deep

actually

account

height

of

temperature,

heated, it expands

exerts

o"C.

the

just as
of

this

above

air.

atmospheric
of

is

pressure

the

on

tension, renders

temperature

pressure

is

sea-level

its pressure

atmospheric

above

valley

or

column

degree Centigrade, and

its

increase

On

air

each

for

40" C.
a

the

of the

When

decrease

In

the

largely dependent

diminishes
to

and

an

ascents

say

"

the

ascend

we

to

possibly lower,

feet

29,000

circumstances

movement

Temperature.

leads

as

half

knife.

conditioned

of

dense

as

and

sea-level, the

bottom

the

At

sea-level ;

below

lies

mm.

But

sea-level.

about

balloon

decreases,and

increase

pressure

inches

least

at

falls when

mercury

mercury

the mercury

height of

Glaisher's

9f

the pressure

as

of

corresponds roughly

and

fell to

indicating a height

column

mountain

"

air-pressureof

inch, and

column

the

in the

in

of CoxwelFs

one

mercury

miles.

inch

an

difference

pound

During

that

carried

Perier

Dome

Pascal.

by

4 inches.

difference of half

de

Puy

found

or

brother-in-law

of the

and

"

first surmised

was

his

top

high

feet

3,500

the

to

HEALTH

barometer

surmise

his

prove

barometer

of

AND

AIR

it

1,090

the

Thus

same

of

much

ascent

the

relationshipto

is therefore

air

above

metres

an

pansion
ex-

pressure

temperature
as

this

lighter,and

pressure.

just

'003665

usually lowest

sea-

air
of

has

1,090

heat, the
after the

GENERAL

heat of the
the

AND

day, about

night,about

Humidity.
carries

lighter than
in

air

the

atmospheric
barometer
indicates
barometer
The

certain
is

air

nearly

Accordingly

reduced

air

often

and

dry

means

questions of

air and

and

pressure

in later

temperature
of Climatic

are

and

pared
com-

water

more

less is the

fall of

and

the
often

rising

weather.
will be

humidity

tables

showing

moisture

given by

OF

0*623

pressure

Dr.

and

DRY

AND

OF

Huggard

MOIST

the

more

ship
relation-

between

Treatment."

WEIGHT

cent,

chapters.

following instructive
weight

water

per

the

rain ;

dry

40

the

atmospheric
precedes

of

of

Accordingly, also, a

dry,

is not

amount

specificgravity

unity.

as

showing

between
and

conditions

of water

vapour

pressure.

humid

the cool of

highest after

mixture, the lighterit is,and

fullydiscussed
The

it

air, having

with
vapour

ordinary
with

the

a.m.

mixed

Now,

vapour.

p.m., and

Under

"

but

10

INTRODUCTORY

AIR.

in his

weight
"

book
Hand-

AIR

RELATION

BETWEEN

Movements.
also

The

"

in

moves

air, like the

large

and

its

in

height

its

weight

the

"

is due

are

causes,
currents"

aside

known
may
the

that

apparent

it

must

"

but

it follows

and

pression
delike

breezes,

variations

in

variations

in

large masses,
windmills

moves

have

been

in the

still more

the wind

appears

meteorologicalinvestigations
certain

general laws, and

causes.

question of

draughts, and

say that the

of

ocean

forests low ; and

lays mighty

discoverable

Trade

in

moves

it

involving an

air,cause

air

atmosphere,

unmeteorologicalman

the

as

the

corresponding

its power

the

elevations

movements,

the

the

motion

draughts, and

"

These

once

it listeth

certain

to

we

the

shown

Putting
as

at

world

To

of

of

AIR.

THE

molecular

has

tides

When

OF

surface

sea,

and

; it

where

have

the

density, and

becomes

prodigious.

only

dispositionof

the

armadas

infancy of
blow

of

TEMPERATURE

The

masses.

pressure.

it wrecks

to

not

hurricanes.

and

barometric

air has

currents

gales,and

alteration

AND

general body

the

has

ocean,

HEALTH

PRESSURE

surface

and
the

AND

causes

such

small

local

breezes

of the

Winds, the Anti-Trade

of air

currents

main

due

to

local

atmospheric

Winds, and the

AND

GENERAL

Monsoons

heat

the

are

"

INTRODUCTORY
of the

and

sun,

the

rotation

of

the earth.

Being

it

pressure,

the

assume

be

shape

of

that

supposed
a

the

and

the

The

same

The

at

much

following
showing

of vapour

amount

it

the

above
escapes

the

belt

heat

than

rush

must

in

below

from

the

of

air

the

the

the

within

to

hot

air

the

expands

its

:
"

and

place.
we

Tropics

Polar

air in the

latitudes

take

atmosphere

interestingfigures are
in various

room

top of the window,

in below

heating of

in to

heated

and

air rushes
the

very

the

local

causes

when

heat

more

the

place.

study

that

once

in the

by

its

cold

we

heated

take

air

thing happens

When

unequally

rise,

colder, drier

heavier

the

exhibit

must

rises,and

and

would

would

heated, moisture-laden, lighterair

is open

window

atmosphere

unequal heating

density and

its

in

variations
carries.

irregularand

this

and

the

atmosphere,though chemically

homogeneous, is irregularlyand
sun,

steady gravitational

regularspheroid,and

; but

movement

great

no

might

under

mixture

homogeneous

notice
receives

regions.

given by

The

Ferrel,

AIR

The
air

of

result

HEALTH

AND

the

Tropics

rises and

which

flow

towards

the

colder

air rushes

South

to take

in

cold

the

Winds, and

the

the

Anti-Trades.

are

points

The

the

that

out

other

"the

with

the

round

air rushes

imparted

to

than
North-west
from

the
the

are

When,
the

from

it at

earth

is

at

the

to

the

as

there

south

and

west
South-

North-east

in

it

air in the

Similarly
appear

the

the

as

air

the

ingly,
that, accordair

Polar

the

over

reaches

velocity

faster

and

so

regions.

Eastward

moves

over

the

pointed

Tropics and

therefore

passes

the

greater circle and

retains

of

bigger than
and

to

paper

He

earth, the

from

this

of

swerve

earth.

them

in

the

Northward

Tropics will

Poles

and

run

the

the
of

Eastward

zones

wind.

the Poles

Equator,"

with

its start, and

the

North-west

each

Northerly latitudes,it

more

run

of

rotation

greater velocitythan

When

due

1735, attributed

air turns

travels

Equator

Trade

explanation.

north

not

George Hadley who,

was

parallelsare

the

the

satisfactoryexplanation

they approach

as

since

the

offer

to

currents

lower

plain,but
of

easy

The

the

to

and

is this ?

Why

anomaly

so

from

currents

Royal Society in

great

to

the lower

run

Poles

to the

first to

apparent

to

not

as

far is

principleso

found

are

South-east.

currents

explained

currents

; while

and

be

known

are

warmer

heavier

North

the

lightercurrents.

Poles

upper,
The

to

currents

the upper

the

the

currents

two

South, while

level from

lower

into

and

North

place of

from

currents

The

along

divides

hotter

the

that

inequalityis

this thermal

appears

ward
Eastas

rushing Southwards

South-west

wind.

These

Trades.
on

the

other

Poles,it
these

retains

latitudes

or

air rushes

the low

towards

Eastward

the

Equator

velocity
imparted

and, reaching latitudes where

faster than

moving

North-east

hand,

South-east.

itself,
appears
These

are

to

the

come

the
from

Anti-Trades.

AIR

io

is

"

South-west

This

is

in the

only

Hemisphere.

Southern

and

seeming anomaly,

the fact that the

explained by

is

descend

Anti-Trades

heated

Hemisphere

in the Northern

North-west

reallyWesterly

and

HEALTH

AND

latitude

greater than
into

accordingly

the

the

with

earth

in

thus

and

latitudes

these

30

moves

surface

the

than

velocity greater

above

depth

whole

its

them

convert

latitudes

In

in

atmosphere

quicklyEastward
of

winds.

seemingly Westerly

Eastward

speed

earth, and

of the

speed

the

them

they give

30

Trades

the

Poleward, and, having high velocity,accelerate


till at

travel

they

as

Westerly

causes

winds.
If the
till

Anti-Trades

in their descent

some

point their speed

earth

and

that

about

30"

calm

known

as

The

of

North

the

and

dancing

of

enough
Trades

fact,the volume
North

continue
one

are

Capricorn.

earth

the

the

earth.
than

belts of

are

earth's
that

is

latitudes

It is

his

for

belt

30"

faster than

goes

higher

motion,

as

the

though

but

not

a
so

strange that the point of equilibriumbetween

and

higheststrata

Pole

the

in

faster

of the air should

the volumes
The

that

rotated

and

atmosphere

Equator

the

cap.

seem

matter

the

there

result of the

of

at

find,accordingly,

we

South

and

faster than

goes

his

as

of

and

and

of Cancer

Calms

of the

South

the currents

the

Dervish

It may

the

35" North

or

atmosphere,

fast

wind

no

heating

atmosphere

cause

in general,as
situation,

and

the

hence

speed

the

just equal

must

that

earth, it follows

they together outstrip the

Trades

the

accelerate

can

on

South-west

wind

so

below.
can

the

Equator, but, as

of it.

of the hot
up

near

of the air of the belt is equal to

South

always

blowing

be

Equatorialair going

the

to

find
In
be

Poles, and
West

fact,on
found.

wind

towards

by going high
even

when

the

nearly all high peaks


"Very

strong

and

GENERAL

AND

INTRODUCTORY

prevailing Westerly winds,"


observed

Mauna

on

tops of Pike's
and

passes

Andes,
at

all the

on

the Peak

on

elevated

every

the

Peak

Wind

in

and

of Mount

of

the

at

Ferrel, "have

Sandwich

of the

peaks

Islands,on

Washington,
Rocky

been
the

in all the

Mountains

and

the

Tenerife,the Himalayas of Asia, and

or

where

zones,

Loa

positionin

globe,except

writes

11

near

the

at

either

hemisphere

the

Equator

same

time

all around

in the Trade-

even

there

is

wind

of

considerable

strength from

nearly the opposite direction."

Leopold

Buch

regard to

"

von

It is hard

which

to find any

has

Peak

the

on

violence

could

of the

highestclouds

also demonstrates
of the

Trades

being all due

The

volcanic

dust

breezes

and

above

direction

in
the
the
of

edge

the

was

taken

by

the

ejectedto great heights


of the

Anti-Trades

of

to thermal

higheststrata

and

heat

sun

higher than

is differences

the

quicklyto

heat

the air

the

much

as

holds

its heat

an

of

the

equal

of the

temperature
that

overlyingit.

latter.

longer;

and

winter, will be giving off heat


is

comparativelycold.

area

former

the

On
after
to

the

are

exposed

to

it gives off heat


amount

same

of land

and

four

five times

sun

air

rises much

land

If the

other

sea

heating of

sea

of the sea, and

daily

as

in the

of the

temperature

falls upon

raises

nature,

same

such

land and

When

sea.

the temperature

more

sun

above

constant

course,

of the

much

are

periodic winds,

of

cause

are,

irregularities.

Monsoons,

land

same

land

the

feet, such

Westerly direction

periodicwinds

chief

The

of

the

and

; but

currents

much

by

wind."

on

ascended

reached

his

scarcely keep

with

met

Humboldt
he

Peak

of the

has been

when

of Tenerife:

atmosphere.

The

the

June

West

and

which

the Peak
ascent

an

mentioned.

of

2ist

he

crater

wind

been

not

of

account

the strong West

summit

the

says, with

or

water

hand, the
has

the air above

set,

or

it while

it
as
sea

in

the

AIR

12

Thus

in the

and

the air

draught up
On

great
them

aisles

to

and

such

in

on

air above

the

consequent

of wind.

hot

South-east

that

The
current

wind

the

winds

the

more

Equator

diverted

the

by

summer

South-east

off the

land)going

Australia

by

crosses

it is

the

the heated

Trade

India.

(on

its passage
"

even

The
the

wards
North-

South-west

the

therefore,is

the heat of India.

(the breeze
it

hotter

rated,
prolonged,accele-

Trade

Monsoon

as

to

Monsoon,

winter

and

Himalayas,

accelerated

wind

North-east

Wind,

this class

South-east

even

so

South-west

South-west

than

the

Hence

alreadyexplained) in
a

the

by

sea.

India, protected

of

it becomes

air above

Equator.
across

have

The

and

the

the

from

land

of

heating

typicalof

the

summer

same

deserts,and

as

currents

be considered

North

cold
that

cooler

of the
the

to

of country, such

may

it becomes

Monsoon.

the

unavoidable

winds

due

are

wind, however, becomes

we
principles

air

the

in from

almost

are

They

Northern

drawn

are

nothing

scale.

aspirationof

the

the air at

Winds

Monsoons

The

"

large tracts

from

public buildings.

cool air rushes


the

in

play

at

together heat

crowded

ascends, and

Monsoons

so

the

places.

In the

becomes

from

principleas

seen

cathedrals,and

place, hence

large

Indian

in

same

principleis

same

people

its

the

Trade

it

Monsoons.

nature

than

of

mass

take

draughts
The

scale, the

churches, and

theatres,and

above

just the

are

seawards

blow

breezes

land,

the

than

warmth

more

evening, on

the

In

it,and

over

chimney.

small

The

breezes

air

of hot

in landward.

gives off

sea

shining the greater

is

sun

ascension

it rising,
cooler

over

The

the land.

The

blow

hand, the

the other

the

the

causes

sea-breezes

cooler

when

daytime

heat of the land

HEALTH

AND

again

simply
South

accelerated

Equator
land

is

there.

and
Both

is

the

again
into

drawn
Monsoons

reversed
with

the

Westerly
down

to

become

GENERAL

laden

with

moisture

specialwinds
Cyclones.

"

air

which

the

much
Ferrel's
starts

circulatingspirallyround

below

it follows
deviates

East

West,

to

directions

West

that
in

that

central

from

of

its

in

the

direction

reversed.

All

to

From

the wind

Northwards

Southward

from

Hemisphere
have

storms

as

the consequence

blowing

Southern

over

border."

right,with

and

East

area

one-fifth

Hemisphere blowing

to

while

are

few other

nearly horizontally

whatever

the

to

in the Northern

from

varies

pressure

inches

circulate

mentioned.

cyclone is

always

13

Equator.
of

law

that winds

the

cross

largedisc

it

be

barometric

as

INTRODUCTORY

they

as

may

"

moving

AND

these

cyclonic

character.
Tornadoes
caused

are

by

bursting of

is

surface."

the

rushes

along

"

Gott

Lewis

observation
the

house

to

bodily

up

portionof

small

And

sensational

one

and

it was

"

In

the

the

greater proportion of

the

atmosphere

the

higher

and

latitudes

the
blow

it

June

could

he

do

can

1877,

4,

described

fill a

it,

into the

seen

wards,
after-

volume

with

ever

destruction.

depressing

e.g., Sirocco, Fohn,

cannot

comes

it also

plunge

speciallyexhilaratingor

specialnames,
of Wind.

As

go

and

taining
con-

house, his point of

strike his
North.

boiling

of the

damage

Illinois

at

sphere
atmo-

ascends

the

square

recognised."

of such

column

tornado

of

above

the water

they

of the

the bottom

at

air ;

the vapour

force,and

tornado

one

very

Chinook, but these


Rate

In

the

saw

Special winds
received

terrific

with

of

strata

as

tornado

the

appeared

to be
accounts

As

being

Only

cloud.

"

through

up

incredible.

is almost

lower

generallymostly

vessel,bursts
to

the

above, much

those

through
water, which

columns

rapidly whirling

are

be discussed
Southern
sea,

there

surface,and
with

more

have

Solano, Mistral,

here.

Hemisphere, owing
is less

the

friction between

Westerly

force.

to

And

winds
as

of
rule

AIR

there is

wind

more

however,

is not

calculated

that

the

over

miles

with

this to

the

the

friction

local

have

mentioned
of

velocityof
air

cloud

in

are

"

hour

hour

an

by

the

the

of

42,747

years

of

action

20

to

friction

twice

surface
and

rate

may

whether

"

that

96

we

and

miles

as

in
an

varies
go

the

from

inland.

Koppen's

hundreds

of miles

an

average

in the

The

cirrus

The
6

to

The
estimates

hour.

vations
obser-

winds

summer.

hour.

we

for every

hour

an

of winds.

go

from

the

that

in winter

miles

land
as

local

wind-currents

great

estimate

about

Sprung's

winds

Clayton, in 1883-5,
the

on

diminishes

Scott's,and

strength and

travels
wind

the

rapid

as

ascend, its internal

we

velocityof

increases.

ascent, and

are

as

or

causes,

increases

wind

winter

Tornadoes

rarer

clouds, made

feet of

upper

an

less than

no

moving

velocity,say

average

take

diminishes, and
from

of

certain

becomes

air

winds

rate

Helmholtz

importance, for

atmosphere generallystarted

miles

10

friction,

ground."

Since

1,000

with

External

land.

on

factor of great
if the

"

HEALTH

than

sea

hour, it would

an

reduce

on

earth

AND

average
12

miles

following
of

the

CHAPTER

THE

CHEMICAL

COMPOSITION

is

atmosphere

THE

in

gases

the

volume,

by

II

OF

known

now

measured

AIR

contain

to

following

PURE

the

approximate

at

C.

o"

ing
follow-

proportions

and

760

at

mm.

pressure.
Volumes

Oxygen

per

20-94

...............

Carbon

dioxide

0-03

............

Nitrogen

...............

krypton,

Helium,

in

air,

and

be

must

form

proofs
atomic

this

dissolves
pressure

We
of

shall

(2)

there

(i)

The

adding

on

is

heat

no

within

limits,

is

it

dissolves

each

gas

and

its
now

own

radio-active

proper

consider

in

of

gases

air,

air

in

vapour

varying

substances

air.
15

atmosphere

do

gases

them

variable

the

(4)
to

in

occur

(3)

according

detail

not

in

of

The

together

evolved

coefficient

greater

the

combined.

chemically

not

are

proportions
of

the

manifold,

proportions

water

acid,

that

and

are

ammonia

dust.

understood

mixture,
of

peroxide,

nitrous

and

emanations,
It

and

...

contains

addition,

nitric

amounts,

xenon

neon,

hydrogen

Hydrogen,

Pure

78*09

...............

Argon

cent.

when
its

spheric
atmo-

position
com-

water

partial

solubility.
the

various

gases

AND

AIR

16

"

which

of

is

the

earth

earth, and

of the

crust

and

in the

sky

is the

atmosphere.

It

it is the

which

gas

chemical
makes

the

compound
basis

molecule

wedded

to

that

the

time

to

of the

time

but, as

little : it averages
air is seldom

much

Regnault,
of
other
results

air

parts

"

the

of it in
a

about
more

famous
100

of

21
or

per

part,

part in the

one

it

explosion is
of life.

the

When

air

the

number

fact,the

cent,

and

again,

chemical

of

might imagine
would

vary

from

varies very

amount

by volume,

and

in open

less.

French

specimens
the

the

atmosphere
of

matter

fifth of the

flies into
the

the

on

living molecule

the

processes

takes

oxygen

water

illustrious

oxygen

Considering

which

amount

and

half

combustion,

causes

most

it

nearly

the
than

more

Joining

actions

carbon.

half

combination

it forms

explosive,and

more

explodes, the

in

processes

the

of life.

phenomena

chemical
the

plays

forms
which

gas

than

more

it also

gases

gas

C. under

140"

in

and

Free

plentifulof

most

of

temperature

atmospheres.

320

of the

one

colourless,odourless, tasteless

liquefiedat

be

can

pressure

is

Oxygen

Oxygen.

HEALTH

chemist, examined
from

world, and

Paris, and
obtained

195
others

the

mens
specifrom

following

:
"

Oxygen

per cent.

30
10

23
15
5
i
2

Mean

of above

20-949

20-988

and

will

convulsions,inflammation

cause

Ozone.
atoms

known

as

combined, and
flavour
and

detected

be

minute

than

is

small

so

It

be

can

passing
the

rarelyfound

of
electrolysis

sulphuric

acid

immersing

in

tepid

by spraying water

water

proportions

potent chemically that

so

in

various

through

through air,by

air, by

or

of strong

action

the

of

clean

oxidation

half

by

permanganate,

stick

e.g., by

ways,

oxygen

water, by the

potassium

upon

that

importance.

current

acidulated

lobster)

odour

air in greater

artificially
produced
electrical

an

of

in 2,500,000.

it is

quantity is

has

present in such

when

in natural
but

of

loosely
oxidis-

any

is the

powerful

volume

part in 10,000,

So

is

ozone

the flavour

to

and

air

pure

oxidise

are

oxygen,

atom

oxygen,

by smell, even

proportionas

Ozone

even

powerful odour.

very

can

likened

third

and

ordinary

been

has

(which

forth

leap

to

Unlike

substance.

able

the

since
activity,

ready

in

amounts

two

atoms

tri-atomic

Such

small

in

is found

ozone,

great chemical

has

molecule.

the

into

of

consist

oxygen

circumstances, three

certain

but, under

of

molecules

Ordinary

"

condensed

lungs,and

of the

death.

even

it

HEALTH

AND

AIR

i8

phosphorus,
of essential

oils,chloroform, sulphuricether, "c.

Atmospheric

(afterelectrical

air

oxidation

of

is formed

ozone

it

storms

by

the

often

can

of
electricity
be

phosphorescent substances,and

the

smelt), by the

perhaps by

the

respirationof plants.
The
he

"

man

to

goes

of

whiff

in

the

Brighton

it, and

in

the

into

direct

has

Margate
it

to

direct effect of

be very

nostrils

or

ascribes

properties. The
must

"

street

small, for it

and

contact

is

great respect for


or

the

marvellous

ozone

on

the

the

to

have

health-giving
ever,
health, how-

caught by organic matter

large air-tubes,and
with

moors

ozone

blood.

On

never

the

can

other

come

hand,

CHEMICAL
it does

COMPOSITION

purify the

floatinggerms,
it indicates
and
it is

if

the

found

in

dry

be

to

heat.

In

the

four

times

Carbon

Dioxide.

gas

which

and

is yet of great

and
mineral

dissolves

rocks

the

At

hand

there

by

rocks

addition

of

volcanic
about

is

and
it

balance,

and

If it

so

or

might

cause

(the carbon

and

amounts

respirationand

pressure

and

gas,

corrosive

effect

carbon

dioxide

The

plants,with
is thus

of the

subtraction

other

on

in
the

in the

the assistance

indirectlythe

of animals.

the

effervescent

and

of the

bustion,
com-

On

from

gas

hand

the

one

the

constant

air

that

up

the

asthma.

small

in very

carbon, and

on

in

and
by combustion, respiration,
and
addition
subtraction
probably

the

steady. Any
either

"

to

very

green

plants,and

it is fatal

odourless
colourless,

of

in the bodies

action ; and

continues

earth

which

constant

more

membrane

volume

own

was

physiologicalsignificance.

earth.

their

of the carbon

source

in 250

ordinarytemperature

its

of the

obtain
sunlight,

air

the

from

source

is

by

decomposed by

ejectedby volcanoes,and by

exercises

of the crust

air is the

dioxide

processes

about

gas

It is

bronchitis,or

atmosphere

the

Blanc

naturallyoccur

as

and
biological

is also

springs.

solution

of

in the

occurs

produced by

water

it is

volume

as

and

percentage

Paris.

respiratorymucous

Carbon

"

found, while

Mont

on

and

amounts

the

be

The

in

aggravate nasal catarrh,or

or

It is

such

over

snow.

as

by day,

such

even

irritate

may

cause

than

of

unemployed,
impurities. In rooms

Mulcts

great

as

19

perhaps

tops of mountains

fall of

Grands

large amounts

life,and

the

AIR

and

it cannot

streets

air after

plentifulby night

air

of it is left

some

and

spaces

PURE

organic matter,

air is free from

in air at

ozone

to

of

speciallyplentifulon

the sea, and


of

and

that

enclosed

air

OF

_the

percentage

average

alteration

considerable

down
the

would
death

dioxide) were

alter the
of all
to

of the
in

climate

air

its percentage
of the

livingorganisms.
writes
be destroyed,"

Varigny,
the

"

if air

were

to

of

the

earth

surface

weeks

some

"

herbivorous
than

more
a

little

be

few

as

at the

moon

die

weeks

go

do

specimens

another,

to

by looking

they too,

would

have

or

such
In

dead."

be

quantity of

carbon

the air.
in text-books
in the

shows

percentage

air

Angus

to

state

as

"04 ; but

be

air.

Smith

Thus

found

"

to

the

Perth

if

the

percentage

we

are

accurate

more

surprisinglyfew

vitiated
artificially

few

"

followingpercentages

Top

of Ben

Nevis

"0327

Foot

of Ben

Ledi

'0335

Top

of Ben

and

Plain
Pic du

Ledi

Aubin

found

'0327

:
"

of Vincennes
Midi

Pyrenean Valleys
Farm
of AgriculturalInstitute

in

examples

'0346

Nevis

believe

unless

-0347

of Ben

of

figure. This

variations

select

to

'O341

Elgin

Miintz

only
would

mankind

observed

the minute

on

weak,

and

in turn
of

out

necessitymight suggest.

would

estimates,'03 would

Foot

be

can

hold
the

upon

rottingcarcass

one

dire

as

depend

we

dioxide

Robert

would

and
telescope,

all nature

It is customary

recent

they also

require

not

would

animals
feed

methods

much

carbon

this would

stronger would

as

of course,

matter

period

short

after, notwithstanding cannibalism

months

in

this,as

die,and

scenery

through

soon

dioxide

die within

Carnivorous

the

barren

extreme

few
So

would

feeblystrugglingfrom

seen

other

would

it,all plantson

of

more

no

After

month.

few

contain

most.

animals
a

HEALTH

miserable, half-starved

amidst

to

at

longer,as

but after
a

AND

AIR

20

"0284
'0286
'0281

"0298

:
"

"

CHEMICAL

COMPOSITION

OF

PURE

AIR

Florida

-0292

Mexico

'0273

Chubut
Santa

(Patagonia)

'0295

Cruz...

-0266

Chili

-0269
-0278
-0256

Haiti
Horn

Cape

The

Mean

of Northern

Mean

of Southern

given

are

Schultze, as

of
investigations
and

Letts
Brown

found

Kew,

"0272

Haldane

by J. S.

followingtable

over

air found

ocean

in Dublin

found

Escombe,

-0282

examinations

as

mean

at

in 77
of -03.

of -029.

average

of air

the result of 91 examinations


dioxide

percentage of carbon

mean

Thorpe

percentage

mean

E. S.

"

thousand

and

percentage of '0292.

mean

Blake

and

in the

result of

the

Rostock, found

at

Atmosphere
Atmosphere

results of examinations

Haldane

21

to

be

"029.

Making
Smith's

allowance

method

percentage, and
under
As
near

than
a

the

the
a

imperfectionsof
remarkable

notice that the

we

mean

Dr.

Angus

uniformity

in

the

percentage is rather

'03.

over

or

find

we

rule,inland
sea

for

near

air is richer in carbon

dioxide

surfaces of water, and

night air

than
on

air
land

AIR

22

AND

richer in the gas

is rather

HEALTH

than

variation,the followingtable

day
is

(" Scientific Proceedings,"Royal

The

nightair

fact that the

ground

air

ascends.
the

air is richer

night being

at

It may,
at

"

and

in carbon

than

warmer

also be due

of course,

carbon

dioxide

in

Wollny,

is

the

to

dioxide, and
the
some

the

atmosphere,
to

measure

longer absorbs

night vegetation no

of

dioxide

of carbon

Fodor

v.

Blake

and

Society):

in

excess

suggested by

ground

fact that

the

; but

is doubtful

probably due, as

Dublin

Letts

latter

the

show

To

given by

greater richness

of the

reason

air.

carbon

dioxide.
It

might

dioxide
the

and

the

expiring oxygen,
of

far show

fact that

much

of the

carbon
very

diffusion

vegetation effected
percentage

by absorbing carbon
vegetation,

that

thought

percentage
so

to

be

much

air,we

richer in carbon

considerablydiminish

would

in the

dioxide

air ; but

ments
experi-

slightdiminution, probably owing


is

so

rapid
in

change
should

dioxide

and
the

find that

than

continual.
carbon

If

dioxide

air in winter

air in summer;

but

is

this

CHEMICAL

to be

seems

not

very

small.

The
a

COMPOSITION
the case,

air of towns,

and

in

even

Thus

carbon

dioxide
small

decrease
but

air collected

same

percentage

as

balloon

the

Muntz

to

Rain

Wind

contain

the

has

of

'0319

tendency

on

sample
metres

to decrease

other

dioxide, favouring the


normal

variations

dioxide

are

too

when

it is

only

combustion

and

affect the

health.

small

pure

hand, tends
escape

or

respirationthat

of

carbon

to be of

stagnant

of

in

the atmosphere,

in

this belief.

had

just the

of air obtained
found

was

by

dioxide.
mists

to

air.

F.

in the
snow

:"

Low

air.
to

metric
baro-

increase

ground

air.

dioxide

of

the

natural

importance,
therapeutical

enclosed
we

there

the percentage of carbon

with

in the

cent,

fogs,and

snow,

of carbon

the

cent,

per

disproved

of carbon

cent,

excess

country

per

'0299

dioxide

15,500

decrease, and

by dilutingany

air in the open


and

per

percentage

pressure,

The

than

gives the followingfigureswith regard to

dioxide

carbon

carbon

air at sea-level.

height

it is

streets,has

great heightsby balloons

"033

to

seems

increase

Schulze

at

at

difference

increasingaltitude

have
investigations

recent

23

away.

that with

proportionof

Thus

by

only

miles

village12

in

AIR

dioxide

found

Levy

air,and

Paris

formerly believed

was

was

in

be any

of carbon

Boussingault and

Andilly, a
It

if there

PURE

clean,well-ventilated

slightlylarger percentage

air.

OF

air is

pollutedby

find variations

likelyto

"

is

volume

by

It

unchanged.

food, and

have

to

Ammonia.

always present
It has

millionths.
down

influence.

ground
25

in

the

Neon.

soil

radiation.
These

"

gases
seem

organic decay, and

air in small

amounts

it exercises

rain

by

that

calculated

receive

France

of

product

in the

been

has

being

fertilising
2

the

is
few

"

each

annually through

and

Acids.

Nitrous

acids

These

"

than

of

acres

rain

in

Like
like

formed

are

occur

of ammonia.

those

and,
significance,
physiological

no

solar

atmosphere, and

the

and
by atmospheric electricity,

smaller

it must

about

Ibs. of ammonia.

Nitric
air

lating
assimi-

but
physiologicalsignificance,

no

to

It

30

or

is

Ammonia

"

therefore

of

power

significance.
physiological

no

brought

and

proportionsin

small

in very

occur

siftingof

Argon, Krypton, Xenon,

Helium,

nitrogenous

Moreover,

atmosphere.

part in the

considerable

the

the

of

source

their

the

have

bacteria

again quite

out

plants obtain

carbon

and

oxygen

original

the

which

directly from

it

of

gas.

respirationis

as

breathed

and

in

algaeand

some

far

so

diluent

is, however,

soil from

in the

nitrates

as

is breathed

dioxide, and

play

and
activity,

simply

concerned, it acts

sphere
atmo-

odourless, colourless, tasteless

an

little chemical

It has

of the

four-fifths

forms

which

Nitrogen

Nitrogen.

HEALTH

AND

AIR

24

in the

quantities even

ammonia,

ammonia,

they

they

have

fertilise

soil.

the

Carburetted

Hydrogen, Sulphuretted Hydrogen,


Marsh

Gas.

but

in such

quantitiesas
insignificant

In
salt.
and

air
All

near

"

the

natural

All

these

and

sea

air

substances, dust

separatelyconsidered.

there

gases

is

are

also
to

be

considerable

also

contains

and

water

found

in

air,

pure

negligible.
quantity of

radio-active

vapour

Hydrogen,

; but

sea-

emanations
these

will

be

from

the

into

carbon

air,break
and

and

plant
the

of

respiratorycharacter
the

In

chemical

induce

breathe

and
surface

to

smaller

its surface

cells therefore

in

reach

the

In
a

thus

of

small

leaves

give

its

bulk, and

too, that

of
a

as

or

case

motion

of

increase

to

able

are

to

When
to

fresh

spring winds

for

birch

wind

the

instance,the
with

the

of

crease
in-

movement

movement

become
of

the

motion

of

case

the

the

it may

the time

It may

leaves

surfaces

air,and

just at

occur

vigorous.

most

the

and

supply

whose
means

In

gas.

the

rule the smaller

or

aspen

In the

larger

(and food).

organisms,

sufficient

plants is

Compare,

cabbage

the

processes

air

more

general

cell,however, the

bulk, mechanical

their

constant

that the

growth

get

multicellular

provide

to

be noticed

and

air-

sphere,
atmo-

size,too, they usually divide

ratio to

higher plants,the

an

of

larger the

arms

stagnant

means

its

certain

superficies.

case

necessary

of

lie in

can

proportionto

certain

their

move.

The

usually have

about, and

move

the

and

temperature
cell

to

only physical conditions

surface,or
respiratory(and assimilative)

their

the

the

sufficiently
by

alive.

keep

essentially

contiguitysuffices

molecular

round

small

alter the

not

that

organisms respirationis mainly

mere

certain

fact

mere

processes.

combination, and almost

pressure.

bear

process

requisiteare

they

does

of the

unicellular

lowest

process,

cells of the

the

the

and

gas,

partiallyretained

is

gas

The

air.

the

between

reaction

atmospheric

the

deposits

assimilative,is essentiallyrespiratory
;

chemical

restore

coal

enormous

from

extracted

thus

considered

it consists

The

and

carbon

the

keep

atmosphere.

consist of carbon

though

and

sunlight,

of

assistance

the

with

it up,

oxygen,

the

to

oxygen

HEALTH

AND

AIR

26

be

more

noticed,
do

of the
of the

when

they
leaves

leaves of

horse-chestnut.
of

fishes,again, the

movement

of the

water

RESPIRATION
their

across

and

to

blood

carry

which

firm

makes

the

flows

through

carbon

of

case

for

their

proverb

the

smaller

procuring

water-beetle,for instance, has


hard, polishedwings,and
it fills the
covered

with

it

for the

its

by

the

fro

body by

give

off carbon

exchanged

the whole

legs, and

Not

only

of air between
them

stores

is

it carries down

hairs.

bubbles

have

in

its

so,

its

cocoon

the

of

means

so

body

will

small

It consists

by

the

air-sacs.
of

means

the

of

some

as

to

the

extent

be

mouth,

the

extensive

whole

nose,

carried
the

Man's

up

oxygen

but

the

and
negligible,

between

so-called

blood.

quantity

practically

structural

features

vascular

and

membrane

lungs.

and

skin,

atmosphere

mucous

in

cells

and

alveoli of the
the

tended
ex-

special

and

at

Further,

are

gases

take

can

breathing apparatus

of the

lungs,and

place immensely

currents

to

at

occurs

of the

take

pulmonary

brieflydescribe

now

respiratorysurface

respiratorysurface

the

dioxide
is

the

apparatus, and

the
liningthe air-cells,

and

big

exchange
respiratory

the human

mechanism

the

to

alimentary canal,

his

even

We

it dives

air is increased

between

and

so

time

plicationinto

muscular

bellows-like

of

every

animals

of fresh

supply
and

its

the surface

to

comes

under

water-spider,again,

interchange can

gaseous

to

it

air-tank

of its young.

larger land

which

of

The

The

air attached

its folded

use

The

the

of

time

expedients

remarkable.

most

sort

of oxygen.

insects the

are

water

firm because

are

plenty

water

similar

"Rough

says,

the

air.

actuallybrings down

and

body

with

hairs,and

bubbles

minute
but

tank

every

serves

the fishes

oxygen

their tissues

to

tissues

with

gills

as

and
discharged,

which

doubt

no

known

oxygen

dioxide

suppliesthem

water

the

adopted

is

of

stream

away

and
fishes,"

rough

In

constant

There

purpose.

the

specialisedrespiratorysurfaces

bring a

to

serves

27

and

man.

larynx, the trachea,


system.

The

trachea

28

AIR

extends

from

bifurcates
almost

the

HEALTH

AND

larynx

into smaller

and

almost

microscopic dimensions

little elongated

deep dimples

the

outside

are

the

like bunches
covered

are

fine

all

over

all

elastic substance
of the

lungs

known

affords

the

connective

are

surface

over

the

thing
some-

of very
and

infundibuta

fine,stringy,

tissue,into

four
50

been

million

lobes

the

which

about

the air-cells

stretched)at

130

air-cells with

end

the

metres, and

Lindenau

Whichever

total

of

that

the
of

total

deep

(sinceof

course

deep inspiration.

hundred

seven

about

of

surface

accept

we

end

over

are

surface

estimates

estimate

that

metres

square

with

by Aeby

the

at

Zuntz, again, calculates that these


million

is in contact

calculated

metres

contain

of the infundibula

and
air-cells,

square

expirationand
are

elastic,and

pouching

surface

It has

about

is

; and

largemucous

very

and

porous

blood

inspired air.

feet.

network

from

infundibula

The

together by

as

thus

are

largequantityof

there

bound

at

look

dimples

with

The

lungs.

The

the

outside

and
(capillaries),

are

looked

bas-relief.

in

the

on

their

with

numerous

interior.

their

over

into

somewhat

and
or
air-cells,
alveoli,

of grapes

blood-vessels

blood-vessels

all

infundibula

reached

have

infundibula,with

as

indentations

they

they expand

known

sacs

little dimples or

the

When

microscopic dimensions.

till they reach

branches

smaller

chest

the

within

the chest, and

to

of

there

90

square

2,642

is

square

evidentlya

large superficies.
trachea

The
it

that

the

and

more

infundibula

All

lined with

; but

more

they

sort

and

open,

delicate
are

of mosaic

resists

branches

the

the

to

cartilage,so
considerable

into which

walls, and

reduced

air-tubes,except

the

of

strengthened by rings

remains

of pressure

amount

have

always

is

mere

when

come

to

films.

finest final

of cells set

we

it divides

side

divisions,are
by

side

like

RESPIRATION
number

of

closelypacked jars,or

free surfaces which


hair-like
motion

which

and

the

slang

bellows,and

chest
The
"

the

is

is

of

chest

of

the

them,

throat

with

expansion

causes

is that

of

the

the

of

the

as
as

air

expanded,

lungs when

the

spirati
in-

sion.
expan-

even

is

bellows

into

cavity.

unphysiologicalis

spoken

and

muscle

contracts

cause

when

bone
breast-

abdominal

of the

the

the

muscles, and

other

layer of

"

the

by

quite appropriate,for

the

of the

auxiliary muscles
have

and

rib muscles

breathing,and

we

and

cavity is expanded by

muscles

As

glands.

mucous

formed

is sometimes

bellows

of

the

expanded.

stimulation, but which

of

white

raw

cavity.

lungs and

not

chest

term

and

smooth

cavity

fact
physiological

effect and
the

idea

fillsthe

the

automaticallyunder

The

the

chest

cavity are

usual

through

chieflythe

act

means

the

bloodvessels,
air-tubes,air-cells,

of

diaphragm

breath

at the nozzle

it rushes

so

of

the

chest,whereas

In

by

intercostal

the

work

towards

like

separates it from

and

is the

in constant

is very

known, the chest expands and

breathing;

fine,

have

are

secretion

the

by

tissue,which

the

tubes

side,with the heart between

chest

ribs,with

is well

enters

each

of the

that the drawn-in


of

tubes

lungs quite fillthe

its floor is formed

As

by

composed

on

and

walls

fibrous

the

the upper

gradually to

as

way

connective-tissue,occupy

thorax, lying one

and

is secreted

lungs, thus

heart

such

the

cilia which

as

is lubricated

(themucus)

The

liningof

of
surface-lining

glisteningand

and

the

and
cartridges,

foreign particlesupwards

any

The

The

in

move

and

throat.

egg

form

prolongationsknown
and

mucus

29

the

reflex
are

in

forced

may

be

justsaid,the

control

nerve

also

brought

and

usually
chemical

the control of the will.

participatein

breathing
entrance

specialmuscles

diaphragm, which

also under

abdomen

of

means

into

the

action

great number

of

play.

of the air into the

lungs

AIR

30
is the
bellows

it is

the chest
down
The

trachea

function

the air within

air is due

walls and

the chest

; but

air into

of the

entrance

enlargement

it,and

of

air rushes

the

equalisepressure.

to

expirationof

weight of

the

aspiration. The

of

process

cavityrarefies

the

HEALTH

principleas

in

same

AND

ordinarilya quiteautomatic

is

also

action

muscular

and
elasticity

the

chieflyto

and

plays a part

be

may

voluntarilyexerted.
All

the

regulatedby

oblongata. This

medulla

the

muscles

The

and

rhythmic

force

Thus

sneeze,

or

little

quicken

the

supply varies
The

chief
the

which

the
The

and

by

is
with

the

the

the

from

the

the

these

vagus

heart,and

the

supply.

cause

may

in the

reflexes

blood

may

beautifully
that the air

so

the system.

between
are

eyes

from

littlesnuff

away,

rate

afferent

lungs and

later how

see

requirementsof

ribs,the

other

of the blood

dioxide

shall

the outcome

are

but the
cells,

nerve

sunlight in

respiratorymachinery

supply

centre

the character

running

nerves

only

not

air-tubes.

centre

regulatedby

spinal bulb^

abdomen, but also the

nerve

of carbon

excess

is

ment
enlarge-

controls

take the breath

may

little

larynx, lungs, and


to

the

the

regulated by

are

respiration.We

mechanism

and

reach

violent emotion

in the nostrils

the

impulses

other areas, and

numerous

the

chemistry of

impulseswhich

nerve

from

out

vital

the

of

of the

breathing

bulbous
as

centre

nerve

walls

in the

impulses sent

of the

in the

of the ribs and

muscles
respiratory

small

situated

centre

nerve

of

top of the spinalcord, known

at the
or

mechanism

muscular

reflex

the
the

respiratorycentre
intercostal
which

nerve

nerves

to

goes

phrenic nerve

which

the
goes

diaphragm.
net

result of the

alternate

expansion

whereby

air is

of 15

16

or

nerve

and

impulses
contraction

alternatelyinspiredand

times

minute.

is

to

of the

regular

cause

chest

expired

at

cavity,

the

rate

RESPIRATION
The

volume
and

rate

adult

of air
of

extent

inspiredand
the

of average

man

of air
This

size and

volume

of

expired depends

respiratorymovement,
vigour about

inspiredand

are

31

air

is known

of air in the

it is evident

normal

air

3,000

"

c.c.

in

remains

"

The

air,while
known

as

follows

as

the

at

be

can

is known

The

supplementalor
effort

no

total 3,500

| Supplemental

or

Reserve

( Residual

complemental

as

The

c.c.

is

known

or
capacity,"

"

the

as

extreme

air

can

total amount

tidal,supplemental) which

can

of

the

portion
reserve

is

of air in the
made

...

500

c.c.

1,500

c.c.

1,500

c.c.

3,500

c.c.

be

be

1,500

up

differential

of air

of

(complemental,

expired after

and
capacity,"

to

c.c.

inspired,making

spiratio
in-

forced

"respiratorycapacity" or

considerably according

"vital

the amount

height, weight, vigour,

"c.

Now, what

For

as

expel

can

ordinary inspirationis

air

altogether5,000

and

c.c.

piration.
ex-

known

this

however, inspirationis forced,another

known

age,

of

half

about

Total

varies

is

of

"

Stationary air

air

3,500 c.c.,

Tidal

When,

metres
centi-

air, and,

end

expired,and

which

c.c.

of

end

behind

the

as

the

at

forced expiration

the residual air.

chest,then,

lungs

remains

final 1,500

the

the

By

stationaryair

tidal

lungs is about

which

c.c.

cubic

an

breathing a large amount

in

stationaryair,i.e.^
1,500
of the

the

as

air

stationary air.

in

ing.
expired during quiet breath-

since the total volume


that

but

500

the

on

this ebb

is the vital
and

centuries

centuries

the

flow
the

theories

meaning

of these two

spongy

organs,

of air ?

meaning
of

was

not

respirationwere

understood
erroneous

for

and

AIR

32
fantastic.

Aristotle,for instance,taught that the windpipe

carried air to

animal," he
order

HEALTH

AND

the

the

heart
"

the

says,

principlehe argued
their

hearts

under

water

heart

the

middle

fishes

that

cooled

were

because

Later, Galen
the

subdue

effectuallyto

more

of

the

Columbus, and

into

sixteenth

Galenic

in

heart, and

the

though

in

Servetus,

Winter,

century

the circulation of blood

Cesalpinusdiscovered

through the lungs,the

sufficiently.

spirits
; and

vital

died

animals

cooled

to

because

water

that

not

were

that the air went

concocted

of

out

much, and

too

their hearts

taught

was

died

this

On

heat."

the

in

it breathe

vigorously must

more

the

hotter

The

"

it cool.

keep

to

of the

doctrine

of

concoction

spiritsstill persisted.
Not, indeed, till the time

meaning

of

century

could

of

suspected,and
respiration
the

principleof

the

Mayou, 1668, was


the

eighteenth

till the

not

be

process

true

said

be

to

reallyunderstood.
The

manifestations

interchangeof
the

between

gases

air,and the whole


facilitate this

to

of life

bring oxygen

the

carry

away

their

tissues.

such
90

nature

the

carbon
The
as

metres

square

interchange.

to

regarded

have
allow

the

docks

where

and
the

the

extensive

of

matter

blood

from

of contact

between

free and

the

tissues,and

lung,again,is

surface

seen)

transport of gases,

as

the

of the

structure

Respirationis entirelya
and

respiratorymovements

brought by

give a large

we

atmosphere, and

The

for transport to

whole

and

body

of the

respirationis designed

of

dioxide

said, an

have

we

livingcells

the

mechanism

the blood

to

require,as

(50

blood

and

loading

the

air-cells may
are

or

and

interchange.

the

gases

of

loaded

loading
un-

be
and

unloaded.
The

tissues

tissues

from

fast

the

as

requireoxygen,
the

lungs

and

collects

respiratorymovements

the
oxygen

blood
at

flowing to

the

the air-cells

inspireair.

The

as

tissues

AIR

34

be

If there

of the gas

gas, the amount

varies with

the

dissolved

the amount

of gas is halved.

from

solution

But

We

gases, in solution

how

soon

as

pressure

be

; and

if it be

in solution is doubled

of gas

the absolute

under

the

as

on

of the gas

nature

the

of the fluid

nature

of the

amounts

in solution

760

of

volume

any

any

of

absorptionof

the

gas

gas

also varies with

Blood
as

for

plasma
the

water

and

at

blood

in any

and

to o"
at

for the

followingtable

will show

own
:

"

760

pressure
as

fluid.

coefficient of

their

of

perature
tem-

fluid.

varying temperatures

have

different

alteration

any

absorb

followingtable (from Bohr) givesthe


of various gases

given

any

(i.e.,
atmospheric pressure)is known

mm.

gases,

at

fluids absorb

gas reduced

fluid will

of

escape

and
varying solubilities)

(fordifferent

of
solubility

percentage volume

which

have

gas). Further,

same

alters the
The

(forgases

aerated

is reduced.

temperature, while varying with the pressure,


the

halved

certain pressure,

gas

doubled,

in

day

every

pressure

of

amount

see

the

given temperature

any

If the

pressure.

the amount

waters

at

liquid.

fluid and

the

between
affinity

chemical

no

in the

dissolved

of the gas becomes

certain volume

HEALTH

AND

the
Thus

mm.

of
efficient
co-

the

absorption
:

"

coefficients for

RESPIRATION
be well at this

It may

in

of the gases

pointto

if

they

the

in

were

and

measure

of

the molecules

and

pressure,

the

pressure,

i.e.,J\ Ibs.

fill it with
molecules

the

the

nitrogen we

pressure

of

22j

Ibs. to the

pint measure,

and

and

will not

the

nitrogen is
and

an

other

inch

least

under

certain

add

we

it will

the

require a

them

keep

Each

certain

pressed.

is stillsubjectedto

but

pressure,

in the

Each

of
:

sphere,
atmo-

one

of half

pressure

wall

againstthe

presses

of

pressure

surrounding

interferes with

neither

of

the

of

Ibs. to

under

in the

volume

of

nitrogen
Therefore

760
the

the

pressure

per

the

But

As

we

air is

(760 mm.)

I OO

dioxide

pressure
of

760

sphere
atmo-

of

21

each

proportionate

their

seen,

pressure

of the

gases

the

approximately 21
carbon

cent., of
is under

have

at

C.) is under

o"

individually
; they

pressure

proportionateto

mixture.

oxygen

pressure

that

of

which

gases

under
i.e.,

mercury,

inch.

square

nitrogen in

79

of

mm.

under

not

are

total

pint

present in the pint measure

were

pressure

volume

pressure,

atmospheric

If

to

more

sea-level

are

pint

another

half

inch.

atmosphere is a mixture
(dry and at a temperature

16

of

all.

at

Now

of

take

we

will find that

the

be

the oxygen

certain

will be

still subjected to

atmosphere.

it with

if

square

mixture

take, say,

we

which

nitrogen
yet, strangelyenough,the original

if it alone

as

sugar

to

pressure

at, say,

square

sure,
pres-

atmospheric pressure

at

of oxygen

to

acts

If

oxygen

to

elastic

an

certain

subjected.

inch ; and

oxygen

them

the

nitrogen will be under

measure

pressure

equal quantityof

an

nitrogengas

1 5 Ibs. to the square


i.e.,

oxygen

distend

be under

otherwise.

fillit with

the

on

we

double

first instance

however, behaves

gases,

the salt

with

word

If

salt will

salt will be under

grains of

the

mix

we

say

mixtiire of gases.

bag with salt,the grainsof


and

35

proportional
per

'03
per

159*6,and

cent., of

per

cent,

cent.

of the

nitrogen is

36

AIR

under

760

"03

per

600*4, and

carbon

of

the

of the

cent,

dioxide

total

pressure

and

oxygen

only the
total

various

with

pressure

that the

without

of

"

"

that

dioxide

great increase

in

the

'228.

more

increase

we

get the

can

we

the

carbon

or

760

the air

to

of

pressure

by adding

proportions of

of oxygen

pressure

under

added, that

of the gas

pressure

doubled

carbon

nitrogenor

-""- of

total pressure

is

corollaries of this it is evident

As

and

HEALTH

of 79 per

pressure

cent,

AND

same

same

gases,

dioxide
total

be

may

atmospheric

pressure.

back, then,

Coming

of

exchange

of air and

gases

in each

be greater than

atmosphere
the

blood, then the


acid gas

the

pressure

be greater than

acid

the carbonic

The

from

of the carbon

pressure

air,and

therefore

air,and

thence

it passes

by

generalair

the

oxygen
in

The
When

of the

same

bonic
car-

during
in

gas

in the

gas

the air,even

into

aerated

as

when

water

passes

the

from

blood

we

shake

the

of

up

process

the

the

alveolar

into

the

alveolar

of diffusion

the

lungs,

to

mixes

pressure

the pressure

air

with

of oxygen

of the oxygen
therefore

and
the

into

is

in

dioxide
blood

blood

venous

than

alveolar

is carried

principleso

the

in the

lungs. Again, the

blood

venous

from

simple

in the

dioxide

of carbon

in the alveolar air is greater

and

the

as

of any

pressure

in

gas

soda-water

into

the blood

from

escapes

greater than the pressure

in

the

same

is drawn.

cork

the

passes

in the

gas

blood, even

into the

the pressure

air,then the gas will pass

of the

the

the pressure

of any

pressure

filling.Again, if

respiratory

place unless

the pressure

will pass

gas

under

of

process

the blood

If the

the

interchange between

take

must

same.

of

question

that

see

the blood

is the

case

we

gases,

the

to

venous

the

blood,

the tissues.

far is

quite plain;

blood

in air

we

but

this is not

find that

it takes

all.
up

RESPIRATION

largervolume

much

the laws

that

solution

solution

that

blood, but

the red

the

also

colouringmatter

of oxygen

absorb

corpusclesmay

the

The

about

"65

containing red
of oxygen

volumes

20

plasma

dissolves
blood-cells)

blood

less than

no

into

goes

tion
combina-

pressure

cent, whereas

per

only

blood.

and

it

acquisitionof

into chemical

minus

and

pressure,

not

of the

ordinary temperature

volumes

under

under

expect

excessive

enters

the fluid part of the blood


(i.e.,
at

should

we

the fact that the oxygen

to

in the

with

Fernet

by

is due

oxygen

than

regulategaseous

discovered

was

of oxygen

37

cent.

per

The

fact is of the

cells

shown

are

blood

greatest importance,for the red blood


carriers of

be

to

oxidising capacity far greater

an

otherwise

The

possess.

blood-cells,a
if

certainlyas
that

fact

cells

would

man

who

too

little

her

breath.

In

and

haemoglobin

the

poisoning dies
abundance

In

process.

the

blood

air is

second

in

the

greater than

place, as

greedily seized by
As
away

fast

as

by the

the

short

of breath.

steps without

losing

monoxide

carbon

with

combination
and

oxygen,

by

of

victim

the

though

even

the blood

place,oxygen

pressure

the

oxygen

is thus

passes

there

the

in

in

alveolar

the

blood, and
into

enters

double

solution

into
in

of oxygen

pressure

red

blood-

few

too

few

of oxygen

the

the

well-known

very

into

as

air.

oxygen

first

because

the

just

are

enters

lack
the

of all its red

oxygen

have

does

solution

it is

poisoning by

ousts

from

acquisitionof

The

of

monoxide

the

be

climb

cases

carbon

who

"

girlcannot

and

"

of

would

it

than

deprived
lack

haemoglobin

anaemic

may

of

anaemic

are

An

again, the

die

strangled him

one

those

and

blood

the

the

give

to

in

merely

oxygen

suffice for life. Were

not

and

oxygen

in

the
it is

solution

blood-cells.

the

oxygen

red

blood-cells

enters

to

the
the

lungs, it

tissues

and

is

carried

taken

up

there

and

fast

as

carried

in

away

be

It must

reach

blood

but

first diffuse

must

tidal air

and

circulation

networks

of

per

and

which

the

air

the

to

partlychemically
is carried

so

dioxide

blood

to

out

of

passes

little more

air and

in

formed
the

the

by

capillary

solution

into

tidal air,and

the

seen,

air before

after

inspiration16

of

carbon

or

cent,

per

12

of

volumes

dioxide.

in

tissue.

cent,

per

of

the

cent,

per

of

cent,

per

dioxide, and

cent,

such

of

carbon
and
blood,

venous

of

and

oxygen
the

and

oxygen

results

21

oxygen

dioxide, leaves

carbon

are

and

lungs

"03

volumes

respiratory

inspirationcontains

and

per

These

in detail the

lungs, and

of oxygen

containing 20
carbon

and

inspired

discharged at expiration.

contains

46 volumes

by

cent,

cent,

blood

cesses
pro-

solution,

oxygen

it diffuses .into the

examine

have

per

is carried

air,whence

between

we

volumes

4*3

combining

residual

carbon

air-cells and

the

now

exchange

the

The

tissues.

body

tidal air is
us

into

passes

the

to

the alveolar

dioxide

directly

not

tidal air.

The

the

through

partly in solution,

the cells in the

As

diffuses

air,thence

combined

Let

is

air

circulation.

the

discharged from

function

complex

combination, and

alveolar

the

thus

can

tidal into

the

the

into

"

diffusion,gaseous
inspiration,
expiration,

chemical
the

alveolar

respiration
inspired

oxygen

dioxide

carbon

residual

the

Respiration is

in

fresh

the

the

then

alveoli

the

of

movements

only by diffusingfrom

into

of

that

Likewise

air.

expired

and

blood

the

residual

the

the

air in

the

that

noticed, however,

it is residual

the

in

lungs, and

the

to

formed

is

air.

expired

directlychanged by

never

dioxide

blood

the

by

the

HEALTH

carbon

as

tissues it is carried

is

AND

AIR

38

as

we

lungs
40

of

might

theoretically
expect.
it must

Now
tidal

air

be

expired

noticed

from

the

that
upper

the

air

expired

portions

of

the

is

the

lungs,

RESPIRATION
and

therefore

must

in

remaining
the

air

the

be

the

in

the

air-cells where

air and

blood

that

the

therefore

is between

than

exchange

the

rather

air

stagnant

"

actually taking place, and


between

than

purer

lungs certainlyconsiderably purer

down

away

much

39

is

exchange

impure

air

taken

up

by

affinities of

the

and

blood.
We

said

have

that

the

blood

red

colouring matter

in

is

solution

small

it

of

pressure

the

into

chemical
at

about

combination

falls to

pressure

taken

oxygen
and

combined
for various

is

and

down

this

incorporation of

probable
the

is the
the

the

interchange

walls
of

be

blood

play

gases,

of oxygen

longer

the

enter

ingly,
Accord-

atmospheric

sea-level,e.g.,

at

the

is very

unstable
built

loosely

and

tissues

used

compounds
again ;

up

breaking

down

and
and

life.
is of

there

the

course

; and

blood-vessel

it

seems

part in promoting

active

an

oxygen

difficult.

make

of

air-cell of the

the

the

no

which

with

essence

the

decrease

haemoglobin

oxygen

and

that with

pressure

its pressure

require to

very

air

of the
that

by

increase

haemoglobin.

at

generallyto

break

filmy wall

the

chemical

even

with

will

readilycaptured by

that

Between

half

up

processes

building up

with

sea-level

below

the

amount

comparatively

When

up.

oxygen

the

that

up, and

feet, breathing becomes

17,000

The

the

height above

and

half

below

is

that

is taken

to

that

pressure

pressure,

oxygen

sea-level

air at

and

remembered

is taken

oxygen

less

chemical

of

the law

by

is reduced

pressure
in

more

oxygen

blood

the

be

must

influenced

affinityis
pressure

of

the

the

by

up

according to

; but

of

taken

of

most

especially the

absorption

of

oxygen.

Condition
blood
this

there

might

of Carbon
are
seem

Dioxide

volumes

40
to

imply

in

per

that

Blood.

cent,

the

"

Even

carbon
pressure

in

arterial

dioxide, and
of

carbon

dioxide

in

however,

since

loose

in

or

and

blood

the

be

must

This

great.

and

only

giving up

carbon

blood

alkalis of the

proteids

the
in

cent,

per

is in

dioxide

with

combination

chemical

the case,

is not

greater part of the carbon

the

firm

HEALTH

AND

AIR

40

simple

solution.
Besides

Vapour.
"

and

lungs

air-passagesgive

cold

dry

or

and

warm

it reaches

before
the

to

time
warmed
with

is

The

and

dryness

of the

which

question upon
is that
in

life

aerobic

microbes
The

carbon

dioxide
even

as

If

of oxygen

is

this

half

pint

the

ness
cold-

chemical

product

when

tissues

even
move

say

results
such

the

lowest

and

duce.
repro-

combustion, and

product
we

can

we

that without

to

of slow

kind

why

"

is another

"

All

deprive
cease

gases

life

the

with

we

they

simply

it is

saturated

off in

with

with

enter.

not

of oxygen

is

evident,however,

interchange of

shall

we

is

is

about

vary

associated

be

ceases.

process

the

by

again, it

carried

cell-movement, reproduction,"c., and

combination

that

air.

combination

the

the

moisture

and

and

It is

must

require an

interchange should

with

back

body

this way.

always

24*5" C.

to

up

average

cases

is

It is found

and

heat

the

on

both

in

life should

Why

of

amount

amount

the

ever
How-

passing

capacity;

lungs

of

temperature

in

is saturated
its

the

to

discharged in

is

the

that

been

considerable,and

water

this

the

to

moisture.

way
of

air has

the

of

one-third

of

extent

Even

is warmed

throat,and

the

air the

moisture.

entering,it

on

8" C.

"

the

to

moistened.

and

of

the temperature

air at

be

expired.

is warmed

air

and

heat

up

may

when

moist

nostrils the

air

the

dioxide

burn

of the

candle

the
bustion
comor

bit of wood.
It must
is

not

carbon

be

used

noticed,however, that all the


for purposes

dioxide

of

discharged

combustion,

is not

oxygen

and

product of

absorbed
that

all the

combustion.

AIR

42

exercise

During

than
muscular
of

AND

the

The

rest.

dioxide, and

associated

with

uptake

be

It must

of

supply
The

will

oxygen

of oxygen

action

is

and

output

of

capacityshould

volume

inspireand

they

capacity of
exchange

the tissues

much

usuallymore

exchange,
E.

is the

exercise

oxygen,

and

dioxide

walking

walking
walking

at

that

minute

per

at

trottingas
In

between

the

in

muscular

with

and

Zuntz
twice

activityand

smaller

physiologicaleconomy,
carbon

much

to

they

absorb

respiratory

c.c.

when

c.c.

he

was

when

he

was

that horses

dioxide

carbon

he

when

found

Lehmann

of carbon

c.c.

1,581*9 c.c.

much

as

that

of

dioxide

any

output

practised. This

owes

i6r6

the

investigationsinto

of

established
a

and

hour;

an

of

change.

miles, 851*2

than

of

asleep,569

was

given

matter

cells

stimulant

discharged
he

as

them

the

tissue

be

when

walking.

course

was

of

man

of

rate

3 miles

discharged nearly

when

treadmill.

greatest

consequently

found

Smith

offered

oxygen

tory
respira-

respiratory

can

and

use,

capacity of

Still,granted the

need.

can

the

to

much

the

to

the greatest

the

by

how

not

by

expire,but

they

muscular

applied

measured

as

increased

an

demand.

but

measured

question of

how

be

lungs as

tissues

not

as

they have

can

the

it is

that

increase

supply

the

of air

itself

of

question not

vital

term

of

not

respiratorycapacityof

was

formation

with

muscular

clearlyunderstood, however,

it is

activity;

fact

of

dioxide.

carbon

to

tissues

consequently

increased

nous
volumi-

more

concomitant

necessary
of the

is oxidation

action

is

respiratoryexchange

during

carbon

HEALTH

and

its value.
associated

the
fatigue,
muscular

means
no

The
with

that
doubt

clusion
interestingcon-

exercise

dioxide

of carbon

relationship

increase
muscular

results

this fact
in

ciated
asso-

if it be

practice
to

is

the

in

training

output

exercise

quently
fre-

can

of
be

RESPIRATION
maintained

only by

the

food, since only by

of

made

increased

food

of muscular

dioxide,

functions

(") External

the

languor

be

and

of

respiratoryexchange

muscular

heat

movement,
of

exchange

As

system.
constant

varies

is well

muscular

heat

and

in

change

production
heat

be

reduce

may

and

the

and

In

decreases

increase

and

in

law

the
tissue

of oxidation

and

the oxida-

; and

explosion
production

hot

in

weather

oxidation

the

increase

holds

on

and

If cold

respiratoryexchange.

; but

dioxide

tained
main-

is

corresponding reduction

good

change and

constant

temperature

in

and

adaptation fails ;

animals,

maintain

tissue

movement,

with

and

carbon

cold-blooded
maintain

muscular

nervous

weather, quite apart

corresponding increase

reduced

of

animals

cold

In

effect of

respiratory

intensityof

in the

great heat

output

the

temperature

oxidation

great this

too

the

the external

constant

tissues.

of heat

limits of climate
heat

when

cause

increased

animals, through the

This

from

are

from

to

activity

with

affect

respiratoryexchange

again, quite apart


tissue

cold

ducive
usually con-

muscular

apart

and

movement,

increased, with

are

the

digestive

is apt

associated

even

even

the

in

weather

increased

of variations

means

tive processes
from

but,

is

known, warm-blooded

considerably.

for

and

weather

hot

course

warm-blooded

temperature

by

Cold

inactivity. The
is

of

vigorously.

more

and
activity,

cold

with

output

material

respiratorymechanism

"

produced by

not

quantity

carbon

increased

supply

to

Temperature.

to muscular

or

of

wastage

and

oxygen

in order

work

must

of

and

both

interchange

in

the

can

sufficient

exercise,therefore,is associated

absorption

carbon

of

of

consumption

good.

Increase

43

income

within

great cold
of oxygen

the

ordinary

that cold increases

and

respiratoryoutput.
the

other

temperature,
of tissue

hand, which

cold

change, and

do

produces

no

reduces

the

AND

AIR

44

body temperature
In

and

HEALTH

the

fowls,adaptation to heat

and

reduce

other

W.

their

bodily temperature

general vitality. The

of

young

many

it and

of

temperature

also

of the
the

babies

Premature

It must

be

The

fledglingquicklyfell almost

to

the

have

almost

dangerous

"

the

temperature
table
take

Hill) shows

tissues of
when

the

mouse,

it is

detrimental

and

which

that

they

artificial heat.

under

in

Advances

variations

exposed

cold, and

to

animals, and

quicklyregain their temperature


followingtable (from Recent

of

the

constantlywarm.
fall of bodily temperature

older

in

reaction

no

them

is less

fall of temperature

Leonard

of

temperature

101".

keep

animals

the

noticed,however, that

in young

more

65".

at

to

of its feathers
of

air, whereas

it is necessary

necessityfor

temperature

to
fledgling

remained

sparrow

than

the

adult sparrow

strippedan

temperature

hence

hence

are

nursing.

exposed

adult

to cold ; and

to react

F. Edwards

The

which

lower

their

to

apt

and
imperfect,

are

animals, e.g., pigeons, rats, cats, rabbits, pups,

maternal

The

cold

is

likewise unable

and

and

cold

to

exposure

all the vital functions.

of
activity

in

the

maintains

logy,"
Physiotion
combus-

its

bodily

varying temperatures.
is instructive,being illustrative of the changes
animals.
place in all warm-blooded
ADULT

MOUSE.

to

RESPIRATION
The
and

inverse

relationshipbetween

of

output

carbon

cold in young

to

taken

from

"

pigeons,is

Recent

and

in

when

In

fatal,for the

fall below

the

of

danger

activities of
reduced

the

by

of heat

is

to

of the

dull

or

sleep,

when

there* is

sleep

the

nervous

during sleep,
much

is
is

during sleep

less

particularly
be

may

quickly

longer regulated by
lost
the

for life.
the

in

and

change

the

internal

on

nerve

Hence
"The

snow.

control

nervous

less,until

is

lost,

tion
producture
tempera-

life ceases."
diminish

under
no

system,

nervous

dulled, there

when

reached, when

cold

dangerous,since

no

less and

Anaesthetics, like
exposure

regulationof temperature

cold ; chemical

become
20"

are

tissues, once
the

followingtable (also

the level necessary

sleeping

reaction

"

deaden

cold

temperature,

of

Physiology") :

of great cold

cases

lack

regulation. Thus

so

control, may

about

means

by

this

cold ; and

to

dangerous.

are

is

impressions

nervous

reaction

the

which

with

interfere

system

the

temperature

PIGEON.

adult

combustion

all circumstances

in

seen

Advances

In the warm-blooded

internal

external

dioxide, showing

FIRST-DAY

by

45

control, and

nerve

anaesthetics

reaction,and

the

is

particularly

ture
body tempera-

quickly falls.
(V) Size
an

animal

and

Surface of Animals."

affect the

The

size and

respiratoryexchange

surface

of

merely indirectly

their

through

animals

than

of

its square

only

inch

it contains.

The

result of the

animal
its

is

surface,and

effect

maintain

heat ; and

and eat

ones

in

more

in

more

active,and

eight
to

burn

as

fast

an

average

the

to

and

not

as

is

so

maintain

smaller

as

fast

and

has

functional

and

(d] Diet.

with
the

that

chemical

more

; but

would

stimulated

to

eats

tion
propor-

be

to

be

may

eight times
as
as

the

fast

as

fast

as

smaller

activityin

perhaps

big

obviously

is in

times

more

logical

more

say

order

that

superficialexposure

the
to

organic activity

more

chemical.
The

"

said

have

be

sparrow

forty times

relative

more

is therefore

thus

than

stating it

of

about

thirty

not

than

sparrow

candle, but

about

have

great.

to

produce

active

to

order

to

it is also

has

"

in

dioxide

carbon

more

to

cold, and

and

as

its temperature

animal

combination

of

We

scientific way

more

may

more

hen

from

man

their size.
a

smaller

radiation

"

of

squares

of the

burn

has

he

has

square

27

by

to

often

are

times

woman.

obliged

but

man,

men

and

man,

the

little,
compact

its size than

hen,

average

animal

its output
nine

or

of

for

surface

of

inches

has

proportionto

proportionto

more

said

little

hence

its total

to

respiratoryexchange

long,lanky

bear

of heat

animal

the

hence

its temperature.

hotter than

becomes

larger surface
relatively

voluminous

more

larger it

inches

each

greater relative escape

the

cube

for

surface

of

has

square

inch, whereas

inches

inch

weight.

surface

its

small

their

all surface, but


does

of smaller

surface

the

because

ones

proportion

cube

bulk.

larger

greater in proportion to

is

smaller

the

have

animals

cell is almost

round

bodily temperature. Ceteris


voluminous
more
respiratory

relationshipto

paribus,smaller
exchange

HEALTH

AND

AIR

46

absorbed

oxygen
the

substances

character

of

the

from

built up
food

has

the air enters


out
a

of the

into
food ;

great influence

RESPIRATION
character

the

on

During
to

and

the

largely on
fat the

of

of

in

the

cent, while, on

per

When

food

the

dioxide

discharged

increase

after

food

food

taken.

other

be

hand,

is

be

cent,

volume

the

volume

greater than

food

less

if the food

the

The

depends

If the

rise of 50 per

carbohydrate
is

rapidly.

respiratory exchange

may

is

it increases

the

the

carbohydrate there

or

food

the

nature

increase

the

respiratoryexchange.
is
reduced
respiratory exchange

after

however,

amount,

of

amount

the

fasting

minimum

10

and

47

be

than

proteid
or

more.

of

carbon

of oxygen

absorbed.

(e) Age.

As

"

less, both

because

diminished.
cent

in

good
The

the

functional

will

19

in

60; and

of

female

and

and

dioxide

man

activityare

discharge nearly
proportion

the

grows

20

his

to

per

weight

holds
relationship

same

sex.

of

question

pressure

of

youth

stoutish

muscular

carbonic

more

than

the respiratory
increases,
exchange

age

the

relationshipbetween
will be

respiratoryexchange

atmospheric
discussed

in

separate chapter.

respiratoryfunction

Regulation of Respiration. The


"

mainly

automatic.

and

night

and

on,

day

regulated so
suit

to

seen,

the

exercise

Now,

both

how

is the

what

principledoes

The

regulationis

have
the

and

of

lungs

respond

act

on

top of the spinal column.

goes

as

altered

during

have

we

of oxygen

and
and

regulated?
respiration

to

the

needs
and

nerve

an

after

vigorously.

of

the

also

is

breathing is

more

nervous

course

already mentioned,

of

dioxide, and

mechanism
it

oxidation

But, further,it

it.

consumption

carbon

heart

of

organism. Exercise,

increased
of

breathing,and

on

go

depth

or

of the

output

we

process

of

aware

the rate

needs

day

wonderful

not

that

implies an

increased

this

are

we

and

Night

is

of the

organism ?

depends, as

centre

On

situated

we

at

AIR

48
But

does

how

the

AND

HEALTH

respiratoryrequirements of
The

information

two

sources

goes

to

from

"

the

of oxygen

and

of the
into

come

maintained.

is

and

blood

of

the

the

is

blood, and

dioxide

the

in

(not

reallya

of the

blood

may

in the

increase

causes

the

that

it from

to

the

lungs.

is the

chief

lungs;
be

called

the

that

the

proved
to carbon

dioxide
of carbon

amount

dioxide

and

respiratorystimulant

but it

regulatesthe

corresponding increase
carbon

is

rhythm

action

been

has

and

respiratorycentre

nerves) which

It

the

inspiration

supply

sensitive
particularly

that any

of

which

"

tory
respira-

causes

play,

sent

respiration what

respiratory
activity.Thus
"is

the

reflex

the

lungs

messages

nerves

nervous

lungs.

centre
respiratory

in the

this

to

nerves

skin, "c.

alternate

steady rhythmical action

depth of

ventilation

reflex

nerve

of the

the

the

of the

mechanism

thus

and

of the

means

probably the

rate

the

causes

; and

the

tory
respira-

the amount

to

as

into

come

impulses

motor

probable that

of the

cause

is

This

lungs by

It is

lungs
play ;

with

responds
the

expiration to

the

to

working

fillingof

Blood

nerves.

go

temperature

that

proved

of

nerves

mechanical

the

to

the

in the blood

dioxide

to the

as

been

mechanism

to

and

from

respiratorycentre

from

the

to

as

gives information

blood

as

apparatus,

emptying

blood, and

carbon

give information

the

gained by

the

The

individual

the

respiratorycentre

centre.

It has

is

information

gain

centre

nerve

its

in

in the blood

helps tp get

rid

of

.itself.
If the
below

more

carbon

breath

the blood
motor

dioxide

becomes
and

so

will

dioxide

carbon

point breathingwill

certain

oxygen

of the

pressure

too
causes

accumulates
low.
an

Any

one

accumulation

quickly discover

how

for

cease
or

in the

until
who

blood

fall

while, until

the

supply

tries to

hold

of carbon

dioxide

of
his
in

stronglythe involuntary

will fightagainst his


impulses of respiration

will.

It

AIR

50

AND

Strangelyenough,
breathing is
and

still under
the

increases

there
the

the

seems

doubt

the

of the heart

of carbon

dioxide; and

is stimulated
to

it

; but

known

which

in

precise way

doubtful

It is rather
dioxide

of

the

likelythat

seems

products

blood, and

of

that the

the

in

and

lungs

quickly dischargeany

the

by

the

by

it

quickens breathing

is well

ventilation

and

exercise

of carbon

excess

increased

action

carried

the

to

as

is

quickened
centre

it

is stimulated.

stimulant

blood, since

That

respiratoryexchange

some

the

relationshipbetween

debate.

respiratorycentre

whether

HEALTH

the

excess

respiratory

muscular

waste

chief stimulant

is

lactic acid.
Heart

Relationshipbetween
been
the

The

explained.

blood

the tissues and

air to

lungs has already

is the carrier of the oxygen


the carrier of the carbon

from
dioxide

the
air,and the heart it is that pumps
cient
through the tissues. If,accordingly,the blood is defi-

blood

in

is deficient
(i.e.}

carrying power

heart is deficient in

if the

with

oxygen,
the

blood

the

ventilation

known

and

stimulates
of the

is shortness

rich

enough

sufficient

in

lungs, producing

from

insufficient

accumulates

respiratorycentre
that

to

in

increase

panting

habit

from

any

of loss of blood

Those

carbon

heart

does

the

not

oxidated
sufficiently

disease
blood

are

may

circulate

with

or

sufficiently

as

part of the

dioxide.

respiratorymechanism
man

be

with

though

haemoglobin, it

importance of

the

of breath.

rapidityto

by
purified
The

dioxide

carbon

short-winded, because, even

likewise

suffers
(e.g.,

tissues receive

of the chief symptoms

one

cause

or
haemoglobin),

short-windedness.

as

And

result that

the

in

propellingpower

leaks),the

fattydegeneration or

find

the

"

the tissues to the

from

be

RespiratoryMechanism.

the heart and

between
relationship

The

and

the heart

and

cannot

be

short-winded

the

circulation

overestimated, and

probabilityis

not

if

that

we

his

RESPIRATION

is

breathing
their

doing
test

should
still

work

breathing

the

have

more

harmoniously

but

deficient,

good
important
with

51

that

ventilating
"

the

good

heart

require

blood

respiratory

only
but

and
functions

that
also

not

are

performances

not

capacity,

blood

or

Athletic

competently.
power

his

the
and

that

lungs
this

"

sound

heart

proper.

working

is

CHAPTER

AIR

PRESSURE

THE

IN

the

to

the

All

importance.
the

body

with

subjected

are

it, and,

gases

as

atmospheric

of

look

decrease

the

no

of

laws

half

by

diminution
we

of

phenomenon

have

such

such
such

stated

but

the

as

are

more

ordinary

associated
or

less

Oxygen,

oxygen.
in

extent

previous
52

with

inch,

the

In
a

case

sudden

perhaps

may

healthy

great

striking,
in

chapter,

at
to

square

due

tions,
varia-

heights,
chiefly
with

accordance
passes

is

man

Greater

fluctuation.

everyday

the

effects.

that

to

to

day

pressure

haemorrhage

pulmonary

effects
of

pound

physiological

even

of

diminution

or

by

day

occur

as

pound

to

effects

physiological

pressure.

haemorrhage

to

physiological
a

of

interchange

PRESSURE

principal

perhaps

pressure

however,

to

atmospheric

subject

unaffected

the

at

obvious

very

alteration

have

largely

ATMOSPHERIC

variations,

of

patients

conduce

first

implying

extent

have
of

in

smaller

sea-level,

is

depends

of

equilibrium

in

the

even

fluids

and

and

Ibs.

15

logical
physio-

great

tissues

pressure

seen,

DIMINISHED

us

The

life

the

to

pressure.

A."

Let

have

we

which

on

this

to

plainly

has

LIFE

amounting

atmosphere,
inch,

square

TO

RELATIONSHIP

ITS

of

pressure

IV

from

the

AIR

air in the
the

to

air-cells into the

difference

cells and

this

of mercury

"

solution

and

between

the oxygen

conditions

by

PRESSURE

it is

the

difference

oxygen

probable

that

top of Mount

Everest

in the

to

be considered.

for oxygen

diminishes

Thus

blood-cells

if the pressure

cells

I atmospheric
the

becomes

is well

that stearic candles


the

on

lightwhich
to

"

are

influence

diminishes.
the

oxygen

the blood-

if

it

reduced

to

fall
50

fact,the higher

less oxygen

of pressure

Frankland

to

per
we

is seized

A.

and

Benedicent

2*1930

of 5,950

of

at

chemical

Tyndal

found

Mont

Blanc

proved

grammes

grammes

on

slowly on

more

away

diminution

that

oil at

pressure

an

oil

sea-level

ing
correspond-

metres.

important effect

the most

absorbed

of oxygen

in amount

"

of diminished

pressure.

diminution

itself

due

of oxygen

ordinaryconditions,at
adapt

At

considered

atmospheric

can

burnt

1*9119

altitude

then

be

under

the

another

with

and

this

to

becomes,

plain, Dr.

only
an

This

The

Owing

known.

consumed

consumed

may

in solution

sea-level

saturated

cent,

per

the

on

the blood-cells

at

^theircapacity is

difficult. The

combination

than

away,

ing
blood-cells,and consequentlyat great heightsbreath-

the

by

carry

J atmospheric pressure
70

air

provide

But

pressure

pressure

mm.

to

air

be

appetiteof

cent,

per

with

the

would

blood-cells.

The

80

pressure

rarer

rarefied

oxygen

red

35*5

can

air-

ordinary

sufficient

the

the

Under

blood-cells
in

the

of full saturation.

or

go

the

fall to

content

are

cent,

than

more

in

is about

considerably as

about

are

proportionate

pressure

pressure

ordinary atmospheric

at

but

of

enough

factor must

volumes

in the blood.

even

supply

in

oxygen

much

all the

blood

blood

pressure

pressure

53

to

heightswhere

the

to

ascent

reasonable

altered

the oxygen

is

gradual,and

the organism
heights,

atmospheric conditions.
pressure

is insufficient there

deepened breathingand quickened pulse-rate.Deepened

AIR

54

breathing
most

diminished

deepened breathingincreases
air-cells and

the

the

in his

Huggard,

the

Plateau

of

feel his

climatic

on

pressure.

of the oxygen

the

observation

pulse.

he

he found

morning

nevertheless

in each

his
and

water,

that

barometer, by which

might

quick

rapid

than

his

PULSE-RATE

ON

accustomed

Omer-

Allah, muleteer

munshi

...

124
112

Gaffer, servant

114

Dowd

124

1894 Professor

eleven

persons

to the

plateauof

heart-beat
his
on

should

the

be carried

only

Next

evening before

then

the

surprisefound

that

Afterwards

own.

he

kind

to

of

observe
the

living

himself

height."

Scotchman, stout
Jasulmeere,
Afghanistan, thin
Peshawuree, "
Kabul, robust.
"

from

Zermatt

(1,600metres)

was

M.

64

In every

case

Lortet,of Lyons, found


at

Lyons,

increased

to

Blanc.

is the

examined

(3,750metres).

quickened.

which
pulse-rate,
Mont

fever.

his

Kronecker, of Berrie, arranged that

the Breithorn

was

to

PAMIR, 15,600 FEET.

THE

no

Hussein,

chanced

of
registeredthe boiling-point

(Wood)

Gholam

90-108

violent

pulse-ratewas

man

the

action attracted

He
his

he

pulse on

he

tent

great altitudes roughly calculate

at

Self

as

to

the

and

pulse whenever
found

his

perfectlywell.

more

terestin
in-

sea-level.

in

was

pulse as

companions,
it was

case

counted

the

of his

tumultuous

he

thought

felt

he

his

of

rapid and

Its

Dr.

gives an

treatment,

Pamir, 15,600 feet above

attention,and

Not

the

tissues.

evening sittingquietly in

"One

pulse

work

of Wood's

account

that

atmospheric

the pressure

of

two

noticeable.
quickened pulse-rateis particularly

The

In

indeed

quickened respirationcarries

quickly to

more

oxygen

the

HEALTH

quicker pulse-rateare

effects of

constant

The
in

and

AND

average

pulse-ratequickened,

but

the

AIR

heart is
Most

excitable

more

and

of Kronecker's

sufficient to
could

of

Monte

six

Rosa

The

found

that

times

121

beats, found

increased

his

easilyaccelerated.

more

palpitation
; and

cause

only

55

is much

cases

raise dumb-bells

rate

PRESSURE

slightexercise

with
that

soldier in Turin

who

increase

pulse-

an

the

of

if the

heart

fail to achieve

the

extra

work, breathlessness

heart-failure

even

Most

even

to

unable

become

like

their parts

stunted.

Alps

Cats
in

the

will not
the

Cordillera

convulsions

of

Rabbits

guinea-pigsare

remarkable

Man,

atmospheric

occupied is
at

The

5,880 metres.

Thok

djalung is

Peru, Bolivia,and

populationlive
100,000

the
to

mines

Oroya
4,598
"

come

the

and

6,000 feet.

about

and

finally die."
live at very

to

hand,

seems

himself

to

of

at

Arequipa

Himalayas

the

Chile

Northern

Villacota

culminates
Mont

Blanc.

m., in the

at

in

very

5,042, the
tunnel

at

annual

Himalayas,
Recent

to

6,100

4,980

at

4,760

m.,

thousands
in

In

m.

of the

at 4,350 m.,

Callao

almost

fair is held at

Advances

m.

has numbered

railway from

which

Andes,

the

large part

Potosi, which

m.

An

"

have

diminished

is at

...

(Leonard Hill,

to

tinuously
highest dwelling-placecon-

Observatory

3,000

sicken

dejected,have

become

Observatory El Mirti,in

villagein

above

dwarfed

are

inhabitants,is at 4,165 m., Cerro de Pasco

height of
at

other

"The

pressure.

high

on

height. "They

accommodate

capacityto

logical
physioroots

equally unable
the

on

their

plants : their

at

epileptic character,

an

altitudes.

high

continue,

may

Plants

aboveground
certain

the

desert

forests end

the

live above

villagesof
and

it may

shallow(especially

altitudes.

high

hypertrophy and
In

diseased

or

accommodate

to

very

to

tend

weak

animals

some

breathinganimals),are
mountains

120.

ensue.

plants,and
functions

on

physiologicaland

course

but

or

to

94

compensatory,

be

of

exercise

same

pulse-ratefrom

quickened pulse-rateis

was

the

Gartok,

annually
"

Physiology ).

AIR

56
And

there

monasteries

Buddhist

are

HEALTH

AND

Thibet

in

at

still

greater height.

Boussingault remarks
traffic in

the

strength

the

of S,ooo to

elevations

at

and

the

and

young

places as

high

Saussure

had

delicate

and

his

they proceeded

as

almost

won

that

adapted

famous

with

agree

witnessing
in

whole

night

the

celebrated

at

his instruments

to use

fell down
the

in

in

snow

swoon

when

we

battle,that of Pinchincha,

altitude

of

Monte

that

me

rarefied

breathing the

to

hole

which

on

hardy guides

the

at

will

you

Blanc,

dig

to

that
remember, finally,
was

girlsdancing

Mont

as

like,
such-

sea-level ; after

feet above

9,000

of

toreadors

skill of the

hardly strengthenough

of observation

bustle

the

at

feet ; after

12,000

marvellous

at Quito,
bull-fights

seeing

looking

Bogota, Micuipampa, Potosi,and

like

towns

After

"

Rosa, I think

man

of

air

become

can

the

highest

very

mountains."

Effectof
One

diminished

Atmospheric Pressure

effect
important physiological
is

pressure

remarkable

blood-cells ; and

character,enabling the blood


at

oxygen

lower

this ; he found

double
that

the

Peruvians
numbered

observers

llama

had

about
have

16
a

50

absorb

Bert

height of
cent,

confirmed

this

red

(The average
cubic

an

instructive

number

millimetre.)

Mexico

at

of

red

3,700
Viault

blood-cells,and

4,392

m.

the

than

more

red

summary

work

the
on

of various

blood-cells

m.

had

found
that

in

blood-cells

normal.

increase, and
in his

of

first to discover

of red blood-cells.

table, compiled by Dr. Huggard


treatment, gives

compensatory

the

was

of the red

larger amount

"

atmospheric

number

probably of

to

million

per

in the

livingin

number

livingat

is

pressure.

that animals

the normal

of diminished

increase

this increase

the Blood.

on

Many
following
climatic
tions.
observa-

is 5,000,000 per

53

AIR

Miintz
rabbits

made

the Pic du
Pic du

the

much

it is due

found

is

mainly, if

been

of

of the rabbits from

the

the

on

haemoglobin.

to

of the

any

sunlightor

of

for

similar

produced by keeping rabbits

decrease

humidity,

of

the diminished

in the blood

change
and

of

concomitants

altogether,
simply to

not

atmospheric pressure,

summit

kept

the blood

due, not

increase

as

rabbits

of

blood

the

between

comparison

the richer in

increase

height such

HEALTH

plainand

Midi, and

Midi

The

similar

kept on

AND

guinea-pigsin

has

rarefied

air at sea-level.
M.

Paul
he

one

under

kept

atmosphere
height

took

Regnard

well-ventilated

reduced

was

of 3,000

to

the

guinea-pigwhich

absorbed
blood

21

of

other

After
found

was

lived

in the
100

per

absorbed

pressure

blood

of

atmosphere

rarefied

c.c.

both

month

the

blood, whereas

under

lived

had

only

kept

was

that the

which

guinea-pig

atmospheric

normal

the

which

other

sea-level,the

it

of oxygen

c.c.

the

had

litter ;

same

in
bell-glass

pressure.

killed,and

guinea-pigswere

the

density corresponding to

above

metres

ordinary atmospheric

at

guinea-pigsof

two

14

15

or

c.c.

of oxygen.
fact

The

to

seems

atmospheric
matter

how

of debate.

The

in

about

its full amount

probably not
We

see,

quite

increase

that the human


therefore,

the

of oxygen

questionat

to

at diminished

once

blood
is still

about

reaches

and
fortnight,

pressure

organism,by

it is

for the

far does

exchange
respiratory
or

of red

atmospheric pressures,
"

equal

acceleration

increase

compensate

suggests itself how

go, and does the total

atmospheric

or

red

rapidlyand

and
inspiration,

corpuscles,endeavours

pressure

brought

diminished

permanent.

of circulation,deepening of
blood

is

occurs

days

of

number

the

the increase

ten

that

indubitable

increases

pressure

corpuscles; though
a

be

exceed

the

lower
and

tion
compensa-

at diminished

total

respiratory

AIR

exchange

at the

have

made

question,but

from

was

Berlin,and

at

that

Monte

exercise

found

increased

with

On

increase

the

of

that

though

increase

is increased

is due

that

the

on

the

on

breath
more

heights life may


Nor

and
life,

of

Any

must

time,when

supply
effect

effect

on

and

tissue

the

at

"

as

spondingly
corre-

in

the

it

some

inspiration
of

to

the

creased.
de-

gas

diminished
pressure,

respiratory

usuallyis

the

"

Thus

under

Pressure

system

nervous

is

oxygen

high

is

indirect,and
The

stimulating and

habituallymore

inhabitants

11,020

the

of

that

is

the Nervous

on

effected between

has been

One

the

pressure

general

stimulatingand exciting,but

certainlycannot

height of

seem

intense than

exchange.

off.

says

it would

not

tissues.

the

Saussure, it is true,
Geant,

when

demand,

Alpine highlanders are


than

of

point

for
surprising,

the oxygen

compromise

to pass

seems

the

first to be

at

seems

than

for

vigorousand

Atmospheric

depend chieflyon

effect

that

altitudes

for the

at

high altitudes,

at

atmospheric

certainlyoxygen

Effectof diminished
"

to

be less

this

is

readily available

System.

increase

no

of oxygen.

pressure

plains.

caused

depth

lowered

high

at

Rosa

interchange

seems

suggest

rather

sunlight,cold,electrical conditions,and

to

the diminished

to

to

been

observations

total

under

others

respiratoryexchange.

and

rate

evidence

further

exchange

careful

altitude,the

the

his

guinea-pigs kept

made

respiratoryexchange
seems

in

and

Monte

on

Rosa

hand, found

other

who

the whole

and

on

ments
Experi-

respiratoryexchange

greater

respiratoryexchange
months,

that his

5 to 50 per cent,

Aggazzotti, on
Mermod,

far the results have

so

found

greater

and

of sea-level ?

by Loewy, Zuntz, Mermod,

contradictory. Zuntz
rest

59

atmospheric pressure

been

settle this

to

PRESSURE

when

plains

feet, it seemed
"

that
and

of

livingat

oxygen

exciting

hold

excitable

after

the

getic
ener-

Italy.
the

to my

Col
son

De
du

and

60

AND

AIR

that

me

in

less
the

physical observations

our

freer

and

plain,"but
for

that

and

that

effect of

altitudes

high

acquiresufficient

to

cause,

and
quickly suffers,

and

At

at

of the heart

have

mountaineers

giddiness,impairment
touch, dulness

remarked
of the

of

of the intellectual

any

system

nervous

atmospheric

the

in

noises

balloonists

"

Huggard,

head

and

sight,hearing, and

of

senses

from

or

is inevitable.

disturbance

great elevations,"writes

very

the

oxygen,

If

permanent.

prove

great reduction

very

debilityand

nervous

pressure

likelyto

weakness

organism fail,
through

other

"

is

of the

view

stimulating

the

whether

to

outbursts

to

in
especially

"

height

irritable,

more

was

impatience and
"

on

that "It seemed

system

respiratoryexchange

this

stayed at

he admits

well be doubted

It may

diminished

that he

to

was

inventive, than

more

say

nervous

liable

more

were

anger."

the

that

general the

we

even

be noted

it must

and
fortnight,

in

me

of

will

mind

the

that

tinctly
dis-

with

worked

we

and
spirit,

active

more

easilyfatigued,I

only

HEALTH

in mental

slowness
faculties,

in making simple calculations,and


perception,difficulty

strong desire

to

sleep;

"

he quotes

and

physicistand balloonist,who
(23,517feet high
; there

and

to the

smallest

help of

and
intelligence

succeeded

writes

"

My

falls into

pail of

which

serve

water
to

192
is

sleepy,but

nor

him.

of indiffere

one

to the

Only

he manage

to

handwriting

feel sick

nor

point

to

with

glow
the
the

regain some

of volition."

reduced

pressure

French

danger arisingfrom

enduring,with

in

which
lead-pencil,

bottles

the

does

was

longer alive

physicistis no

little bracing wine

atmospheric

My

condition

negligence hardly occupies

Mosso

tremble

the

the

this elevated

At

"

balloon)our

passionof discovery;

interests of

he

in

writes

Robertson,

lay

on

in which

the

aid of oxygen,
At

mm.

this pressure

little altered.
with

overcome

the
are

collect air for

an

I do

not

apathy.

table, rolls off and


the

tubes

of

the

subsequent analysis.

AIR
that

Seeing
I

I have

pick

to

stoop

I break

off

height

lost,and

of

function

that

in his

of

unless

write

much

trouble,

condition

my

is

less

consciousness

is

with

decrease

; and

oxygen

pressure.

be mentioned
the

Himalayas,

equipment

reached

be

can

it may

the

and

becomes

seen,

greater heights

his

in

the

mental

absorption

have

in

attained

both

for

the

we

expedition to

included

trained
specially

of

case

upon

this, as

much

feet

expected ;

depend

otherwise

recent

Abruzzi

be

and

By inhaling oxygen
be

in the

might

increasinglydifficult
could

is too

30,000

or

even

synthesis of oxygen,

than

pencil,which

29,000

this

physical

continuing to

first time."

ensues

subjects. All
and

the

the

death

of

means

61

experiment although

than
distressing
At

no

up

the

PRESSURE

Duke

portable oxygen

inhaler.
Mechanical

Effectsof

effects

of

of

pressure

diminished

Mountain-sickness.

by

and

he

suddenly affected by

was

I
to

nearly dropped
alone

was

keep

on

with

from

vomiting, that

after

having

vomited

matter),and bile,yellow

first and

moreover,

threw
am

sure

have
till

blood,

up

that

died.
we

had

As

such

pains

if it had

it

reached

was
a

had

lasted
it lasted
much

him

such

should

afterwards

longer
only

lower

should

three

region.

or

And

me

pain,

die, and

(mucous
I

green,

stomach

my

evil

an

help

food, phlegm
I in

hundred
in Peru

to

with

thought

served.
pre-

ground.

the

to

taken

was

four

mortal

so

asked

and

Indian

an

atmospheric

mountain

horse

my

The

firstdescribed

Writing

strange and

animal, and

my

sobbing, and

so

nil.

completely

was

ascending

"While

ago,

says:

is

equilbrium

years

the

as

Mountain-sickness

"

cal
mechani-

The

"

almost

are

diminishes

Jesuit missionary,Acosta.

that

Pressure.

pressure

the internal gases

diminishes

pressure

diminished

even

; and

certainly
four
not

hours,

only

62

but

men
"

AND

AIR

animals

feel confident

places

is

human

also

were

that

the

subtle

so

HEALTH

And

affected."

and

thin

which
respiration,

of

substance
that

such

in

air

for

unsuitable

better

and

thicker

it

requires

the
is

it

declares

he

adapted."
Acosta
which

his

rightin

was

affected

theory,and

which

him, and

sickness,is certainlythe
How

subject of
heights

debate.

and

occurrence

result

disorder

the

exactly

It

is

depend

to

seems

the

on

people

of

varying degrees

with

air.

still,
however,

is

various

writer,who

the

without
the

at

bad

has

frequentlyclimbed
suffered

effects,once

height of

feet

7,000

from

after

to

its

vidual.
indi-

disorder,

the

feet

10,000

mountain-sickness
and

fast

extremely

an

and

of the

condition

various

at

severity;

to
Fatigue certainlyincreases liability

and

mountain-

as

thin"

caused

in

occurs

known

now

of "too

is

of symptoms

the group

fatiguingascent.
Bert

Jourdanet, who

and

mountain-sickness,came
to

this

low

kept

good

at

endured

This

T10of

theory

lack

of

but

two

that

the

Kronecker

holds

pulmonary

circulation,and

carbon

According
a

suction

to

action

Bert

if

kept

that
be

oxygen

bird

at

occur

pressures

may

alive

in

reduced

was

pressure

oxygen

held ;

of

that

due

understand

doubt

no

atmospheric

the

though

commonly

lack

low

is

was

to

atmosphere.

an

of

very

it

should

there
and

discomfort.

oxygenated air,even
less than

it is difficult to

though

symptoms,

pressure,

without

that

of

study

thorough

conclusion

altitudes,yet
the

relieves

oxygen

the

mountain-sickness

how

theory

comparatively

be

and

lack of oxygen,

on

to

made

dioxide

the

blood

the

should

symptoms
Mosso

in the

Kronecker's
on

others

in

are

be
due

believes

is most

mentioned.
to

impeded

them

due

to

rarefied

air

has

blood.

theory, the

blood-vessels

of

the

lung,causing

AIR

the

lungs
this

to

that

flow

theory
long

so

reduction

in

Mosso

of

the

dioxide.

deficiencyof

production

of

whether

plays

maintains.
of

cause

dioxide

If

; but

deficiencyof

the

and

symptoms,

part in

it is very

and

is

the

is not

be

breath

found

the

part

dioxide

holding

doubtful

essential

carbon

this

blood

centre
respiratory

play

may

this

to

the

in

the

important

an

quickly than

mountain-sickness

mountain-sickness, then

relieve

to

such

borne.

atmospheric

more

dioxide

great

be

reduced

dioxide

mountain-sickness

peding
im-

objection

good

can

pressure

under

carbon

fatal

is

pressure

regulatorof

carbon

and

fact,already pointed out,

Carbon

and

congested

them.

the

attributes

stimulant

it

be

that

loses

and

carbon

certainlya

through

oxygen

out

blood

oxygen,

loss of

and

general atmospheric

the

it loses

Mosso

to

seems
as

63

engorged

blood

pointed

pressure

and

become

to

the

PRESSURE

as

the

ought
be

to

the

case.

Tschudi's

theory that

congestion and
anaemia

Loewy's theory
both

were

mountain-sickness
that

is due

it is

due

subjects with

on

cerebral
cerebral

to

who

disproved by Mosso,

interestingexperiments

to

made

some

their

in

holes

skulls.
B.
Under
is

ordinary
subjected

never

than

760

as

they

the

deepest

has

little

course

and

few

below

are

of

ATMOSPHERIC
natural

conditions

valleys,such

mines

are

of

the

no

as

such

of

life the
much

pressure

of

habitations

sea-level,but

show

PRESSURE

atmospheric

to

for the

mm.,

sea-level.

Sea,

INCREASED

"

the

men

are

greater

rarelybelow

valley of

the

slightincreases

practical
importance.

increase

in

atmospheric

physiologicalsignificance.It
operations conducted

under

is

body

Dead

in pressure
Even

in

pressure

chieflyin

the

water, in diving-bells

the physiocaissons,that atmospheric pressures affecting

AIR

64

logicalfunctions
to one-half

found.

are

(about 100

that

supposed
impede

the

the

feet the

in

the

dredge

at

of

the

Protozoa.

The

atmospheric
but

way,

in

other

atmospheric

that

laws

to

increase

in

atmospheric

amount

of

the

the

blood, and

of oxygen
pressure

by
the

with

oxygen

fluid

of

the

solution.

At

also

red
;

an

and

at

pressure

96

of the blood

will contain

blood

what
?

Since

increased

Not

in this
in

increase

cent,

is the

At

only

times

saturated
r8

per

with

cent,

is such

an

by

saturated

pressure

the

oxygen

in

great the red bloodoxygen,

of oxygen

effect of this gaseous

oxidation

of

cent,

as

the

absorption

cent,

per

ordinary atmospheric
six

an

ordinaryatmospheric
81

'3 per

in

dissolved

are

chemical

in the

are

contains

cells will be

Now

Tunicates,

increase

an

which

gases

increase

blood-cells

per

7,000

already noticed,

means

pressure

red blood-cells.

blood
a

of

of

does

ways,

frog's

Coelenterates,

effect

have

we

atmospheric

the

the

affect life.

pressure

According

even

of

up

negligible.

indirect

more

the

depth

Worms,

mechanical

is therefore

pressure

is not

livingcells

are

Challengerbrought

mere

injure

even

web

Nor

greater pressures:

be

might

mechanically

the

pressure.

Crustaceans, Molluscs, Echinoderms,


and

about

would

or

in
capillaries

such

by

much

by

means

equilibrium that

gaseous

delicate

the

pressure

it

would

pressure

livingcells. This, however,

is undisturbed

damaged

inch, and

square

metres

30

to

atmospheres

physiologicalprocesses

circulation
foot

the

great

perfectis

So

case.

of 4

pressure

to
so

vitalityof

the

of

exposed

ditional
ad-

an

means

depth

air is

in the

depth

At

compressed

in it is

pressure

diver is

feet),
accordingly,a

pressure

the

metres'

10

lowered

diving-bellis

atmosphere.

atmospheres.
Ibs.

Each

of

pressure

60

When

originalbulk, and

its

accordinglydoubled.

of 4

HEALTH

into the water, the air contained

metres

10

AND

and

in solution.

addition

essential

the fluid

to

the

part of vital

66

AIR

increased

hence

Oxidation

more

question
than

send

may

is to

oxidation

ideas.

erroneous

able

the term

much

so

dioxide

by

he

the oxygen

be

may
Still Nature

of

sign
In

air at

chest

equally

is

this

of

pressure

vegetable organisms
; and

contains

fatal to

life.

Pure

the

instantaneous

convulsions.

for

only

in

chest

as

carbon

taking
again,

ment
measure-

is concerned.

her

to

furnace,and
is

usuallya

Air

workers

few

hours

of

caissons

of

of

of

the

lungs

the

pressure

of the

lungs

never

and

work

time, and

they

sphere
atmo-

higher

oxygen

are

of

atmosphere

atmospheres

50

and

pressure

pressure

under

of

pressure

inflammation

in

at

at

Pressure

pressure

all animal

atmospheres

4^ atmospheres'pressure
a

man's

his health

inflammation

hours, under

than

man

it out

as

at

oxygen

atmospheres produces

and

itself at

by

convulsions.

more

blowing

good expansion

oxygen

irritation and

Divers

the

by

killed.

are

oxygen

causes

man

advantage

bellows

many

vigour.
a

atmospheres

to

capacityis shown

in

far

with

rise

strong

vital

then

so

increase

instance, that

much

inches

quite useless

regulates

to

way

inspiresas

usually adapts her

of vital

for

man

and

few

them

given

; but

is not

lungs

naturally large

There

make

necessarilya

shows

capacity

the

increase

an

"

expires.

into

oxygen
and

vital

"

is

One

change.

thought,

deeply

more

Newcastle.

only

principle has

It is

breathe

to

not

this

is much

send

To

cannot

the

plain.

supply.

there

the tissues that

gas ; and
tissue

to

one

appetiteof

increase

of

Ignorance

coals

of

not

require.

take

is

reason

and

but
cells,

of the

consumption

the

demand

tissues

the

It is the

it.

The

atmospheric pressure

the

to

oxygen

consume

of

tissues is to

the

to

normal

at

oxygen

oxygen

HEALTH

respiratory
exchange
a

blood

the

In

is

AND

than
and

of

in

it

3
few

causes

subjected to
in the caissons

do

not

seem

to

AIR

ill-effectsfrom

suffer any

concerned,

is
a

Caisson-disease.

of the

high

hand, they used

came

as

to

be

oxidation
liable to

high

suffer

to

in

pains

e.g.,

"

from

up

liable

were

pressure

far

caisson-disease.

men

they

67

occupation; so

called

When

"

that

found

was

other

the

on

their

condition

dangerous

it

PRESSURE

pressures

from

the

effects
after-

joints and

muscles, sickness,giddiness,breathlessness,unconsciousness.
also death

Sometimes
at

America

bridge in

of the
found

are

divers'

fatalities among

many

first the

At

made

were

but

in

As

we

is increased.

just

So

blood

the

as

bottle

when

the

cork

under

great gaseous

above

water

bubble

of

that bubbles

may

aerated

The
gases

and

to

brought

up

pressure

quietlyin

solution

retains its gas

the

blood, and

slowly, so

then

the

is

gases

effervesces

and

effervesces
has

who

man

been

quicklybrought

less,the gas begins


and

escape,

the

of the gases

and

their presence

in

the
is

result

is

dangerous or

labyrinth of

the

ear,

in

heart.

disease, then, is due


in the

outside

water

is much

collect where

spinal cord, in

outside

water

of the gases

bubbles

below

pressure

driven

bubbles

when

the pressure
blood

attempts

it is caused.

if the pressure

water

Now

are

are

gas

the blood

or
distressing,
painful,e.g.,

the

how

the

as

the

But

pressure

his

vain

suddenly decreased,

is drawn.

where
in

retains

and

there

of gas

bottle of aerated

is

the blood

from

and

amounts

long

is reduced.

tillthe pressure

and

exactly

the relative pressure

symptoms

the result of mechanical

considerable

in

similar

lysis
para-

coral divers.

mystery,

have

the water

escape

and

showed

great, the blood

outside

known

Bert

remains

just as

is well

1878 Paul
seen,

53 suffered from

divers

was

explain it as

to

blood

the

disease

and

600 caisson workers

Among

sponge

blood, when

into the

to

palsy

Among

died

14

limbs.

lower

followed.

simply

if the
that

diver

the

to

an

or

bubbles

effervescence

of

worker

is

caisson
of

gas

may

be

68

AIR

absorbed

they

as

disease

no

The

more

to

occur

subjecting
the

was

frequently
and

then

it

high

the

caisson-

to

The

be

subjected

full

of

dog
of

dogs

decompressed

pj

instantly
On

gas.
to

slow

harm.

pressure

pressure

them

pressure

likely

be

without

low

to

more

decompression

burst.

slowly

called

borne

dog

to

from

change
is

if

be

of

symptoms

"

and

apparatus
found

the

as

can

pressure

the

then

occur.

rapid

HEALTH

escape,

longer

decompression,

AND

is

damage

enough
Paul

great

Bert

atmospheres
died,

the

other
of

without

10

"

was

when

and

its

heart

hand,
atmospheres,
harm.

Bert

CHAPTER

TEMPERATURE

OF

is but

MAN
cold.
also

Not

the

temperatures

bosom

But

charms

remain

an

again,if we

with

the

associated

and

The
the

the

and

faces

Stanley to

its

body
He

the

by

frosts
darkest

perhaps
Africa

The

of

heat

without

bad

very

perishesfor

ever.

nected
directlycon-

physical functions

production

of

life,and

steady regulationat
All

animals.
a

of

or

heat,

faces
69

zero

heat

to

certain

of

few

goes

perhaps

is

point
life

98*6"R,

degrees

the South

; he

of

one

nothing

of about

decreases

Shackleton

is

through

temperature

75" F. below
and

and

above

livingorganism

phenomena

with

it

combinations

; and

most

energy

and

seas

chick, and

too

of heat.

increases

goes

the

impossible.

life ; all the

terms

maintains

heat

dancing

the chick

of

hot-blooded

body

dies.

form

heat

than

of

case

in

and

years

it will be

possiblybecome

presence

of the

constant

if the
man

the

measured

healthy man's
and

with

remarkable
the

and

energies of

by

on

of

millions

depend

into

egg

boil the egg


the

production of

most

more

in

be

can

life is

bubble

and

by

of life

egg

of

into the

the

as

the winds

move

certain

Heat, in fact,seems

are

heat

manifestations

it would

one.

him, and

the

hen's

heat

for

thousands

coolingworld,

the

temperature

on

For

HEALTH

product of

the little molecules

moves

below

does

only

which

on

hot

too

was

AND

AIR,

thermal

frying-pan.
the world

THE

dependent

as

Pole

with
120"

F.

AIR

70
in the

AND

shade, and yet his temperature hardly alters


of about

98'6. Despite changes


the
short
human

without

organism
to

enter

foundries

heat

hundred

the

merely by
loss.

that the

be

can

King,"

heat

sometimes

to think

three

or

at

oven

Fire

"

the

body

maintain

can

heat

lower

degrees

Nevertheless, the outside

its vital processes,

is

of the

one

the

temperature

production and
is of the

temperature

have

we

modifies
in

seen

of the

important

most

of
relationship

it both

which

on

factor in the
heat

in

many

Chapter III.,

factors which

regulate

depends
how

is the
not

seen

than

the

absorbs

Now,

only

how

on

heat

sun

piece of

it will absorb

have

black

more

that

the

the

and
matter

The

the

main

radiate

of the
possesses

of the

land

of the world

white

it after

absorption

and

cloth

we

to

hotter because

is

sea

simply

of

source

regulatorof

less.

away

still

instance, if

For

piece of

wear

received,but also

cloth will become

and

We

main

heat is

external

cold, but

Our

is retained.
and

of the

temperature

sun

important

an

and

heat

of

process

oxidation.

perhaps

much

black

of

it is

purpose.

temperature

so

and

that

from

cloth

heat

temperature
heat

in

of

and

that

by

modification

atmosphere.

the
sunlight,

same

and

air for that


sun,

body

depends,

condition

is the

much
a

wear

heat

that heat

life

the

intimate

is very

temperature

protect ourselves

we

external

expose

is

to

do

more

in

maintenance

which

clothes

air to

heat

produces

oxidation

the

as

It is

F.

respiratoryexchange.

The

on

and,

in

its environment,

greatest importance to the organism, and


ways

workers

of heat

variation
physiological

bodily

Chabert, was

of 250"

than

the

by

the

F., and

to endure

For

same.

of

named

of 400"

ture
tempera-

borne

disturbance

much

famous

an

have

amazing

remains

body

it is still

"

in the outside

200"

still greater variations

temperature.

two

of the

temperature

periods

able

HEALTH

So

more

because

the

sun

radiation

also

we

equable
the
has
of

sea

gone.

heat,

TEMPERATURE

OF

the

atmosphere plays

and

the

sun

passes

sun

heat

radiated

heat

and

changes

in

one

It is

but

the

it

is 9,350

would

is well

obliquityof

at

noon

than

in

low

the

in the
in

power

high

of

the

depends largely on
vapour
heat

it contains.
rays, and

at

violent
would

one

more

does

only
allow

heat

more

more

to radiate

expansion, is

colder.

sea-level,the

the

at

of the

the

is due

they

through

the

air between

Not

periods of

the

daily
is

year

no

height the

same

than

only

not

acts

are

where

in

from

down

fact

that

they fall,but
in their
the

Hence

atmosphere.

the
also

longer

greater heat

than

summer

the

it slants from

the

absorbed

more

morning

when

to

with

varies

sun

sunlightbeats

less concentrated

passage

and

become

rays

above

powerful

more

This
are

the

as

own

balloon

When

its rays.

fact that

than

in

the

blanket

atmosphere

some

is

be stillgreater.

it is much

oblique rays

at

cooler

more

colder.

feet

earth

cold.

sun's

its

the

keeps

atmosphere

also allow

known, the heat

horizon.

The

and

both

much

air and

become

itself,
by virtue of

which

dailyrange

the

of

of the

the

and

and

shallower

through

34" F., and

less than

overhead

and

of temperature

variation

the

us

again absorbed

days

be

heat

of

air

noon

of heat

nights

drier

pass

Quito,

the

the
the

Outside

into

71

amount

is

amount

diminishes, the

sun

and

sunlightto

to

heat

would

extremes

higher

the

rarer

the

the

parasol at

temperature.

scorching and

As

certain

it makes

it there

for

goes

and

At

certain

it in

keeps

experience terrible

away,

as

the

as

atmosphere. Accordingly

night ; except

the

Again,

into space,

nights warmer.

one

of air,and

sea

atmosphere

is absorbed.

out

As

the

through

away

the

by

is this great

sun

HEALTH

prominent part. Between

most

AND

AIR,

in

winter

latitudes.
air to
its

absorb

heat

humidity

Water
almost

on

"

vapour

and

the

amount

is opaque

like the

to

glass of

store

heat

of water

to the infra-red
a

hot-house

in

AND

AIR

72

keeping back
the

the

way

daily

as

into

and

The

of the

condensed

to

of cast

melt

that

one

Huggard
pound
every

Dr.

sufficient to melt

75 Ibs. of ice

air is therefore

to

possible heat,

and

from

character

dioxide

is

increase

or

have

climate

water

cause

rainfall

that

of water

enough
to its

as

is in

"

an

that

is

raise the

to

melting-point,
similar

latent heat

gives out

Humid

iron.

veritable

furnace

of

cloud

of

affects

the

essence

5 Ibs.

or

makes

45 Ibs. of cast

or

vapour

remarks

Haughton

cloud

besides

of air.

especially
opaque
decrease

water

has

It

vapour
shown

been

heat, and

to

in the

of the amount

carbon

that

that

small

very

would

atmosphere

strikingconsequences.

Arrhenius

has calculated

of all its carbonic


"03

by

fire.

element

thermic

An

this

38 Ibs. of lead

imagined

every

unseen

another

But

heat

than

gallon of
be

again

carried

to

in

up

58 Ibs. of lead

Rev.

and

be

due

Dr.

more

The

iron."

stored

heat

liberates

than

is carried

heat

condenses.

be

may

water

that the mild

us

Stream.

that

vapour

and

heat

calculation

smoke

it is also
When

thus

may

some

in this

act

vapour,

vapour

to

seems

in

temperature

heat.

water

heat

Gulf

of latent

more

the

Shetlands

shows

from

temperature of
or

in

tains
con-

scorching

and

of latent

air

so

vapour

latent

the

incrediblygreat.

calculation

easy

it

the

to

quantity

is almost

with

of latent

than

more

of

when

winds, and

warm

Ireland

even

water

amount

heat

amount

damp,

does

carrier

atmosphere

actual

enormous

of

and

tremendous

the

becomes

inland

variations

yearly
only

is not

sun

great regulatorof temperature, but

evaporates
up

and

the

where

sea,

than

warmer

Not

reservoir

great

the

near

moisture, the

are

small.

very

Thus
of

nights

islands
are

deal

good

and

heat.

HEALTH

per

cent,

by

volume

that
acid

"

the

"

if the
of

atmosphere

which

temperature

were

it contains
of

the

prived
de-

only
earth's

AIR

74
while

if the
be

can

surface

cooled

hot

the
and

conserved

HEALTH

of the

only by

Further, when

expansion

AND

earth
slower

of

currents

heat

is

again becomes

countries.

Thus

forests

extensive

actual

the

importance of

wind

descend.

affects the

temperature

degrees

and

his temperature,

while

the

need

of

variations

in

variations

the

in

of

discussion

that

as

cold

augments

within

and

associated

of

the

and

cold

stimulates

and

cold

slows

and

cold

decreases

it ;

heat

more

maintained

by
The

chemistry.

the

under

the

considered

been

respiratory

generalstatement

limits

which

the

in metabolism

is

on

and

reduces

heat

festations
mani-

individual

in the
Thus

it ; heat

heat

increases

logical
physio-

nervous

quickens

the

secretion

of

the

the

diminishes

depresses the

it ; heat

sarily
neces-

heart,
sweat

it.

effect of heat

depends

dryness,and

Extremes

same

this

chemistry

processes

body.

increases

the air.

here

variations

cold

or

the

varies ; and

affectingthe

certain

appetiteand

humidity

vital

augmentation

with

systems

The

warm-blooded

depend.

reduction

system

be

already

factors

the oxidative

of life
The

have

only repeat

rule and

is

only
his

tion
distribu-

and

said,remains

his vital

cold
the

need

we

Man

"

can

activityof
and

change,and

govina
Herze-

in

than

has

here be discussed.

environment

activity of

influences of heat
our

cooler

not

have

we

temperature
the

in

as

of his

temperature

uniformity

which

Bosnia

modification

Physiological
of Heat.
Effects

animal

much

in

in the

of heat is well known


The

and

latent

if the currents

summer

is several

by

is disafforested.

which
The

rendered

reallyonly

cool

and

ascend

air

it

conduction.

of

process

also
Vegetation, especiallyforests,
of

comparativelycool

be

on

very

the

of heat and

trying when

the

much, however,
movement

cold, as

or

is well

air is humid

than

on

the

stillness of

known,
when

are

the

TEMPERATURE

air

is

air
of

in

cold

air

in

if

animal

an

layer

in

actual

is

to

30"

24"
of

calm

they

freeze

was

Polar
could

The
the

wind

"

question
next

wind

bear

of

chapter.

fur

intense

reduces

Recent
and

Advances
heat

air

40",
I2f2

in
will

the

body.
feathers

or

of

Parry's

the

"

the

the

of

cold,

tinuance
con-

and

air,
part

of

temperature

the

is

of

temperature

outside

when

better

humidity

the

sailors

The
that

"

the

greater

found

(Pembrey,

and

quickly

layers.

than

mercury,

the

with

Seas

from

the

cold

skin

directly

the

above

when

prevents

enclosed,

are

cold

different

the

air

contact

man

increases

C.

these

to

in

of

strata

gradually

which

of

than

the

the

extremes

severely

between

heat

when

while

still

wind

air

warm

clothing

is
how

The

75

borne

still,

air

knows

abstracts

thus
the

Between

of

is

the

one

HEALTH

better

air

when

blowing.

layer

and

clothes,

of

is

AND

are

the

Every

wind

heat

when

borne

motion.

of

"

than

better

AIR,

of

extremes

motion

are

is

felt

and

dry,

is

OF

be

until

the

body

the

ture
tempera-

tion
expedi-

perfectly

was

which

would

there

when

Physiology
fully

discussed

").

CHAPTER

WATER,
a

certain

called.
other

of

It is usual

as

gas

and

oxygen

temperatures

dew,

or

having

atmosphere
that

water

and

becomes

weight only

the

is

general

water

laws

of gases.

Like

but
quite invisible,

unlike

visible

about

with

accordingly,mixed

to

the

much

reallyjust as

behaviour

clouds

as

ordinary

at

mist, or

or

lighter than

It is much

rain.

apart from

vapour

conforms

it is

as

vapour

readily condensed

it is

or

"

water

it is

; but

gas

nitrogen
then

"
"

the

govern

nitrogen,water

snow,
a

of water

contains

always

atmosphere

nitrogen and

or

"c.,
diffusion,
and

the

liquid

and

solid

the

in

as

to consider

of the

oxygen

oxygen

and

of the gas

amount

gases

well

as

gaseous

the

in

substances, exists

other

like

THERMOLYSIS

AND

HUMIDITY,

states

VI

weight

the

is

vapour

of

air,

the

Air,

air.

lighter than

dry

air.
The

depends

on

temperature
At
of

of

amount

the

water

vapour

its

air the

at

proportionto

the amount
its weight.

the

air

of

Hence

its

y^a

vapour
we

see

of its
;

that

air
heat

weight
86"

at

increase
the

the

it hold.

can

weight

F.

hold

can

higher

vapour

27"

of water

air

air; the

hold

can

every

76

the

water

more

59" F.,

weight. Roughly,

doubles

of

temperature

of the

which

vapour

32" F., for instance,the

-"Q of
in

water

of
can

F.

perature
tem-

hold

protects

HUMIDITY,
for
against itself,
as

have

we

On

sun.

We
the

the

have

talked

the

and

are

held.

The

amount

volume,
the

or

we

so

say

millimetres

of

or

such

that

or

mercury,

capable of holding.

how

much

water

expressions of

"

contain, and

much

The

saturated

different temperatures,

thing

same

"

of water

the tension

of

water

been

in tables.

Accordingly,if we

can

any

sample

the

amount

can

thus at
To

of air contains, we
known
once

find the

to

be

calculate
amount

of

"

what

"

at

in

is

only a

it

might

"relative

of

can

known

hold

when
to the

amounts

point

saturation

how

compare

contained

water

air

find out

the relative

vapour

are

vapour

calculated

can

or

it contains

third

; the

vapour

temperatures, has

foot,

expressionsindicate

more

or

air

inches

of water

vapour

various

at

cubic

many

expression

an

in

that

say

that

say

unit

per
vapour

per

so

amount

humidity."
at

of

humidity

as

amount

expressed

the temperature

at

may

first two

of how

known

is

be

vapour

of the

gases

air does contain, and

absolute

comparative estimate

the

The

the

vapour

we

may

of

percentage

hold

tension

we

suspension

of water

Thus

in

air has

weight

its

of water

it is at

of

matter

The

air may

it could

grammes

as

other

amount

saturated.

last

because

vapour
; but

the

by

or

the

the

quantity

is held

in the

tension,

in

vapour.

vapour

vapour

it is

as

water

to the amount

many

may

such

convenient

ratio of

the

as

question if

contains
or

of water

atmosphere
in

and

it : the water

its vapour

by

holding water

hold

of the

rays

condensation.

on

air

common

not

heat

immense

an

off

given

the

which,

vapour,

mentioned

we

simply by heat" just as

tension

either

as

77

water

of

many

of the

with

air with

contains

air does
do

nothing to
air

is

expression is

the

hand,

vapour

which

THERMOLYSIS

absorbs

other

heat

fact

of

it loads

seen,

chapter, water
latent

AND

recorded

and
much
it at

saturated

vapour

once

with

air, and

humidity.

vapour

present in any

air,

have

we

its

to cool

merely

what

is the

Let

of

humidity
and

at

C. it

10"

reference
saturated
metre

water

as

recorded

contained

in

9-4

look

the

calculate

had

We

the

saturation

that

is about

again

humidity

"

the
per

that

the absolute

cent,

of

The

and

30) per

relative
it

down,

find,by

we

that

at

C.

10"

cubic

per

mm.

of mercury.

only

to

compare

saturation

supposed

that

see

as

the

saturation

at

only 73

was

that
cubic

per

and

I2'8 grammes,

air

metre;

point

at

once

at

we

saturated,/.".,

per cent,

of 73 per cent.
we

reach

can

tension

tables

find

we

calculate

the

mm.

of

tension

of

9*165

that

the

the

the

result.

same

was

from

that

humidity, it

30" C.

at

or

ratio of these

relative

humidity

cent.

absolute

tables) that
grammes

the

relative

the

to

cool

vapour

water-vapour

vapour

again

can

the

the

Now

have

water

temperature.

figuresfor

15" C. is 12*699,and

73 per

Given

that

9*165

have

tension
the

in

at

figureswe

of

humidity

and

mercury,

of

the

contained

vapour

found

tension

we

that the air

relative

From

case

tables

15" C. it could have


can

is

temperature,

We

water

then, we
figures,

grammes

the

at

at

much

find out

to

it

meteorologicaltables.

the

in

at

15" C.

at

how

that

at

deposit dew.

to

said, with

have

found

We

we

these

we

air

9*4 grammes

vapour

found

Having

tables

till

"

temperature

meteorological tables,

air contains

or

them,

begins

the

to

the

wish

of air

specimen

this

vapour

We

example.

an

in

of water

tension

give

us

find

deposits moisture

At

in saturated

is contained

vapour

air till it

the

can

we

HEALTH

reached.

is

"dew-point"

saturated, and

30

AND

AIR

78

humidity.
is 80

air
cubic

at

per

that

calculate

to

if

Thus

cent., and

we

temperature

metre, then

humidity

cubic

is easy

we

can

of the air is 24

the

back

"relative

know
can

(from
contain

easilycalculate
grammes

(80 per

metre.

practicalmeteorologist,however, usually uses

other

HUMIDITY,
methods

than

humidity

the

and

AND

these

have

we

of the air

by

THERMOLYSIS

he

of

means

described

is

the

humidity

of the

depends

the

fact

the

upon

have

we

heat

When

bottle

give

from

is

varies

the

with

For

in Glaisher's

Tables

2*06.

By

(5")between

number

IO'3"

this

reference

to

the

cloth

wet

add

we

humidity

The

difference

the

with

muslin

bulb

make

readings,then

it

bulb

(which

the dew-point,vapour
air),
Glaisher's

by

Tables.

bulb

thermometer

that

the

bulb

thermometer, 45".

dry

number

readings;

look

and

multiply

and

50" will be

from

We

opposite 50"
(2*06) we

number

the bulb

the

whose

thermometer

be

actually

it,and

cool

water

may

be

round

volatile

heat

much

the
the

find
the

resultant

dew-point.

be 397".

dew-point, we

can

find

as

ordinaryhygrometrical tables,the

relative

spiritsto

material

skin

the

to

through

part may

in the

of the

subtracted

found

the

moist

dew-point accordinglywill

Having

the

another

for the

that when

it immense

evaporates

evaporation will

find

difference

The

that

wrap

the wet

and

"

put

pervious

difference

we

registers50"

"

we

humidity

example,

be

relative

thermometer

takes with

we

spray

be calculated

tension,"c., can

it to

skin

the

the

From

dry.

and

water

we

reading than

lower

their

liquidin evaporating takes

other

or

the

thermometer
a

from

bulb

wet

evaporates quickly,so

Similarly,if

frozen.
a

When

When

which

abstracted

of

of skin

is cooled.

substance

meter,
thermo-

Glaisher's

as

deduce

brow, especiallyif

the

evaporation.

porous

inside

it.

objectsnear

increase

known

already noted,

up
The

it cools

bulb

wet

tension, and

and

dry

quantities of latent heat.


brow

and

to

vapour

it stores

liquidevaporates
from

to

air.

principle of

The

dew-point,

able

determine

in other

specialtables

Hygrometrical Tables, he
readings

dry

uses

79

before, by

absolute

and

of the air.
in

the

tension

of

water

vapour

at

the

8o

recorded

temperature
water

the

by

the

at

vapour

HEALTH

AND

AIR

dry

dew-point

bulb

and

the

ascertained

as

of

tension

will

give

the

force of evaporation.
TABLES

HYGROMETRICAL
TABLE

I.
"

Let
and

at

relative

"

night

it

humidity

layersof

deposit

under

the

categoriesRelative

dew.

air

the

While

to hold

more

less

75

per

ground

the
but

moisture

dew
as

humidity
As

cent.

moisture, and

greater and

becomes

near

relative

average

is about
hold

can

humidity keeps high;


able

The

Humidity.

air in this country

cools

the

humidity

FACTORS.

Absolute.

Relative
the

look at

now

us

OF

(GLAISHER).

become
is

the

the relative

the

air

therefore

its

greater, and

finally

supersaturated and

evaporating
air

of

warms

the

and

relative
becomes

humidity falls again.

AIR

82

air in forests is

of air in

air and

great

much

as

"

It

20

or

difference

The

open.

10

closed

noticed

that

the

relative

relative

yet contain

Likewise

by

grains of

-3

85" F. containing the

have

relative

three times

humidity
much

as

town

the

the
locality

or

is

reading
be

It may

abstracted

Climatic

on

The

usually taken

42 per cent, and


San

Diego, on

per

cent.

The

in
the

Los

; at

The

March

for

p.m.
was

is

in Dr.

four

as

miles

inland,it

of Davos

said,when

relative

humidity

the

months

hours
from

as

...

...

high

from
December

...

is 72-9

is very

427
...

At

as

it contains

517

....

only

is 66*6 per

is

have

in

is

humidity

House

...

any

per cent.

43

relative

few

we

the

for the year

Helotfan

Assouan

higher.

Huggard's

"

Luxor

summer

following

Mena

is

usuallystated,and

figures.The

low

mean

humidity

the

is

Denver

humidity

as
highest,

relative

average

in

of
particulars

given

it falls as

coast, the

Egypt

There

cent.

"

humidity of
June

will

a.m.

few

foot,and

Davos

at

F.

20"

relative

In

water.

till 6

at

of moisture

climatic

table

Angeles, a

mean

79 per cent, and


least

from

Treatment

relative

mean

cent.

at

may

saturated

cubic

humidity

humidity

to quote
interesting

readingsare
work

relative

no

considerable

Air

8 per

the relative

very

Air

quite

per

in the air

summer

moisture.

about

meteorologicaltables giving

In

be

amount

only

moisture

in winter, yet in

as

of

contain

water

same

cool

bears

humidity

may

quantity of

air at
a

air

be

may

humidity.

may

small

saturated

will be

absolute

humidity and yet

moisture.

room

cent.

have

and

stove-heated

the

air in the

than

humidity of outside

per

relationshipto

quantity of

humid

more

80

as

constant

low

cent,

per

in the relative

even

be

must

HEALTH

AND

36*3
30-5

10

low.
a.m.

to

AND

HUMIDITY,
On

the

high

humidity

inland

is very

be

must

tablelands

low.

58-5 per cent, and

THERMOLYSIS

on

At

of

South

Bloemfontein

Africa

the relative

its annual

parts of the Northern

some

considerably lower.

In

the

heart

of

mean

is

Karroo

it

the

Libyan

1881-1890.

desert the relative


the

South

humidity

humidity

African
is

coast,

be

may

the

on

comparativelyhigh :

cent, and

at

These

facts

Port
are

Elizabeth
no

doubt

75

as

low

other

at

Cape

per

cent.

but
interesting,

as

9 per cent.

On

hand, the relative


Town

it is 79 per

the value

of such

84
statistics for
the

fact

times

of

the

day.

The

when

humidity

with

compared
sunny

days.

attach

to

relative
to

22

comparative

that

at 9 a.m.,

if the

even

by

cent,

record

correctlyrecorded, the
may

be

with

water

know

to
interesting

the

air is

the

high relative humidity

the

nearer

give

we

When

What
how

how

drying it

relative

not

it

wet

moisture

at

or

the

will show

who

man

that it has

says

What

wish

we

is not

holds, but

writes

:"

relative

to

how

when

it
we

75

or

per

at

all.

humidity they

the air is

is far
know

to

much

the

But

the

can

same
as

the

"

is not

hold, and

can

on

much

how

this

point.

really essential point is,

relative

that

compared

important

more

it still

little information

of moisture

with

dry

what

"

how

"

amount

how

wish

we

temperatures,

"

body, and

of air is 50 per cent,

record

public.

What

enormously

different

It

has

information
physiological

no

might be, but

amount

present, but

and

saturated

that Davos

says

loss of the

humidity

humidity gives us

Huggard

the

to

value.

limited

of 79 per cent.

water

to know

is.

the air

the

varies

the

wish

we

with

Dr.

little

mislead

merely

dawn

comparably

be

only

who

the

meteorologicaltables

the

at

that air is 79 per cent,

truth than

loss and

that the relative

cent,

cent,

per

"

affects the heat


say

mentioned,

of humidity
physiological
relationships

the

are

is of

in the street

man

dry
know

have

can

but the fact has little therapeutical


cance
signifi-

vapour,

; and

we

value

quickly altered

humidity

relative

be

cannot

wind.

warm

what

100

be

may

see

as

from

and

noon,

per

when,

decrease

may

at

cent,

of 50

But

difficult to
all

taken

throughout hot,

Egyptian readingstaken

singlereadings at

per

highest and

its

by

different

at

quoted were

English readingswe

is indeed

It

recorded

often

is about

diminished

is much

purposes

readings are

the

humidity

extent

HEALTH

AND

AIR

be

or

absolute

still taken

degree of

up.

relative

followingtable

that

is

This

humidity

from

Renk

HUMIDITY,
AMOUNT

OF

AND

VAPOUR

THAT

TEMPERATURES

We

by

see

relative

humidity

might

"

and

'426 gramme

the

expressionas

STILL

THE

SAME

be

BE

TAKEN

RELATIVE

air

60

cent,

per

capable of taking

of vapour,

grammes

of the

DIFFERENT

HUMIDITY.

"

applied to

measure

AT

expression

same

12*056

UP

and

drying capacityof

thus

the air

obviouslymisleading.
Dr.

Huggard

obverse

We

of the

gives

of

this

o,

second

grammes

exactly the

instructive

very

table

that

36, 53, 65, 73, and

of
containingquantities
24*1

second

table,the

above.

from

see

humidities

up

CAN

this table that the

up

is

AND

THERMOLYSIS

per
same

of relative

cubic

water

vapour

metre

amount

humidity

are

of

is

air

80

with

per

vapour.

capable

of

Again

misleading.

and

cent,

varying between
all

relative

and

taking
the

pression
ex-

AIR

86

Certainlythe
of

taking

of

is much

up

indicated

the

bulb

dry

the

much

it

the

be

the

greater value

quite readily
vapour

aqueous

at

vapour

this

on

than

capable

percentage

aqueous

record

air is

than

of the

of

; and

the

can

tension

tension

temperature

have

would

holds, and

it

from

which

important

more

by subtractingthe

dew-point

at

HEALTH

of vapour

amount

saturation

full

AND

principle

relative

humidity

absolute

humidity

records.
Absolute
is useful

chieflyas

air,and

of the

weight

absolute

the

make

will

it

moreover,

temperatures

will

thus

due

the

to

thus

as

absolute
short
As

of
we

Air

the

in

from

in the

with

while

the
with

humidity
complete

skin

this
in

has

air

but

and

skin

than

more

and

away,

in

hot

weather

of escape

weather

is
the

tion,
radia-

to

is therefore

the
to

at

more

away

radiating. This

is unfavourable

also interferes

the

body

is favourable

means

cold

radiation

the

high temperatures

the

from

and

moderately

it conducts

skin

this interference
of

At

that

fact

in the

body,

at

it conducts

it prevents

blood

seen,

have

heat

heat

extra

with

heat

the

and

heat

extra

more

high temperatures,

from

from

greater

contains, the

muggy,

radiation

aforementioned

humidity

have

we

The

heat.

At

trying.

more

heat

interference

Absolute

and

close

the

matter,

blood

of the

air

absorb

radiation

interference

serious

and

hinder

the

the

dispositionof
and

the

equable.

with

temperatures

equals

conductivity

absorbing heat.

climate

cold

for

compensates

than

thermal

the

it will conduct

render

interference

low

of

of moisture

air appear

low

its

of

measure

humidity, accordingly,will keep

render

air and

of

measure

it conduct

will
effectively

high

of its power

absolute

the

The

humidity?

disposition

radiation

and

little effect.
with

evaporation; but,

is measured

by

the

amount

not

by

the

it falls

saturation.

explained, meteorologistsdeduce

absolute

AND

HUMIDITY,

bulb

thermometers

bulb

readings

; but

is

the

cooling effect

the

is

this

point is of great

on

the

heat

might

would

vary

"

loss of

be

body

moist

the

between

is

air; and

of the

the

which

effect of

The

body

information

humidity

warm

just what

cooling effect

the

evaporativeforce,and

with

especially

we

shortage from

be

cooling capacity

and

the

each

might

that

and

might

this is not

But

expression.

bulb

evaporation
be

might

saturation

It

pari passu

of

and

dry

does

not

correspond with

be

indeed

thought
indicated

that
vary

the

by

difference

The

air

so-called

drying capacity would

so.

same

between

the

of the

bulb

drying capacityof

the

the

the

"

readings indicatingcooling

wet

measured

drying capacity of

and

deficit."

saturation

the

between

difference

by

means

value.

thought that

measured, by

are

chief

evaporative force

the

the

Yet

dry

know.

to

It

as

difference

actual

and

wet

thermolysis at high temperatures,

its

on

desire

readings of

evaporative force

of the

evaporation

87

great importance, for it indicates

of

readings is

bulb

increases

the

unrecorded.

the

since

the

from

humidity

relative

and

THERMOLYSIS

the

air,and

vice versd.

Suppose

dry

25".

Suppose

bulb

45".

In

bulb

another
each

30" and

read

to

bulb

dry

the same,

z".,5" ; but in the first case

is about

14

and

in the

per

grammes

second

cubic
about

cases

of

same

cooling capacity though

saturation.

The

short

37 grammes
each

in each

case

wet

humidity
saturation,

cubic

metre

have

will

case

readings is

of
per

read

to

and

the absolute

metre

air in

short

50"

in the

difference

the

case

read

to

bulb

wet

the

different

very

drying capacity.
In

the

order, then,
climatic

(a) Its

adequate

have

qualitiesof

absolute

radiatingand

to

air

we

humidity

absorbing

"

and

information

require records
indicating its

conducting

heat.

concerning
of

"

capacity

for

AIR

(b) The
in

or

of

amount

HEALTH

(stated either

vapour

tension)which

vapour

its evaporate

(c) The

AND

force and

it

in

still absorb

can

difference between

the

and

wet

the

"

moderatelylow temperatures,

conduction
absolute

undue

cause

may

humidity

radiation

on

absolute
be

where

and

in

sufficient

moist

bodies.

damp

weather
of

record
At

importance.

higher

theromolysisdepends chiefly
records

evaporative cooling,the

humidity and

bulb

dry

thermolysis, the

will be of greatest

temperatures, where

indicating

"

value.

drying

its cooling capacity for


readings indicating
At

grammes

of wet

and

dry

bulb

the

air

both

difference

of
will

instructive.
The

of

amount

chieflyof interest if we
its thermolytic
capacity
"

later in its connection

Altitude
becomes

and

water

below

of the

humidity shows
Any
"

animals
that

are

diminished

lower

much

mummified

Engadine

level.

in the
at

an

sudden

air is

elevation

national
of

tude,
alti-

than

atmospheric

at

pressure.

of Climatology)

altitudes.

decaying.
a

of

fluctuations.

in his "Handbook

without

relative

its

change

rapidly at great

more

; about

m.

greater drying value

deficit has

total

fully nine-tenths

with

and

the

hand,

other

air

less moisture:

contain

and

the

height

2,000

constant

of the

in

is below
m.,

discussed

health.

Half

regular change

no

dried

meat

to

is

drying,not

will be

decreases.

the

Everything,"writes Hann,
"dries

dry

4,000
On

m.

levels because

able

its

and

rise

we

atmosphere

subject to

saturation

low

As

therefore

below

6,500
is

humidity

and

rarer

humidity

are
three-quarters

and

with

absorb

can

consider

to

question which

"

vapour

are

have

Humidity.

colder and

its absolute

which

vapour

Thus

dish

1,400-1,600m.

Dead
find

we

even

in

above

the
sea-

Further, perspirationevaporates rapidly; the skin is

parched, and

and

Clouds.

"

Clouds

are

thirst is increased."

merely

condensed

water

vapour

and

and Heat.

Humidity
the

fact that

In the

"

the

relationshipbetween

the

body.
have

We

changes

to

perhaps
the

of

such

the

the

tion
adaptaalter

may

the temperature

and

constant,

of

maintain

can

air

in which

manner

depend chieflyon

constancy

of

great power

while

even

fully

more

temperature

temperature, and

maintained

is

body

of

the

trying

more

are

discuss

and

has

body

the

Now

F.

200"

cold
now

humidity

temperature,

constant

will

external

of

and

We

the

that

seen

mentioned

previouschapterwe

heat

of

extremes

air is humid.

the

when

HEALTH

AND

AIR

90

difficulties

the

of

humidity

the

air.

germ-plasm

the

From

produces heat,

and

the

result

must

the
the

unless

temperature

onwards

be

elevation

an

carried

be

heat

livingbody constantly
fast

as

away

of
as

active
life produces in
leading an
produced. A man
hours about 3,000 kilogramme calories,
i.e.,
enough
twenty-four

kilogrammes (about 6,600 Ibs.)of

raise 3,000

heat

to

one

degree Centigrade.

boiling-pointin

about

The

air,and

is carried

of

Let

look

away

us

their

and

Radiation.
the
much

heat

radiation

the

three

relation

to

we

is

exercise, the
blood

our

the

the

skin

to

this

water

heat

triplex
vapour.

is

carried

skin.

To

be

permit
when

weather, or

mechanism

prevent

to

of

cooled, and

of

per cent,

73

clothing. Moreover,

desirable,e.g.yin hot
to

which

clothes, and

compensatory

the

humidity.

from

wear

we

reduce

by

ordinary circumstances

lost is radiated

carried

entirelyby

of
efficiency

by

ways

and

duction,
by radiation,con-

"

greatly affected

is

Under

"

radiation

radiation

more

at

then, is heat

ways

the

reach

Thermolysis

almost

away

and

"

cooling

half.

in three

away

evaporation

and
process

is carried

heat

away?

and

would

he

rate

equal. How,

be

thermogenesismust

day

this

At

water

too

more

increased

during violent

the
when

body

sends

decreased

AND

HUMIDITY,

less blood

is

factor

which

over

system

has

absolute

humidity

is most

necessary.

Conduction.

by

the

is

absolute

is cold
to

way,

but
in

always

have

already

water

when

moisture

Evaporation, like
smaller

evaporation
this

extent

little heat
with

high

may

be

moist

conduction

in

factor

the

when

air

blood-vessels,

the

the

the

loss

and

the

of

heat.
away

takes

place

mucous

faces.
sur-

radiation,is affected

deficit of the

less, and

evaporation

and

is carried

skin
and

conduction

of

lungs

thing

same

from

the

heat

much

becomes

diminution

certain

air be

from

the saturation

As

to

cutaneous

both

how

noted

evaporates

by humidity.

difficult still.

of heat.

vaporises, and

when

it is difficult

and
refrigeration,

important

an

high

radiation

still very

movement,

of

of

air

"

when

more

and

dry

nervous

justwhen

away

if the

Evaporation

"

is

it

lead, despite contracted

Evaporation.

We

air is

great abstraction

too

skin

the

instrument

may

air

the air

of

our

nor

weather

is conducted

and

humidity

potent

very

tailor

make

mechanism

same

humidity

humid

in hot

air may

in this

removed

our

Thus

When

air.

neither

the

prevent radiation

may

"

Heat

"

But

control, and

much

keep cool, damp

to

skin.

the

to

91

weather, the

is desirable,e.g., in cold

radiation
sends

THERMOLYSIS

at

air becomes

high temperatures
have

may

serious

effects.
Increased

radiation

expedients

used

heat.

blood

The

that

its heat

become
that
are

see,

more

by

of
are

course

the

is sent

may
active

evaporation

and

may

increased

in

be

order

to

the

away
skin

more

and

becomes

effective.

physiologicalcommonplaces,

affected

increase

larger quantities to

radiate
and

in

body

evaporation are

by humidity.

the

the

the
loss

two

of

surface

sweat

glands

moist, in order
Both
and

occurrences

both,

as

we

VII

CHAPTER

AND

HUMIDITY

HEALTH

relationshipof humidity

THE

due

is

chiefly

humidity

and

thermolysis

has

relationship between

the

to

health

to

thermolysis.
The

discussed.

been

already

all

high

the

as

of

is of

the

of

largely

body

can

only

does

the

greatest

are

take
rise

not

influence

the

know

we

the

body

hence

above
the

the

with
certain

air

which

accumulation

of

evaporation
the

the

physiologicalsignificance of

air varies

can

play

temperature.

of the air.

temperature

considerable

point,any

of

the

importance

heat

in

becomes

rises the
more

greater

part

Thus

Rubner

the

for

compensate

to

in

more

the
found

to

cause

an

conduction

and

radiation.

loss of

regulation
a

the

of moisture

heat

and

necessary

lin

in

temperatures

diminished

compensatory

and

At

tends

unless

body,

the

moisture

amount

radiation

diminishes

temperature

evaporation
to

low, and

Now,

heat, and

of

temperature

thermolysis

on

air.

actions

all

are

organism.

The

As

chemical

conduction,

of heat

in the

vapour

how

seen

radiation

production

fall too

or

humidity

in

and
the

with

place so long

the

water

muscular

the

associated

too

the

by

have

We

convection, evaporation,and
determined

and

humidity

relationshipbetween

of

the

fasting dog

by

ought
body
that

AND

HUMIDITY

greater

Of
as

moisture

course

be

may

evaporation,and
loss of
loss

heat

in

the

until the

by radiation,and
vital

production. When,
in

radiation,and

and

heat

Dr.

Harvey

Oxford
of

shown

temperature

and

the

that

F.

heat

"

"with

88"

2\

hours.
at

the

the

With

in

and

that

heat

and

apoplexy

humidity,

own

case

at

and

that

the
same

the

wet

hours.

The

certain

temperature
heat

Haldane

and

the

the

at

at

with

94"

the

subject,who

air

body
was

loss

found

wet

bulb
after

same

89" and

the

at

result

the

the

hand, the body temperature

time, and
bulb

Dr.

131"

temperature

other

at

greater than

remained

temperature
air

always

wet-bulb

at

temperature

the

for decrease

experiments by

is

steadilyincreases.

air

becomes

88"

Pathological Laboratory

production becomes

the

4" in two

Recent

ensue.

the

his

body

89",on

nearly 3"
94"

in

"

above

heat

bodily temperature accordingly rises,


in

temperature

at

bulb

heat

diminished

by

air

than

ensues

longer compensate

no

may

Sutton

combined

of 95"

the

apoplexy

have

shown

however, hot

saturated,evaporationcan

for decreased

result

serious

activity as

deal of

increased

saturated

compensate

more

good

seriouslyhindering

air is almost

no

well

evaporation as

without

air

by evaporation can

diminished

rose

air hinders

in the

radiation,but luckilyat high temperatures

moisture

at

proportionately

temperature increased.

external

the

as

93

became

by evaporation

heat

of

loss

the

HEALTH

wet
rose

temperature
temperature
the

same

in

AIR

94

of

each

the

HEALTH

AND

resting. With

hard

moderately

first result of excessive

bulb

wet

is to

and

waist

4" in

rose

heat

humid

hour."

one

ness
drowsi-

cause

succeeded, when

this is

languor, and

and

and

work

temperature of 87" the temperature


The

the

stripped to

experiments, was

the

bodily

and
wakefulness.
temperature begins to rise,by irritability
It must
that though evaporation is active in
be noticed
air at

high temperature, evaporation at high temperatures


to
so
cooling as at low ; and that the only way

is not

and

dry

The

of heat which

amount

is very

doors

of

heat

by day

since

food

of heat
heat

in the

the

to

In

dry air
both

are

active, and

without

rise of

African

Karroo

lower
At
to
to

interfere much

moisture
the
to

with

is

to

under

cooled,and

cool

of

extra

feeding

In

is

as

evaporation

that

energy,
the

rare

air

it is

as

heat

more

is to

dry

say
of

"

the

common

India.

somewhat

of

hold

thus

the

body.

But

humidity

changed

at

conditions.

sufficient moisture
may

general
at

low

ordinary circumstances, does


the

rich

be

may

radiation,but there

the

production

and

consideration

air cannot

conduction, and

body,
be

find

we

temperatures

favour

there

plains of
the

to

temperatures
low

thus

apoplexy

come

we

little food

suddenly increased,

radiation

bodily temperature.
air of the

of

ordinary

an

by

man

cent.

expenditure
heat

moister

When

per

and

fat

calories

the

that

states

tion
evapora-

eat

to

increases

greatly

of 44

more

"

be

can

that

provided by

"

high temperatures

at

more

production

in the

food

by

3,200

it is wise

Rubner

body.

extent

is

as

rich
especially

"

lose

may

weather

hot, moist

production

even

heat

abstracted

calculates

weather

much

as

"

In

hot

in

be

may

Rubner

Thus

great.

out

dietary.

difference.

bulb

wet

evaporation is by noting the

of

cooling value

the

estimate

cooling caused

by

be

enough

result of the

temperatures
not

the

require
moisture

HUMIDITY

merely
for

causes

the

an

If the
laden

if the

body
with

skin

and

But

renders

humidity

it

also affects the water

important

the

and

matter

its

is
vitality
10

is well

Under

from

the

of rest and

conditions

conditions

of

rest

work

and

average

Hard

work

and

hot

heat

ments
experi-

temperature

certain

loss of the

germs.

body, it

loss is

chiefly

physiological

own

per

...

toplasm,
Pro-

about

contains

in its

composition

water

and

destroyed.
body

to

body,

the

wide
and

off

day

by

the

...

lost per

water

limits,and

humidity

rich diet

diet

summer

of

amount

passed

body's

water

In

day

is

than

and
as

the

loss

death, and,

means

faster

it up,

dry

man

its

starvation.

humidity

follows

1*25 per cent,

of

the

"

body weight

1-32

Hard

within

the

average

of rest and

conditions

The

the

the

diet
Under

blowing

of

hunger

and

of the

thermolyticrelation.

of temperature

body

gently

various

water

its

air is

its

or

of his

conditions

loss of water

Under

has

known, thirst kills much

average

Under

though

Abstract

arrested

cent,

per

heat

the water

on

activitydepends.

of about
as

from

water, and

cent,

per

vital

living

be
and

susceptibleto

affects the

the

its resistance

fall in

loss,it also

heat

as

wind

may

surface

proved by

that

loss,and

importance quite apart


80

been

more

only

not

normal, and

It has

by experience

body

the

lost in this way,

fall below

be lowered.

of the

be

and

evaporate

on

if

tissue

or

production.

when

not

heat ; and

may

may

and

does

cold,dry air,but lies

of heat

temperature

heat

temperatures

sweat

away

food

body's temperature,

low

at

conducts

great deal

disease

the

moisture, the
in

95

cooling outstripsthe

sweats

it would

as

of

HEALTH

expenditure of

unnecessary

maintenance

harm

cause

AND

the

of the

172

"

"

2*91

"

"

771

"

"

day, accordingly,varies

variation

is due

surrounding air.

kidney

and

chieflyto
Save

intestines, almost

the

the

water

all

the

lost is absorbed

water

The

greater the
be

can

of the

air,as
but

humidity
C.

at

10"

at

30"

each

with

with

C.

with

of fluid

capacity of

the

relative

of

80

per

30"

C.

with

the

glands are

not

at

active

so

the

activityof
of

80

at

as

with
at

in the

of

but

different

with

the

skin

and

of the

temperature

inspiredair
and
air

lungs.

C. the

10"

in

conditions.

catarrhal

it may

with

parch

cause

are

the

and

When
the
in

common

at

the

about

to

moisture

at that

cold

throat, and

nose,

crack

The

Still air
the

same

the

same

air

moisture

more

of

case

lungs

when

accordingly even
of

sweat

drying capacity,the
the

the

in

is saturated

membranes

air

80

lungs

the

comparatively unimportant, since

air is

is raised

of

of

of 30" C.

evaporate the

In

much

as

considered.

case

C. with

it will not

body

temperature
be

10"

drying

humidity

human

must

the

evaporate

can

relative

glands

sweat

cent,

greater drying capacitycan

Dry

air

cent., have

per

Air

temperature

moisture, and

temperature

from

Air

air.

the

equal drying capacitypermits evaporation of

amount

this

of

so.

of the

case

so, because

usuallydo

the

in

but

is not

air,for that

air at

as

cent;

with

relative

the

in

power

36 per cent, and

of

humidity

drying

with

not

evaporatedvaries simply

humidity

moisture

with

the

fluid

more

same

the amount

per

the

skin.

and

drying capacity because each has the same


be thought, however, that
not
deficit. It must

the

saturation

humidity

relative

air

deficit of moisture

the

relative

varies

seen,

lungs

Now

skin.

the

the

the

of

power

from

have

we

air from

the

by

drying

evaporated

HEALTH

AND

AIR

96

body

temperature.

dries

the

lungs, and

the air is too

throat,and

perature
tem-

mucous

is useful

dry, however,
throats

sore

dry climates,such

as

from

the climate

of Davos.
As
and
the

rule the skin and

when

air the

one
more

does
the

more

lungsand kidneys act


the

other

total amount

does

in

reciprocity,

less,but the drier

of water

excreted.

98

AIR

In

1862

Dr.

follows

as

residence

dampness

be

of

cause

formulated

I. Bowditch

H.

"

Moisture
1.

be the

formerlythought to

was

damp

the subsoil.

by drainage of

increased
considerably
subsoil

HEALTH

AND

consumption.
of Soil

"Law

the

"

on

or

inherent

soil itself

the

in

that

soil, whether

damp

near

caused

or

by

colation
per-

marshes,
adjacent ponds, rivers, meadows,
of consumption in
springy soils,is one of the primal causes
from

or

Massachusetts
other

portionsof

possibly

nay

attention

to

"

Later

in

prevented in

probably
"

its

and

career,

instances

some

by

this law.

seemed

pointed
of

checked

be

can

confirm

to

that

out

there

in

consumption

Gavin

Dr.

investigationsby

Buchanan

possiblyin

and

England,

globe.

the

Consumption

2.

New

probably in

"

this

had

been

law, and
the

G.

Dr.

Buchanan

Dr.

decrease

remarkable

which

in

towns

and

Milroy

subsoil

had

been

drained.
It is now,

however, recognised that the relation between

and

damp

indirect,and

vitalityin
In

due

the

too,

damp

and

air

variations

in

of

other

heat

the
and

and

humidity

be

sufferingin

as

adaptation of

clothing
greatly
damp

In

and

his health

to

general
the

is not

quite
apt

to

detrimental

to those

the

body

food

human

perfect,and
the

and

breathe
any

vating
ener-

to

public are

is very

increased

air and

detrimental

The

suitable

cold

and

dangerous

most

depressing and

hand, cold damp

detrimental

most.

in

and

dangerous

the

on

and

adaptabilitymay
move

tonic

is

it is

depresses

already stated.
stimulating.

it

without

damp

dry

fear

daily

fact that

the

to

probably quite

and

dangerous

means

is

consumption

air is

suppose,
who

merely

ways

organism. But,
so

and

generalway, then, damp

way,

soil

damp

range
a

cold

by

of

man

damp

to

its

may
air

appreciable extent.

HUMIDITY

He

will,to

will

fully as

so

fit,will

so

drier

in

the

the

is

living an
harmful

usually

indoor
than

enough

air.

damp

victim

will not

under-clad

life. Too

little

too

Almost

than

in

is

not

harmful

more

hot

the

allowed

to

air,damp

may

hot-house

where

kept

at

it is
out

go

be

stimuli

sends

idle

the

with

air.

of the

nerves

and

cold,

the

are

in

individual,who

life,has
heat

necessary

little
leaks

been

away

falls below

in

his
in

faster than
its

blood.

warm

his
it is

normal, and

and

fine
the

into

any

no

centres

warm

One

skin

his
to

day

damp
dilated,

are

degree

of

damp

contraction, and

vascular
to

such

combustion.

gency,
emer-

an

Probably also,

livinga sedentary,sheltered

taking only enough


fuel

reserve

been

has

the

is

it remains

day
air is

unaccustomed
more

the

In

gun.

the heat

to

after

in

causing

causing

in the

moisture

outside

ventures

heat-centre,likewise
is slow

the

in

child who

skin, which

the

of

skin,unaccustomed

slow

fire

the

comparativelydry, and

inside

the

blood-vessels

The

indoor

is

over

Gatling

day

fair amount

organism

less

perhaps

coddled

is any

either

been

has

blood-distribution, has

messages
centres

hot-house
cool

as

of

useless,and, since

filled

and

there

and

no

vaso-motor

and

dry,

the

and
the

when

sits

the

; to

leakage

affects its production.

who

equable temperature,

an

combustion

to

damp

body

injurious,

or

either, however,

air is still and

the

is

and

clothingaffects merely

littlefood

dangerous

as

regulator of

or

clothing

valetudinarian

when

room

air is

underfed,

or

his

for the

up

damp

littlefood ; for little

too

To

cold

When

the escape of heat, while

coddling.

make

to

fed

is well

he

injured,and

be

live

rapidly or

so

but, provided

health

heat

easilysupply

through

99

metabolise

not

air ;

suitablyclothed,his
will

HEALTH

extent, suffer in his general vitality


; he

some

feel

not

AND

food

to

make

environment, and

body.

The

the

little

has therefore

result is that

heat

produced, the body temperature


the

individual

falls

prey

to

first germ

the

himself
Three

and

Gonville
the

that

again

up

he

Caius

"

able
fish.
all

the
be

they

Even

the

clothes

heat

enough

create

Feet

Damp

"

of

the

condition

doubt

part of his body

that

nature

In

ebb
in

where
of

cases

from
in

cases

rheumatic

than

children

damp

the

where

gout.

exaggerated.

there

But

is
as

be

any

other

grass

out
with-

Leroy, indeed,

bare

feet

proved

always injurious.

vital forces

where

are

rule

hindrance

work

tendency

resist.

to

at

capacityfor making

extra

means

chilling

long as possible.

as

must

is restricted

skin

for

left bare

than

in wet

doctor

larly
particu-

in his natural

Man

about

run

kidney disease,and
the

blowing,

it hard

often wet

more

instance,where
there

ture
tempera-

be

cause

find

French

to be

cold

feet do

robust

children

liking of

wind

no

coddling.

to

his feet

cases

for

the

due

the

leakage.

damp

well-known

meant

cases,

and

be

the

certain

In

in their

popularlyconsidered

are

even

; and

The

that

argued

be not

they

healthy body, leading

age),provided
the

supply

No

have

must

harm.

poore

and

butyre

not

can
open-air appetite,

an

provided

feet

this also may

Yet

and

to

which

body

old

Damp

dangerous.

with

eating

low

very

the

wet

are

easily(unless in infancy or
not

nice

resiste

that if

up

whereof

stede

become

or

and

toste

olde

The

"

straightsick."

when

be

and

brought

the

winde

of

so

fire with

and
open-air life,

an

be

day by

furres

children

And

coddling.
in

awaye,

blaste

against

Booke

"

of

painfulnessof England,

and

courage,

receive womanliness

withstand

to

in his

of the system of

utterlydriven

now-a-dayes

men

Caius, the founder

Dr.

ago

College,complained

manly hardness, stout


writes, "is

shuts

thereupon

in his hot-house.

Sweating Sickness

he

and

encounters,

half centuries

and

HEALTH

AiND

AIR

ioo

the

to

low

heat ;

of evaporation

for the
rheumatism

danger

of

kidneys ;
or

damp

to

is

HUMIDITY

An
and

interesting
the

is

virulence
that

possible
and

is
On

and

to

not

the
thus

due

and

Moulds,
the

in

boots

that

damp

germs
of

presence

walls

and

damp

in

rally,
gene-

moisture.
house

wet

of

danger
entirely

other

hand,

tends

to

to

the

and

air,

sheets

is

vitality
is

it

partly

quite

bacterial

thermolysis.

moisture

diminish

in

damp

additional

give

may

floating

germs

the

between

mould.

possible

very

101

influence

germs.

how
with

covered

HEALTH

the

best

grow

knows

one

become

and

of

development

Every

is

question

certainly

It

AND

prevents
the

germs

the
in

rising
the

air.

of

germs,

VIII

CHAPTER

AIR

RADIATION.

SOLAR

AND

AIR

influence

THE

is much

the

and

in

the

us

probably blue, and


the
air"

blue

extra

that

is often
blue

by

rays

the

of the

dust

forgotten.
in

sun

Yet

black

air

sky, and

in

scatteringand
It is well

the

lighted by

The

streets.

beam
the
thus

light,which

of the

street

for

to

in the

system

the

were

free from

lightingbe

the

sides

of

the

interceptionof specialrays by

The

are

and

air of its
a

along

streets

particlesof

are

dust

in all directions

houses.

streets

darkness."

dust

of

ray

cannon-ball

lightedby

are

beam

dust, the

in absolute

"

minute
the

in the

two.

or

The

have

is unseen,

dust

like

mile

that

box

Chicago

light from
and

pavements

streets

of

of the

the

is shot

lighted by
satisfactorily

reflectingsome
on

of

straight streets

of electric
centre

is

in the

dust

should

we

known

dark

dustless

it is

sun

diffusingsunlight

for dust

except

it

as

light.

diffuses

the

are

scatteringof

the

chieflyby

"

light passing through


city of Chicago

the

it leaves

to

sky.

Sunlight

interception and

it is the

gives blueness

importance

when

penetrate the

journey they

their

modified.

and

out

white, but

seems

of

course

All

supposed.

earth

the

radiation

solar

on

commonly

is

reach

that

rays

considerablythinned
reaches

atmosphere

the

greater than

solar

atmosphere,

RADIO-ACTIVITY.

AND

of

TRICITY.
ELEC-

AND

AIR

seen

If

would
Cases
in the

the

by

air
this

of local
colour

effects

SOLAR

produced by

volcanic

describes

the

Cotopaxi :
changed

We

saw

like

idea
in

of the
the

seen

"

have

we

both

that

probable

very

while

selected

is the

have

said,white

; but

as

shown
the

drops

found

to

and

electrical

the
have

All

in

most

the

It is

atmosphere,

is well

lengths

wave

of

means

by

or

most

wave-length,

and

other

spectrum

are

yellow,

green,

all of

and

heat, chemical
light,
of

matter

these,

they

meet.

refrangiblerays

violet end

effect ; those

we

prism, such

ether waves,

of the

the
the

each

combination

nature

as

known, it really

apart from

into

some

or

Sunlight,all

separated out, they

are

rays

transformation

wave-length at

and
refrangibility

cepted
inter-

are

appears,

violet,indigo, blue,

molecular

chemical

by

thus

ordinary circumstances

smallest

the

us,

rainbow

are

energy,

the

effects

livingcreatures,

detail.

more

different

colours

they

capable of

are

"

pared,
com-

vapour.

kill all

be bent

can

water

red.

them

Under

heat

water

it reaches

of

rays

coloured

be

according to

by

nevertheless,as

these

When

and

orange,

of

in

it,when

in their true

"grating."

and

would

matter

coloured

and
refrangibilities,
and

wildest

of radiant

rays

heat

the

is left visible of

of

next

artificer of life.

that

consists

the

intensitythe

dioxide

sun

and
at

faintest

properlybe

can

"

look

us

the

gone

sunlight sunlight sifted by

sustainer

Let

seen,

carbon

by

of tarnished

sunsets."

gorgeous
as

brick-

coarse

strange colours

of these

they

vivid

to

convey

and

which

to

surpassing in

of the most

can

colour

sky, which

the colour

words

moment

one

resembling nothing
and

No

from

of

the

in

up

to

impressive appearance

sky

Again,

instant

an

thus

dust

smears

blood-reds, or

shining brass.

or

and

high

verdigrisgreen

reds,and then passed in

of volcanic

sun,

green

equally extreme

to

103

explosions. Whymper

effects of clouds

colour

"

something

copper,

RADIATION

AND

AIR

of the

spectrum

in the

middle, of medium

have

the

most

of

lighting

AIR

104

capacity,and
bilityand

violet

actinic rays,

as

the

at

red

wave-length have

the

at

rays

those

HEALTH

AND

end

the

end, for instance, which

have

the

oxidising oxalic

towards

the

middle

are

power

of

the

at
a

end

have

the

poker.

But

what

red

the

of violet

short

them, and
the

meeting

visible rays

end,

are

black

of

known

invisible

rays

of

red

end

their effects.

With

these

rays

see

quitepossiblethat

radiant

wonderful

as

other

by

animals

retina,in its present

they

darken

These

their

in

sensation

they

it.

retinae

are

violet

the

effects,and

might, of

we

colours,and

insects do

of

state

rays

heat, also known

new

and

the

the

these, at

sensitive

more

have

what

on

give

heat

beyond

rays

by

our

retina

invisible actinic

the

to

depends

they

in the

exemplified

salts of silver

coat

but

light;

at

course,

certain

light,meeting

head

rays

lightand

power

do

the

meeting

waves

"c. ; the

plants,while

of

heating
they

hydrogen,

sunflower's

of artifical

stimulatingthe growth

red-hot

meet

forms

and

of chlorine

killingmicrobes,

in most

seen

known

often

are

acid, of turning the

of

sun,

The

darkening photographic

of

power

refrangi-

least

the

heating power.

most

films,of causing the combination


of

with

it is

them, but

see

development, they

are

invisible.
Such

selected

is

selection

plainthat

of

solar

luminous

the

and
of

nature

importance.

More

heat

light and

might

be

might

we

Let
of

us

we

radiation

selection

and

is of

us

it is

be

"

quite
vital

enormous

roasted

chemical

more

and

"

might

we

blinded

; more

energy

and

be slain like the microbes.

glance

for

moment

selection,especiallywith

composition of
When

we

spectrum

we

the

calorific rays

the

reaches

it

as

the

see

regard

solar radiation

examine
black

the
lines

absorptionof radiations.

the

at

the

to

that

colours
on

manner

it here and
Most

of

degree

constancy

reaches

of

and

the

of the

us.

visible

solar

there,indicating

these,as

the

spectro-

io6

AIR

atmospheric
made

relation

E.

by

AND

the

to

in

Duclaux

Duclaux
investigations,
solar radiation
showed

that

by

the

continued

He
and

his

thereafter

wrote

observation

varied

value

in the

Fan

at

estimated
of

shows

"

the

These

effect does
which

makes

effects of
minute

show
it

solar

therefore

so
relatively

radiation;

investigation."

solar

the

of

varied

quite

depende
in-

experiments

and

it

of

October

uninterrupted

combustion

passes

twenty-fourhours.

sudden

very

brightnessof

not

value

acid, and

some

months

two

thermometer, the

average

these

"

sometimes

of

of

changes

of the

was

oxalic

in September
investigations
:

sun

pressure.

result of

different values within

those

the

chemical

barometric

through very
are

the

of
course

greatly,and

already that

prove

tne

oxidising

the

Cantal

rays

In

1894.

its power

followingtable

made

chemical

heat, light,and

of
The

HEALTH

exceed

and

barometer, and
the
that
easy

The

day.

These

especially
even

those

actinometric

approximate constancy,
to

requires

measure
a

very

the
close

other
and

AIR
is

It

impossible

experiments,but
6. The

chemical

daily combustion
of the

rays

other

of

what

also

shows

"

8. It is but

"

9. On

the other

the

hand,

10.

The

absorbent

and

in the

'

than
the

that

of

and

cast
over-

influences

centre

of

of

our

the

and

seasons,

spring.

the

influence of altitude.

betraysso stronglythe
substances

in the

daily variations
which

as

pressure

air,that

due

only

discoverable

are

the

to

they produce

in

sunlight.
northern

of extreme

hours

same

the

of

absorption which

radiations

powerful,at

more

in

or

essences

atmosphere

at

it

local and

reduction

the chemical
"

subjectto

while

clearly other

influence

the

actinic clouds

atmosphere of
by

than

more

fine weather

very

feeblysubjectto

consider

must

'

maximum

divers oxidisable

we

call

we

and

sterilised

with

much

another

to

it manifests

manifestlyexhibits

of

is measured

as

the

to

less visible.

are

7. It

day

one

due

oxidation
(i.e.,

sun),such

from

weather/
"

numerous

important points

most

meteorologicalphenomenon,

the influence

which

Duclaux's

here

quote the

may

107

of his results.

varies
liquids,
any

RADIATION

discuss

to

we

in his summary
"

SOLAR

AND

temperate
of the

level of

the

zones,

day,

less

regions is
and,

quently,
conse-

actinic radiation

soil,in the

north

is

than

Europe."

comparison of the actinic


in Algiers may
be
and
France
A

with latitude.

value
of

of

light in

central

show

tion
varia-

interest to

We

here

see

Duclaux's
and

his

more

or

be

remains

of

The

remember

we

chemical

in various

rays

few of these.

flies'eggs
kill

the

of

into

hydrochloricacid

acid

and

they
upon
the

other
a

the

eyes.

these
the

only

as

chemistry

is

vibrations

luminous
the

know

effect of

and

the

bears

sun

We

to

know
which

are

reach

us

outstripthe

crops

times, may

the

in

in

as

known

be

many

they

fall

effects

of

connected
in

and

of

view

recognise that
important and

very

about

modifying

South

activityof

in
of

nations

and

of

varying

which

sifted

the

by

we

the

in different

Northern

France;
be

and

something

different times
crops

certain
rays,

know

we

probably

the
the

oxalic

silver salts ;

the

vibrations

are

at

of

call chemical

we

these,too,

hydrogen

life.

ether

many

they

if

something

atmosphere

bacilli ;

certain

must

we

actinic

they

oxidation

unknown,

are

proportions. Even, indeed,


certain

must

calorific rays, and

the

may

there

realised

the skin ;

oxygen

of

variations

ether

nothing, and

few

relation

all.

there

atmosphere, and

zones

blacken

wide

hatching of

and

chlorine
the

by

capitulate

the

tubercle

cause

way

be

here

us

hasten

the

fact

very

will

sun-burn

they

some

the

played by

Let

rays

they

which

their

the

rays,

these, but

they

are

filter of

this
of

part

combine

but

rays,

half-understood

Nor

of

These

effects and
air

varied

greater absorption of

cause

vital

substances

chemical

with

variation

including

heliotropism; they

cause

this

blue

but

not

may

within

varies

frogs'eggs

bacteria

many

and

or

in

of

presence

may

is affected

processes.

Violet

and

air

and

of

importance

the

to

impugned

been

air

the

the

in

radiation

actinic

due

as

since

have

composition

limits.

both

in actinic radiation

variations

matter

mean

radiation.

actinic

them

Paris

Algiers and

at

the

of

organic

that

when

of

estimates

less

days

of

amounts

explanation

correct

the

fine

how

different

very

HEALTH

AND

AIR

io8

so,

at

stimulated

RADIATION

SOLAR

AND

AIR

variations

depressed by atmospheric

or

of
the

master-key to

of

meteorology
of

study
"

heat
to

radiation.

solar

; and

be

it may

in

The

general

well known.

simply

was

the

awful.

We

about
was

like

we

saw

who

those

"

in

Up

the

to

well

death-rate

of

middle

winter

true

the

affected

and

pneumonia

appears

April winter

"

for

diseases

it

sun,

looks
we

on

which

but
came
we

flourishing

were

kinds

the

kept

three

the

diseases

measles, bronchitis,

"

than

more

the

"

conditions

accounted

anxious

while

weather

were

Then

day

the

by

ice
We

We

was

sun

in darkness.

the

the

electrified when

fine the

of

in

with

were

how

average,

rays.

darkness.

doctor

came

We

paper

the

of

vitalityis

legs.

of various

to

and

our

style; epidemics
up

most

on

the

day

all.

knows

In

health

for actinic

last winter

shaky

followingparagraph

the

write

of life and

fill of the

six months

been

have

The

our

us

master-key

ing
party gives the follow-

beat, and

for

strength again."

to

Polar
"

had

Nobody

him.

that the

health

on

for

atmosphere

our

add

to

sun

When

resurrection

sun

dead

and

brains.

our

the

indifferent and

but weak
ill,

not

of

unrecognised

unrecognised study

of Nansen's
to

got sleepy and

that

hitherto

atmosphere

our

effect of

testimonial

in the

hitherto

the

One

considers

important problems

absorption of

selective

position
com-

important problems

most

be wrong

affectingthe

Langley

absorption

not

most

found

the

is to be found

"

selective

of the

some

will

the

of

some

P.

J.

109

their usual number

of victims.
the

"In

and

London,

the

ending April I7th, 1,606 people


death-rate

later,for the week

month
1,2 1 6

these

week

and

the

death-rate

figureswith

for

the

week

was

ending May
to

the averages

of the past five years

we

thousand

per

13*1

per

for

was

the

the

in

One
fell to

Comparing

corresponding weeks

find that the total number

198 below

17-3.

I5th,the deaths
thousand.

died

average,

and

of deaths

the

death-

AIK

UO

I),,

I.,i

..,!"

I), low

Hi-

pi"

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In

IM..I

I Ii' I'

""/.,-.

II'.

II '.I

'

,r"

Ilif

II

ilion

there

I.HV

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',

IK .illli ;"r

ilollii-i

I. .r.l

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il'."'lllli.it

in

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'

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I lit f|

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it"

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it

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wratln-i

ly|M(.il'""iiiiiinri

in

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|,r.,,,lr,

have
pftrk",

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hr""ii imdri

hav"

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i,i.,o,,,mi:
luxttftatily

IMC..

Mlinllilir

I I,.

and the credit if hi"/'


phyilclan,
Such ii the generaleffect of the
doubt

noticeably

would

1li.il

r.

Lniidiin

II,.,I

.-.

.,l,ii..mi.

tli.il till'.ll.lM.lll'.Jl.ll priiod

piopri

l." .1 lll.ln I "'

mally

aluioi

v"

M.pp",-."

wiiilrr

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In the London
.,.,

.I'lnr;

|H-.,III..

...

||" hull,

I.''ii

li.r.

III' ii,

.'

m".nlli

vvinl.

I ||P |.|(1 I 11. 1 I

ill III

w"

I',

,11

inlliirtlM

.in

.HI

'

tin-

if.poiidmj; priiod','.I
,

m.
'.nly r-.pl.

""l

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the level of

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if

",i

|"'l I IK.U-..M "" I

lli.n, |J

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v'.n.

r-n.l

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UK

in

typ.'.il'.plim;

.1

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wrrl'.-i W.I'.

i;it"

;tn

liy

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at

l.r.1 f.uii
IIK

III'.ALTH

AND

Mill

I!K.

there is

and

iun,

ina'.li

no

variationi in it" vital value with variations

are

precisecharacter of its radiations,


It must be recognised
further that the atmosphereexercfaeM
selectiveinfluence not only on solar bin also on tan

in the

radiation, The

influence of the atmof.j'1""


I.r

li.r. ..Mm

|f"|.r. I

.,

"

.Hi) .aifi

llir

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wall

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H"

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I hi-, n.llu.

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n.

part in the maintenance

"

"

of

..|,r
n|

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l.y

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ol
.'J..V,

hut

..

of

radiation of rays

house,since It permits the outward


'.lioll

tUi IftttH

"

..I. nll\'

,1

llir

llir railh.

Tlli-.r

.li..xiilr and

aihoii

play,

|,,lll',cl

mipmlaiil

an

terrestrial

atmosphericand

Irmpriatmr.

Air
.111

and
.'I

"

In, Mid. .1

-'1IK
Rltctricity."
.1

in

.iii.l i.nlli
lli"

"|IM-.|I

ii"'.ili\.

radiation-!

I. ,.!"",,
iinl\

inn.

.11.

"

,1

"

li.ii". .1
".

pic.. I, ",

"|ur-.tK.n..i

I.-.
.IK

ll

""l
r.

and
fllic-i,

iiv and
.1

llial
pi..l...l.l.
.li"l

rlntinii'i
IIM"-||V

.i..i...

"

anrlit

in

K.II
"|ii(--.l

UKill'

llolll
MM

UK-

air
Mil)

.ilni.i

AIK

AND

I- I M

r.phnr, hai";hi|;il nrj-al ivHy,

while

"

n.o.lU

,,

Sil ( )livri

ablv

.,,

lowaid-.

'I

'

"

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"

Hid.

ir.al

in

pnralivr

nil....

lowr-.l

by

in

"annnn

o|

Ii

i to

l"

"

ially

ea-.nl

a'.ernd'i

"hai""d

"pn

lii"

"

vai.al.on,

Vapoin

vapoin

inioiiiil

"lnnn.il

.l.o\\

and

i,

ptoh

: it Is highest
iderably

and

wind'.,

o|

i. *n

1 1.

v.i

...

in.i';neli. held

e.nlh'-.

I'nle-. l"v Hi.

.i.nhai

pur.i Ir-t air

ni

pn-." Ir-i

nt

"

1.

ively
hai;;iii|:ll pn-.il

the

p.

.ed

.1

il.nn

""

in.

and

Ihe

I,(lie negative
l.ml|;r"aii'j'e-.ln

'i'ii" .i."
wml"

.nil,

I I v

diawn

in

lh.

I i: l"

ily

v.ilh

"nnden."

11

Ihe

l,v

il

be.

"anla..

Ihe

rto

1 1

i,

11 1

!'

and

Hill

i"

"Knc-lll

one

...

..

."

w"

.r.

halt

-.lood

I.

"

"

."

nd

lih.il

"

(.|lin|rd
"

a".lo,;y

eie"

mil'
a

l'h\

in

"

MI

l""

I'll,.-'. I'.al,

mi

In

a-a""n

Ion* I'.

nine

.l.nllnr;

!":" ...mil.
"

be,

may

p,.il..many

Alinlr.eivei

III

on

III.

and

hai".

.
.

In I \\

l" ap

polenlial

lonnd

aie

will

"

il

and

iair.nl

mountain

on

how

ill...

.-

ele" |||"

b\' I.eonaid
-

n-.ion

"

|)henoinena

|,

to

ptopo|||o||

III

I," h I 1 1 1 1 M

I hr
1 .1

mallei

.,|

ih.il

apart.
1 1 ion

".

I, , h

iioinioii

nine-.

I.l" d.

ia"

and

lh"

Inl

Th.

In

pi..|"

I"

iii"

hi

Illled

h.

In

nil

...

I. .1
.

Ihe
linn
In.

.1

beam
p.e..

Ilial
I.

I. ml

llin.ir'h

Ihr.

o|

hr.

I In

whi.lt
hal

l.\v

b\- lln

hal,

II

w.r.

fu-i"' lan.e

at

"

vcuble
"

h.

\\lnn

thrust its fiery


tongues into other

In

head,

pain

hr.

-irveial

and

(.ml-

Ill

llnl

U.

w.

in

in.

-."

"

""n

"

(.ml.

II.

llnl

I"

ilh"

Thr

"inmul'i.
head

i n"

when

b" ;;an

parts of his body he

lh.

nl

in.

spurredto a hir.ty,bni bnihant retreat,"


Mosso
gives a similar account of an electricalutorm
lln

;li

In

il"

"

Hind

the

lanly

ob-.eived

hr.

hoin

in

lln-u

he

Im

w.r.

il, will,
an

i"

in-

pn

Mldd.

.1

aboiil

for
in.

him

pin"nl

b" Ion

prm
l""

l\

nn

h.il,and

Il

,,|

hr.

Inn;

Ira-,I

ll

Lad

..

pio)"

I.

Hllld

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(loin

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.'

.i|

i,

hoin

hat

imiaiiml

lap

him

i;i\ iir;

lln, I

bla. I
"

In

"

|,

w.r.

-.limiidy ie"ni;nr.ed

w.r.

In

..n

alp

..

",|om

oiid

M.

lh"

|..

pnl

liini;I he

h:;hl,.i.

ol

I In

ail\-

n,

il.

...lion

h.M.

he
.n

""ide,and
Inp

In-.

o|

lop

rlriliiial

I'.nl a

mnl.

"

"..

nil. n

pe,
,

lln

pin

In

was

on

( ;/..""" n,

Monte

on

evening,
the

on

storm

rose.

them.

I reached

As

number

of

wasps

nothing

to

be

that it was

corners

and

the arcade

chips

peals

hundred

the

on

be

weather

were

not

see

glacier. My

and

Corporal

round

off his

heavy
hand

sky
of

distance
who

him

his

turned
re-

had

very

remarkable

rienced
expe-

had

repeatedly

and

had

felt

axe

then

and

crown

they
a

there

be

must

pricks

his

on

convinced

had

pins

in

seemed

felt what

he

pattering down

hailstorm
over

the

Camozzi

thinking

cap

pricking

were

the

tips.
finger-

discharge. Corporal Jachini

electrical

an

passed his

the

of

the

companions,

in
electricity

effects

that

and

that

me

noticed
to

near

notes

some

and

to

an

refuge under

write

very

be

threatening

and

blade

was
aware

to

was

pencil

istic
character-

I took

close

the

to

became

understood

once

the

taken

to

emitted

told

from

which

which

shortly afterwards,

sparks darting

it

and

lead

could

one

again

of

as

there

looking

on

meet

to

buzzing

Desiring to

hut.

thunder

of

Bizzozero

twice

at

the

As

stuck

that

metres

manner.

as

lightningvery

wood

dark

so

seen

the hut

sharpen

to

of

The
was

of

of the upper

knife

the

listened

phenomenon.

the flashes of

took

which

hissing sound,

heard

hut; but

the

in

little hut

the

up

welcome

to

out

went

to

door

party coming

us

down

the

seen.

the

electric

of

towards

when,

August

noticed

some

I went

new-comers.

of

;th
We

glacier,and

the

across

the

Rosa)
a

HEALTH

AND

AIR

112

head

; he

there

himself

nothing."

was

There
exercise
the

very

influence

Air

by

and

the

little doubt

be

can

that

potent influence

is still obscure

and

Radio-activity.Soon
"

Curies,it

of Elster

was

and

on

electric

and

health

mainly

after the

changes

Geitel

that

the

but
vitality,
of

matter

discoveryof

proved chieflythrough
air and

must

the

jecture.
con-

radium

tions
investiga-

soil and

certain

IX

CHAPTER

AIR

IMPURE

this

heading

UNDER

by respirationand

air vitiated

and
of

processes
The

heating

proportion of
have

and

is very

Let

look
G.

M.

and

found

the

normal

found

made

to

room

'24 in

room

72

in

stable

air the

cent,

men

in

and

of carbon

'03 per cent.

vitiated

air.
Institute

of

lecture-rooms

three

four

or

dioxide.

times

Pettenkofer

fairly well-ventilated

sick-room
and

schoolroom;

about

the air of

carbon

We

synonymous.

"

sometimes

of

increased

general public,

Massachusetts

analyses of

per

where

ordinary

percentage

constant

ill-ventilated

an

almost

are

the

and

the

to

proportions in
of

twice

"O/o

and,

very

percentage

'054

Alpine

its

5,000

often

is an

open

and

Richards

H.

Technology

at

now

ordinary vitiation

air

impure

small

the

lighting rooms.

that in natural

dioxide

emanations,

in

dioxide

carbon

acid

seen

us

and

indoor

only

skin

produced

gases

result of

obvious

most

carbonic

the

by

will discuss

we

as

beasts

; '32

much
were

in
as

lecture-

in

2*1

an

closely herded

together.
From

Weaver
17,

table

in the

1872,

we

collated
Lancet

give

the

of

by

C.

Fox

from

articles

July 6th, August 3rd,and

following figures:
"

"4

by

R. E.

August

IMPURE

AIR

115

Acid

Carbonic

Nature

of Workroom

Boot

and

shoe

Framework

Building (in Leicester).

or

per

finisher

knitter
...

...

...

...

...

shoe

finisher

'460
'287
-306

Needlemaker
Tailor's
Boot

workshop
shoe

and

Tailor's

-217

manufacturer...

and

...

...

...

...

*2ii

-493

shoe

riveter

-172

Riveting-room of boot manufacturer

'328

National

"241

School

science

"

"

Police-court

the

house

"

"

-164

boys'

"

-309

girls'

"

-204

"

"

"

"

School

'304
*in

machine-room

'123

compositors' room

'149

foot from

floor of bedroom

foot

from

ceilingof

foot

from

floor of bedroom

foot from

Elastic

web

"

ceilingof

infants'

same

'102
room

...

room

same

...

'164
'154

room

-139
-120

manufactory

"

"

lower

or

braid-room

the upper

or

weaving-room

the

...

Smith

places in London,

in

and

probably

1864 made

though
rather

'178
"328
'206

library reading-room

Angus

"150
'116

room
girls'

school

are

-098

sitting-room
: compositors' room

"

Private

Public

'120

Hall

"

National

correct.

girls'

Mayor's parlour

"

house

"

give

*n6

"

"

Dr.

boys' day-room

office

Newspaper

Private

class-room

the Town

"

Private

we

'259

hosier

Fancy
Boot

finisher

workshop

Elastic web

'532

-408

"

and

of Air.

-528

...

Boot

roo

the

analyses

of

air

in

close

following figures which

high they

are

approximately

ii6

AIR

HEALTH

AND

Percentage
of Carbon

Dioxide.

Chancery Court, 7 feet from


Same, 3 feet from ground
door

wide

Surrey Theatre, boxes,


"

Victoria

London

Standard

-ioi
10

p.m.

'075

-076

Theatre, pit,11.15

and

-320

p.m

found

Osborne

*252

P-m

in

tailoring
workshops

'532; in collar factories from


from

textile

-257 ; in

textiles

from

Dr.

George

'320 ; in

and

compared

'045 in the

These

railway,and

figureswill

carbon

dioxide

carbon

dioxide

It must
may

be

show

in normal
that

arise from

how

coal

gas

air may

bakehouse

Scott

the

that

Tebb

platforms

railwaycarriages.

exceed

the

percentage

of

percentage

of

air.

pure

several

and

"

Dr.

largely the

carbon
sources

burning coal,coke, peat, or wood,


oil and

air.

open

in

'049

'Ii6 in the tube

in indoor

noted

with

'035 to

bakehouses

underground

streets, "079 in the air of the

'038 in the open

of the tube

in

'035

humid

-470 ; in

to

-032

from

cotton-spinningfrom

found

Newman

'169,'136, as

20, '175,

from

from

making
-386 ; in dress-

to

-133

'05 to '266; in laundries

factories

'035 to

aboveground

as

"126

...

circle,11.30 p.m

workrooms

space

'218

p.m

*o8i

Theatre, pit,1

Haldane

found

'in

Theatre, boxes

City of

to

'ioi

...

...

...

p.m.

dress

Haymarket,

"I

...

p.m.

12

Theatre, boxes,

Victoria

"566.

p.m.

11.55 p.m.

"

to

10

"

Olympic, 11.30

"320

'203
'050

Theatre, gallery,10

"

'193

...

open

"

Strand

doors

ground, closed

its

dioxide
"

and

in

confined

from

from
respiration,

from

illuminants

varies
significance

such

with

its

source.

Carbon

dioxide

in indoor

small

in amount,

usuallyvery
combustion
very

small

are

heated

of
quantities

and

air derived

from

since it with

the other

escape

carbon

through

dioxide

the

coal

fires is
gases

chimney

associated

with

of

; but

carbon

IMPURE

monoxide

sulphur compounds

and

air from

this

dioxide

carbon

LONDON

and

CARBONIC

combustion, and
in

"

the

slow

monoxide

ACID"

"

ordinary illuminants

is much

The

more

most

given

small
and

likelyto
common

to

indoor

quantitiesof

monoxide

may

product of incomplete
RAILWAY,

in
plentifully

NOVEMBER,

charcoal

1869.

fires and

fires.)

source
prolific

more

is

METROPOLITAN

it is formed

combustion

much

peat fires very

sulphur compounds

carbon

cases

AIR"

be

may

derived.

similarlybe
(In all

117

source.

wood, coke, and

From

AIR

; and

of carbon

the carbon

accumulate
illuminant

in the

dioxide

is found

dioxide

in

formed

so

atmosphere.

is coal gas.

Coal

gas

is

n8

AIR

mixture

of gases

mainly, with
and

hydrogen,

"

dioxide.

burnt

cubic

A
the

givesto

dioxide

and

about

ordinarygas-jetburns

and

produces about

No

smoky
Coal

is

or

gas, in

therefore

of

there

is

while

in

such

as

is

coal gas

cubic

100

to be

feet.

also be

given

given off

forms.

17

Some

to the

there

make

"For

the

grainsof sulphur,there

20

dioxide

formed, while

grainsper

grains of sulphur
resultingwould amount
30

very

unusual

per

of

feet

to

so

per

limit of

gas

an

indicate

dioxide

sulphur content

perceptioneven
that with

with
35

as

Referees

feet of

the

to

sulphur

pounds
sulphurcom-

and

Notter

"

consumed

containing

foot of

impurer

sulphur

containing

gas,

feet,the sulphur dioxide


foot.

ventilation
circumstances,

that the

feet,

much

as

health, and

'048 cubic

vitiated that the carbon


10,000

cubic

100

and according to Rideal, it


quantities,
is

cubic

100

be

consider

cubic

100

coal gas

London

be '032 cubic

would
with

The

atmosphere.

In

it."

its combustion

MetropolitanGas

authorities

cubic

flame

with

in contact

may

followingcalculations

100

every

sphere.
atmo-

the

unless

grains in

particularly
prejudicialto
Firth

"

the

to

hydrogen, and
sulphuretted

free from

than

more

products of

monoxide, ammonia

12

The

gas,

carbon

varies.

gas

The

dioxide.

sulphur,and

than

more

provincialcoal

not

in other

feet of carbon

addition,contains

requireall gas
contain

per hour

6 cubic

rapidlycooled by something

usuallynot

grainsin

40

feet of gas

monoxide

sulphur in

foot

cubic

vapour.

gives sulphur compounds

amount

pletely
com-

1*34 cubic" feet of water

acetylene may

carbon

half

about

incompletely burnt, and

incompletecombustion,
and

when

of coal gas

foot

about

3 cubic

however, is sometimes

is

monoxide

carbon

gas,

atmosphere

An

compounds,

marsh

ethene, acetylene,benzene, nitrogen,oxygen,

carbon

of carbon

HEALTH

AND

Except

would
is

has

reduce

only when
reached

under
these

room

50 volumes

of the air will exceed

4O-graingas.

Our

own

grains of sulphur per

100

the

vations
obsercubic

IMPURE
feet of gas, there
of the

of gas

sulphur compounds

or

carbon

form

Notter
nants

and

colza oil

and

nitrous

"

reaches

owing

producer gas,

the

to

"

gas,"

water

large proportions of

contain
increase

lamps, and

Before

sum

risk

the

of

tallow

"

candle-power ;

Elevation

of

monoxide,

carbon

of ammonia
acids

burning
The

point out

of coal

gas

that

varies

following table
:

"

sperm

but since

they

sulphur compounds.
illumiof

temperature, addition

dioxide, nitric
and

of the

of

and

sulphur,marsh

fatty group."

illuminants
the

candles

vitiate the air less than

carbon

leaving the subject of


to

and

the effect of carbonaceous

up

and
particles,

be well

instructive

per

gas, forms

acid,compounds

gas, carbon

used.

throats

sore

with

thus

dioxide

Firth

follows

as

it may

tion
irrita-

dioxide

sulphur

sulphur compounds they

moisture, carbon

the

mixed

Kerosene, like coal

gas.

causes

gas," which

carbon

more

do not

and

vitiation.

Paraffin and
form

the

sulphur

it contains.

monoxide,

monoxide

of

taste

when

often

is often

gas

carburetted

"

distinct

119

10,000."

per

leakage

Coal

air passages

17 volumes
A

is

AIR

air vitiation

and

vitiation of the air from

considerablywith

given by

Notter

the burner

and

Firth

is

Commenting
of

derived

light

from

incandescent

or

best.

the

the

giving

air

gas,

of

16

is less

than

oil.

is

candle-power
Welsbach

of

the

in

only

'365

light, it

is 1*9

in

temperature
is

power

batswing
A

be

but
air.

their

the

gas

the

flame.

to

should
pressure
may

burn

in

with

oil

lamps

it

-468".'
is

that

implies
since

therefore
maintained

steadily

the

always
between
without

the

increase
candle-

per

Argand

'59",

on

the

taken

tap

and

jumping

It

burner
of

unburnt

and

Ventilation.

gas

escape

be

Haldane

by

given

flaring
the

burners,

"

Report
a

per

incandescent

burner
the

of

oz.

dioxide

and

lamp

Argand

'

feet

oil

over

the

the

lamps

with

table

health,

of

tion
vitia-

burner,

an

little

Welsbach

by

of

case

compared

noted

since

harmful

the

the

3*5 cubic

carbon

case

Departmental

specially

Care

suitable

oil

the

in
r6

room

'116",

in

instructive

wasteful,
also

'807", and

in

must

only

'only

similarly

Osborne

and

batswing,

of

of

raised

when

Welsbach

increase

ordinary

that

produced

the

as

network

consuming

consuming

the

forms

Welsbach

an

luminous

one

and

that

and

'while

Further,

2*86

one-half

candle-power

by

light

the

is noticeable

It

dioxide

carbon

by

hung

is

intensely

flame.

5O-candle-power

of

with

is

various

simply

it is

which

of

the

pre-eminently

out

standpoint

that
of

yielded

stands

flame

material

temperature
of

or

the

over

that

gas

hygienic

burner,

incombustible
to

coal

Of

"

table, they say

gas-burner

From

Bunsen

this

on

HEALTH

AND

AIR

120

is

unburnt

gas,

gas

vitiates

that

there

burner,
and

not

so

the
be

that

flaring

of

The
the

to

roof, as

Osborne's

"

In

the

on

to

permit the
the air
So

carbon

violent
may

also
man

air in

air from

be
cause

will show

it is

room

"

of combustion

evidentlynecessary

arrangements

gas-jetsto

and

Haldane

probable effect

the

extent

from
dioxide

escape

for ventilation

without

vitiating

and

fuel.

Let

associated
us

ties
impuri-

look, now,

at

produced by respiration.

dioxide

produced by respirationvaries
activityof

affects
especially
exercise

dioxide

carbonaceous

size,and
vitality,

Exercise

from

rise

breathinglevel."

carbon

The
the

the

much, then, for carbon


derived

the

what

heated

the

at

purityof

"

heated, and

are

followingtable, also

Departmental Report,

consider

to

the

then,
calculating,"

of gas

illuminants

produced by

gases

HEALTH

AND

AIR

122

almost

discharged as
variation.

discharges about

the

the amount

ten

times

individual

with

breathing.

generated,and during
as

much

carbon

dioxide

during sleep. Diet, temperature, "c.,


On

the average,
'6 of

cubic

during complete
foot of carbon

rest

dioxide

IMPURE

per

hour, and

hours

of

AIR

ordinaryactivitya

the air much


On

the

less than

impuritiesprobably
dioxide

dioxide

contained

matter

particlesfrom
From

the

carbon
and

One

and

contains

its

water

butyrate,and

various
any

of

salts of

of

it also
Now

gives off
to

dispute;

calcic

answer,

have

extreme

for Death

question

most

for instance, 300

prison and

Austrian

260

tragedy known
1756, 146 adults

were
as

the

has

were

shut

the air

inorganic,fatty acids,

be

no

several

After

the

prisonerswere

Black

caproic

gives to
and

Is air,vitiated

can

killed

sweat

and

doubt

no

with

such

about

the

answered

the

mentioned, unwholesome

dramatically.

but

substances.
"

himself

of the

phosphate,ferric

skin thus

question

there

cases

matter

salt,lactate,

"
"

valerianic

The

only

vitiate the

still in

unknown

the

to

we

help to

particlesof epidermis ;

other

come

products as
In

also

organic

organic toxin

kinds, organic and

and

and

not

definite

ammonium,

leucin."

sometimes

ammonia,

also

recognised constituents

acetate

various

given off

are

which

kinds

oxide, volatile fattyacids, sometimes


acids,and

by organic

emanations

by

but

vapour,

toxicology is

number

carbon

the

while

vitiation

skins of animals

mention

cannot

indicates

of carbon

trace

cates
indi-

of gas

dioxide

perhaps

with

skin.

lungs and

breath, and

carbon

indicates

associated

those

breath, and

the

products of

waste

air.

the

vitiates

man

dioxide

acetylene;

or

breath

in

dioxide

The

moisture, and

produced by

hour.

foot per

concerned, a

than

serious

more

ammonia,

or

feet of

gas-jet.

of gas.

sulphur,and
monoxide,

acid is

cubic

During

cubic

ri

hand, respiratorycarbon

other

the carbon

numbers,

carbonic

as

foot.

cubic

produces

man

the gas per hour, or, in round

Therefore, so far

'4 of

about

woman

123

the

by
Hole

into

of
room

doubt
times

battle of

Austerlitz,

shut

into

impure

air.

small

In

Calcutta, January

only

the

18,

18 feet square

and

with

only

shut

were

in at

only

23

the

door

following descriptionof
this
I

period

able

not

was

few

strong

so

seconds

windows

to

at

now

eleven

turn

in

the

dead

still alive.

this fearful

place,and

there

out

being
the

all that

Black

that

morning

the

on

and

with

to

only

this

small
have

remaining
lungs

own

6.20

feet

space

Life

2,

condition

came

on,

The

long, n
the

suffered

and

cabin
feet

passengers
inconvenience

the

see

developed

poisoned

were

bodies."

and

between

home,

Sligo
by

G.

and

Henry

") :
"

left for

1848, she
on

',

entered

would

23

in

creatures

had

described

thus

passengers

below.
18

is

Common

December

weather

was

only

their

At

release.

they

the

made

had

of the survivors

Many

The

tragedy

hundred

go

whether

were

to

came

in such

living

who

half-dead

were

Londonderry going

The

Friday

Stormy
one

from

("Physiology of
two

these

the

those
it

others

and

146 souls who

of the

boils.

steamer

"On

23

day.

dying, and

equallyterrible tragedy took place nearer

Liverpool.
Lewes

livinggrave

doubtful

very

of another

almost

their

prison,and

exhalations

An

this

By

death

havoc

ordered

he

remained

Hole

putrid fever

by

of

it seemed

the

governor

delirious.

from

morning

next

the

delirium
arose

now

at

or

awfully affected

most

Indian

came

steam

six o'clock

At

of the

ears

which

dead

were

outrageous

an

quite ungovernable.

many

that

than

more

those

except

and

greater numbers

living were

and

Everybody

At

"

prison

for

way

the

gives

night :

the

from

that

outrageous

grew

the

of

came

head

my

time.

o'clock

those

flavour

morning

next

survivors

horrors

the

were

some

6.20

at

the

of

One

left alive.

were

opened

was

hour

an

They

it.

ventilate

to

within

p.m., and

dead, and when

windows

small

two

HEALTH

AND

AIR

I24

Liverpool,

board, mostly emigrants.


the

captain

for the

every

steerage passengers

wide, and
were

ordered

7 feet

crowded

if the

high.

they

hatches

had

Into

would
been

IMPURE

left open
for

"

some

be

to

; but

the

down.

over

become

intolerable.

frenzy
the

of

the

entrance

Then

the

the

robust

more

mate, who

force

called

was

of the

; this

his

and

were

already dead,

their

bodies

were

convulsed, the blood

eyes,

nostrils,and
the

of

mass

Times

In the

holocausts

is

sardines

course,

under

ordinarilybreathed
contain

is,of

indoor

that

attribute much

and

if
course,

Every

one

in

frightful

one

spectacleenough
the

wretched

extreme

cases.

to

niggers
similar

of the

persons

it does

foul air
and
air

the
is

as

ill-health

cause

material

it

ill-health,in what

believed
universally

days
nowa-

and
impure by respiration,
the

to

vitiated

infectious

cause

almost

health.

To

bad

air

we

anaemia, the pallor,the neurasthenia,


of slum-dwellers

engaged

knows, too,

produces headache,

such

or

germs

Such

circumstances

habitations

air,rendered

general ill-health
most

dead

decks, many

human

harmful

is

combustion,

the

their

/th, "lay

between

asked, Does

in

and

It

manner?

"

ordinary

infectious

the

apart from

very

still be

question may

may

dying;

were

startingfrom

the

when
slave-trading,

breathed

never

many

spectacle:

occurred.
are, of

These

fearful

heart."

like

packed

were

of

deck, and

on

December

death

and

agony

stoutest

days

of

dying, and

living,the

mingled

the

appal

of

scene

ears."

"These," reports the

heaps;

soon

expiring and

way

seventy-two

to

stopped only by

was

to

fastened

This

horrible

groans

contrivingto

men

the

the

air.

same

occurred

tarpaulin

condemned

now

the

closed,and

cabin,and

were

again

over

be

to

ordered

the

to

passengers

violence,amid
of

alarm

to

and

and

curses

one

explained" he

wretched

breathe

these

not

over

The

125

captain ordered

reason

thrown

AIR

loss

in

how

of

and

factoryworkers

sedentaryindoor
a

occupations.

close, stuffy atmosphere

appetite,and

even

faintness.

126

AND

AIR

And

yet when

it

difficult

begin

we

to

difficult still to

more

of

of

than

more

seen,

organised and

dioxide.

discover

how

are

the

to

putting

health ?

organic
the

of

indoor

The

air

as

we

and

of carbon

question for

the

excess

detrimental

is not

particularly

suspicion naturallyfalls

so

acid

the

in

in

it

dust, of moisture,

the

dust

carbonic

expired

matter

of

out

moisture, and

excess

find

we

evil.

matter

constituents

Ordinary
is

the

on

of

find

we

places contains,

amount

germs

of these

any

pernicious,nor
either

normal

matter

it works

inhabited

the

guilty,and

inorganisedorganic

Now,

moment,

into

air

ill-ventilated indoor

have

look

to

bad

the

prove

HEALTH

or

the

on

breath, and

of

excess

exhaled

from

seldom

arises

skin.

Now,
above
six

as

have

we

volumes

50
times

abnormal

any

leaned
volatile

have

In

toxin

and

in

they

had

made

been

of

believed

the

the

Loye,

In

and

and
and

Dastre

Injected 5

"

to

d'Arsonval's

that

75

to

30

to

53

"

50

to

"

30

2
2

rabbits

"

dog

they

in

had

proved

expired breath

of

breath.

the

unlike

not

They

Brieger's

Dastre

however,

controverted

of

c.c.

and
Brown

follows

as

were

of

fluid

"

result

"

negative.

c.c.
c.c.
c.c.

90
water

reported that

experiments.

to

33
5

many

by injectingbeneath

ptomaine

Loye's experiments
with

health, and

d'Arsonval

year,

some

pernicioustoxin.

Hofmann-Wellenhof

rabbits

young

be

produce

or

contain

must

matter

moisture

following

guinea-pigs,,
dogs

"

the

Von

S^quard's

"

condensed

poison

the

of animals

death

the

and

requires about

investigatorshave

the

thought

Sequard

it

breathing
air

find

to

poisonous organic

caused

ptomaine.

the

impure

Nowak

1887 Brown

their skins

since

prejudicialto

1879 Seegen and

the presence

that

opinion

organic

attempts

and

disturb

to

dioxide

physiologicaleffect,many

the

to

carbon

10,000,

per

much

as

the

seen,

"

"
"

died.

"

"

"

"

AIR

that

the

were

injected and

not

considered

They

fluid

of

IMPURE

In

experiments

to

put rabbits in
with

in series
that

the

the

each

other

final cages

only

others.

carbon
and

The

dioxide

the

result

The

matter.

breathed

which

cage

from

the

in the

rabbits

rabbits

1890 Lehman

and

fluid of

hydrochloric acid, and


which

chloride
and

never

litre.

No

confirmed

alkaloid

could

Beu

year

be

really due

was

And

about
and

the

to

Lorrain

it

through

analysis of
colourless,

with

of

decayed

In

the

explain
the

teeth
in

cages.

the

away

removal
also

Merkel

1892

good

Smith

of

trace

milligrammes

10

the

nating
ema-

of ammonium

amount

time

same

effect
of

cage

of

the

moisture

Rauer, Lubbert

made

experiments,

negative results.

Nevertheless, in 1894 Brown


their

originalthesis

organicpoison.
vapour

to

that

organic

died, while

cages,

found

also

penultimate

careful

detected.

tried

suggesting

Peters, Haldane

with

than

more

of

was

air filtered

product

Sequard's results

same

air.

be

to

the

It contained

small

very

to

sulphuric acid
the

amounted

experiments by
from

breath, and

seemed

Brown

the

In

made

way

solution,

by organic matter

fluid,of neutral reaction.

odourless

excess

it of any
in

breathed

Jessen

of

last cage

preceding

which

last cage

condensed

and

in the

lived.

the

vitiated

air

such

soda-lime

clear

rabbits

They

connected

in

cleared

to

further

aspiratedthrough

as

through

that

sulphuricacid

In

air

penultimate and

was

excess

air.

were

tubing

was

through sulphuric acid

drawn

the

obtained

air, however,

air between

the

which

cages

drawn

to

made

d'Arsonval

rubber

by

by being

simply

toxicity of expired

of metallic

row

due

toxin.

any

and

the

prove

to

Sequard

Brown

1889

deaths

127

of the

In

Sequard

that

and

expired

d'Arsonval

air contains

1895 Dr. Sivierato "collected

breath

of persons

sufferingfrom

tained
mainvolatile

the aqueous
diseases

of

128

AIR

AND

respirationboth

with

and

respiratorydisease

no

health, and

lastingthree

diseases
respiratory
from
To

settle the
on

S.

by J.

Smithsonian

Billings,S.

W.

air

there

poisonous
which
of

the increase

or

factors.

two

due

quantity

expired

from

it is
in

who

men

probably

scales
air.

In

particles
may
"III.

to

The

nitrogen,or

act

of

dead

ordinary

coughing

probably be
minute
other

quantity of

of human

products

of the

breath

on

in

the

oxygen

improbable

that

in

the

the

air

influence

and, hence,

rooms,

into

account

rooms.

bacteria,epithelial

contained

in the

expired

organisms or

out.

ammonia

matters

appears

or

found
to

be

decompositionof organic

constantly going

of

of these

sneezing,such

or

thrown

oxidisable

moisture

are

or

combination

this factor

of such

tissue

is

observed

air

deleterious

any

take

in

which

contained

matter

to

that

specialform

such

ordinary quiet respirationno

In the

and

rabbits,guinea-

diminution

the

has

the ventilation

of
particles

or

indicate

any

of

it very

it in

unnecessary

providingfor
"II.

make

lungs

inhale

Bergey,

(excluding man)

animals

acid,or

organic

human

H.

sparrows,

in these

also
of

D.

mentioned

entirelyto

They

taken
under-

Washington

peculiarorganic matter

no

of carbonic

minute

upon

Institute of

injurious effects

be

to

result whatever.

in this research

animals

The

that

"

produce

to

disease.

appeared

the

to

tends

is

no

results obtained

men

disturbance,and

no

no

expired by healthy mice,

pigs,or

reflexes

of fever with

cases

Mitchell, and

follows

with

those

were
question investigations

behalf of the

I. The

the

little or

produced

moot

they reported as
"

caused

in health

persons

from

; that

days

in

persons

diminished

and

fever

of
from

That

rabbits.

produced

six

to

fever,and

with

into

with

fever,of persons

without

but

injectedit

diseases
respiratory

HEALTH

mouth

and

of combined

in the condensed

largely due
matter

which

pharynx.

to

is

This

much

so

in

in

as

proportion

functions
performance of physiological
smell

bad

that the

is

nose

sensitive

so

The

fact

very

would

odours

such

to

that

close

so

faintness.

or

nausea

cause

may

the healthful

and
is

and

smelliness.

its

to

organic effluvia

relationshipbetween

The

dioxide

of carbon

the amount

proportionto

it contains,

moisture

HEALTH

AND

AIR

130

to

seem

suggest their harmfulness.


the

What

is obscure, but

they

unpleasant smell
volumes

was

and

Haldane

and

the

standard

of

in

the

what

decomposition
to

knows

it may

of the

the

odour

that

such

skin
and

fever

nerves

system

much

the

exceed

the

air,

excess

volumes

admit

Parkes

odoriferous

"

may

in

kidneys,one
variety
microbic

the

even

products,
individual.

of the

dog's

becomes

skin

in its diet ; one

meat

from

white

consumption,

as

that

the

may

be

and

knows

man

; one

cancer,

harmful

and

in

one

the
case

suggest that the

Kenwood

through

and

from

emanations

volatile substances

induce
ultimately

alterations

the

patient characteristic odours,

considerably,and

of

of

diseases

give

that

cleanliness

different odour

in another.

not

action

too

therefore

vary

higher

result in divers

may

that

has

must

sweat

and

negro

one

an

where

rooms

considerable

air,and

health

that

rhuematic

the

the

it have

knows

is

that

outside

in the
"in

De

the carbonic

as

to
relationship

contribute

to

unpleasant if
a

skin.

important eliminatingorgan

an

its vicarious

of volatile substances

One

that

personal cleanliness

realise that

according

the

soon

that

remark

Osborne

considers

one

skin is,and

must

above

10,000

per

character,and

unpleasantsmell being perceptible."

any

When

perceptibleas

experience, considerably

our

in

be

may

barracks,stated

of

air

became

acid

without

the

examining

Chaumot,

may,

probablymanifold

are

they originatechieflyfrom

suggest that

we

substances

malodorous

of these

nature

on

the

circulation
respiration,

the
central
and

olfactory
nervous

nutrition,

IMPURE

which
What

be

may

disease

"

the

It will

of

many

the

these

and

and

made

who

and

that

yet they have


It

ventilation

and

men

of

source

very

possible

altered

the chief
The

are

in

disease

and

by

other

deficient

ventilation.

microbes

numerous

calculated

that

about

in

may

London

300,000

of

and
his

died,

results,

and
and

bad

dirty.

organic material,

and

germs.

the

skin

that

air ; but
air

decayed

We

be

have

microbes

are

air and

Clair
be

day.

in

air, and

likewise

St.

it must

even

teeth

demonstrated.

outside

be, and

be

in the breath.

chapters,the
in

it is

may

effects of vitiated
to

is the

organic matter,

new

chloride

microbes

of
representatives

expired

Formanek

than

of

conditions.

vitiated

the

contain

numerous

more

fair

dust

in so-called

yet

shown

of

garments
diseased, wearing under-

amid

has

air

breathe

in

contents

confirmed

decomposing

the

have

boils,"

rabbits,and

the diseased

and

between
relationship

we

that

excess

overcrowding

hardly

of ammonium

source

and

presumption,then, that

poison

shown

its microbic

with

chronic

are

with

fair

that

been

it has

we

long evening

dogs

among

cage

character

in

and

of toxic influences

under

that

livingin dirty houses

chief

as

made

unwashed

into

extract

common

the

seems

during

natural

women,

There

account

underclothes

been

saturated
and

healthy to

result of

of the

much

evidence

noted

in

rabbits

The

the

not

most

are

the

in

experiments have

not

be

must

be

extract

sweated

other

be

of Calcutta, it is stated

hardly

watery

they showed

though

that

of skin

cases

developed putrid fever

dancing,and injectedthe
found

in

hardly

can

health."

good

moisture.

had

they
Hole

could

ailments

Arloing
man

Black

of

emanations

remembered

survivors

dioxide

carbon

be

of the

quoted

but

say,

131

the maintenance

of the

nature

cannot

we

breathe.
have

with

inconsistent

are

AIR

Now

Thomson
common

the

inside

increase

shown

quite

As

how
has
to

question

AIR

132
has

still to

AND

answered

be

HEALTH

microbes

the effects of these

to

as

the health.

on

We

know

that

destroyed
removed

the

in

microbes

cause

certain

diseases.

make

simply

classes

two

likelythat

which

cause

to the

health

effect

of

; and

that it is
never

normal

and

be

the

of

and

pernicious

the

of

excess

microbes

them

air, and

noticed

with

air.

Now

too, that

must

to

it

in any

were

these
certain

to vitiated

in

moist,

centres

vaso-motor

implies

atonic

stimuli

condition,

forgetfulof

grow

an

still air the

warm,

relaxed

it

important

are

the

air is

stagnant air is air that

which
In

remain

regard

conditions, and

reflexes

metabolism.

disused

the

many

remembered,

the

natural

vessels

cutaneous

of

surely

destroyed

to

are

none

is

into

yet be detrimental

may

there

be

must

under
skin

It

are

partly due

be

usuallystagnant
of

microbes

to

their life processes.

point to

occurs

absence

by

divide

which

Where

inhabitants

vitiate it

Another

to

It

reasonable

surelyvery likelythat

air may

certain

footing and

harmful.

of disease

in

hardly
to

and

extraordinary if

very

are

and

are

probably

are

gaining

seems

microbes

it is

harmful.

microbes

it

harmless

"

it contains.

degree

in

division

many

vitiated

be

extent

But

symptoms

no

microbes
would

succeed

hard-and-fast

inhale

we

know, also, that

We

by phagocytes.
certain

microbes

the

air-passages,and

upper

cases

very

of

most

their

reflex function.
It

probable,then, that

disturbance

and
an

seems

of the

of carbonic

excess

in many

cases

laden

effete emanations
Let

us

of carbon
air.

Has

glance
dioxide

various

in

with

and

this variation

moment

the
no

at

diminution
vicious

; it contains

ways

bacteria,bacterial

the skin and

discomfort

causes

acid ; it is moist, warm,

from
for

health

vitiated air

stagnant

; and

products, and

lungs.
the

effect of the

of oxygen
effect?

excess

in vitiated

IMPURE

air there

In normal

in

; but

10,000

alveoli of the
dioxide.
in

the

the
"

dioxide

of carbon

have

effect

no

It must

the

on

increase

the

in

Any

work

and

in

pure

in the

of

there

will be

diminution

effect,and
the

and

keep
the

carbon

the

oxygen

into the blood


the

and

and

and

obvious

pressure

rate

of

take

low, and
to

particularly

small

very

consequences.
moisture
be

to

there

given

any

addition

heated
that

compensate

can

is economical
has
in

to

the

will almost

less oxygen

particular

objective physiological

will put
living,

less resistance

with

nerve

It is true

ventilation

dioxide

she

such

of oxygen.

labour

high

in

is

latter

the

least

at

more

air be

more

fire of life will burn

of work

if the

no

the

air

of mental

in

probable

will there

still,nature

that

pressure

her standard

and

an

atmosphere,

considerable

increased

the

diminution
find

it is

diminution

produces

that

if she

dioxide

taken

system

nervous

less oxygen

further

the

his power

that

has

that

in

cool, will find

and

have

air ; and

this would

carbonic-acid-laden

Nature

may

air,the

volume

for

dry

carbon

more

cubic

the

dioxide

compares

blood, that

difference

Now, the
are

in

central

the

well-oxidised

oxidative

carbon

who

one

is affected.

pains to supply
pure,

of

The

contained

Osborne

readily assumed

too

pensatory
com-

the air in the alveoli.

diminution, showing

considerable

metabolism

and

breathing.

dioxide, and

carbon

be

by

constant

of the

Haldane

composition of

latter be

if the

even

of

amount

quite harmless.

lungs is kept

deepening

not, however,

of

proportion

by

volumes

57

carbon

of

cent,

per

considerably,the proportion

vitiated air examined


or

air in the

dioxide

in the alveoli of the

only 56

or

the

"

carbon

the

quickening and
most

dioxide

of carbon

actually breathe

we

though

air increase

133

volumes

or

contains

lungs

Even

are

air

AIR

from
there

disease.

be

of

effort,

expended

alveoli

low

to

and

certainlyreduce

less carbon
it ; and

will be

dioxide

accordingly
less power

AIR

134
It may

be contended

in time

accustomed

such

the

poor,

as

and

removal

the
from

impure

and

the

Even

importance
is

and

of

the

of

foolish idea

themselves

Calcutta.

This

going
of

almost

suggests)was
know

that

the

sun-down
the
at

is due

fact that
that

time.

bedrooms
not

are

very

malaria

in much

matter

lower
of fact

it is

the

even

There

mankind

shut
waken

was
more

found

of

Hole

Black

the

as

air,

pure

bedrooms, and

to

that

liable to

bad

air at

contract

that

neous
erro-

those
attacks

Now

malaria

we

after

to

to

fly abroad

prejudiceagainstground-floor

the
the

air, night air

time, but due

mosquitoes begin
manner,

same

are

more

since

likelyto

mosquitoes

attack

those

floors.

night air

is purer

few fires are

hand,

paramount

is not

bad.
particularly

be

bad

to

Probably

the

due

to
liability

high flyersand

fewer germs

time

the

arose

sleepingon
As

not

be

to

increased

(as the etymology of the word

since malaria

to

It

much

were

supposed

wonders

probably originatedin

malaria.

naturallysupposed

was

foul

as

false idea

malaria,and

to such

faintingpatient?

air of their

after sundown

out

answer

proportionof

considerable

of
interpretation

follows

the

prevalent that night air

atmosphere

an

city

doubted, when

it be

revive

into the pure

and

always
work

may

well-fed,shows
Can

fresh air may

accordinglya

in

tone

air.

stances,
circum-

appetite,nerve-vigour,bloodfollows open-air treatment,


which

in

rich and

fresh

other

which

window

open

muscular
in

even

whiff

an

to

air,is sufficient

pure

improvement

quality,and

to

of the

country poor

in health

improvement

contention.

between

in health

much

depressingsurroundings,

feeding and

poor

that

reallydue

air is

becomes

constitution

air,and

vitiated

bad

to

difference

HEALTH

that the human


to

ill-health ascribed

but

AND

than

day air,since

burning to pollutethe air : it also contains


the other
On
and
and electricity.
more
ozone
of course
colder and damper, especiallyat the

morning

dew

is

deposited.

CHAPTER

POLLUTED

AIR:

GROUND

SMOKE,

FOG,

SEWER

AIR,

AIR,

FROM

Smoke

SMOKE.
consists

of

is

petroleum,

and

gas consists

common

other

chieflyof

MINES,

IN

GASES

OFFENSIVE

house-fire

SMOKE

course,

and

containing

solid

are

solid

and
the

gases

followinganalysis of

"

COMMON

HOUSE-FIRE.

paraffin,

wood,

gas,

FROM

combustion,

matters

dioxide

carbon

of

gases

carbonaceous

the

gives

of

coal, coal

carbon, besides, of
Smith

product

mixture

particles. When

Angus

GASES

TRADES

"

unburnt

burnt, the

particlesof
of

smoke

the
from

air.
a

The

solid

carbon
air

or

as

is

quite combustible, and


all the carbon

oxygen
have

we

of unburnt

carbon

accumulated

per week

million

of

tons

of soot, and

daylightin
Comes

and

two

J. B.

of

from

half tons

Cohen

the

daily downfall

ton

to

sunlightyearly.

upon

by

with
and

its

The
at

rose

faint

the

golden

crags

smoke,

belched

Leeds
into

of about
Well

30

I have

man

lightthat
dawn, and
air

with

which
azure,

from

Ruskin

loved
once

is

worse

that

lament

now

that

least half
the smoke

"

of

possible

In that half

strange evil brought


beloved

tried to make
those

the

defiled with
than

of

tons

of its

cent,

"

Dr.

acre.

daily,and

is at

too

flushed

inlaid

in

than

more

twenty

purple at sunset,
once

of

heath

over

each

the air

seen
or

tons

daylight

Glasgow

about

40 per

or

might

in

matter

calculates

He

that I best

scene

others.

in

seven

equally bad

annually on

is thrown

permitted life of
every

fall

that

mile.

deprives it

of the

of soot

that

that

four hundred

things are

of carbonaceous

the square

about

margin, blackening

calculates

matter

estimates

possiblesunlightand

of its

towns

the

calculates

carbonaceous

Leeds

In other

of six tons

deprives London

smoke

one-half

Primrose

carbonaceous

day

every

had

Thistleton

the rate

N. Shaw

to

up

which

possible sunlight and

its

of about

vapour

Dr. W.

that

mount

soot

deposit of

quantities

Kew, Sir W.

atmosphere

calculates

winter.

holt."

atmosphere

during fog at

mile.

small

smoky air,containingover

he

and

was

air

the

to

one-sixth

summer,

and

there

the London

gives

about

that

carbon

imperfectcombustion,
The

at

supply of

into

away

of the

greenhouse

to the square

London

of

measurement

the

upon

from

burned

; but

substances

carbonaceous

the

given to

From

calculated

matter

"

thus

sufficient

is left unburnt.

carbon

big sum.

Dyer

in such

ordinaryconditions

Under

carbon

of unburnt

with

mentioned, might be

however, some

very

HEALTH

say, consist

we
particles,

dioxide.

AND

AIR

136

volcanic

is

pale summits
umbered

now

clefts of

all

the

languid coils
fires."
.

of

The
.

138

AIR

extinguished,and

he shall

of the
the
as

sky

and

universal

the most

belched

they

are

as

fuliginousbody,

be

can

fumid

by

the

consisted

of

in

Greeks,

the

charged
sur-

city

weak

is,

able to whirl

it

like the

moments

the

or

are

being

upon

are

few

which

impetuosity,

thin and

more

is

works

winds, and

vortices

city,rendering it
sacked

of those

fall down

the

as
dissipated,

three of these

or

pictureof Troy

approaches

of

Hecla."

Even

burnt

if smoke

be

not

at

but by shuttingout
irritant,

What

of

those whose

flowers

vision

natural
to

keep

sunshine

carbon
never

products such
methane, and
have

dioxide

the

it is

quoted

homes

How

the

if soot

and

evil

thing

soot

all it

godliness.
in

Surely grime
in

enters

be

even

poor

unburnt

if it contained

carbon

poisonous gases,

; but

carbon

always associated,as

will

spirits

whose
sullied,

are

can

light

expected

place

of

the

nothing

the unburnt

alone, it always indicates other

goes
as

the

to

be

can

carbon

!
an

were

life

dirty smoke

of

windows

open

is next

un-

the

by soilingwith

in

bound, whose
clouds

by

Verily smoke
carbon

is

joy

soil of crime!

air and

besides

and

cleanliness,which

beauty,what

slain

are

expected
pure

smoky towns,

it prevents
love

is the

of

enough.

health, the morality,and

the

and

Unburnt

chemical
once

serious

dioxide

be

of inhabitants
touches

only carbon

it would

carbon

it lowers

we

fiercest

with

about the whole

may

resist the

which

of smoke

with great

that,rushingout
plentiful

forth,

send

least breath

sooty throats

to

two

Mount

the

capable

before they
so

from

that,because

they

clouds

and

much

poison it so

smoke, and

the

columns

the

forth

thick and

so

of

tunnels

it,that all

air about
and

darken

dispersedwith

stirring.Whereas
are

the

the clearness

by

which
imperceptibletranspirations,

ventilated,and

are

sensiblyconclude

do not

of those

two

or

HEALTH

serenityof

in London

chimneys
one

AND

half-burnt

monoxide, and

analysesof

soot

show, with sulphurousand sulphuricacid.

POLLUTED

Coal
and

contains

the

The

doubt

gardens do
million tons

their

this

period we

Isles.

estimate

may

this

Sixty million
There

quantity.

let

are

many

users

and

the works

From

will be

man

able

find that

to

this

move

quantity of

miles would

require3,700

for

To

year.

put it in another

soil of

in the

cut

length have

to

uniform

be

hold

to

the

astonishment

find that

we

deep, its length would


Dr.

Carpenter,

1887, 960,000
estimate

same

in the

to

of coal
tons

working

every

day

canal

was

of coal
said

than

more

that

of oil of vitriol

as

would

its

"in

fuel ?

canal

consumed,

were

of

years' production of

if the
be

shall

we

was

5 feet

2,200

miles."

Widnes,

giving
to

be

they

do

day

To

at

in

the

deposited

surrounding districts."

These
into

have

with

distance

feet,what

20

use

turn, calculates

in

tons
120

of

day

data

suppose

"

twenty

the

to

men

way

width

sulphuricacid resultingfrom
our

and

horses

vitriol in

factorya horse

these

acid

of

in the Bradford

journeys

From

idea

oil of

of

three

journey.

of the British
some

the user's

to

make

to

each

eighteen carboys

there

that

sixtymillion

over

Manchester, and nearlythe whole of it is made


district.

certainly

has

form

us

Three

season.

the surface

over

our

proportion,so

that

Now

tons

this

in

years

no

wonder

This

tons

of which

no

fruits in due
annum

of oil of'vitriol'have fallen

tons

three million

in the rain

us

upon

for twenty

on

Inspector

(sulphuricacid),most

of oil of vitriol per

going

during

down

burning of

the

followingstrikingcalculations:

the

bring forth

not

"

sulphurous

Davis, late Government

alone,then, produces about

is showered

been

E.

of oil of vitriol

annum

it into

converts

sulphuricacid produced by

Works, makes

smoke

thousand

sulphuricacid.

George

amazing.

Coal

per

of

139

Ibs. in every

of combustion

becomes

of Chemical
"

"

amount

coal is

about

sulphur

process

acid, which

AIR

figuresare

account

perhaps

the
sufficiently

excessive

action

of gaseous

not

take

diffusion and

AIR

140
of wind

; but

it is evident
air is

that

the

both

of

Smith

Angus

smoke

air

the

as

will show

RAIN

Ireland

Inland

Scotland

of carbonic
influence

hydro-carbons,
An

minerals.

pollution

sulphuric
interesting
made

be

can

following analyses quoted

II." SUMMARY

of Valentia

(Sulphates).

taken
(Ireland)

as

100.

country places

75-5

England
Scotland

loo'o

country places west


Inland
country places
Sea-coast
country places average of

"

"

England

"

"

"

"

Scotland

132-2
202*2

and

East

West

German

Liverpool
specimens
Towns
(Glasgow
...

"

London,

...

215-4

east

280.6

...

not

...

...

...

Birkenhead,

...

4T8'7
600-7

604-4

included)

1869
near

206*4

west

Waterloo,
Scotland

from

RESULTS.

OF

Sea-coast

"

by

"

Valentia

"

the

vegetable life.

contains

Comparative. Sulphuric Acid

Scotland"

in

TABLE

That

and

corrosive

very

and

also
other

of

estimate

rain,

sulphuric acid

of this acid

animal

iron, and

and

analyses

to

figuresconsiderably,

acid, carbon, sulphurous and

acids, ordinary coal

comparative

of

amount

presence

carbonic

ammonia,

the

necessarilyexercises

is detrimental

Besides

discount

we

The

enormous.

acid in the air


and

if

even

HEALTH

AND

75o*5

848-2

Liverpool

Runcorn

865-2

Darmstadt

"

1068-5

Germany

St. Helen's

1215-8

England" Towns
Liverpool

i255'3
1450^2

Manchester

1869
Newcastle-on-Tyne
Manchester

average

of

1869

1526*0
16277
1641-9

1870

and

Glasgow
Near

"

an

2571-0
Alkali

works

Sulphuric Acid," writes

measure

of

2685-0

(isolated)

Angus

Smith,

manufacturingactivityand

"

or

also of

sulphate,is

decomposition.

POLLUTED

It is

oxidised,and

part of the

AIR

141

therefore

purified,
sewage

of the air."
RAIN

TABLE

SUMMARY

XV."

Averages. Albuminoid

RESULTS.

OF

Ammonia.
Albuminoid
Parts

Ireland

Valentia

"

Scotland

Ammonia
per

0*34

Inland

"

country places

Sea-coast,,

"

0-39

west

1*05

average

1-05

"

Inland

England"

Million.

1-09

German

specimens
Liverpool

1-59

Runcorn

1-90

1*22

London
...

Scotland

...

...

Towns

"

...

(Glasgow

...

not

...

...

2*05

...

included)

2*12

England
Manchester, 1869

2*14
2^17

St. Helen's

2*30

Manchester,

1869

and

1870, average

2^51

'

1870

"

Glasgow
England

"

"

of

A
snow

ammonia,"
of

sewage

writes

air not

4-00

Angus
of

"

Smith,

purified,and

dangerous substances, germs

most

and

3*00

Sea-coast, country place, west

"

Albuminoid

measure

2-85

...

is

includes

the

livingthings,animal

vegetable."
similar

made

was

results

interestinganalysisof

very

by

Lancet

the

in

London

1906, with

and
the

Kent

following

"

Grains
London.

Free

ammonia

0^067

Organic

ammonia

Nitrates

and

Chlorine

...

Nil

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

salt

Common

gallon.
Kent.

0-030
Nil
Nil

0^840

.0620

1^400

1^030

acid

1*730

Nil

solid matters

5-60

Sulphuric
Total

0*039

nitrites

per

Tarry compounds

1-40

r68
Traces

AIR

142
The

"

the

had

"

origin,of

smoke, and

like

and

the
"

water.

There

give off

to

These

the

and

This

share

also

caused

tension,and

they

the

the

dust

dust

coarse

tar

by

the Kent
distilled

with

failed

or

organic

on

heating

compounds."

also show

of the

how

consideration

rain

fog.
vapour

few, the fog

particlesare
a

of

of water

comparativelylarge

particlesare

the

if the

even

unequal

in

particlesbe

larger particleswith

with
particles

will rob the others.

particlesbe

earth

capacitiesfor condensation, the fog

be

since

numerous,

residue

particlegets

If the

different
to

from

sulphur

no

the condensation

by

If the

dust.

since 'each dust

tend

to

only give interestingindications

of moisture.

with

or

obtained

absolutely

naturallyto

are

of
particles

is coarse,

same

purify the atmosphere.

brings us
"

sulphur

to the

brought

nearly identical

atmosphere, but

coal

is

and

ascribed

been

evaporated

not

the

Fogs. Fogs
on

substances

tar, ammonia,
impurities,

water

was

heating.

on

ammonia
be

fumes

brownish

smell indicatingcoal
slightest

must

snow

hand,

the

tables

pollutionof

have

The

was

and

ammonia,

to

of these

therefore

other

much

so

snow], says

evolved

were

analysisis

snowstorm."

on

snow,

of

of tons

sulphur,must

this recent

tar

empyreumatic

the presence

Hundreds

source.

of

in the

London

the

[of

tarry smell,and

coal

course,

is indicated

as

"

marked

smelling exactly
The

HEALTH

residue

evaporated

report,

AND

and

numerous

the
On

with

the lower

equal

will

more

surface

greater capacityfor
the other

size,

densation,
con-

hand, if the dust

surface

tension

and

equal capacityfor condensation, the fog will tend to be fine


and to persist,
and the persistencywill be speciallymarked
if the
The
various
and

on

have
particles

capacityfor

chemical

condensation

circumstances,
mainly
their chemical

carbon-dust

which

cool

on

for
affinity
of dust

particles
depends

their power

for
affinity

water.

water.

of
Thus

on

radiatingheat
particlesof

will readilycondense
readily,

moisture

AIR

POLLUTED

(even

blade

as

of salt-dust with

of

rather

is

in

instrumental
The

air.

the

returning

salt and

quickly condense

and

it
It

it.

is

ocean

it has

water

join again

water

the

salt of

it the

to

particles

firmlyretain

will

the

that

think

to

strange

and

dew)

will

water

saturated,and

before the air is

even

condenses

grass

for
affinity

an

143

given

the

to

return

to

ocean.

occasion
when

sulphuric acid,

and

ammonia

has

steam

blown

been

been

has

sulphur

burned

knife'

'cut

with

that

it is

impossible to

5 centimetres

of

the

fog.

we

and

ammonia

one

vessel

If

"

salt

dust

known

been

condensation

considerable
to

the

Hon.

and

the

sea

vapours

the

city

and

with

active

There

to

45,000

as

fogs: they
on

increases

caught

and

acid ;

cubic

winds.

it,and

sky.

The

forms

they are

what

in

to the

moisture

city
are

in

situ

by

the

air.

produced,according

Once

metre
centi-

that

dust

fogs are

plenty

assumed

formed

the

particles,

accompanies fogs

rule
are

present

carbon

80,000 per

darkens, owing
in

from

sulphite

Russell, by the meeting of cold

and

fumes

poured

elements

are

It is often

; but

than

more

agents.

all the

are

was

is it

dense

sulphate and

case

little

sulphur
be

can

precedes and

south-west

the

it

produced

ammonia

sulphuric

of London

Rollo

warm

and

this

moisture

number

of

they

fog

of

depth

air

very

So

be.

fogs

heavy

counted.

of

readilythickens

ever

should

and

"radiation"

as

if

says,

that

or

the

air which

from

come

persistentfog.

particlesnumbering

fogs

air in which

dense

cities there

the

In

have

In

ammonia
particles,

of them.

into
so

so

probably

fine

fog,"he

artificial
is

"

The

addition

The

fog

present in the

are

through

see

make

In

"

might

it."

are

City Fogs.
form

is

another."

to

of ammonia

to

it

the

"

fog.

aggravate

or

especially

further that if certain vapours,

has shown

Aitken

formed,
carbon

chemical

east
northa

fog

particles

pall between

condensing

on

the

carbon
and
a

out

of them

down,

and

dissolves
particles

also

them

weighs

wet, acrid

cloud.

If the dust

particlesbe

little moisture

so

is known

fog

as

In

earthward

they

may

to

be

few

to

to

evaporate
Such

concentrated

the

irritating.

very

hundred

as

condense

ground.

warmer

may

sink

as

owing

solutions

fogs hang

cases

some

the

dry fog, and

of its chemical

nature

touch

they

they

dry, and

seem

they occlude,

the gases

numerous

very

to

as

dryness when

actual

HEALTH

AND

AIR

144

the

feet above

ground.
of

surface

the

of

hydrocarbons

The

The

carbon

more

general result
air, and

individual

the

of

fog

fog

in

escape

of

the

dioxide

of

respirationas

without

smoke

smoke

and

away

of smoke

According
black,
or

to

little

and
the

its colour
or

green,

almost

bland.

London

more

and

than

smoke,

is

of

combustion.

Even

the

million

is

it

fog

but

be

most

"

bination
com-

the

fog

brown,

or

in

irritating

burns

is certain

chimneys

curse.

be

we

in

the

it may

When

quickly

may

chemicals

it may

fog

pernicious

so

undoubted

the

chieflythe

moist

city is large and

offensive.
a

an

acridityvary

When

carbon

little harm,

do

yellow, and

or

the

"

city fog

harm, and

nature

and

of

cloud

prevents the

dry atmosphere

water

quantity of coal, however,


dark-coloured

make
a

may

it also

fogs, but

be

in

fresh

irritating
vapours

dioxide

as

The

it is.

citizens

and

well

in

atmosphere

sunlight and

carbon

that

do

out

all the

form

would

there

persistent.Smoke

do

on

prevent

blacker

shut

city-made

of

smokeless

so

to

film

the

unfortunate

concentrated

concomitants

contains

It contains

chemicals.

of smoke

diffuse

oily

an

fog dropletstend

is to

suffocate

half

to

of noxious

and

forming

evaporating.

from

them

smoke

to

be

realise

breathe

soot, sulphurous acid, vapour

large

usually
that

in

forth simultaneously
of

water

AND

AIR

146

CARBONIC

In

some

cases

the carbonic

acid
as

SULPHUROUS

ACID

IN

HEALTH

ACID

IN

AIR.

LONDON

percentage has
'350 during fogs.

MANCHESTER
ANALYSIS

(Milligrams of Sulphur

(Milligramsof Sulphur

AIR

been

(DETERMINED

known

BY

to rise

MANCHESTER

COMMITTEE).
Trioxide

Trioxide

per

100

in

100

Cubic

Feet.)

Cubic

Feet.}

as

high

AIR

AIR

POLLUTED
have

to

been

publichad
of the

The

Nine

fog.

have

Hon.

people of

one

pricebeing

"5,250

company

five hundred

thousand

sent

Rollo

London

in

out

from

per

cubic

extra

follows

fog as

annual

the

calculates

destruction

of

the

:
"

"
1,100,000

200,000

50,000

100,000

theatres,"c

100,000

stonework, granite,marble, "c.,

public and

privatebuildings
chimney-sweeping
Window-cleaning of public and private buildings,
on

were

loss to

washing (including extra soap used for all


purposes). Dr. Arnott's estimate some
years ago
much
was
higher,namely, ^2,500,000
all textile fabrics
Dresses, curtains, carpets, and
damaged and renewed
Wall-papers replaced,time and labour
Houses
in 5 years
painted inside or outside,say once
instead
in 25 years, and
of once
whitewashing
"
c
ceilings,
Restoring gilding,metal work, shop fronts,names
of streets,
works
advertisements,stations,pictures,
Slow

account

largestquantity

Extra

of art,monuments,

or

foot,the

of coal

tons

the

on

cent,

day."

one

Russell

35

35. per

produce the 96,000,000feet"

to

ever

The

this

to pay

carbonised
we

ordinary January day, of

an

35,000,000 feet.

over

147

1,000

Extra

including station roofs, "c.,

of

time

20,000

servants

included

50,000

Extra

gas, candles, and lamps used


Escape of ^th
part of fuel into atmosphere

Depreciation

of

illness caused

travellingof

40,000

property, loss of time


by fogs,loss of time and money
house

who

persons

otherwise

would

London

100,000

...

by
by

live in

estimated

Not

"1,761,000

The

Effectof

Smoke

effect of the
been

probably

carbon, carbon
in

and

Fog

chemicals

the

of smoke

overestimated.

Health.
on

Ordinary

dioxide, carbon

ordinary proportions, acts

on

the

smoke

monoxide, and
on

the

health

"

The

health

nicious
perhas

containing
sulphur gas

chieflyin

an

AND

HEALTH

148

AIR

indirect fashion.

It diminishes

of dirt.

depresses the spiritsof

the

Thus

it

leads to

and

smoky towns,

sunlightand

the

must

that there

are

that many

and

breathe

It is

moisture

and

is at
a

harmful

to

and

When

in all

the

noxious

vapours

into
large cities,

rises.

fortnightof

The

dense

fog

ending January
number, being
took

place in

2,

whooping-cough,
58

; diseases

pneumonia,
103."

rate

173;

is

retain.

effects

phthisis,
42;

by

smoke

of

is often
are

writes

in London

per

it will

sunlight it

for

and
"

one

1,484 the

thousand.

the

rated.
exagge-

increases

Russell

of 42

the

undoubtedly

helps to

sickness

deaths

suffer,

for condensation

fog,its evil
Rollo

with

matter, and

the

the

After

week,
average

Increases

Measles,

114

old

36; apoplexy,

circulatory
system,

other

black

concentrated,as

followingdiseases

of the
in;

the

life

through

1892, exceeded

the

at

the

Hon.

they

mixed

the

smoke

it

Always during city fogs


death-rate

air

pernicious will

nucleus

plants,both
is further

the

of half-burnt

and

ways
rail-

of these

none

plant

because

man

this smoke

in their dwellings,

perniciousbecause

more

retention,and

and

more

Black, damp, concentrated

vapour.

case

animal

of the amount

measure

pointed out

becomes

smoke

the

the

tend

underground
from

sunlight,and

with

of their

means

chimneys

health

their

smoke

the

be

It may

that

that

which

smoky, sooty atmosphere,

very

the

sequent
con-

remember

smoke

smoky air,and
in

of

in this respect
must

we

the officials on

when

It will be

more

once

debars

source

inhabitants

Even

besides

proper

concentrated

be.

interfere

very

only

blacker

the

mixture

in

suffer

to

seem

breathe.

and

no

and
engine-drivers

must

largecities.

in

live indoors

that

classes

the poor

peasants have

and

much

too

circumstances

many

demoralise

to

smoke

blame

not

squalor,discomfort,and

intemperance and degradation.


we

the

it is

age,

1 06

per cent.

bronchitis, 170

respiratorydiseases, 135; accidents,

POLLUTED

A
he

fog in

1880

giveswill

The

was

show

of

with

moisture

and

The

majority of

quoted
So

thick

the

In

at

thousands

of

possibility.

no

are

doubt

of

the

dyspepsia,"c.

as

well

in Central
cities

are

Much

sometimes

Cohen

table

in the

may

be
too

are

often much
of the

bad

fog

the

the

on

produced by

such

lightwill

inhabitants

of the

Pygmies, and
average

effect of

suffocation
the

health

limits

but

polluted air,and

deficient

that

cattle

anaemia, neurasthenia,

"

below

several

quite within

is

ill-health

vegetation. The
Africa

fog

actually

are

fog

show, and

results of

chronic

"

dense

Christmas
a

animals

that

during

evident

probable

as

tions,
constitu-

the robust."

produced by J. B.

people by

much

it is very

in weakened

were

among

London

of

These

is

fogs

suffocated

were

were

cases

air,

deadly work.

their

help

to

the

to

of London

constituents

cold

fatal

attributable

main

followingpage.

are

suffocated.

ordinary

intense

many

the

in the

are

the

evidence

on

fatal,as the followingfigures

more

"

says,

concentration

though

149

:"

he
results,

Similar

even

AIR

the

stunt

Itura

inhabitants

of

men

Forest

smoky

height.

fog is, of

course,

due

not

to

AIR

150

HEALTH

AND

10

O
OIOGO
O

ro\o

"

IllJ
ijdS
1"

Tf
rj-

0.

vO

OO

OO

QvOOOtN
t"" O
00

t^OO

00

h
O

en

I
O

f
"

SI

00

o^

OO

\O

io

do

OO

t^OO

io

vo

oo

oo

oo

tv.

i".vo

pi
\p M
do b

rt

5*2

MO

t-"vp ^j-M
c^do M M b

oo

*2

"c^2"^"-,

7" T

ISS

QQ^Q^Q

OOOOOOOQQ

^^

l^w^^^^lll:f^

OP

h vb

c3

S-g "" i

OU

t". t".

i!

PP3P3

.s.a.a.a.ai""*3B

AIR

POLLUTED

the chemicals
and

damp

of

and

talked

far of the

so

polluted

with

hydrochloricacid

and

the

vapours,
since

the

from

chimneys

in

how

acid

fumes.

doubt

no

and

fir-trees and

the

that

the

pulmonary

causes

sulphateof

is

make

utilised to

days

it was

Arsenical

the

by

fumes.
is

however,
discuss

to

the

protest

Edward

I. and

the
of
the

use

He
trees

works

There

can

the

largelygenerated
from
is

gas

sulphuricacid

given

off

and

cattle

and

large one,

for

smoke

alkali waste,

usually

now

; but

in former

mortality.

chiefly from
are

lead

and

sometimes

killed

chemical

fumes,

have

we

might

Fog.
"

been

hundreds

Elizabeth
of

and
have

of

not

be

The

not

space

here

unpleasantnessand

subject of legislation

years.

In

proclamations were

stone-coal

Parliament, in order
Shire

other

subject fully.

of
undesirability
and

to be

subject of poisonous

againstSmoke

Measures

before

chemical

of ill-health and

horses

very

the

respiratorypassages

works, and

tar

and

are

The

used

Happily

gas.

manure

works, and

copper

and

vapours

of

irritates the

fruitful source

of

disease.

ammonia

poisonous

very

of the

most

only

gardener.

vegetation is destroyed.

Sulphurettedhydrogen, which
in

off not

destroyed by hydrochloric

were

gas

arsenical

given

was

neighbourhood

all

as

Evidence

market

such

and

given

heaps.

Stone,

park

gas

is

gas

of

serious, especially

more

waste

by

In

vapours,

hydrochloricacid

of

all the

generating this
be

from

famous

once

much

effect

the

to

come

we

poisonous

but

nature

described

ordinary smoke,

sulphurettedhydrogen

latter most

Commission

Royal

of

chemical

other

becomes

matter

destructive

depressingeffect

effect

When

ordinary smoke-fog.

smoke

the

cold.

have

We

solelyto

contains, but

it

151

in

that
hurt.

London

the

health

the

issued

during
of

reigns

the

the

of

ding
forbid-

sitting

Knights

of

AIR

152
In
In

the

1648 the

against the
In

called
"

66

"

This

of

reign

of

the

well-known

these

with

than
in

corroding

its

the

dews

horrid

smoke

which

impure

fall in

contaminates

smutty

atoms
our

yellowness
does
our

gardens

(as

lights,

hardest

spiritswhich
in

one

year

effect

could

country

The
was

London

and

and

flowers

abroad

die

of

the inhabitants

almost

half

one

phthisicaland
are

remedy

time

the

whereof

and

spreads
hangings
fowl, and

to

in

our

ripen.

or

never

of

who

them

there

free from

patient change

is

none

his

perish

pulmonic distempers;
coughs

rheumatisms, spittingof importunated and


for

and

then," he proceeds,"of all this is,that

consequence

said)

precious

most

diffuses

ating
insinu-

sufferingnothing

bud, display themselves

to

it comes,

pictures

black

those

home, is Avernus

at

quality
it."

to

about

cabinets,and

choicest

our

tenacious

things where

secret

refreshing

precipitatethis

exposed

strews

is this which

this mischief

bees

is

clothes,

our

and

rain

and

churches

our

fouls

seasons,

its black

all

very

upon

very

several

scatters

repositories.Finally it

"

and

more

which

whatsoever

upon

itself into

kills

bars

obscures

the

as

with

It is this which

which

so

the

which

vapour,

spots and

the

palaces look old,

our

which

and

iron

executing
air of

it

plate,gildings and

acrimonious

pure

corrupts the waters,

"

all that

glories,

hundreds.

makes

and

piercing and

to

It is this

and

sullies all her

furr upon

very

sulphur, and

exposure

some
"

which

the

book

King Charles, complains:

to

or

in

Evelyn,

movables, tarnishing the

furniture, and

accompany

crust

Parliament

Newcastle.

writer

addressed

forbidden.

was

petitioned

from

pernicioussmoke

spoiling the

smoke

London

stone-coal

superinducing a sooty

stones

II. coal

of

Fumifugium,"

is that

HEALTH

Edward

citizens
use

AND

so

air

and

and

that

importunate

corrupt

as
infallible,
remove

in

matter

that
into

in
the

and

white

with

smoke, and,

Works

Alkali

smoke

must

acid.

In

T2Qof

distinction

method

Act

the

known

cubic

Act

of

1881

be

employed.

must

has done
Law, therefore,

atmosphere, and

of the

invention

fire. The
Cass's

of various

inventions

Gregory
System,

and

best

done

by

smokeless

Koker

Stoker,

Stoker, Murphy's

System,

Consumer, Whelper and Storer's

Grate, the

Arnott

the

Process, Wegener's

Foster's Smoke

the

producing

Mechanical

Vicars

that

has been

Meldrum's

"

exceed

chimney

in

air

the

prevent the pollution

more

of

legion

Smokeless

Wilson

Furnace,

methods

that
not

must

further

to

deal

good

are

Coking Stoker,

enacted

that

hydrochloric

enact

escaping

something

to

discharged

foot of

enacted

1863

5 per cent,

in

question

hydrochloricacid.

amended

was

the

to

as

of

Act

than

more

hydrochloricacid

grain

its attention

Regulation

1874 the

flue,and

the

it is

seen,

impuritiessuch

contain

not

of

amount

or

have

we

also turned

particularchemical

The

as

difference.

Legislationhas
of

HEALTH

AND

AIR

154

Grate, and

Marsh

many

others.
Mr.
the

Brodie, the clerk of the weather

dailyforecasts
remarkable

some

the

by

figuresat
in

Society
combating

issued

the

illustration

smoke

nuisance
WINTER

year

of

the

"

MONTHS.
Average Annual
Hours

1888-1893
1893-1898
1898-1903

23
22

17

...

1903-1908

10

...

1909.

These

in

25

of 1908

ment
Abatemade

progress

1883-1888

winter

responsiblefor

of the Smoke

Average Annual
Days of Black Fog.

Five-year Periods.

The

is

MeteorologicalOffice,gave

meeting

who

includes

figures,Mr.

50

...

63

...

69

...

74

95

the first two


Brodie

of Sunshine.

months

said,

meant

of the
that

POLLUTED
London

is

now

The

ago.

years
winter

3 minutes.

has

This

Together
for
A

the

the

by
be

and

gases,

Wallace

with

witness

"

The

to

the

Yet

and

and

apathy, an
one

Sir

is convinced.

water

for every

claim

to be

Let

B.

cost

This

this be

inhabitant

of
our

In

of

the

effect

indirect

have

Richardson

began

when

words

of

the

Alfred

the
cities,
ever-increasing
smoke

and

millions

poisonous
forced

are

insanitaryconditions,are
incredible

recklessness

great and

primary

which

is the
season

claim

essential

gospel which

should

tillthe nation
:

and

everythingshould

pure

of the British Isles.

enormous

be

great deal, and

the

of
people of high civilisation,

humanity, and

that

out

W.

system

to
well-being,

out

Spence

city.

terrible

and

season

Mr.

gested
sug-

cityshould

would

dwellings where

this is the

was

city Hygeia.

done.

be subordinate.

preached in

of great

is still

disinfectant

belchingforth

most

criminal

people'shealth

for the time

and

to

chimneys, where

plan

if the

huge

crowded

the

inhumanity.

be

be

of

pointed

plan

the

with

must

live under

to

of

the

problem

have

the

thus

manufacturing towns

vast

He

in his model

grew

something

Russell

enormous

applicable only

city began,
Still

few

scheme, however, would

be

would

chieflydue

is

Spence.

smoke

would

was

adopt

to

Peter

burnt.

that

This

smoke

all the

smoke

and

Mr.

to

sewers

in the

advantages.
Such

hour

fog demonstrates, there


of the

by

ago

completely

sewage,

proposed

to

certainlyimproved

have

Invention

London

every

years

sulphuricacid
the

and

suggestion that

conducted

on

minutes

33

improvement

hopeful solution

many

it could

three

during the

improvement.

very

made

twenty-five

of fuel combustion.

Law

matters, but, as

from

remarkable

than

average

increased

methods

improved

155

healthier town

and

sunshine

daily

months

room

cleaner

AIR

air and

Remember,

advanced

wealth."

listens
pure
we

science

AIR

i$6
The

Air

and

more

cent,

oxygen

of Mines.
carbon

dioxide

and

'2

monoxide

always produced
insufficient

It is
with

is

the

blood

to take

without

of his

close

ascend

dozen

shaft

steps,which

better air. We

would

have

we

all knew

statue

moving

was

fresh air

was

put my
soon

days

some

of

led

tightplace

Of

to my

before.

I cannot

habit,I presume,

of

there

; Mr.

on

the

By

was

hole
were

; but

I took out

my

remained
other

the

time, while

perfectly

was

side

was

and

been
that

and

frequentlyleant

inhaled

in what

is

good

commonly

from
eventually,
note-book.

over

breath.
called

long

At what

of

one

hole had

of

current

perfectlyconscious

was

me,

to

side of the
a

the

my

which

of the

tried to walk

us

Williams

all this

seat.

we

say

foot

to the other

us

all

we

effort to go

any

none

that

arms.

I realised that
'

made

We

is that

The

escape.

very

fact,"he

curious

groaning nearly all

his

to

Captain Reddicliffe,on

good thing for

mouth

"

"

us

Neve

Le

monoxide, givesa

pipes conveying compressed air,in

punched

for life. The

Secretary,

and

on

conscious,though rooted

of

the haaemo-

Clement

Sir

Home

none

shouting and

was

Clague

into combination

renders

experience.

simply sat

motionless,like

an

haemoglobin gives the

carbon

singlerung.

where
partition,

hand,

and

trying to

or

by, yet

even

with

is

poisonous gases

necessary

colour.

the

to

moving

was

it and

the oxygen

up

monoxide

writes,in his report

and

blood

poisoned by

account
interesting

ladder

of the

of carbon

was

of the

one

gas, since it enters

strikingbright red

is burnt

matter

it is

which

gas

mines.

haemoglobin

Foster,who

How

per

monoxide, methane,

carbon

"

20

it is often

and

"

colourless,odourless

dangerous

very

compound

and

gases

supply of air,and

globin unable

the

dioxide

carbonaceous

when

after-damp of

of the

"

carbon

cent,

per

about

ordinary air

than

less oxygen

contains

sulphurettedhydrogen.

Carbon

sat

air of mines

The

"

pollutedwith dangerous
and

HEALTH

AND

force

o'clock

POLLUTED

I first began to write

*he firstpage

on
a

few

words

out
were

my

and
p.m.,'

time

follows

as

'

we

dying,

scribbled
and

help

no

over

then

115 and

ringing for help.

our

wish

the

box

would

bad, I feel

are

other

over

very

all done

I did

then

realise

them

Among
dream,

no

pain at all,no
like

bad

write

in

other

no

when

diluted

stillbe

ro?

yet I

with

in

nine

marsh

Not

carbon

gas, is the

The

it is

placed

2.15

to

we

notes,

my

be

real

no

rescued.
like

merely

I say

general sensation

able

was

Judging by

legs

writing

sleeping.

benefit of others

is

There

were

pain

shouting,my

should

to

got

come.

dreaming

we

No

the

not

130,

spiteof

were

that
'

no
was

properlyand

reason

disjointedfashion."

of the

air,

and

the

samples

two

of carbon

monoxide

in

stated in his report that the air,even


times

capable of renderinga
"

at

have
in

we

later,

body

exactly where

examined

cent,

per

.'

if I

who

Then

if I

pain.'

per cent, and

Methane.

when

pain no

p.m.

darlingsall,

come

does

R. is

see

as

not

come,

darlings.'

pain,for

dream, and

one

I feel

the words
no

does

are

as

thoroughly

J. S. Haldane,

found

or

my

intelligibly,
though

Dr.

knees

I feel

'

occur

pain ;

air,we

not

if I did not

goodbye

not

the bad

Captain

my

"

pain,goodbye, goodbye,
are

saw

by

It does

come.

writing,as

pencil,and

my

find: 'We

further,the box

no

go

affected

dying, your

goodbye goodbye.'

comes,

all became

all

taking

dying,goodbye, goodbye

are

'goodbyes,'I

some

can

we

The

at

notes

all my

dying, goodbye,

are

simply

were

scribbled.

are

we

written

recollect

My

Goodbye,

p.m.

help coming, goodbye

are

perfectlywell

time.

to

They

family badly

Clement, I fear
no

know, for the few words

not

to

from

157

hour put to them.

no

goodbye

watch

my

have

of

is headed

page

I do

AIR

its volume
man

of fresh air,would

incapableof walking.

monoxide,

however, but

great danger of mines.

methane,

It is formed

organic substances, especially


vegetable substances, are

decomposed

in the

absence

of

air and

in

the

presence

of

coal-mines.
with

it is found

Hence

water.

It is

clear

volumes

blue

is

in small
gas, and

gas

in

air and

the odour

with

if breathed

in

mines.

of rotten

soil

is

"

to

the

"

Ground

air

Sulphuretted

eggs

also

"

is

air of

air,that

"

in carbon

than

ordinaryatmosphericair.

with

the season,

and

with

the

in the

death.

mines

nitrate,with

carbon

carbon,

is to say, mixed

dioxide
The

and

exact

with
rainfall,

ground, with

followingtable
GROUND

Am

occurs

poisonous

the

the

poorer

FROM

is

given by

DEPTHS

OF

Fleck

Six, FOUR,

in the

in oxygen

proportionsvary
depth, with

the

atmospheric pressure

temperature, "c.

The

is

sesquicarbonate.

always richer

organicmatter

also

potassium sulphate, carbonate, hyposulphite,

ammonium

Air.

It

oxygen.

sulphide,sulpho-cyanideand
Ground

sufficient

and
monoxide, hydrogen,hydrogen sulphide,

consisting of

sulphur,and

if

largequantities
quickly causes

blasting adds

dioxide,carbon

by explosions

harm

quantities.Sulphurettedhydrogen

Gunpowder
dust

with

mixed

most

respiratory
purposes.

found

sometimes

explosivewhen

without

be present for

oxygen

Hydrogen

"

be breathed

can

caused

been

and

10

however, a poisonousgas like carbon

It is not,

monoxide, and

hydrogen

have

burns

about

explosivemixture,

very

disasters
colliery

of this nature.

quantityof

with

of

seams

which

gas,

mixed

When

flame.

in the

marshes, and

in

colourless,odourless

of air it forms

of the great

HEALTH

AND

AIR

"

AND

Two

METRES.

POLLUTED

rail in

the

AIR

barometer

or

liberatingground air, tends


carbon

dioxide

Ground
such

in

air may,

houses

Air.

Sewer

"

air

of the

good

dwelling-

composition.

and

dioxide

into

the gases

impaired

cause

its effects will

The

air of the

and

the

The

air of marshes

workmen

"

depend

main

health
seweron

is

sewers

employed

in

house

the
paratively
com-

in them

enjoy

health.

Marsh

Air.

"

dioxide, and

hydrogen,

often

and

marsh

contains

gas,

of carbon

excess

hydrogen, sulphuretted

ammonia.

OffensiveGases fro?,.Trades.
Firth

("Theory

waste

products of

"

its

If it leak

it may

but

"

sewage.

pure,

into

anaemia, diarrhoea,headache,

"

throat,"fever, "c.

state

greatly in

mentioned.

quantity

inmates

gases,

sewage

sulphide,carbon

be drawn

of carbon

excess

justbeen

the

among

may

air varies

an

considerable

any

pollutedwith

feet of soil.

many

usuallycontains
have

Sac.,and

gas,

through

Sewer

which

be

proportion of

ground.

sulphurettedhydrogen, ammonium

as

marsh
bisulphide,

It

the

by

temperature,
the

increase

to

of course,

in

rise

air above

the

159

and

Practice

According

"

of

Notter

Hygiene "), the

chief industries

the

to

are

as

and

gaseous

follows

:
"

Hydrochloric acid gas, from alkali works.


Sulphur dioxide and sulphuricacid,from copper works
bleaching.
from
several
chemical
Hydrogen sulphide,
works, especiallythose
ammonia.
producing
Carbon
dioxide, carbon
monoxide, and hydrogen sulphide, from
"

brick-fields
Carbon

and

cement

monoxide, from

25 per

cent. ; from

Organic vapours,

from

iron

works.

furnaces, may

amount

fumes,

from

22

to

furnaces,15 to 19 per cent.


glue refiners,
bone-burners,slaughter-houses,
copper

knackeries.
Zinc

to from

smelting.
copper
of matches.
Phosphoric fumes, from manufacture
Carbon
india-rubber
works.
disulphide,from some

160

AIR

"

both

The

the

and

the

that,
and

are

with

unless

favoured

noticed

produced

constitute,

atmospheric

by

any

in

carbon

still

any

impurities."

the

one

the

sulphuric

particular

instances
outside

majority
appreciable

hydrogen,

sulphuretted

and

the
the

factories

are

It

acid.

so

quantity,

is

these

of
in

very

gases

which

irritating

true

wind

of

conditions

presence

and

arsenic,

bromine,

iodine,

are

hurtful

markedly

more

monoxide,

by

most

if

chlorine,

of

in

the

industries

from

products

gaseous

carbon

compounds

HEALTH

offensive,

of

vapours

weather,
not

the

and

irrespirable

phosphorus,

is

of

majority

being

AND

they
as

serious

to

162

be

is

testified

follow

wonderful

the

by

HEALTH

AND

AIR

great volcanic

round

the

After
Western

Central

and

of sea-salt
distance

in the
the

from

there

Iceland

in

eruption

an

for

Europe

easilydetected

sea.

Thus

of the

world
blue

radiation

and

too, it may
boon

the
It

the

mentioned

important

dust

of the
been

be

these

of the

from

the

magnesia,

contain

must

we

in

count

with

of meteorites.
that
be

to

about

seen

as

twenty-four

every

of

air but

also

only

not

Newton

amount

the

it sinks

dust

in the

which
silt at

sea.

the sea, from

dust

oxide
other

dust,e.g.y unburnt

and

proper,

but

solid

interplanetary
space
chieflyof silica,

consists

carbonate, calcium

calcium
silicate,
iron

in

only

not

soil,from

be considered

large

sea

air.

the dust

atmosphere
a

the

terrestrial but

large enough

our

passant,

on

as

air is laden

Professor

by

furnish

recognised

aluminium

as

reach

the

solar

factories.

from

also with

world, but

meteorites,each

bottom

Dust

may

only
:

En

dust

keep

to

modify

man.

dust, too,

and

habitations

calculated

hours, and

of

help

to

quantity of

sources

not

help

grain of

small

interplanetarysources

shooting star,

may

it

is obtained

20,000,000

the

of the world

rain of dust

the

every

all

"

of

welfare

that

for
fishes,

of human

dust

has

can

presence

Asia, the great volcanoes

green, all

grass

rainfall for the


be

smoke

from

the

carries with

Among
But

and

to the

the water

the

over

considerable

even

Vesuvius, Cotopaxi, Etna

"

sky

The

the great deserts

deserts,the great plainsof Central

is

fog

dust

weeks.

air is

times

Sahara, the Kalahari, the Karroo, the great Australian

"the

the

was

some

years

glorifyingsunsets.

and

rain

world, bringing

for

several

travelled

probably

and

atmosphere,

our

Krakatoa,

found

was

often

so

of

dust

The

eruptions.

consistingchieflyof glassy pumice,


in

which

sunsets

in

addition

to

particleswhich

carbon,

spores

of

phosphate,

such

must

dust
be

air

classed

fungi,pollen grains,

DUST

fluff of various

AND

GERMS

163

kind, bits of insects,starch,particlesof iron,

steel,coal,stone, microbes, "c.


One
the

of the most

of the

humidity

in the
the

form

of

on

such

clouds

the

fogs,and

of the
tree

our

in the

would

would

houses

would

the

chieflyon
amount

of

small

amount

thus

produced.

by

reason

so

kinds

of their chemical
We

condensers.
more

of

passing air

umbrellas
insides

The

and

every

dust

will

fine

of

and

fog will

be

dust

thus

object

deal

this
with

large

only

nucleus

dust, e.g.y sodium


with

depend

are

will

chloride,

specially
densation
con-

question

of

fogs.

Dust, though almost

atmosphere, is
Aitken, who

very

universallypresent

in the

known

irregularlydistributed.

counted

the

dust

particlesin

fog will

subject of
the

produced

coarse

for water,
affinity

we

be

will obtain

plentifuleach

will deal

fully when

the

here.

nucleus

of the water

Certain

in

branch

every

If there

present

of water, and

largershare

use

specialstudy

and

produced by
dust

not

as

moisture."

each

be

made

; the walls

wet

soon

condenser, and

end

come

would

vapour

dripping,and

not

of dust

dust, then

be

town

with

amount

if the dust

obtain

good

would

become
run

and

wet

neither

be

dust, as

deposited by

type of condensation

The

while

become

has

denses
con-

particlesoffer

rain would

water
as

water

always

would

of

of grass

moisture

miseries

our

room

who

blade

Every

drip with

useless ; but
of

"

subject:

dresses

our

supersaturatedthe
John Aitken,

of

would

absence

the surface of the earth

everythingon
words

the

In

dust

the

rain

When

almost

there

by

temperature

fogs.

the

for dust

if it did

sky.

air became

the

surface, and

Except

cloudless

control

to

clouds, mists, and

solid

nor

help

to

atmosphere condenses, it

surface.

from

of

in the

of the dust is to limit

of moisture
air,by causing precipitation

rain,and

formation

vapour

important functions

air in various

found
localities,

and

found

he

Hyeres

in both

number

between

1,550 to 150,000

noted.

On

the

and

of the

116,000

to

of Ben
found

low

as

general

to

210,000

335 to 473

16, and

as

is most

free from

dust

large

in

number

Rain

Professor

examinations

of

dust

air

E.

D.

over

2,125

to

48,000

On

the top

occasion

one

as

and

rule

the

laden

most

he
In

none.

both

wind

in

air

with

decrease

the

the

air

found

at

observers

of

similar

Helsingfors, made

268

Saleve, Biskra, Torhola, Loi-

Grip, and

found

specimen except
in the

had

yard

of

above
Dr.

one.

London

house

500

ticles
par-

Macfadyen
5,000,000

particles.

Mr.

the

Lunt

wilds

other

Melander,

of dust in every
Mr.

garden

London

found

that

and

by

mola, Kristianssund, and

and

on

metre.
centi-

between

170,000.

once

show

in the

examinations

results.

Rankin

cubic

particles.

of dust

Similar

In

was

particles

varied
In

"

and

wind

of

per

number

counted

results

cities.

of the

2,000

found.

were

from

relationship

same

number

Glasgow

Mr.

dust

the

centimetre.

In

blew

Ballagio,Baveno,

the

the

per cubic

the wind

over

were

found.

Aitken's

way

little

cubic

per

were

Nevis

the

on

wind, the greater

direction

Rigi

Eiffel Tower

104,000

160,000

Paris

the

the

to

210

the

On

of

top

between

varied

226

particlesand

dust

metre
centi-

wind, and

he found

populated localities. At Mentone,


in a
specialexperiment at Falkirk

hill at

cubic

of the

occurring when

cases

top of

particlesper

25,000

the direction

according to

centimetre

the

on

direction

Cannes

hill near

the

to

distribution,both

in their

Thus

time.

3,550 to

according
top of

HEALTH

great variations

regards place

as

AND

AIR

164

Indian
490

parts

some

per

over

c.c.

found

Friedlander

Ocean, 280
Red

the

to

to

Western

Pacific

the

over

the

of

2,000

1,375

Sea, and

875

200

to

the Arabian
to

2,500

in

c.c.

Atlantic,

Ocean,
over

4,000

280^to

500

over

Sea, 383
over

the

Mediterranean.
Friedlander

found

Indoors

dust

of the

room

found

were

quarters

another

and

near

into

the

Dust

air with

every

decreases

the

especiallyif
known

the

haze

as

number

the

was

found,
contain

Smoking-rooms

sends

puff he

particles

4,000,000,000

makes.

is

What

humid.

also

be

atmosphere,

the

of

transparency

atmosphere
is

three-

and

hour

laboratory,1,860,000 were

smoker

particles

three-quarters3,500,000.

ceiling 5,420,000.

since

meeting-

275,000

an

ceiling
and

hour

an

Aitken's

room,

more,

after

the

Near

after

the

Edinburgh

of

meeting, and

before

In the

numerous.

more

Royal Society

and

In

140.

are
particles

400,000.

3,000,000,

even

only

(13,600feet)

of the Brieshorn

the summit

On

165

GERMS

AND

DUST

really dust, carrying a

minute

produced by

natural

amount

of moisture.
The
is

dust in the air

mineral

rarely sufficient

irritation of

the

dust

alkaline

responsiblefor

the

country, and

very

made

was

some

of

United

the

Professor

that

influenza

was

Ragona

caused

was

and

dust, and

the
to

gestion
sugprove

that

there

eruptionsand

volcanic

between

attempt

(on

Darwin)

that

in

unsuccessful

Dr.

the

considered

catarrh

Harries

H.

volcanic

by

in time

connection

nasal

of

by

ago

; but

been

has

plausiblethough

years

temporary

membranes

States

prevalence

than

more

cause

respiratorymucous

of

dust,to

qua

agencies

epidemics. Ordinary atmospheric dust, free from


causes
wonderfully little irritation of the healthy

influenza
germs,

respiratorymucous
do

storms

lungs
any

of

air which

lung

to

seem

have

Even
a

and
consumptive patients,

irritation

causing
the

not

membranes.

they

cause

blackens
tissue.

the
There

detrimental

effect

since the

Even

lungs
is

African

dust

possiblyprove

may

healing fibrosis.

the

causes

nothing

the

carbon

very
very

is

duston

aseptic,

beneficial
dust

the

by

in the

little damage

surprisingin

to

this

1 66

AIR

AND

HEALTH

of
comparative invulnerability

ciliated
the

with

provided

are

passages

epithelium,and

nostrils in

When,
man

there

so

well

by

that

with

and

dusts

and

his

in

here

produced
it is told

tell,but

to

story

need

we

air

tonsils

the

mineral

the

Oliver

Sir Thomas

the

attacks.

such

to

dust

to

secretion

guarded by

are

come

we

lungs

mucous

quite another

is

Occupation,"

preparationfor

however,

by

the

"

work,

Diseases

of

adumbrate

merely

the

subject.
The

effect

general

breathed

character
irritating

the

formation

fibrous
The

rapidity of
of the

dust, has

general

in

fibrous

tissue

When

the

the

invasion

dust

is coal

anthracosiS)when

mineral

dust

dust

produced by

of

the

cause

lung

of

dust

the

the

the
The

names.

tissue

lung

irritation is

the

of

nature

special

of

the

dust

to

with

varies

process

received

cases

for

name

destructive

dust, and, according

some

is to

an

completely destroys the lungs.

in time

this

of

lung tissue, resultingin

substance

the

dusts

long period

of the

throughout

tissue,which

character

for

condition

inflammatory

an

artificial mineral

of

by

pneumokoniosis.

condition

known

is

when
silicosis,

iron

as

steel

or

siderosis.

Dust

only

not

lungs, but
infection

it

certain

tuberculosis

and

much

microbes, notably the

pneumonia.

Hence

we

the

liable

more

to

microbes
of

hear

and
and "steel-grinders'
phthisis,"
phthisis,"

masons'

in

inflammatory change
them

renders

also

by

this

causes

"

"

of

stone^^

potters'

rot."
A

fork-grindersaid

shall be
old

an

36

reckoned

at

that

might begin
"

You

know

month, and

next

man

to
a

Dr.

to

our

in

two

of

G.

man

more

years

dropping

knife-grinderis

Hall, of Sheffield
know

you

trade."

about

think

J.

an

off his

old

cock

is

that
of
at

"

getting
said

he

his trade

he

26

perch, adding,
at

30."

DUST
Dr.
the

Tatham, in

Fifty

dusty

sixty

or

consumption

than

the

given

to

to

rate

be

be

likewise

mines, but

there

the

decrease

great

seems

in

interestingillustration
of

occupation
death-rate

in

mining
coal-

former

vulnerable

out

that

mortality from

is very

high,

solely to

pulmonary
very

usually

stock.

few

very

germs

coal-pits.

uncomplicated by

from

for this

reason

heavy

weeded

subject

very

subject to consumption

an

remembered

the

due

the

have

down

Rand

is

were

fittest. The

the

be

must

miners

seems

that

miners

of

must

found

among

of

hereditary,and

Further, it

the

less

are

little doubt
among

generations

On

coal-miners

ago

ventilation

survival

be

"

they

now

relationshipbetween

the

is

can

years

the

better
writer

the

trades

167

Dangerous Trades," gives

The

consumption
of

"

on

ordinary population.

is

the

to

article

an

GERMS

following statistics,
showing

phthisisand

to

AND

and

the

high, though

not

many

infection.

at

the

so

high

the

death

on

dust

The

Australian
as

diseases

cases

irritation of

tubercular

diseases

in

pulmonary

the

and

deathmines
Rand.

is

168

AIR

The

dust

raised

dangerous, and
tin-miners
The

is very

highest

death-rate

mortality from

Canister

converted
the

Stonemasons*
as

179*8
form

among

thousand.

the

phthisis^due

of

disease

The
the

ordinary
extra-

lungs

become

material, composed for

solid

fibrous

the

bricks, and

into

and
silicosis,

which

stone

tissue.
the

to

of

dust

begins

stone,

simple pneumokoniosis, but usuallyacquires tubercular

characters

in the

Potters*

rot

Oliver, in

is due

The

and

his

in

of the

which

the

often

are

that

mineral

with

dust

dusts

poisonous

poisoning by
subjectof

such

that

we

the

of

poisoning is
need

not

the

on

It is littli

common.

properties,mineral

properties may
in

is not

these

also

be

into

industries,
Workers

uncommon.

so

suffer

may

metals.

discussed

enter

other

many

brass, zinc, "c.,

dust

sists
con-

pottery-work,in file-making,in

lead-dust

arsenic, copper,

glaze

metre."

irritative

chemical
In

cubic

phthisisare

with

swallowed.

or

the

and

dried

air, while
work

whose

the

640

atmosphere containing 68o/

an

to

of

metre

finishers,

contained

work

persons

of

excess

bronchitis

lead-poisoningfrom

Oliver

Occupation," states

cubic

and
printing,in glass-polishing,

with

of

duced
pro-

Professor

brushers-off,the

per

breathing

wonder

Besides

dust

the

removing

particlesof

inhaled

Diseases

"

flintydust

of

making pottery.

the
i.e."
finishers,

million

dusts

of

processes

particlesof

in
ware,

inhalation

porcelain-makers generally

million
several

the

to

work,

atmosphere
the

of time.

course

in the various

"

made

per

of

part of dense

most

found

hard, siliceous

then

hard, almost

into

among

ganister-grindersreaches

the

die is

is

and

dust

among

they

diseases

is

death-rate, however,

figure of
which

lung

particularly

is

tin

heavy.

dust

into

ground

HEALTH

for
rock-drilling

in

the

ganisterminers.
is

AND

But

fullyby

it here.

the

from
whole

Professor

their

proved
then,

aerial

universal

long

can

ubiquity

found

they

were

the

scepticallythat
So

that

they

are

be

air must

of

evaporation
than
Germs

thousand

one

be

regions may
of

the

motion)
to

more

dust

bringer,but

and

gangrene,

in

the

as

air

continent, and

truly says
would

be

destroy a

may

that

all the

"

havoc

if

evanescent

but

might

the

in

the

of

thus

and

rain-

In

the

and

death

death

over

people, and

of

ten

times

the

with

dust

tuberculosis,and

whole

compared

air

have

disease

little invisible dust

war

we

air is in

we

of Death.

cholera,and

the

higher

sun-reflector

pestilenceand

sow

may

the

leprosy,and

lockjaw,and

that

atmosphere

and

become

messenger

typhoid,and

soon

air of uninhabited

the

the

as

other terrible forms.

the

the

found, and

be

to

matter

infusion

putrid

buildings(where

only

not

also
lurk

may

in many

always

them.

uncovered

they

are

germs,

they

inhabited

are

germs

consider

there

of

from

do

scarce

and

towns

quite free

with

organisms.

all air

in

organic

into

million

found

not

are

ascend

launch

the

conceivably permit

all

of

single drop

plentiful,
remarked

iron

as

small

so

So

liquid left

fermentation, and

escape

tion,
putrefac-

Pouchet

dense

sweet

no

and

established.

be, that

to

undergoes putrefaction,and

more

fermentation

for
responsibility

their

was

HEALTH

AND

AIR

i;o

floating
a

whole

Tyndall
multiplied

ravages

due

to

atmospheric dust."
Many
dust.
their
As

scientists have
Let

look

us

for

long

ago

1875 Tyndall made

as

exposed

the air of London

"

All

upper
were

about

thousand

by placing them

on
Royal Institution,
an

at

moment

germs

in the air and

of the results of

some

investigations.
He

in

investigatedthe

the

roof

at

tubes

of infusion

various

points in

of his house, in his

kitchen, in his study,in the


smitten

with

rough experiments.

some

and
putrefaction,

to

the

bedroom,

theatre, "c., "c.


with

its invariable

DUST

associate,Bacteria?
country

likewise

exposed

to air

GERMS

AND

Similar

tubes
On

putrefied.
the Aletsch

on

171

other

the

air of the

to the

exposed

flasks

hand, 27

(8,000feet)showed

Glacier

no

signsof putrefaction.
About

the

time

same

He

experiment.
broth.

Twenty

of

heights

the

twenty

air

to

on

sea-level,and

twenty, only
the

to

air

of

clear

exposed

air at

the

foot

the

of

to

Jura 850

the first twenty,

Jura,
above

metres

Glace

de

Mer

the

near

the

of

plateau

2,000

eight contained

second, twenty-five; and of the last

found, further,that all flasks exposed

He
the

first

the

Of

of the

one.

of

air

to

sea-level.

micro-organisms;

flasks

were

peak

parative
interestingcom-

an

prepared sixty

form

twenty

above

metres

of these
which

made

Pasteur

inn

the

near

Glace

de

Mer

quickly

putrefied.
A

few

later

years

Montsouris, began
air in various

to

might

rain

rise to

only 6

while

cubic

per

Pantheon
in the
and

rooms

found
he

found

inhabited

plentiful about

open

air.

the

Thus,
foot.

cubic
found

he
a

in

in

Paris

he found

observation
interesting
Montsouris
Paris.

His

his tables.

were

gram

dust

of the

found

be

top

foot,

He

his
a

if the

shown

in the

3,170 in

laboratory
of dust

gram

also made

micro-organisms in

greatly increased

results will best

of
in

2,100,000.

that the

cubic

than
plentiful

more

micro-organisms,and

750,000

room

the

on

Indoors, in dirty

12.

neglected hospitalhe

In

per

the top of

micro-organisms much

found

eighttimes

"

Thus,

bacteria

about

were

places,he

On

be detected.

only ij

and

after wind

foot; while

In

in Paris

of bacteria

bacteria.

few

there

streets

cubic

stillclassical.

are

the number

foot could

more

in

per

of

Observatory

microbes, fungi in

spores,

his results

he found

high buildingshe
of the

the

count

150

of the

Miguel,

and
localities,

dry,dusty weather
air

Pierre

wind

the

the air of

blew

by quoting

across

few

of

HEALTH

AND

AIR

Bacteria

Summit
Peak
Fourth

of Pantheon

per

Cubic

28

of Monsouris

45

Arrondissement.

462

BACTERIA

FOUND

IN

CUBIC

METRE

OF

AIR.

BACTERIA

FOUND

IN

CUBIC

METRE

OF

AIR.

Metre.

DUST

Fliigge considers
hundred

evidently

will be

paper

the

TABLE

from

I." ROOF

his

OF

cubic

windows

about

are

of

metre

fewer

are

one

air

city

an

"

microbes

of

here

space

in

Royal Society

the

results

the

the

are

in

open.

to

have

there

of Paris.

much

how

173

average

that

gives

investigations. We
excerpts

to

communicated

Frankland

Percy

GERMS

the

on

below

noticed

when

summer

In

that

micro-organisms

average
It

AND

interesting

further
to

1886

give only

few

tables.

SCIENCE

MUSEUM.

KENSINGTON

SOUTH

SCHOOLS,

Total

Date, 1886.

Experiment.

of

Conditions

Number

Micro-organisms
per

Square

Foot

of

Falling
per

Minute.

March

i6th
...

Wind

north-west, moderate,

ground
11.50

and

dry
to

a.m.

12.30

3ist

Wind

south-west

intermittent
Sun
of

and

increased
at

1.45

83
101

west

to

by west,

variable.

1.20

shining greater part


time ;
wet.
ground

Wind

109

p.m.
Four

Temperature
3"C.
dishes
on
exposed
parapet.
March

101

frosty.

1. 10

p.m.

215

1.40 to 1.50 p.m.

1,302

ably
considerperature
Tem-

p.m.

12-5" to 11" C.

May

I2th

rain

Continuous

day

till

previous
of

morning

and

ground
surroundings
wet.

Temperature
Wind

61

fairly
pointed

4.12
12"

p.m.

C.

south-west, moderate.

dry, but heavy


all
rain
previous day and
6.10 p.m.
of
night.
part
13" C.
Temperature
Pavement

60

east,
Tube

north-west.

May 25th

66

thoroughly

Wind

strong.

periment,
ex-

851

to 1.35 p.m.
1.38 to 1.58 p.m.

130

803

174
TABLE

TABLE

AIR

AND

II."

EXPERIMENTS

III." -EXPERIMENTS

HEALTH

IN

IN

OPEN

COUNTRY

PLACES

PLACES.

IN

LONDON.

DUST
TABLE

IV."

GERMS

AND

EXPERIMENTS

TABLE

V."

175

DIFFERENT

AT

INDOOR

ALTITUDES.

EXPERIMENTS.

Total Number
Place and

Date.

Conditions

Found

Experiment.

of

in

Drawing-room

before

children's

dance,

February 6, 1886.
during dancing,
February 6, 1886.

Ditto

carriage,

Litres.

almost empty. Dishes


above
feet
exposed 4

Room

per

Cubic Foot
per Minute.

44
50

ground.
About
as

Railway

10

Total
ing
FallNumber

ing,
danc-

twenty children
otherwise
above.

Four

conditions

400
300

395

passengers

; one

dow
win-

quite

open,

one

April 28, 1886.

Dish exposed by
closed.
window
3 feet above

open

ground.
Ditto

Ten

...

dow
win-

; one

passengers

inches,

4
open
window
closed.

Dish

for

"
Richmond
sumption,
Con-

Brompton, May

Ditto

persons

27, 1886.

"

Ward.

bed.

in

Temperature
on
exposed
ground.
"

Richmond

"

Eight

bed.

44

130

130

p.m.
16-5". Dish
chair

Ward.

on

Eight

in

some
room,
about.
4.20 p.m.

moving
Temperature
exposed on

42

...

persons

posed
ex-

window.

by closed
Hospital

2,120

one

16" C.
chair

Dish
set

on

176

AIR

These

figures are
other

among
air

at

enclosed
The

the

that

micro-organisms

they

increased

are

be

did

Binot

Jean

air,taken

At

Montanvert

At

the

Mer

At

the

Place

At

the

Grand

At

the

Grand

find

the

the

On

Houses

number

at

single

he

Thus

microbe

Plateau

found

at

the

top

of

Clock

the

Tower

only

one-third

Anderson

made

in London

of Parliament

and

Carnelly, Haldane,
of

few

the

analyses

of

and

a.m.

of

air

These

space

their

in

the

indoor

of

the

analyses

results

"

air.

of

interestingresults,but

here

the
we

figures.

in artisans'

diminished.

some

Transactions

interesting analyses they

most

the

is full of

of their

of

samples

investigation,reported

Perhaps

synopsis

14

Smith

give only

cubic

as

23

Malet

Royal Society, 1887,

as

he

49

1'Aiguille

de

important analyses

4.30

; and

"

Glace

de

litres

100

of microbes

number

found

in

Blanc

of Mont
the

in

lished.
estab-

is well

ground-level.

1887

Their

can

in

about

Summit

Graham

of the

very

when

move

...

In

in

fewer

are

number

and

summit

decrease

increased.

height

height

not
at

progressive

Again,

noticed,

in number

they

when

together, or

relationshipbetween

found

it will

spaces.

of outside

the

things, that

crowded

are

HEALTH

instructive,and

very

height, and

people

Dr.

AND

bedrooms
showed
The

made

between
that

bacteria

following

table

were

12.30

the
a.m.

increased

gives

AIR

An

examination
still

were

AND

of

HEALTH

mills

showed

Tow

AND

Dundee
litre

Of

Hospital only

depend

If the air be

dust.

settle
that

the

air in

underground
air.

On

the other

50

High

simply by

The
above

above

the

importance
facts is

large

micro-organisms

time.

there

on

the dust

are

the

that

number

that

normal

of

proved

the

the dust

could

organisms,
micro-

no

of

houses

In

the

in

the

scatters

soon

have

figureswe
be

the

air of

quantity

clean, dustless
in the

accordingly

than

germs

of bacteria

boys stamping

found

all the microorganisms

in coal-mines.

fewer

School, Dundee,
the

and

cellar contained
case

of

movement

observers, whose

the

confined

the

found

Pasteur

is the

same

in the air in

extent

underground

Thus

investigatorshave
much

organisms

hand, violent stirringof

microbes.

after

the

just quoted, found

to

to

railways

outside

air in the

three

or

quite still,all

an

and

the

of

the number

must

space

two

found.

were

course,

MILLS.

examined.)

(Six Rooms

per

bacteria

mills

in

plentiful.

more

JUTE

In

that

in

raised

litre of

from

floor ; and
ballroom
dust

and

other

contains
organisms.
micro-

suggested by

followingfigures:

"

10

the

DUST

In

Haldane

1901-1902

of workrooms

One
A

moulds

2'2

few

dust

from

Osborne

179

made

analyses

39

analysesof
Sir

ago

the

found

an

of 8*0 bacteria

average

litre of air.

more

years

and

and

"

per

two

or

GERMS

and
bookbinders', tailors',
chieflyprinters',

"

milliners' workrooms
and

AND

James

top of

dust

and

Crichton

wardrobe

air may

found

quoted.

analysed

Browne

and

be

"

Per

Cent.

Moisture

4'4

Organic

matter

Lime

(chiefly
organised)

insoluble

Silica and
Oxide

the

of iron

and

52-6

silicates

21

alumina

97
6'2

(CaO)
acid with

Carbonic

traces

of

sulphuric and

phosphoric

acid

6-1
IOO

"

Under

the

consist

of

matter

is

most

microscope,"he

inorganic and

organic

mostly amorphous,

part organised.

states,

"

the

material.

while

the

dust
The

organic

is

seen

to

inorganic
is

for the

AIR

i8o

"

the

Among

HEALTH

AND

constituents

commonest

fabrics,such

animal

fibres derived

wool.

Something resemblingjute fibre

"

the

Among

cells
epithelical
which

by

from

the

fairlynumerous.

starch

granules,and

The

of toilet is
In

scarcelyto

1902

Dr. T. W.

make

an

("Bacteriology and

In

1903

there

an

Dr.

results shown

are

few

certain

Scott
in the

seen.
are

squamous

both
cells,

of

represented

are

organisedvegetable

pollenspores

excellent

manure,

can

be identified.

but

as

air

was

an

article

be recommended."

The

of Andrewes'

abstract

is also

materials

interestinganalysisof

Andrewes.

linen,cotton, and

skin,and small round


Food

which

dust would

as

interestingconstituents

most

are

materials,among

an

from

vegetableand

are

Public

Tebb

Tube

followingfiguresare
results

given by

made
taken

by
from

Dr. G. Newman

Health"):"

made

similar

followingtable

"

analysis with

DUST

Finally,Dr.
bakehouses

Newman's
be

may

All these

quoted

"

organisms
microwidely and irregularly

in the

harmful, and
necessarily

not

is of little value.

origin,and

What

distribution

of

to

microbes

have

been

identified.

In

dust

of

known.

In

York

micro-organisms,including bacilli
air of

Nottingham during

coccus

pyogenes

bacillus

"

goose

coli communis.

In
and

staphylococcus flavus

railway

flavus,micro-coccus

micro-coccus

albicans

thrix

subtilis,and

Anderson

found

candicans,

citreus,micro-coccus

lactis,

tardissimus,sarcina lutea,sarcina flava,

alba,bacillus luteus,bacillus lactis innocuus,strepto-

albidoForsteri,streptothrix
chromogenes, streptothrix

flava torula

quite

not

air

the

staphylo-

albus, micro-coccus

micro-coccus

sarcina

In

found

were

far,

abundant

coli communis.

fair "

so

individual

cases

found

were

number,

and

germs

few

estimate

is the

albus, bacillus

and

aureus

know

streets

micro-organisms

numerical

mere

pathogenic

is

New

air ; but

wish

we

little
unfortunately,

the

underground

the air in

how

distributed

181

GERMS

analysisof

analysesshow
are

are

AND

harmful.

alba,and
so

saccharomyces cerevisiae

formidable

Andrewes

found

as

their
in the

and moulds,
staphylococci,
streptothriceae,

multitude

since

names,

dust

"

of
but

none

London
no

are

streets

pathogenic

species.
In

the

air

of

hospitalwards

at

Lille,Delalivesse

found

182

AIR

HEALTH

AND

bacilli

and
coli,streptococci,

be

doubt

no

that, before

dust

of

bacilli

is found

especiallyin

air contains

; but

that, under

what

might

seen,

are

be

the

curtains, and

carpets, and

they

and

the

of

more

bacillus of

that

conditions

lockjaw

of

pathogenic

Germs

cleanliness

indoors.

of every

they

sort,

people

window

is

Further,

ones.

just
have

we

in

settle

by
on

furniture,and

by draughts,

up

things in
there

germs

as

; and

books, and

and

is

brought

are

easilystirred

are

This

and

the

; and

room

greater chance

who

one

any

indoors, is likelydirectlyto

infect

is

the

ill
air.

therefore,of cleanliness,ventilation,and
desirability,

there

quite obvious,

is

and

microbes

will be

infectious
within

or

less dust
fewer

for

in well

even

there

as

ventilated

and

microbes

the

most

which

all the

are

conveys

the

infectious

victim

contracted
the

diseases

via

microbes

books, or

in other

cases,

through

less risk

of

from

come

(includingsmall-pox,

the

microbes, either

respiratoryor

air-borne

so

rooms,

without.

due

measles, whooping-cough, scarlet fever)are


and

fewer

are

clean

pathogenic organisms

disease, whether

Probably

and

the

In

ordinary outside

of

abundant

numerous

lives

sunlight

to

air of

public-houses

distribution

float in at the

clothes,and

the

The

suppuration.

can

stable-yards.

wall-paper,and

movements

who

of

certain

seems

more

are

meeting pathogenic

and

Listerism, the

cars,

of

plentifulindoors

inhabitants

among

actual

expected.

more

by

the

ordinary

the

and

dust

it

of

found, and

the

there

comparatively few pathogenic micro-organisms,

ventilation,they

of

to

as

is meagre

and

organisms

often

are

evidence

germs

days

railway carriages,
tramway

tubercle

The

the

full of the

was
hospitals

and

staphylococci;

directlyor

digestivetract.
may

be

articles of

medium

In

some

conveyed by
bedding, or

again,they

may

be

the

to

microbes,

of

the

air,

indirectly,
the

cases

air

or
clothing,

conveyed by

to

the

food ;
the

air

directlyfrom
borne, good
risk of
In

to

person

GERMS

AND

DUST

; but

person

ventilation

and

183

will

cleanliness

dark, dirty,dusty houses, where,

lurk

may

unduly

are

microbic

for

diseases

This

is

shown

followingtable
IN

and

by

LOWEST

THE

such

in

from

CLASS

have

air-borne

all

houses

fatal.

and

Korosi's

ROOM

OF

"

PESTH.

BUDA

IN

Increase

+J59

Whooping-cough

+100

Scarlet fever

General

The

"

diphtheria

...

...

...

...

death-rate

increase

in

the

whooping-cough

in

these

death-rate

II

35

and

measles

from
due

is

cases

Decrease

or

Percentage Death-rate.

Measles

and

secondary

to

broncho-pneumonia contracted,no

doubt, by microbic

in the

two-roomed

dirtyhouses, and

similar

in

one

death-rate

high

and

from

the

as

figures:

in

Croup

seen,

disease

of

statistics,such

numerous

collated

the

we

as

especiallycommon

are

diminish

microbes

the

numerous,

years,

are

diseases.

contractingmicrobic

microbes

microbes

however

similar

dust

dirtyhouses
is

causes

always

found.
Even

better-class

microbic.

The
and

with
is the

houses

carpets, and

books, and

microbes, and
accumulated

with

The

all the

the

tops of

of ages.

So

air, and

trappings of

dustingand

will yet

modern

sweeping, as

wardrobes

long
and
cannot

as

be

be

more

there

people

fill their

when

come

sunlight will

papers,
wall-

usually swarming

the

dusty carpets,
day

curtains, and

are

knick-knacks, they

and
reallycivilised,

than

chairs,and

the

dust

unnecessary

cleanliness,pure

and
dusty, ill-ventilated,

ornaments

on

dirty wall-papers and

are

use

rooms

considered

simplicity,
esteemed

luxury.
usually practised,amount

84

AIR

little

to

AND

than

more

HEALTH

of

redistribution

flicked

from

the

swept

from

the

floor

called

naturally results
spring-cleaning

are

of colds.
cleaned

They

It is

only

be

be

open
All

the

sweeping

dusting with

moist

this,the old
recommend

that

The

only

and

done

all

with

be

day.

once

that

built in such

dusters; and

than

theatres
neither

too, that

way,

should

rooms

way

process

spring-crop

they

can

to

as

way

night long.

moist

and

mops

all

of
failingthe possibility

practiceof sprinklingtea-leaves

even

as

way

be

the

then

much

has

to

it.

Worse
such

such

in

day long

should

in

idea that

daily,and

air all

air, and

ventilated

and

furnished

thoroughly cleaned
to

barbaric

year

be

the

germs

floor,and

the

to

on

into

again

most

once

should

furniture

the

germs

dust

and

and

corners,

houses

and

are

churches.

air

These

light has

nor

that

almost

is
live

enter

such

in such

impossible.
dark

securely in

blows

that

draught

every

in

built

are

free entry, and

thorough cleaning
germs

public buildings,

many

possible

carries

disease into the air.


The

dangerousness

of

air-borne

large extent,

on

Germano

recentlyendeavoured

of

has

microbes

division

on

their vital resistance

this

basis.

to

He

depends,
drying, and

to

make

Dr.

classification

suggests

to

the

following

"

(a) Such
which

bacteria

are

bacteria
killed

(b) Such

those

as

by drying

bacteria

in

few

those

as

plague, typhoid, cholera,

of

of

hours.

which
diphtheria,

stand

drying better.

(c)Such
drying
The
to

the

bacteria

for many

those

as

bacteria

extent

of

consumption, which

endure

months.

dangerousnessof
large

of

on

air-borne

their

bacteria

must

lightness. Neisser

also

depend

found

that

diphtheria,typhoid, plague, cholera, and

86

AIR

AND

HEALTH

Laschtschenko, Heymann, and


Laschtschenko
beyond a doubt.
with

that

when

broth
he

ejected and

the

over

and
a

by

currents

of

short
Air

coughing

behind

held

borne

be

of pulverised
particles

only

air for

the

suspension in

in

ejected

be

mann
coughing. Hey-

person

spray-dropletsand

that

were

the

might

they might

that

ments,
experi-

elaborate

germs

were

persed
platesdis-

culture

made

yard,and

even

proved

sputum
a

that in

found

bacteria

the

on

Heymann

over

of air

also

demonstrated

room.

proved

distance

to

be

mouth

his

out

prodigiosus,and

sneezed

and

coughed

might

washed

Bacillus

containing

this

proved

have

others

time.

in Tuberculosis.
Infection

in tuberculosis

questionof

The

"

is

so

important

that

is

an

infectious

disease, and

air infection

be

it must

separately

considered.
Tuberculosis

probably be spread

(b) By

dried

in three ways

tubercular

here

no

but the

concern,

(a) Dried

Tubercular

last two

Sputum.

by Koch, Cornet, and


produced by
famous
with

made

swept

second
these

infected

with

the

Adirondack

the

46

tuberculosis.

indulged

dust

cottage
in

out

Dr.

from

had

H.

and

been

mixed

having

levels up
He

to

also

dust.

tubercular

Hance

of the

one

his

guinea-pigs became

48

J.

In

dust

stiff broom.

of

dust.

varying

at

room

be

may

carpet, and

guinea-pigs inhale

conditions

The

infection

scattered

over

Cottage Sanitorium,

tuberculous.
had

matter

have

mentally
proved experi-

been

that

Cornet

carpet with

lot of

guinea-pigswith

others

1898

guinea-pigsin

some

Under

who

of

It has

"

tubercular

brieflydiscussed.

be

must

food.

first we

the

of dried tubercular

pulverisedtuberculous

feet,he

10

the inhalation

experiments

placed
4

With

produced by coughing, "c.

spray

the

(c) By

sputum,

may

tuberculous

(a) By

infection

5 of

inoculated

cottages of the
the

10

occupied by

promiscuous spitting.

became
a

man

DUST

The

danger

of

floor and

"a

and

only

walls

deal

good

of

and

that

since sputum
fine

"

help soilingwith
the mouth

wiping

enough

it is

no

remains

has

infection

be

to

held

there is
Still,

handkerchiefs

and

the

two

moustaches.

do

give up

currents

of

pocket for
perhaps
more

it

dry enough
air ; but
than

more

lies in this

to

the

"

day by day, and

time

each

brings forth

dried sputum

The

of the moustache

danger

appreciated,yet

it is

expectorates
sputum.

The

his

the

(")
been

the

sputum,

moustache

Tuberculous

proved

that

has

is

thus

spread

is brushed
"

bacilli

can

kept

the

in

danger

more

is

day

and

produced

pocket.
not

so

far been

properly

efficient sputum

most

smeared

must

Spray.

consumptive patientcoughs

moustache

hair, is readilydried, and


when

the

that

to weak

their bacteria

further the chief

quite plainlya

time

pulveriser.Every

pocket for

often

As

we

be

it

danger

in the

the handkerchief

from

; and

of

sources

is contaminated

pocket

that
which

has shown

are

; and

day

admits

Beninde

kept

handkerchiefs
one

only

can

danger

some

greatest

if

grow

particles

time."

is

sputum-stainedhandkerchiefs
not

common,

since

Cornet

some

that there

to the writer that

seems

is very

reallyfine powder

air for

doubt

no

expectoration,

suspension in the air

in the

suspended

dangerous

experiments,does

many

and
pulverise,

produce

to

the

even

dust."

as

by dry sputum
in

to

points out,

the

after

sparselypresent, and

task

easy

made

difficult to

is very

rarelyand

very

are

who

siderable,
con-

bed-linen, articles of clothing,

on

patientscannot

think

Koch

"

when

be

expectorated on

pocket-handkerchiefs,which

Flligge,however,

be

be

this,too, is subsequentlyscattered

not

therefore

must

sputum

may

of it dries

infective material

dust

187

dry there, but," as

to

especiallyon

cleanest

GERMS

tuberculous

for not
the

AND

in

or
a

be

very

or

moved.
have

ejectedto

or

sprinkled with

thin

layer on

readilythrown

the

off

mentioned, it has
a

certain distance

188

loud

by coughing,sneezing,and

common

speaking;

such

opinion that

of the

are

HEALTH

AND

AIR

that

and that it contains


falls,

soon

number

and

with

days"

32

in his

day

one

"

")

"

be

while

that

("The

of

number
at

time,

tubercle
with

compared

discharge

may

Prevention

plays an

evidence

contains

and

that

frequently,

contains, tubercle

localities seldom

other

dust

important part

is abundant

There

culosis
of Tuber-

of infective

vicinityof consumptives

from

caught 2,600

proportionateshare

the

in the

feet,

few

expectoration.

spreading tuberculosis.

the dust

"

number

infective spray, it is certain that dust


in

made

consumptive

one

Whatever," says Newsholme

"

for

comparativelysmall

he

small

very

bacilli which

7,200,000,000
in

masks

be

it must

twenty-four hours

for

these

of

219

bacilli in

masks

wear

this view

B. Frankel

bacilli.

of tubercle

consumptives

spray

air is the most

carried

only

that

it

such

is

remembered

ties
authori-

some

in the

spray

Against

of infection.

source

and

bacilli."
In

obtained

inoculated

Cornet

1888

the

by consumptives, with
Newsholme
"

In

39-4

to

hospitals 38

In

62 tests
of whom

died

91
or

20

3 tests

instance, with
streets

per

14 tests

with

were

made, 170

from

other

prisons

; 41

or

5 tests

work-places of

animals

as

sumptives
con-

being employed,
In

healthy,
a

surgical

being employed in each

8 animals
as

13,

negative result

tuberculous.

cent, became

made

diseases

diseases,45 remained

negativeresult
were

In

dwellings and

the

from

being

healthy, and

tuberculous.

made,

were

52 died

remained

animals, and

14

on

tuberculosis.

ward

given by

as

animals

made, 94

were

this number

tuberculosis,22

cent., became

per

34,

tests

Of

dust.

with

made

and

occupied

"

than

were

following results

dust

:
(loc.tit.)

inoculated
other

floors of sick-rooms

and

walls

the

from

the

guinea-pigs with

to

tuberculosis.

animals

were

In certain

employed, and

DUST
here

AND

again a negativeresult

GERMS

189

to tuberculosis

as

consistently

was

obtained.
"

The

dust

of

virulent
in the habit

It showed
bottle

of

dust

of the

The
in 66*6
Ten

sputum.

of

The

dust

of

Ten

the

virulent

consumptive

precautions in
to the

on

of

He

inhabited

were

these

floor

the

took

sumptives
con-

kerchiefs.
pocket-hand-

found

was

by

dispositionof

into

or

houses

infectious

cases.

clean

were

and

inhabited

careful
sufficiently

not

of

also found

guinea-pigs. Twenty-

dirty and

no

spat

were

cent,

per

spittoonor spit-

experiments.

inoculated

were

of the houses
who

50

and

dust

cent,

per

the floor.

on

or

in which

room

been

floor,walls, mantelpieces,"c.,

the

took

their sputum, but

larly
regu-

patienthad

the

Cornet

similar

from

houses

who

of

made

forty-threehouses

three

when

was

previously."

Coates

H.

the

his handkerchief

regularlyused.

six weeks

samples
of

been

in which

of virulence

bacilli in the dust

died

Dr.

spittinginto

evidence

no

tubercle
had

in the instances

of

had

occupied by consumptives

rooms

of these

houses

in the

by

disposalof

found

was

tives
consumptheir

infectious

in

cases.

houses

The

dirty,but

were

dust

of

these

contained

houses

no

sumptives.
con-

found

was

non-

infectious.
In many

instances

tramway
The

has

cars

been

taken

found

from

railwaycarriagesand

infectious.

risk,therefore,of air infection by

tuberculosis

dusty

and

other

hand

for

dust

if proper
the

in

even

tend
Great

is, and

or

is considerable

risk of

infection

gravitate to

houses
the

is

patient be

not

taken

must

the

not

; but

be

the

on

exaggerated,

of expectoraparticles
tion

floor and

absolutely essential

the

of

small, however, risk there


it

pulmonary

house

precautions be

dirtyinfected
to

if the

of

cases

is

that

to

remain

where
where

dust
there

there.
there
are

AIR

igo

consumptives
of

of

is

and

sputum

in

and

the

soil

the

some

to

taken

pose
dis-

to

the

prevent

The

of

question
legislation
dust
the

constant

the
but

they

is

raise

country,
source

collection

whole

raised

there

can

both

in

are

sore

town

danger
throats

microbes

probably

in

carried

by
the

from

doubt

no

and

to

and

so

will
that

country,
the

public
sore

milk

flies.

on

that

possible

fed
Breast-

far

solution

as

cleanliness.

and

cars

the

disease.

problem,

motor

temperature,

very

sunlight,

be

diarrhoea

certain

seems

dust

by

Epidemic

deposited

are

ventilation,

of

reaches

exempt

the

dust

the

It

microbes

almost
of

found,

fed.

"

and

and

air

are

are

soil

the

the

solution
be

the

by

cases

Air-infection.
disease,

when

infants

children

can

microbic

carried

are

which

and

Diarrhoea

probably

grow

in

the

be

dust.

Epidemic

in

should

precaution

every

safely

HEALTH

AND

eyes.

The

require
the
but
health

special

clouds

of

especially
and

CHAPTER

XII

VENTILATION

of

removal

is the

VENTILATION
the

air

confined

of

the circulation
carbon

dioxide

constituents

is

which
the

of carbon

the most

as

efficiencyof

estimation

what

of

the

dioxide

be

as

Chaumont

ago

of
as

accepted.
on

an

found

limit

air

for

cleanliness

among

been

the

generally

total conditions

of the
and

comfort, and

estimated

by

of

percentage
undue

proposed

inhabited

an

carbon

vitiation

"

dioxide

for

10,000,
many

the

smell

fixed

De

usually

years

volumes

6
his

barracks, and

"where

the

inmates

is

191

1875

was

standard

higher"

in

based

were

it has
of

the

figure was

conclusions, however,

of the air of

rooms

In

in

respirationcontaining

by
in

volumes

10

rooms.

unpleasant

vitiated

Chaumont's

in

of

significance
varies,

indicate

to

an

limit, and

examination
that

seen,

dioxide.

1858 Pettenkofer

as

carbon

De

by

ofpermissibleimpurity?

the

the

its

usually

question is, What

finding that

volumes

have

we

mischievous

health

is

considered

perceptible in

10,000

carbon

as

in air has

index

ventilation

first

must

long

10,000

dioxide

convenient

the

is the limit

As

though

usually prejudicialto

are

Now

Though,
the most

not

of vitiated air and

yet the amount

adopted

probably

by diffusion,and

spaces

of air.

impurities from

been

personal

percentage

AIR

192
of carbon

dioxide

may

AND

HEALTH

rise

higher before

smell becomes

any

perceptible.
In

that for the


a

lower limit than

financial

could

volumes

13

of this country

elementary schools

crowded

very

"concluded

Haldane

and

1887 Carnelly,Anderson,

and
practical

for

not

be fixed."

reasons

(Haldane
Departmental Committee
Osborne) appointed to inquireinto the ventilation of

Finally,in
and

and

factories

the

1902

made

workshops

tions
following recommenda-

the

:
"

"

That

I.

in

Secretaryof State,by
such

standard

dealt

with, that

about

at

of
or

person

and

the

workshops

be

only

electric

acid

per

made,

on

of

air,and

this

to

acid

carbonic

is

combustion,

or
"

2.

That

remaining
"3. That
of

factories

or

to

be

after dark

or

gas

after
in

in other

vitiated

of

volumes

ways

state

when

carbonic

oil is used

20

volumes

daylight;the
where

cases

of cotton-cloth

air the

than

the

for

after

only
extra

by respiration

occupier should

factories
have

ficially
arti-

option of

instead

of

existingregulation.

Inspectorsof
any

with

the

regulation just mentioned,

the

of

12

as

breweries,"c.

case

the

under

results

the

in

as

in the

under

rule

produced

humidified

coming

first hour

the

before

air

immediate

the

of the

exceed

not

in the

foggy days,when

very

when

that

lighting the proportion shall


exception

from

account

lightis used, beyond

of 1901,

contamination, such

(except on

not

acid

carbonic

away

the

on

prescribedfor all
otherwise
specially

air)rise during daylight,or

10,000

or

be
not

of

Act

Factory

should

proportion of

shall
light,

of the outside

dark

7 of the

specialsource

any

should

tests

no

Section

conferred

powers

breathing level,and

the

influence

the

of ventilation

of factories

classes

of

exercise

Factories

official

should

inform

analyses of

workshops,should give notice

the

employers
air in

their

that the ventilation

AIR

194

per
is

The

head.

of

movement

may

space

circulates
be

Let
dioxide
The

and

of

Kenwood

attempts in this direction


:

"

littleconsideration,however, will show


of space

may

HEALTH

followingtable

Parkes

given by

AND

us

be

is

by

alone

air will become

through it,and
kept

by

pure

look for

Expired air,on

dioxide

however

there

small

fresh air

unless

the

be

large the

However

impure

lation
regu-

space

the

air

sufficient circulation.

moment

accumulates
carbon

is futile.

such

Unless

itself of little value.

air,space
the

that

at the

in which

manner

carbon

in the air.
in normal

the other

air amounts

hand, contains

more

to -03 per cent.

than

hundred

VENTILATION

times

much

as

about

"

195

4 per cent.

activity
produces about a cubic
hour.
Thus, breathing in rany

and

"

carbon

the

of its own,
add

The
and

each

during

will be

hour

there

1,000

cubic feet of

the second

hour

the

man's

soon

the

at

end

dioxide

of the

dioxide

13 parts in 10,000

air,or

feet of

; at

; and

10,000

at the end

dioxide

in the

first

in the

the end

there will be 2*3 cubic feet of carbon

hour

per

breathingwill

feet of carbon

1*3 cubic

cubic

given 1,000

Thus

8*3 cubic feet of carbon

hour

will

space

cubic foot of carbon

gas.

air,or 23 parts in

in the

be

man

air has '3 of

foot of the

cubic

confined

dioxide

dioxide.

Suppose, for instance,a


air per hour.

during hours

man

foot of carbon

of

increase

dioxide

of the

air,or

of

eighth

83 parts

in 10,000.

Suppose

that the

air would

be

confined

places.

electric
be

with

Of

such

course

As

carbon

made

were

of

parts in

43

eight hours
would

the
to

cease

of carbon

dioxide

all illuminants

seen,

dioxide, and

in

except

singlegas-jet

to

by

cubic

feet of air

under

stagnationof
the conditions

that it is the circulation

would

Haldane

are

of real

of air and

not

followingexcerpts from analyses


and Osborne
mittee
(Departmental Com-

will show

that

pari passu

air

The

the

decrease

of absolute

even

Inquire into

Workshops)

1,000

vitiated.
intolerably

conditions

see

to share

he
flaringiron batswing gas-jets,

that matters.

of air made
to

of

lamps

and

only source

have

we

in real life ; but

found

the space

at the end

be

pant for breath,and probablysuffer

the

not

find the air

life it is easy

not

man

couple

soon

very

would

feet of

productiveas eight men.

as

there

cubic

sickness.

lightproduce

If,then, a

not

and

is
respiration

But

may

would

man

headache

hour

an

foul that candles

so

burn, and the

of

given only 250

were

dioxide,and

of carbon

10,000

from

end

at the

air,then

man

with

Ventilation
carbon

of

Factories

dioxide

increase

in

and

certainlydoes
:
air-space
"

196

AIR

AND

HEALTH

VENTILATION

197

AND

AIR

198

It will be noticed
in

was

The

fact of

same

compared

as

plainlyin

cubic

Average

feet

of

10,000

CO2

feet

of their results

of airspace

even

more

:
"

per

person

Volumes

is shown

air circulation

with

cubic

10,000

comparative unimportance

followingresume

the

about

legalminimum.

the

the

air found

highly vitiated

most

air-spaceof

an

fortytimes

or

per person,

the

that

with

room

HEALTH

233

339

496

11-4

10-6

97

20*1

13-6

33

760

1,689 2"9"6

1,227

94"4

per

"

electric
Daylight or
light
Gaslight or lamplight
Number

of

rooms

10-2

14-0

13-8

9-2
17-4

9-0

28

27

27

25

14

19^0

7-1

12-8

I7'8

26-3

24

25

amined
ex-

"

electric
Daylight or
light
Gaslight or lamplight

36

81518

14

12

Mosso
stillis an instance related by Mosso.
striking
how
in the Regina Margherita Hut
forty-five
persons

More
tells

herded

were

head.

together with

There

"

these had

and
there

of each

were," he says,

barely I

1*29 cubic

were

barely

cubic

person'sbody, that

with

closed

copper

so

to

as

considered

accurate.

the

two

which
stove-pipes,

Seeing, then,

that

cubic

The

of

head
below

the ventilation

by hour
the

as

will

keep

danger-point.

the volume

hut, of the

was

kept

other

no

being plated
hermetically
between

snow

of air for each

off the

latch,and

head

per

of air

"

to

is

have

supply so

the percentage

be

lation
for venti-

draught."

up the necessary

space

may

person

the

opening

remained

guarantee of the purityof air,attempts


standardise

hut

jointsare

entrance

except the windows, which


the

Nominally

deduct

must

we

the fuel.

measurement

There

altogether,

of the furniture in the

prevent the

cubic

of air per

of air each.

metre

sheets,of which

planks,the

cubic metre

forty-five
persons

metres, but

and especially
of
provisions,
over

"

no

been
much

of carbon

gauge

or

made

to

air per
dioxide

VENTILATION

The

of

amount

the

carbon

the

equation

air

dioxide

199

required

below

head

per

point

any

hour

per
is

keep

to

found

easily

by

TT*

carbon

air

below

be

must

carbon
in

feet, of

cubic

in

amount

the

for

keep

to

in

the

volume

the

percentage

feet

cubic

carbon

of

limit.
wish

instance, we
to

man

added

the

to

know

to

per

much

how

rise above

not

the

that

hour, in order

air may

air

producing

is

hour, who

per

dioxide

foot of carbon
dioxide

purity
permissibleim-

limit of

the

foot, and

supplied

cubic

produced ;

cubic

Suppose,

required hourly

dioxide

where

dioxide
per

of

parts

10,000.
D

c;.ooo cubic

feet.

"0002

Suppose, again, we
be

supplied to
of carbon

foot

dioxide

added

wish

to

per

hour

man

dioxide

per

the

air

to

much

how

know

is

who

producing

hour, in order

that

rise

above

not

may

air must
*6 cubic
carbon

the

parts in

10,000.
D

feet.

cubic

3,000
J

"0002

last

This

by experts
head

the

in ventilation

3,000

hour

per

figuresusually assumed

equation represents
is the

; and

that

amount

feet of

cubic
is

air per

usually considered

necessary.

this

Accepting
capacity of

hour, and

an

feet
hour
as

3,000

must

shown

in

cubic

that

have

rather

estimate,

its air

less

the

than

feet must
room

the

have

with

changed
3,000

that

see

we

ten

its air

times.

changed
of

300

During

feet will be

Parkes

with

room

capacity

cubic

following table by

"

the

once

cubic

first

required,

also

Government

prescribethat

to

times

twenty

the

hour

an

be

can

feet in

cubic
per

man's

can

much

"

; but

larger than
often

as

air-spacein
of

in the way

rule

upon

any

cubic

feet of

in twenty
of

under

or
dinary
or-

the
be

air.

As

each

air with

minutes, for

300

"nor

largecities an

or
can

do

of
so

400
one

the

is to

in

at

424
feet
poor

"

conveniently
cubic

feet

anything

mean

may

feet

large

rooms

400

or

in

Only

inhabited

300

must

person

cubic

3,000

comfortably and

things are

of

space

solved.

be

ordinary

renewal
to

delicate

cubic

feet of space

cubic

lodging-house

enough,
that

ten

of

2,500

pass

and
requisite,

common

is not

head

the poor

is

impure

aid

the

to

still to

for
unsatisfactory,

most

per

as

changed

about

how

400

or

300 cubic feet per head

renewed

are

300

with

power,

problem

be

draughts through

"

hour

an

is

room

rooms

without

through

hour

"that

mechanical

passed

it ought
lodging-houses

should

air

or

quite impracticable.

showed

apparatus and

in

prescribes300

however,
prescription,

"

circumstances
Pettenkofer

Board

per head

feet of space

cubic

400

Local

the

Where

HEALTH

AND

AIR

200

present

matters

feet of space

cubic

successfullyinsist
have

at

least

contained
urge

since
impossibility,

in

1,000

air
the

space

case

is

once

of

costly,

AIR

202

heat) through the


and

the

by

both

it is forced
This

the

is

for
diffusion,
in

spite of

in

doors

and

obstacle

means

they

the

and

their

Schultze,in

flow

air flow

and

at

With

sandstone

of

walls

9'5"F.

difference

28

the

room

cent,

per

closed

were

with
invisible
about
walls
a

showed

through

in the
small

and

found

The
square

and
ceiling,
flue

furnace,furnished
doors

"

"

7-9

"

"

"

"

mouldings.
and

the

The

five

as

closed

by only

high

windows,

then

doors

the

Putnam, experimenting

long,
hot

tight as

over

thought.

were

when

rate

much

be

might

experimented

with

rooms

water

is

free ventilation

metres

was
fireplace

passing

the

3*6 metres

having
10

"

diminished

Mr.

he

and

than

was

similar

room

first made

were

with

ordinary way.

room

pores.

5 metres

damper

6-5

invisible crevices

of ventilation

compared

as

fireplace."A

and

feet

all visible chinks

that when

square

cubic

47

of ventilation

rate

10*1

of air

following

over

14-4

passage

taneous
spon-

of temperature.

Limestone

important means

the

hour

per

the

on

that

Mud

in

crevices

through plaster

Brick

Pettenkofer

out

the

through

Quarried Limestone

more

because

than

researches

occurred

of free wall

The

from

escape

of ventilation
cold

stables,found

of

ventilation

Tufaceous

The

bricks.

and

spontaneous

skin

air.

windows, through flues,even

ventilation

yard

colder

air and

to

expansion and

own

potent

heated

every

mortar

heavier

the

by

combustion.

air tends

of its

more

the

and

Marker

the

by

it

to

respirationand

of

account

much

imparted

lighterwarmer

on

out

HEALTH

moisture

processes

result is that
the room,

AND

air.

with

was

plastered
doors, and

two
a

basement

The

windows

from

possiblewith

closed
the

with

through

rubber

by drawing

cracks.

The

the

brick

VENTILATION
back

and

the

fire was

good

the

was

thoroughly
and

the

minute

was

continued.

The

entering hot

was

March

results.

The

Other

1880.

only

raise

to

the

register.A portionof

the

pores

of the

fissures which
coat

of

and

three

oil

about

10

sashes

per

and

putty

used

could

be

or

the

the

freely wherever
found.
of

utmost

in other

experiment

hour.

The

equal

to

of the

through

the

Putnam,

"The

Haldane

but

20

hour, when

entire

and

capacity of

registerwith

Open
Osborne

in

no

only

cracks

at

was

the

the

the
of

room

Fireplace in

all

crack

diminution
of

escape

through

volume

and

examined,

the

air,

register.
than

more

end
air
had

visible outlet"

also made

absolutely

all the window-

during

freely at

as

ceilings,

suspicion of

of air

continued

was

and

diminished

room

cent,

per

and

all visible

of all this

entrance

entered

air

the

result

cracks

them

was

entire
even

The

in the

words

Each

beginning

the

from

fastenings,"c., carefully

pulleys,cord

puttied,and

registerwas

walls

render

and

same

5th of March

25th of March

carefullyexamined,

were

calked

the

day

passed through

the

of air

escape

The
the

through

the

to

metres

cardboard

have

rest

floor,to

The
On

of

On

detection.

the

on

cent.

the

applied

was

air.

to

joints,at

the

at

escaped

coats

impervious

and

open,

C. outside.

2"

the

as

experiment

gave

air from

the air must

materials

paint

hot

locked,

almost

55" C.

40" to

single piece

at

experiments

of the

pressure

the

as

stood

from

ranged

and

stood

they

long

as

registeropened

of 2*5 cubic

rate

All

shellacked.

the

when

thermometer

air

and

hot air entered

the

at

impervious.

being closed

as

diminution

The

3,

sufficient

enter

without

oiled

The

closed

doors
to

them

windows

keyholes stopped up.

it continued

per

render

the furnace, and

all doors

rapidly with
and

oiled to

lightedin

into the room,


and

were

jambs

woodwork

203

as
more

an

the

at

than

entered

it

(J. Pickering

Ages").

numerous

experiments to

AIR

2O4
discover

the amount

AND

HEALTH

of air which

may

unprovided with specialopenings


followingtable gives the conditions
their

experiments:

"

pass

through a

for

ventilation,

and

results of

some

room

The
of

VENTILATION

205

results of their

The

follows

as

Taken

"

and

an

air-spaceof

the

ventilation

fire

coal

other

nearly always
crowded

results
in

of

found

in

to

of 186

average

feet per

points

Two

cubic

that the

person.

of

rooms

to air.

are

is

person

In

large and

tion
provide adequate ventila-

is

by

ventilation

variations

rooms,

average

schools

without

the

of atmosphere.

if fairly
large

notoriouslybad

the

The

the

that excellent

crowding, and

no

external

by

to show

mechanical

if there

during

in

air-spaceper

without

tilation
ven-

proportion of
fan-ventilation

months, with

winter

air-spaceper child,and

an

15,450

room."
be

must

speciallynoticed

of air
much

that
first,

always

larger the

feels
room

with

moisture

this

impede

weather, quite apart from


air

be

likelyto

of fans ; but the observations

use

feet of

good

specialventilators

or

the

schools.

i8'6

the roof very

on

indoor

be

ventilation

thermal

damp

ventilation ; and

difficult to

elementary

open

however, the greater becomes

illustrated

elementary

is

person,

air-spaceper

permeable

affected

is well

acid

carbonic

and

feet of

unless

large room

is not

fans

without

cubic

With

windows

attained

be

feet per

of ventilation.

cubic

400

burning,

without

weaving-shed justreferred

very

marised
sum-

in small

fairlysufficient

crowded
in ventilating
difficulty

The

was

cubic

1,000

grate the ventilation

in the

except by the

can

manufacture

"

be

specialmeans

it is very

rooms

the Scotch

even

less than

necessary

at all times
on

open

the roof is very

largeor

very

gas

feet open

5,000 cubic

over

chimney, no

an

specialopenings for

of

the need

that

size of the room,

largerthe

The

experiments indicate

often

only

with

is

not

may

burning

fair,even

the

there

provided

or

are

"

rooms,

windows

in this matter

experiments

whole

as

HEALTH

AND

AIR

206

shut

and

doors
"

"

smaller

are

in

its

; and

to

the walls

hence
circulation,

particularly stuffy
the

regard

in

windows,
second,

walls,floor,and

VENTILATION

in

roof

proportion
floors and

through

207

its contained

to

roof

air,hence

ventilation
the

efficient when

is most

is

room

small.
further be noticed

It must

roof

through

escapes

and

and

dioxide, hence
almost

are

even

that

the

keep

injuriousas damp

as

damp

air also

roofs

and

prevents the escape

it

as

walls

damp

in indoor

moisture

walls,and

walls prevents this escape


carbon

that

indoor

clothes,or

air

of

damp

least,as

at

air-tightclothing.
When

doors

and

principalexit
In

of

one

noticed
cubic

in

of warm,

that

the

less than

no

unusual

an

amount.

only

10,000

to

chimney

in

hour, the

feet

an

15,000

second."

"

As

Firth, the best types of

feet per

Parkes

Kenwood

passage

The

of about
Local

up

"

cubic

by

unobstructed

at least."

The

sectional

part in ventilation.

allowed

miles
to

pass

estimate

drawn

are

an

specialand

"

sectional
of

area

that

area
an

3 to
and

2,600 cubic

of

100

the

or

hour."
without

rooms

adequate

means

which
air-shaft,

or

the

up

Notter

some

that
prescribes

is

ordinary

an

Ib. of coal consumed,

Board

Aspiration.
"

It acts

by blowing through
2

Nor

square

ordinarychimney

shall
inches
flue is

inches.

square

and
(c)Perflation

of

hour.

with

cause
fireplace

sufficient aperture

provide an
usually 126

fire burned

ventilating
agents,"says

have

1,390

being generally from

current

open

it will be

18,000 cubic feet up the chimney per

flues must

of ventilation

feet of air

the flue per

Government

and
fireplaces

and

sitting-room

"

feet of air to pass

the

the

chimney.

capacityof

4,450 cubic

ordinary medium-sized

burning

the

through

feet,yet the chimney draught when

an

rate

fire

experiments

had

room

fire from

air is

Osborne's

and

though

shut and

are

impure

Haldane

brightlywas
this

windows

in two

confined

hour

(which

Wind

plays an

(i)By perflation

ways,

"

"

spaces.

is almost

freelythrough

room

important

Air

moving

at

the

and
imperceptible)
20

feet

broad, will

208

AIR

the

change

air of

AND

is rather

action of wind.

It is

It drives air before


vacuum

vicinityflows

the

right angles.
velocitywill
The

"

causes

the

set

current

unequal draught
the

velocityof

of this

taken

Natural

by large

in various

at

high

the

chimney, and

Advantage, therefore,can
of the

wind

cubic

and

space,

Thermal

and
aspiration,

to

cause

inlets

be

assisted

for

by

be

facilitated
walls

and
flues

Perflation

and

windows, cowled

open

can

fires and

by

outlets.

and

of these

porous

aided

be

can

each
can

and

by dry

circulation

aspirationcan

Diffusion

ways.

speciallymade

and

approaching

thermal
ventilation,then, is effected by diffusion,

assisted

roofs.

all the

tube."

and
circulation,
perflation,
be

which

in part to the variation

owing

the wind.

partial

tops of chimneys,

itself up

aspiratingpower

of air up

movement

is

vicinity.

moving

the

over

Firth

of air.

largebody

of furnaces

and

less

or

current

right angles to

at

aspirating

causes

path,towards

small

in motion

time,

same

own

(2)By

all air in its

angles more

at

this way

In

the

at

the

Notter

by

in motion

wind, therefore,blowing

in

be

it,and,

hour."

one

explain

thus

explained

either side of its

on

air in

difficult to

of air sets

moving body

in

528 times

room

aspiration. It
"

HEALTH

tubes,

"c.
Let

look

us

outlets.

The

moment

ordinary inlets

of air

chinks, the ordinary outlets

and

for

people object

most

specialinlets

often

are

few of these may

(a) Ellison's
the

widened

bricks

end

an

are

of the

interior of the wall.

T% of

be

The

inch in diameter

windows

are

are

the

to

made

question of
chimney

themselves

windows, however, recommend

the

at

and

doors

flues.

Open

few

people,

to

draughts they

admit

to

inlets and

air without

cause,

so

draughts.

mentioned.
bricks
conical
holes

with

conical

perforations,

opening debouching
through

externallyand

bricks

the
i

inch

are

on

the

about

internally.

AIR

210

All
dust

these
and
or

should

also

The
inches

be

and

there
To

Care

5 feet

they

exceed

not

24

the

50 square

should

air

inlet

inches

square

not

enter

second.

be

The

about

inlets is

just above

taken

that

feet

high,

or,

floor.

the

air

ordinary outlets
for

outlet
into

openings

should

valves

talc

"

flue, but

entering

from

comes

inlet

the

top of the

the
the
Gas

room

placinga

and

leading
The

area

the

air

the

the

The

of

heat
an

outlet.
from
of

carried

or

heated
tubes.

the

to

outward

from

the

utilised for ventilation

air thence

ceiling of
inner

are

equal.

The

temperature of the

outer

Ventilator
of

room

of

inner

air in

the

the

flue.

by

purposes

gas-lightsand
by

air

means

both

combines
a

the

outer

ring of

outer

to

air

higher parts

within

tube

the

tube, and

the

the

to

McKinnell's
It consists

the

over

the

current.

the

upwards along

an

with

flue heats

the

ascending

glass globe

either

it with

of

level

outlet

shaft

the

into

better

side
on

The

Boyle

or

pass

Still

outlet

by

ceiling.

Arnott's

Neil

smoke.

an

afforded

the

near

tional
Addi-

flues.

be

against one

or

be

bell-cover

encirclingit
since

be

also

can

ascending

inlet

flue

causes

may

conveying

may

principleoutlet pipes

same

heat

of

ceilingand
and

air

arranged by building

chimneys.

shaft

allow

reflux

chimney

chimney

guarded by

be

may

near

the

be

are

flue

chimney

prevent

the

hot

or

plates which

ventilation
round

foul

the

openings

of

guarded by

inlet,and

the

about

draught

warmed,

should

"

of

over

be

positionfor

Outlets.

On

spread

be

with

source.

pure

in

therefore

inlets should

should

avoid

air be

foul

become

to

periodicallycleaned.

of individual

best

if the

flannel

tend

should

they

area

faster than
The

and

porous

head.

per

HEALTH

specialair-inlets

soot

muslin

AND

tube
air.
tube

tube

is the outlet tube

it is

kept higher

than

VENTILATION

the

temperature

of

the
above

tube.

It

projects

which

is

the

valves.

The

Both

of this method
There

is that

should

be

protect it from
Pott's

"

and

air

with

the

Outlets
rather

larger,and

Perflation
assisted.

the

confined

in

what

In

and

to

an

thermal

the

is

inlets,or

as

considerable

by

of

means

with

are

ventilated

often

brought

in

wind

again by

ciple,
prin-

through

the

principle,
too,
of ventilation.

is led
and

outlet

other

this

on

this

On

tubes

and

Sylvester'smethod

as

be

cowl-piece

stoke-holes

of ventilation

led

chimney."

circulation,
may

room,

means.

which

up.

underground channel,

it is

by

cowl

thence, after

tubes

into

the

forms

of

air.

Aspiration may
cowls

placed

The

similar

by

is known

being heated,
outer

air

this system

funnel

and

into

plate.

half

the

size

same

high

sists
con-

foul air is extracted

assisted

be

steamers

Egypt

to

divided

horizontal

into

be

rule

wind.

of

tops of houses
is based

air

the

spaces

and

should

may

outer

towards

turned

the

It

inlet.

lower

the

opens

like
aspiration,

and

tube

outlet

and

air, and

about

as

Perflation

between

outside

they

inlets,and

of

means

through

of

be

slightlywarmer.

the

outlet

half, which

upper

should

from

way

by

room

the

room

advantage

perforatedcornice

half

the

enters

by

rain.

metallic

lower

communicates

through

and

An

is

over

also combines

hollow

upper

Pure

wind

cowl

or

cover

Ventilator

of
an

light the

to

entering air

tube,

closed

are

used

outside

outside

the outlet tube.

the

the

the

tubes

lamps

gas-burners or

it and

below

and

put immediately under

are

between

air

tube.

inlet

211

their

but

appointed

at

very

value

Leamington

capacityof
the cowls

possibly be

exhaust

is

by

doubtful, and

in

1878

cowls

carefullywith

assisted

to

other

sub-committee

investigatethe

reported:

each

some

and

"

After

lating
venti-

comparing

all of them

with

AIR

212

plain

HEALTH

the

pipe, as

open

available

AND

standard, the sub-committee

exhaust

cowls

prevails in
without

cause

an

fitted

fact,the only

find that

rapid

more

under

pipe

open

cowl

any

in

simplest and,

of

current

similar

of the

none

air

than

conditions,but

it."

on

ArtificialVentilation.
the

In

which

have

we

artificial

they

of

the

as

from

air

into

air

either

the

by

force

to

method

ventilation

air into

is known

building

be

ventilation
of

suction

the

as

ventilation

if it be

building,it

are

electricity,

or

system

system;

by

contrivances

of

"plenum"

many

assisted

steam

building,the

be

to

artificial

driven

If

it out.

forcing of
is known

fans

or

of

processes

require

The

designed

are

suck

to

or

described

blowers

usually

natural

contrivances.

buildings where

and

large rooms

congregate, the

persons

and

of

case

"

"

vacuum

system.
will

We

look

now

brieflyat

of

some

the

methods

of

artificial ventilation.
Ventilation,

Vacuum

(a)

principleof
have

work

at

seen

by

or

extraction

and

gas

ejectionof

shaft
or
"

"

"

intake

"

at
galleries

and

"

return

shaft) and

to

feet per

the rate
from

to

the

the

second
4

2,000

to

cubic

often
of

the

air

we

flue
and

lated
ventishaft

in

this

(the "downcast"

galleriesof

upcast shaft

fire and

bottom
as

; it flows

The

"

ascension
are

another

through

of from

1,000

Mines

and
shaft),
down

the

the

Heat.

principleas

same

on

air.

through

passes
10

depends

fire is lit at

air is drawn

current

of from

In

of heated

"

or

ascends

The

more,

"

is the

by

ordinary ventilation by

tube.

columns

upcast

heat

by

in

in this way.

(the

(i) Extraction

the

at

through

feet per

the

the

second,

feet per head

or

per

mine.
rate

main
even

hour

VENTILATION

suppliedin good

are

than

this is

given, even

the

In

from

the

the

fire at

column

6,000 cubic feet

as

bottom, and
Several

rooms.

and

of

is

more
man

per

usually a

into this shaft


and

French

in this way,

of air in

steam

by

or

is

and

the

tubes

run

English

men-of-war

some

central

ventilation
is

will withdraw

William

H.

is calculated

pitals
hos-

of the

largelyon

times

in the hour

six
x

as

in

follows

in temperature

"(") Owing

to

distant rooms,
the sectional

his

proportionedto

(e)There
fresh

each

Paris)or
cubic

cubic

foot

feet of air ;

hourly,

air,correspondingto the
of the

treatise

air of

hall

on

"

result of the unavoidable

of the furnace.

increase

of the

"

Ventilating,
lation
disadvantagesof venti-

the

of

friction in

there is considerable
area

in

by

feet."

20

Lighting,"gives

heat

be heated

feet of gas

consuming 5

(a) Inequalityof up-draughtas

variation

that

feet of

Maxwell,

Heating, and
by

Lariboisiere

cubic

300,000

25 feet

Hopital

capable of extracting3,000

renewal

complete

shaft may

the

"It

gas.

extraction

burners, each

twenty

feet

an

pipes (as in

of gas burnt

the

much

principle.

same

thus

the

ventilated

hot-water

"

much

as

of Parliament

The

"

fire-damp mines

large buildings there

various

are

Houses

of

case

shaft with

1 10

In

hour."

per

by

mines.

213

long

air flues from

inequalityof current,

air-passages
requiresto

be

and

accurately

the resistance.

is very

littlecontrol

air is derived

the

over

be

it may

from

source

drawn

from

which

defective

drains,water-closets,"c.
"

air

(d) There
or

smoke

may

be

into the

down-draught

experienced in

connection

ventilatingthe

Houses

(2) Extraction

Such

room.

with

the

in the shaft of vitiated

has

'

main

'

occasionally been
vitiated air shafts

of Parliament."

by Steam-jet.
"

jet of

steam

passed into

AIR

AND

HEALTH

shaft will set

in motion

214
extraction

an

volume

of air

equal to

Extraction

(3)

likewise

used

by

its own

gallon of

and

(4) Extraction
Guibal's
the

Fan,

by

Root's

or

like the

the

containingdust

or

used

much

used.

air is
when

especiallydesirable

it is

workmen,

and

which

wool

of

is liable to

the

pipe,into

the exhaust

which
of

is

has

anthrax
the

revolve.
air

Thus

metal

they
flax

trades.
so

from

the

bench

opening leading,by

an

on

means

working."
"

"

by

fans ; and

of

means

horse-power, is

per

"

all plenum
Practically

Ventilation.

hour

circular

remove

away

or

structed
con-

spores, and

dust

capable of supplying from 6,000

air per

to

of the

as

shaft,at the extremity of which

the extraction

is effected

are

they

it is desirable

suck

to

is sorted

(b) "Plenum"

in

set

are

wool-sortingtrade, each

the

"in

fan is

fans

aspiratedas

contain

of

Blower,

cotton, woollen, silk,worsted, and

in

dust of wool

fans,such

The

and in dry,grinding processes


factories,
The

feet

Laboratory

poisonous vapours.

or

germs

cubic

1,000

Various

"

be

may

Kite's patent

the Sturtevant

or

principle.

steamer, and

useful
particularly

are

are

of

which

opening through
Fans

Blower,

screw

this

on

are
Air-propeller,

Blackman

extract

of Fans.

means

"

Pettenkofer's

water."

it

bulk.

air.

extract

is ventilated

in Munich

Hygiene

before

"

will
simplex water-jetair-propeller
of air for each

drive

Water-spray. Water-spray

propel

to

times

217

and

lation
venti-

Blackman's

to

2,000

much

used

fan,

cubic

feet

for

this

purpose.
The

comparative advantages of

ventilation
When
the

the inlet

been

"vacuum"

much

"

plenum

can

rate, and

be

"

can

be

is

"

and

plenum

"

used, it is difficult to control

purity. When,

ensure

system

derived

"

vacuum

discussed.

ventilation

of the air and

source

hand, the

any

have

"

is

from
carried

the

on

used, the air driven

any

by

source,

tubes

can

be

for

other

through

impelled at
long

way

if

VENTILATION

; it

necessary

dried,

or

certainlywith

and

Parkes

quality.

characteristic of

due

to

or

in

principlepresent

air the

with

which

knew

never

effected

an

building.

of

the

at

of

of the

case

for the

and

"

by
effectively
vitiated

Douglas

proper

atmosphere
Galton

could

also

writes

generallyfound
The

air forced

successful
in

seems

as

to

"

on

seek

means

I think

of any

large

there is

the

the

place

is

the

points."

system

of

room,

and

not

been

purifyingthe

first

no

be done

can

out, has
of

on

simple that

various

air into

propulsion.

practice the

In

fresh

that

at

find its way

vitiated air to

"

extraction,by which

drawn

be

propulsion,z"., forcing the


allowing the

of

system

report

than

of

in ; the trouble

be sent

rather to get rid of all the vitiated air

of the

maintenance
in his

air

volume,

time

of Commons

can

very

of the

Parliament, states

House

in,or that

lack of fresh air sent

The

to

same

ventilation
satisfactory

efficient and
In the

vitalising

as

system of propulsionpure and

essential

permits

better
rightlyapplied is infinitely

extraction

may

less there

The

J. Keith, too,

Mr.

of the Houses

ventilation

it

important

of health."

its

vitalising
principle

great nicety

temperature, moisture, "c., robs

the

under

purely natural atmosphere.

supply being regulated

standard

feeling

of the unknown

of the plenum system,


artificiality

good

has

country air is likewise probably

deterioration

refreshingqualitiesso

has

chambers

the

none

air is diminished.

and

town

diminution

air,but

such

reallyfresh

distinction between

which

habituallycome

in such

that

believe

to

reason

think

bacterioscopicexamination

purity of

the

demonstrate
is

and

Chemical

influence.

"air

that

is

vitalising

lassitude and

cause

who

those

advantage

subtle

some

specialair

and

moistened,

authorities

assert

is liable to

depression amongst

the

some

loses

shafts

Kenwood

lost its freshness,and


of

but

through lengthy shafts

travelled

and
filtered,

respects

"

plenum

through

driven

air

that

"

the

these

In

desired.

as

heated, and

also be

can

215

of

air.

escape,

2i6

AIR

and
of

unless

the

dead

method

It is therefore

most

in the
and

London

corners

to

bine
com-

propulsion.The
described

In the

buildingsthere
Mr.

by

J.

Houses

Keith

and

plenum

Parliament,

extraction

and

of Parliament

Houses
in

of

both

are

of the

ventilation

of

Capitolin Washington,

Courts, in the

other

some

air."

combination

is used.

Law

in many

thus

in

remain

may

generallyadvisable

for vitiated

nowadays

cases

ventilation

vacuum

efficient system

an

system of propulsion for the inflowingair

of extraction

In

with

of the vitiated air

angles.

with

is combined

system

extraction,much

and

HEALTH

AND

report of

his

is

March,

1894:"

the

The

extraction

which

of

throughout the
the

vitiated

and

pipes and
the
"

these

by

aspiratingshafts,at

main

upcast

considerable
from

the

distances
the

shafts

extract

upwards,

"

ceilingsor

upper

corridors,"c.
air is washed

incoming

being admitted
winter

In

steam-heated

and

into the

cooled

surfaces

before

in the

chambers,

fresh air is warmed

the

rooms,

by

steam-

being passed on

to

different sections.
The

Debating

Chamber

of the

treated
however, differently

and

the

in

vitiated

of the

air is secured

and

buildings. The

of the

House

blown

the

though
similar

different in
ventilation

of Commons

of what
extract

of Commons

House

is called

the

plenum

and

the

of

means

otherwise
the

Debating

is,in fact,obtained
the

by

manner

principlefrom

of

is,

extraction

upcast shafts in the towers, the system

entirelyseparate
the

solelyobtained

kept burning continuously

"

the

corridors.

air is
as

are

horizontally

floors before

lower

Into

year.

rooms,

summer

towers

fires

air is drawn

parts of the
In

coke

and

downwards,

"

the main

adaptationof

base

vitiated

of the

rest

is
of

Chamber

by

bination
com-

exhaust

or

the fresh incoming air being


systems of ventilation,
in in volume

under

pressure

by

powerful fan

or

AIR

218

floor,and

the

near

trough by
flannel

of

is

of

means

AND

the wet

its

over

by

tank.

leaving the

by
driven

passed

in

down

two

with

loose

thus

the

piece

air is

leading

flushing

The

sary,
neces-

air is then

propeller,worked

from

on

hour,

an

warmed, if

surfaces.

the

retained

automatic

an

the

air

power

ducts

air

from

three times

or

from

screen

Blackman

motors

is
velocity,

steam-heated

with

contact

collected

low

flushes of water

to float away

by

drawn

water

edge. Dust, soot, "c., from

carried

and

After

by

capillaryattraction through

hanging

screen

moist

kept

it filters through at

air,as

HEALTH

electric

by

the

laundry engine, and

the

various

to

and

rooms

buildings.
"

This

that

the

air,so

the

air in the

has been

The

and
"

the

of

is
from

estimated

but
I

of the
it may

inch

and

the

an

mended
recom-

grounds

and

draughts

if the

it passes

in

in

by experts
of

be

upward

per second.
obstacle

to

This

as

the downward

in which

number

of

the

people

centre

these

"

the

human

an

assistance

ventilation.

is

currents

being certainlynot
is

be

may

of air from

currents

current

downward

nection
con-

Representatives,

versus

halls

velocityof

estimated

air

"

following considerations

The

it is

through

ordinary circumstances,upward, owing

body.

that

that

when

large

occupied by

been

expressed :

of the
in

has

floor and

of the House

First,the direction of the

body is,under
heat

merits

of air

the

fullyconsidered

ventilation

room

draught

near

the floor than

outside

ventilatingcurrents

of dust

the ventilation

relative

The

the

"

the entrance

fog

bright."

chieflythe

on

collect

air

particleof fog from


of dense

and

down

followingopinion was

systems
of

the

subject was
with

authorities

through

out

passes

clear

the direction of

some

avoid

to

every

conditions

kept

discussed.

impurities in
easier

is

wards

much

by

remove

under

even

questionof

The

it.

is said to

system

to

the

small,

less than
to

upward

VENTILATION
the

"Second,
tends

be

must

the

by
"

in the downward

the
if at

point this

any

will rise
air which

of

is

descent

minute.

As

contain
fresh

air

for every

air rendered
that

which

and,

on

with

impure
is

the

air

the

the

upward
met

in

mainly
dry,

is

and

upward
method

from

the

the

ground

of

area

in

per

the House
of

amount

is found

minute,

give

to

method.

of
galleriesthe difficulty
the

that,on

galleriesshall
supply

to

floor

feet per

cubic

per

body, "c.,

brought
the

that

rate

tendency

of
galleries

upward

is
galleries,

the

hand, the

one

contaminate

not

floor

main

below,

great that

so

not

it is almost

effect it.
other

reasons

method
there

of

halls

the

hand, the supply for the floor shall

other

these

For

that

in

be

which

amount

descending

impossibilityto
"

for

3 inches

feet of

to

are

193,500

currents

aside to the

be drawn
an

the

downward

arranging

air in

uniform

the

of

square

Fourth, in halls arranged with

"

so

be

The

heat

feet, it follows

times

results
satisfactory

of

are

products of respiration

ascensional

100

feet of fresh

square

three

air must

body

less than

not

the

overcome

required would

about

or

to

floor of the hall and

the

12,927

the

the
respiration,

at least 1,500 cubic

adopted.

whole

be breathed.

certainlybe

implies that

air

contaminate
points,and, diffusing,

should

from

the

uniformly downward,

the case,

down

to

of

if the occupants

The

move

coming

currents

which

air.

to

be not

those

at

order

second, in
the

made

be

must

room

ments
arrange-

quantityof

method

fresh

and

pure

be

enormous

an

lighting

elaborate

method

downward

the

for

prevent contamination

to

Third, in largerooms
breathe

to

made

lightsif

be introduced

used

flames

upward ventilation, but

assist

to

all gas

from

heat

219

this
shoes

into

are

should
two

kind.
of

fine

the

the

Board
be

are

of

opinion

special difficulties
The

first is

some

to

be

derived

This, becoming

occupants.

powder,

dust

the

In

preferred.

of

which

is

kept

AIR

220

floatingin

HEALTH

AND

the

air

by

the

supervision,and

by

the

use

detached
of

House

"

The

Parliament, this evil

second

and

area

admission

openings

impinge

the

to

total

in order

the

cubic

1,200

of

area

feet per

openings

have

effect this
the

will not

to

do

of

the

of

House
that

other

questionof

There

are

the

questionof

much

pointswhere

at

feet,or until

attempting

remember

the

it is from

be

as

It

law

to

of

omission

of members

understood
distinctly

general principlesonly
halls where

centre

and

feet.

openings

of the discomfort

these

from

seen,

square

In

should

The

it follows that the

for several

to

of them

the heat

have

we

feet

draught.

part of them

large assembly

five main

of

diffused.

states

some

exceed

not

nearly 500

person

It

in the

occupant, and

some

surfaces,and

arisen.

gathered

naturallyinto

to

Board

circumstances

The

large part

applicableto
are

least

fresh-

will not

which

from

be, as

important

gases

has

the

be

which

points at

second, whence

somewhat

it is very

this that

people

should

small,

too

hall liable to be

the effect of these

reach

become

adhesion

In

sensations

should

possibleby placingat

they

few

for the

great velocityin

too

the current

avoid

to

to diminish

the currents

with

are

openings

velocityshould

air for the House

is desirable
as

not

produced

openings be

of

area

them

placed

impinge

so

supply of
600

English

cient
of this is insuffi-

the

part of the body of

some

second

per

easily

mitigated as

so

cause

requiredquantity.

be

can

on

if it does

as

If the

through

pass

to obtain

The

improper positionof

fullyoccupiedas this,there

air

in the

discomfort

to the

of air.

of fresh air.

air must

order
so

be

be

can

is done

as

can

is due
difficulty

by perceptiblecurrents

the

of carpets which

frequentlyshaken,

careful

By

currents.

noticed.

be

to

and

upward

of the
do

not

moisture

room,

hold

of indoor

of

number

for under

good."
air

comes

ventilation.

methods

of

heating: (i) Open

fires.

VENTILATION

fires.

(2) Gas

(3) Stoves.

221

(5) Hot-water

air.

Hot

(4)

and

pipes.

steam

as
(1) Open fires,

have

we

effective

most

are

seen,

vacuum

ventilators.

(2)

Gas

fires

less effective than

much

are

promoting ventilation,and
render

the air

monoxide

(3)

and

dry

oppressiveand

unless vessels
if
especially

Stoves

made

red-hot

Red-hot
carbon

if

fresh air

to

carbon

air.
the

at

stove,

inlet

in

ducts

through

"

provided

the air ; and

with

cannot

(c)are

the outside.
to

It also chars

it.

allow

organic

unpleasant smell.

an

in

the

by

heated

in various

containing coils

boxes

jacket surrounding
warmed

be

It may

opening.

pipes,by being warmed


or

also

monoxide.

iron, is believed

by being passed through

hot-water

hot

systems of ventilation the air is frequently

In

"

they

pattern that they

through

produces

and

dry

off carbon

they (a) are

directlyfrom

pass

air

them, and

on

contaminate

otherwise

or

particlesand

"

they

fires in promoting

open
the

give

"

iron, especiallycast

(4) Hot

iron

of such

(") are

render

placed

of cast

monoxide

heated

be

approved only

chimneys

suppliedwith

also

They

of water

be

can

become

ways

also allow

may

also less effective than

are

ventilation.

dust

small

too

are

to escape.

Stoves

proper

if their flues

fires in

open

tube

of

passing through

stove, by being passed

heat

of

ordinary

an

place,
fire-

"c.
Manchester
In these
the

the

the

flue,and

led into

"

In

tubes

then

grated opening
"

air

used

at

the

chamber

is
the
case

in schools

led

which

through
pass

top of the
of

round

discharged into

in the

and

hospitals.

supply is brought along

is
flooring,

of grate into

Furnaces.

much

are

the cold

stoves

joistsof

back
of

stoves

chamber

at

the

the hottest part

the

room

through

stove.

hot-air furnaces
upper

between

the cold

part of the furnace

air is

above

and

hot

very

dome,' where

surrounding the

the

HEALTH

AND

AIR

222

surface

and

it

is heated

upwards through separate

placesfor

its discharge." A

warmed
is

air into the


of

matter

wherever

out

(5)
of

Hot- water

pipes

heating hot

building and
its

by

up

high
of

find its

it may

water

own

The

low

pressure.

or

but

heating rooms,

and
fireplaces,

it gets

is not

On

this

of convection

currents

set

be either

may

for ventilation

tendency

the

quitea healthy mode

favourable

so

is

system
is

This

system

pipes through

in

hot-water

there

of

it all escapes

"

is led

means

heat.

how

pipes.

steam

by

is

way."

steam

or

circulates

pressure

open

and

several

current

importance,for

and

secondary interest

to the

constant

and

Where

"

rooms.

Thence

of this kind

hot-air furnace

for it passes
ventilator,

efficient

most

tin tubes

with

contact

convection.

by

it passes

in

comes

overheat

to

as

the

rooms.

influence

The

forgotten,and
side of

south
the

on

At
This

north

sunlightin heating

it may

be

noted

house

is

always

temperature

is

moot

the

air is

that

must

rooms

the outside

several

air

be

not

the

on

degrees warmer

than

side.

what

considered
the

of

air to be

; while

temperature

of about

drier,a temperature

maintained

about

England

In

question.
best

indoor

ought

60"

F.

is

in

America, where

70"

F. is considered

desirable.
In

general

way

be

it may

(60" F.) is probably the


and

air

more

the

that

favourable

lower

perature
tem-

for health

activity.

The
to

said

the

question of

question of ventilation.

becomes

saturated

of ill-ventilation

Damp
increase

in the air is also

moisture

are

in

rule, ill-ventilated

moisture, and

with
due

As

closelyrelated

large part

to

the

evil effects

this saturation.

walls, too, by preventing evaporation of moisture,


the

dampness, and

to

this action

their evil effects

VENTILATION

are

chieflydue.

the

air, but

The

also

to

air,however

In

great

cent., and

of

some

heated

All air when

cracked.

for water

and

saturated

with

of

in

water

of

humidity
It is
70" F.
and

to

Moisture

may

vessels

of

moist, or
the

by

form

required

for

According
direction
the

the

greater

65

at

the

dry

pint

-5

it

give

to

F.

25"

than

to 75

per

with
in

the

before

the

whole

Mr.

C.

by steam,

and

675 gallons

in

of

the

"

hours.

adoption

of

Certain

of

the

parts

this process,
made

now

J. H. Woodbury,
building

to

more

less heat

agreeable temperature.

an

installed,another

plant was

building of

building 3 degrees

maintenance

porous

Boston, is kept

in

are
difficulty,

some

the

air in

cent,

ten

the

and

air.

wicking kept

cotton

less than

no

this

the

to

of pans

of

healthiest,
below

moisture

means

F. to

60"

is

cent,

per

falls much

The

50

of

temperature

supply

required in

comfort

"air

feet

Telephone Company,
about

to

that

become

more

rooms

of steam.

are

heated

when

air

deficit

cubic

means

humidity

comfortable,and
are

of

to

by

building which,

been

cold

Thus

need

of air in

or

Bell

this

at

supplied by

means

of steam

of the

that

means

of

dry

acquiresgreater capacity

1,000

humidity

water,

humidity

held

be

At

hard.

and

cent."

per

take

American

maintain

had

65

per

furniture

and

throat

and

would

only 35

dry

saturation

nose

cubic

every

humidity

it is well

the

so

Yuma,

Fort

handled

heated

moisture

relative

if the

is

greater drying power.

usually
a

the

of

humidity

stations

deficit

saturation

becomes

large

unnaturally heated

or

At

when

skin

high Alpine

membranes

and

at

the

it.

health.

the

to

crack

acquires such

mucous

be

may

only purifies

not

dry

relative

mean

newspapers

the

dries

there

pieces,and

falls to

extent

detrimental

Arizona, the

in

rooms

naturallyvery

be

to

as

airing of

some

artificial means,

by

223

was

under

feature
the

whose

indicating
absence

in

AIR

224

winter
of

of the

the

ends

those

coughing by

bronchial

with

HEALTH

AND

kind

from

or

is

squeal,which

the

of

Air.

particulateimpurity
this is sometimes

building of

air is filled with

it may

be

desirable

Bell

American

caught

about

be

Ventilation.

estimated

methods
then

is

after

ventilation

and

dust

filter it ; and

to

bags

cotton

organic

in

Company,

Telephone

feet in

30

inorganic dirt

and

is

various

in

the
has

lapse

of

removed

has

entered

be

found

how

The

far

amount

the

by

and

room,

find

time

best

the

dioxide.

carbon

may

of

air of

the

certain

the

One

ways.

vitiate
a

ventilation

efficiencyof

The

"

to
intentionally

of air which
formula

offices."

in

month.

every

Efficiencyof
can

of

peck

England

air,for instance,entering the

The

Boston, is filtered through large

length,and

employed

those

the

done.

the

New

Where

"

which

lungs, a cough

prevalent in

so

during the winter,especiallyin


Filtration

there, a cough

employed

following

"

2-303

amount

2*303 is

log

jZLf
has entered.

of air which

constant.

capacity of the

Pi

amount

P2

amount

of carbon

dioxide

present in second

amount

of carbon

dioxide

in the external

room.

of carbon

dioxide

present (found by
originally

experiment).

The
thus
"

summarised
When

i.

when
"

important practicalpoints

most

by

air is heated

air is cool
Cold

2.

very

much

as

the

in

the

air tends
as

it

water

to

enter

would
of the

; and

tends
room

air.

ventilation

of

Kenwood

expands
and

it contracts

temperature
room.

and

Parkes

sample.

are

"

tends

and
to

rise ;

fall.

and

this holds

fresh air remains

to

to

about

move

true

lower

so

than

long
that

226

AIR

AND

HEALTH

great tendency among

workers

close

to

all

ventilating

inlets.
"

With

10.

less than

be

can

feet per

cubic

250

which
satisfactory

is not

head,

aided

tion
ventila-

no

by

mechanical

force.
"

The

ii.

It should
direct

of the

source

be

not

from

the

borrowed

"

and

is often

relied

mainly

dependent
;

upon

easilyprovided for
"13. If
be

raised

of cold

to

14. The

stoves,

mechanical

carried

in

out, any

followed

such

In

25,592
In

of

were

out
on

were

on

is the

source

of foul air

propulsion is

the

air

is not

should

old

so

of 70,000
the sick
of 140,000
the sick

to

air.
methods

ventilation

in

not

of

This

by

here

has
many

space

to

is

always

been

monstrat
de-

statistics.
enter

; but

of illustration.

by

voted

for service in the

way

be

may

cited

and
list,
men

by fires,

be made

not

ventilation

health.

be
men

air is often

apply

to

only
feeling

premises."

in

have

be effected

striking way

we

heated

incoming

improvement
most

prevent

should

However

"

it should

room,

sufficient to

expensive

to

figuresmay

1813,out

13,000

into

of the

General.

statistics

naval

1779,

from

in which

and
itself,

by improvement
in

more

ventilation

extraction

purity

room

room

ventilation

Ventilation

few

the

the

It is difficult and

"15.

the

the warmth

upon

taken

guaranteed.

or

heating of

pipes in

or

depend

Into

the

More
highly
(about 60" R).
be overdry and unpleasant.

felt to
"

but

temperature

"

obtained

be

that

air is forced

warm

plenum

on

than

convenient

more

but

selected.

Ventilation

12.

"

always

can

be considered.

great advantage of the

system of

fact that sufficient air


is known

One

air should

adjoiningrooms,

from

outside.

expensive mechanical
which

incoming

Navy,

1,658died.
voted

for service in the

and 977 died.


list,

Navy,

VENTILATION

In

1797,

out

of

120,000

marines

227

and

20,544

seamen

1798,
"

"

"

.1

"

"

the

sick

list.

"

"

"

"

"

14,608

1799,
"

8,083

1805,
"

I806,

7,662

,.

1782,

"

22,909

100,000

"

"

"

J795,

20,579

"

,t

"

,,

"

"

"

I8Q4,

7,650

i"

not

on

I5,7i3

,,

This

were

extraordinary

entirely,

to

improved

fall

in

"

the

sick

ventilation.

rate

was

due

chiefly,

if

XIII

CHAPTER

VITAL

satisfactorily
practised.Both

never

artificial ventilation
and

draughts;
exactly how
change

of air without

picture.

inches

for

Parkes
and
what

"

and
be

no

five

Doors,

already

to

per
allow

which
perflation,

of

is

perfectventilation quite

by

cubic

six
seen,

the

private

civilisation.
of

case

feet

in

Look

at

say

room,

height, in

an

ing
labour-

the artisan and

capacity,allowing for

room

ductions
de-

windows, and

only

in the

sufficient

is

; often

one

as

adult,

Dr.

perfect
But

of such

numbers

which,

room,

for

by

per hour.

blinds, all closed

for ventilation

228

down

ventilation
times

about

persons,

laid

prevailingin

conditions

occupants
is

three

changed

of

bodies

standard

the

to

provisionwhatever
or

is necessary

adult, provided the

one

the actual

have

occupied by

the air of the

rooms

we

according

are

move

as
chimney breasts,
furniture,large projections,

space

for

and

square

of

discover

of the air in many

state

house, as tenanted

Here

classes.

"

the

and

fears

permitted to

Take, for instance, the

"

ordinaryterrace

sufficient

to

Fear

draught.

makes

feet 6

"c., and

made

publicplaces a disgraceto

and

12

by

are

or

natural

hampered

space

ventilation,renders

of

and
impossible,

about

cubic

much

how

and

this

be

feet air may

many

the best form

are

experiments

anxious

second

houses

be, it is seldom

ventilation

thing though

"COLDS"

AND

DRAUGHTS

WINDOWS,

OPEN

drawn,

or

there

may

we

have

even

with

DRAUGHTS

WINDOWS,

OPEN

perfectventilation

; the

manifestlyimpure

and

and

the
of

limit
be

carbonic

the

similar

the

cases

the

are

house

from

That

is

the

by

between

have

oftentimes

may

off

by

one

to

all

this, in

smell

not

of

derived

that

as

equally

some

of

two

or

atmosphere

whole

the

such

odoriferous

exaggerated description.Or

an

of

of

or

the

hours

to

theatre.

foul.

Haldane

such

and

vitiation

"

but

common,

Now, if
defective

we

ventilation

Notter

and

mechanical

is in most

Firth

point

contrivances, and

air-spaceof

much

less than

ventilated

without

mechanical

contrivances

ventilation

means

cubic

feet per

94

and

in

intolerable

head, the

running

dioxide
"

workshop,

was

about
as

we

Not

10,000.

it is often

complicated

wall-papers and

old

from

out

cases

10,000

57 in

courtyards.

that

with
600

with

even

the

best

disregard of cost,
cubic

wanting

or

"

are

feet
;

draughts
rooms

such

quiteinevitable.

cases

out

of sanitarians

perceptible movement
are

in

to

accept the verdict

to

are

nine

railway

railway car

found

Osborne

malodorous

In

the carbon

amount

aggravated by fusty smells


from

In

Moscow

permissiblemaximum

seen,

of

ordinary bedroom,

an

Petersburg and

evil smells

600

prescribed

by previous tobacco-smokers,

some

means

church,

after nine

only is
by

no

St.

8 times

these

tion
combus-

and

of the

excess

To

find

the air is offensive and

found

in

kippers,or

atmosphere

carriage,of
of ten

"

dainty !
take

of

cooking

comfort

or

the breath

addition

In

with

pervaded

the

left

likelyto

we

being

as

of the occupants,

bodies

being given

present occupants.

few

and

also

for health

from

much

to be

stale smell
fumes

229

entering

on

and

permissible impurity.

added

and

found

lightsis

of

derived

acid

"COLDS"

moisture, highly charged with

breaths

the

one

hot

too

with

from

organic matter

air strikes

much

oversaturated

is

it

AND

can

and

no

well

be
that

if

inferior, adequate
"in

cold

barracks
and

with

draughty

AIR

230
when

3,000 cubic

anything approaching to

hour

are

hour

for each

passingthrough,that

three

to

HEALTH

AND

times
of

attainable

with

allowance
Dr.

initial

under

about

air of

the

England,

three

times

be

practically

the

correct,

minimum

hour

and

conditions
be

cannot

room

an

is

the

It

"

says

ordinary appliancesand

with

atmospheric

average

under

if this be

estimate

this

experimentally that

the

change equal

air-space."

confirms

Whitelegge

per

that

or

should

feet

cubic

1,200

of five times

be borne

can

ventilation,and

natural

for the

is found

is all that

in this country,

warming
to

1,000

change

per

air-space. A

feet of

hour

per

conditions

from

cubic

600

is

head

feet per

of the

changed

without

of

climate

than

more

inconvenient

causing

draughts."
Again, Harrington
of

productive
with

draughts

"with

less

ventilation

"

than

statements

such

Suppose

there

are

less than

100

are

the

partial ventilation

feet

of

head

per

is

that

assert

space

feet of
with

draughts

as

no

aided

not

it would
are

we

draught ?
each

cubic
1
are

that

described

head, and
have

by

change

to

How

How

may
we

are
or

feet per head

dangerous,

then

expect

by

Maxwell

even

even

there

so

to

to
?
are

keep

the
30

changed

10

to

it

30

times

10

to

ventilate

to

we

are

occupant

we

in order
be

to

feet per head,

50 cubic

can

gas-jets
; yet

two

air-space?

200

about

correct, how

feet per

How

causing

with
If

cubic

only

cubic

hour.

an

cubic

room

than

Kenwood

and

Parkes

room

reasonably pure

school

dangerous

than

worse

are

railwaycarriagewhere
30

which

satisfactorywhich

be

ventilate

without

more

draughts

force."

If these

times

"

tilation
air,and, therefore,complete ven-

; and

250

can

mechanical

air

are

is

draughts

that

us

discomfort

vitiation of the

ordinary
without

warns

only

have
even

to

crowded

with

about

ventilate

assemblythe

most

DRAUGHTS

WINDOWS,

OPEN

perfect artificial
and
Maxwell

as

he

about

the

and

would
All

which

writers

causes

Simply

civilised

peoples

why

draughts

air and

The

form

open

windows.

if

it is

possible to

hundred

times
that

admit

when

them

shut

this

Now,

fear to

open

will walk
It

it must

have

do

the

windows

they

some

sandbags

absurd

air is not

missible.
per-

habits
sensitive

unduly

reasoning,

of ventilation

perflation
by
no

window
than

more

Parkes

of

30,000 ;

and

room

just

means

less than

no

in the

is

3,000 cubic

meagre

of door

means

day.

an

ventilation

erroneous

; but

and

Kenwood

unquestionable utilityfor

is of

air of

occupied

when

and

room,

leave

they

many
and

room

return.

the window

do nine

some

in fact

dangerous.

"

prejudiceagainstopen

seems

them

have

air

calm

absurd

windows

and

; for the very

of the

because

boldly through

wind.

Why

the

the face of it most

on

seems

by

room

method

their

open

on

rapidly changing
people

good

unnatural

the

all forms

per hour

renew

even

such

of cool

render

air we

In the open

ventilate

we

that

because

avoided

and

feared

most

feet of fresh air per head


and

assume

considered

are

of
satisfactory

most

that

of

sit in cold

to

air,and

because, through

and

draughts ;

cold

such

please

we

importance
people

perceptiblemotion
?

But

to

as

of pure

ventilation

on

any

of so-called

practicab
im-

do it ourselves."

not

the

the

sake

is

Billingswhen

much

as

induce

never

for the

shiver

talk

air and

shall

we

ventilation

with

agree

and

231

partialventilation

to

must

of bad

horrors

"COLDS"

adequate

consent

write

may

but
ventilation,

we

must

we

We

draughts

contrivances

describes,and
"

says

AND

the open

moving

air

people who

it permits,
perflation

door

into

even

yet the prejudiceis

so

gales

of

generalthat

plausiblebasis.
people out

of ten

nurse

before

people hang

curtains

around

window-chinks

their

this

prejudice?

their doors
and

do

all

"

and

they

why
put
can

to

ensure

foul
a

air?

It is not

are

"

that

"

di finestra

The

the

be

mosquito

lingerson
a

the

days
bitten

fever,and the fever


to

but

fort
discom-

air."

There

(whatever these
"

balestra

air and

to

(The air of

cross-bow) says
of this

with

agree

to cold

exposure

also

Italian

an

belief

erroneous

are

discover.

liable to

was

chills "

"

colpo di

roots

erroneous

the malarial

In

comfort

productiveof

are

that

from

shot

difficult to

not

which

caught by

are

Aria

is like

proverb.

thoroughly

ill-guidedpeople

general than

more

draughts.
window

these

draughts

be) and colds

may

question of

and

apartment

dangerous than ordinarilyvitiated

more

belief

no

merely

health, for

of

matter

HEALTH

hermeticallysealed

Harrington
is

AND

AIR

232

who

man

by

malaria

but

the

to

the

Riviera

man

goes

that

out

and

mosquito

to

get

quitenaturallynot

chillyair.
one

after sundown

out

attributed

chill was

or

went

still the

Even

after sundown

idea

will catch

chill.

Again, a
hundreds

of

by

hundreds

And

the

laden

finds next

this

In

into the

the

moist, hot, foul air of the

has

got

"

chill "

emanations.

probably

by dancing

cold ; and

he does

not

and
blame

that

says

he

is

man

home

goes

ballroom, but

(whatever that is)when

feet and

air the
he

Then

for hours.

remain

to

air

by

dioxide, and

is also

hot, moist, foul,germy

that he has got

day

air vitiated

of carbon

excess

only chemically foul,it


thrown

germs

enough

breathes

perspiringskins givingoff various

air is not

flyingrobes.
foolish

ball,and

lungs pouring out


of

with

to

went

out

he
into

the fresh air.


Yet
Calais

again,a
to

with
closes
and
the

Chur.
an

all the

for twelve
same

man

air

He

long railwayjourney,say,

is shut with

air-spaceof
windows
hours
over

goes

and

about

and
or

so
over

others into

seven

240

cubic

ventilators
he

and

again.

his

to

feet.
avoid

ment
compart-

He
a

companions

Before

he

from

carefully
draught,
breathe

reaches

his

AIR

234

blowing are

AND

ignored,and

HEALTH

to be abstracted

heat continues

it,with the result sometimes

that

chemical

rheumatism

The

body

such

fractional

the

to

produced.

are

skin

heating
be

cannot

changes causing

arranged

the

blood

supply

unnatural

such

suit

to

for

intended

is not

cooling,and

and

from

requirements.
In the second
of

air,and thus

and

But

contain

only

the

danger

blow

under

nervous

fail to

sent

system

unused

blood,

or

skin,with

contraction,with

consequent

internal

organs.

In the

dust and

germs.
seen,

due

skin-coddling. Per
the

at

se

breeze

in

Provided

seaside.

providedthe draught is as big as


harm, only good, from

no

the windows

But

England

bedroom

top for

few inches

few inches

draughts.
top

causes

are

And
a

be

all the

justthe
why
much

"

at
more

dust

be

rooms
a

small

to

or

is

of

as

the

raise

may

draughts,
unhealthy

healthy as

properly clean,

breeze,there
Maxwell

can

says

usuallybe kept open

can

year

open

energetic

too

dangers

room

reallyopen.

windows

cooling of

be

windows.

open

must

the

contract

congestion of

to

either to indoor

may

either

may

undue

causing

the

Again
air,and

place,the draught

second

therefore,that

largeand small,are
breeze

impulses to

tendency

"

draught

emergencies

into

room

dangerous,

warm
still,

to

consequent

startled

be

may

It will be

such

to

vaso-motor

prompt

of the

only

conditions.

the first place, the

In

accustomed

out

be

may

unhygienic

or

person

blood-vessels
the

unnatural

especially

through

big draught

is twofold.
a

upon

Even

germs

germs.

"

but

the

pathogenic

dangerous ?

also

buildings are

big draughts regular breezes

are

never

and

rooms

currents

and

raise dust

especiallylikelyto

are

ill-ventilated

likelyto

concentrated

place,small draughts are

round."

windows

the top " ?

But

that
A

windows

cause

window

"In

at the

open

unpleasant
open

unpleasant draught

at

than

the
a

OPEN

WINDOWS,

window

open

DRAUGHTS

the

at

AND

foot, and

has

"COLDS"

235

particularventilative

no

advantage.
The

will there

be, and

as

The
poor,
to

window

widely the

more

the

opened

less risk of such

the

have

we

is

less

draught

incongruity
physiological

mentioned.

ordinary house, especiallythe ordinary house


will

adequately ventilated

their windows

open

wind

be

never

cold."

"

prevents

trains that

"

the

"

colds

cold

"

one

It is not

catch

understand

widely-,and

gives any

never

"

but,

people learn

that fresh cold


the

on

and
engine-drivers

it is the

"

until

of the

contrary,
stokers

in the

passengers

of

stuffy

carriages.
Cold
and

air

all

no

more

pulmonary

free ventilation.

colds,are

all

flation ; and

the

been

into

and

windows

buildings

impervious roofs."
the

day
A

the

flourishes

best

is free from

on

the

and

tight

germ

crop

best

in

are

old

shackle
ram-

healthier

than

"
"

though

yet there

it is washed

will be almost

"

Polar

cold

A
was

party

is

out

no

very

doubt

that
a

"colds."

dark, there

by

their

it

house

will

When,
be

interestingillustration

afforded

during

of

germ

daily with sunlight

free from

dirty and

colds."

windows

the

dark, ill-ventilated places. When

of

seen

unknown.

in

is

all is

open

unknown,

hand, it

and

windows

proof of

spiteof

well-

chest diseases.

and

doors

from

and

is

origin of

Shackleton's

crevices

disease,and

dust, when

other

to

prey

thing is found

same

almost

are

walls

good

perhaps the

germ

air,its inmates

constant

the

is

cold

common

and

with

But

night,colds

"cold"

there is

there is insufficient per-

become

open-air sanatoria,where,

and

where

common

buildingswith

stables full of cracks

in

scarlet fever ;

causes

that peasantry moved

noticed

of animals

brand-new

less

are

prevalentwhere

huts

case

it

Consumption, influenza,bronchitis,common

more

doors
fitting
In

troubles

it has

ramshackle

cold than

causes

an

recent

of

experience of
expedition.

AIR

236
The

party

doubt

all the

the germs

been

dark
in

frequently occurs
the germs

the

garments,

summer

to

and

wardrobes, and

the

When
that

they

it

when

come

in dark

It

only

seems

sun,

to be

air but

also

let in

glass is
and

It

sun.

and

these

might

be

may

if

an

open

day

air off

let in not

that
be

certain

to

will

dirtyplates.

windows

but it may

be

it stirs the

The

off

thought

impervious

rays

And

means

should

because

that open

enough sunlight;

opaque

that

noticed

germs.

they

food

eat

to

in

boxes

dark

uncivilised to breathe

as

wall-papersas

never

windows
that

and

and

be

"

of thin

colds it often

crevices.

and

corners

it will be considered

dirtycarpets

from

ventilated.

only

colds

of the garments

thronged with

can

"

the

puttingon

taken

full of germs,

colds

cause

of ages

to the

visited by
frequently

window

free

seems

prey.

been

therefore

when

imported by

are

suggested that

have

well

dust

they

to the thinness

due

they
are

are

island

had

of colds

Kilda

St.

No

and

epidemic

of

as

easy

and
cleaned, disinfected,
does

soon

be

not

dirty and

are

land

often attributed

fact that

houses

fall an

are

but

as

colds.

the blankets

similar

lonely

it may

so

are

violent

with

occasion

the blankets

were

lonelywind-swept

the inhabitants
visitors,
In this connection

till they had

sooner

packed

colds,but

of

No

box.

strangers visit it. The

spring,which

colds

party contracted

been

had

alive in the

from

from

of blankets.

case

than

unpacked

HEALTH

quite free

were

unpack

to

AND

shut

even

pointed out
of the

rays

greatest importance

be of the

to health.

To

sum

colds in clean
of many
as

open

houses

problems

; and

in open

of ventilation

and

present practisedis both

at

windows

Further

windows

then, widely open

up,

"

are

and

air,however

both

this

cheap

point

pure,

has

and

windows

cause

never

lies the solution

publichealth.
costlyand

tion
Ventila-

inadequate:

adequate.

always

is unnatural

will

been

air,and

ignored stagnant
"

any

ventilation

OPEN
that

still air is bad

means

ventilation
a

DRAUGHTS

WINDOWS,

The

Health

skin

is

external

institute

and

double

the

probably

and

cold

natural

to these

and

the

the

and

in

sea

is the

of

essence

But

For

windows

than

more

in
and

render

the

windows

cold

in the

and

do

is

To

whatever.

make

blankets
seen

men

snow

on

open
and

windows
in

man

windows
women

are

find

at

night

life
sea

by

in

English climate

in the

winter

bed
no

with

nature

only

would

open
; but

much

to

of open
most

have

men

eightor

discomfort

any

plentifulsupply
and

men

do

than

affliction ; and

If

year

discomfort

more

for any

discomfort

night without

at

who
much

vigour

clothing will
if the

those

themselves

considerable
and

is martyrdom.

room

and

lying comfortable

their counterpanes.

ventilation

many

residence

all,and

at

health

Even
be

in

five months

food

daytime

too

The

largely the

in the

soon

mean

tolerable.

of open

the

unnatural

willinglyendure, it is always possibleto

nine hours

of

stimulating.Perflation

so

year

increased
For

little extra

that

breeze

them

to

England

the

system and

or
shirts,

It

martyrdom

discomfort.

windows

cold

in the

no

repaid by

occasional

habit

mean

themselves

accustom

months

seven

stimuli

to

ventilation.

be said that

it may

open

good

Wind

requirethese.

unhealthy

districts

is to

temperature

many

breezes

mountain

and

the

heat, and

to

nervous

disaster.

in

mountain

too

with

protect the skin

natural

has

and

of air.

currents

contact

in

are

man

react

end

delusion

environment.

windows, is livingan

breezes

would

variations

protects his skin with

will

that

is

To

237

imperceptible

sensitive

reason.

unnatural

system that

who

man

and

in heat

and
constitution,
vascular

The

of

made

good

cold

wholly

surface

it is not

without

skin, variations

broadest

man's

touch

wind

from

ventilation.

requiresperceptibly
moving

world, and

cold,and

"COLDS"

is the ideal of sanitarians

which

fraud.

AND

the writer has

cosy

would

forgivethem

of

in bed

with

practisefull
a

good

deal

bad

of

than

would

night

"

We

spend

nothing
and,

fine,

in

fresh,

as

consequently

no

"The

cent.

of

is

the

there

scrofula,

heede

Take

wombes

Her

sydes

thoue

if

No

doubt

Palladius,

"

On

see

is

in

oft
eire

the

thy

Husbondrie,"

have

the

"

of

English

bedrooms,"

writes

yvel

early

or

ough'

nor

for

affirm

and
tubercle

no

fifteenth

eire,
;

in

thin

pure
here

"

be

sounde

by

the

swell

people

respects

windows

whatever."

dwellers

water

all

itself

overtake

bledders

already

atmosphere,

as

of
is

reynes

thaire

in

langoure

And

yf

eke

in

believe,

of

eke

air

vigour

life

would,

cometh

stomach

night

open

consumption

no

that

atmosphere

outer

convictions

my

the

in

bedroom

pure

in

purer

the

short

our

longe-woo

The

If

per

and

insist

they

bedroom

we

wide

"

all

with

health

that

idea

which

really

is

the

suffice

will

less

The

"

with

that

"

night

ordinary

windows

much

so

MacCormac,
and

10

the
sick.

air

open

least

at

by

superstition

increase

by

nation

of

one

Night

air, and

day

chiefly

is

turn

only

away.

HEALTH

smell

to

is

dangerous

explained

it

The

enough

is

but

rooms.

morning
is

day

by

air

stuffy

on

AND

AIR

238

that

leire

ake"

awake.
and

aire."

century

faire,
T

MS.

tain
mainand

CHAPTER

CHEST

THE

all

time,

FROM
be

to

it

be

capacity,and
disease.

We

chest

big

it

is

good chest,and

man

condemn

to

chest
has

small

The

is

chest is not

have

perhaps
Campbell
world,

much
found
man

not

small

breathing
law

general
one

bad

he

that

and

one,

has

him

condemning

of

symptom

because

Army

how

on

change

can

much
; and

small

because

much

use

chest; but

as

moving it, became


than

worse,

that
with

an

the

he

to

239

him

respiratory

hold, but

have

may

since

its bellows

swimmer, had,

soon

as

the

tired,it

was

3O-inch chest.

on

necessarily

not

emphysema

champion

enormous

its

can

this does

with

man

; and

air it

Wolfe, the Channel

51 -inch

muscles

the

youths.

all it appears

deficient

box, it is a bellows

it is not

is defective
seen,

its size.

upon

largechest,yet

action

or

air it

much

depend

like

as

ment
measure-

nose.

capacity depends
how

for the

measurement
a

down

lay

cannot

and

athletic

itself be

in

even

chest

always

with

been

muscular

many

is not

associated

may

of

big

of

measurement

may

and

ambition

has

measurement

sign

vigour;

highest

chest

big

large chest

constitutional

Yet

BREATHING

AND

considered

popularly

is the

XIV

as

we

nerve-centre,
no

better,

Dr.

Harry
of the
weight-lifter

chest, had

very

small

"vital

capacity";

height) with

in

the

in

biggest vital capacity he


of

man

small

chest

of the

chest

real value

The

while

found

registeredhe

HEALTH

AND

AIR

240

of

As

size.

breathing

the

but

the

said

large

in

than

chest

is that

any

degree

that

surface, and

small

chest

It

chest.

The

of

be

more

said

that

presumption

that

vigour

be

can

means

further

usually natural

it is

the

larger aerating

movement

may

larger;

that

most

it offers

its

on

because

worse,

large chest, if naturallylarge,is usually a


vigour, for

not

usually grows

better,but

not

inches.

35

mobility and

is decreased.

chest

mobility of
for

is

inches

part of the machinery of

its

the

increases

age

only

as

respirationdepends chieflyon

feet

thirty(6

ever

has

made

and

not

of
it

large.
Still,as

applied with

be

must

and
and

relaxation

the

position

of

consist

chests

of

not

for

the

it is

chest

chest

merely by

muscles,

which

of

contraction

tax

of

large

many

large chest

usually merely

are

decrease

alteration

indeed

but

large lungs

by

or

the

criterion,too,

possible to

shoulders, and

the

muscles

shoulder

the

of

mobility

This
efficiency.

care,

size of

the

increase

of

criterion

is the

size that

said, it is the

have

we

and
the

on

respiration.
hears

One
and

15

expansion

the

the

thoracic

muscles
to

inches
ribs

are

increase
elevation

of

the

and
and

but

few

inches

of

bone,

decrease

in

be

can
or

hardly
not

the

depression

has

few

increase

their

more

is

in

of

expansion,

pathological

of the

swelling

in

of

power

to

to

armpits

expansion

made

not

alteration

to

behind

enormous

is due

cavity,

and

require a

with

inches; but except

20

even

cases

muscles

of chests

of

size

contracted

position.

The

easilyarranged
less

of

credible.

elastic,and

size of
certain

the

of

big
so

as

tape.

Fifteen

After

all, the

the

thorax

definite

possible
by

their

limits.

he

mobility of

the

chest

the

develop

large extent,

as

and

of the
increased
of

and

shoulders

found

Campbell

fear

to

reason

that

play

and,

as

very

low

the

world.

than

and
inspiration,

free

and

movement,

lungs

and

the

mobility of

athletic exercise

chest.
in

the
"

the

chest

better for the

Cavanagh (" Care

Dr.

urges

are

drill

the

this fixation

is better

of the
for the

"

walking

no

to

interference

in

seems

trainingare
of soldiers.

case

often

nothing

in

position

the

the

expiratory

of
elasticity

the

wall.
"

wind

than

gymnastics,

Body ")pointsout
"

the

interferes with

wind

"

importance of avoiding exercises


It is essential

part in

there

chest, especiallywith

the

muscles

mentioned, Dr.

breast-bone

ultimately damages

exercises

Many
and

of

movement

mobility,

the

cavity is

fixation of the ribs and

the

question

capacity

and

more

thoracic

tour
con-

ventilation?

Indeed

enlargement

mean

subordinate

vital

than

that

that

"

clamp

"

the

easiest

no

walking,and
"

observe,"he writes, that there


with

is

largement
en-

chest

the

lung

have

we

The

of advanced

the

thoracic

very

gymnastic

the

and

it should

why

in
deleterious,especially
positively

cavity.

different from

better

often

of

To

extent

thoracic

recruit,and

raw

specialreason

of
champion weight-lifter
some

small

attitude

imply greater

respiratorymovements,

Harry

The

capacity, and

no

chest

the

certainlyvery

of

difference

seems

the

the

soldier is

thoracic

greater

which

cavity in conjunctionmay

chest contour

the

is, Does

exercises

only

to

reallyenlarge

thoracic

trained
and

attitude

too.

respiratorycapacity.

respiratorycapacity.
a

record

good

muscle, the altered attitude,and

increased

Still the

the

though

necessary

gymnastic

postural,and

exercises

gymnastic

are

and

said,the apparent development

have

we

muscular

merely

far

increase

for

necessary

factors

inquired how

be

It may

There

be

may

respects, yet other

in these

do

chest

HEALTH

respiratoryfailure ;

without

expend

can

on

AND

AIR

242

and

the

the
is

fullest

THE

breathing,since
the

shoulder
fixed

one

girdle or
aid

to

handle-bar,thus

the

impediment

For

the

to

is

as

set hard.

which

for

which

than

one

attempted

example,

will be of the

being

driven

well

limber/

not

the

heart

of

the

is

absolutely
A

test

"

the

By

condemned.
upon

inspirations

being compressed

Air

in

ence
proportionateinflu-

of

expansions

same

value.

is entered

work

the chest ; yet the

and

during

tracted
stronglycon-

are

be

deepest.

at

that

to

exertion

complete inspirationsis

of this.

contractions

labouring heart,while
is

be

muscles

should

physiology

the

on

dumb-bell

the shoulders

must

imperfectlyexpanding cavitywith

an

doing

with

two

or

absolutelyclamp

must

apparent.

once

universallyprescribed.Stand

thoracic

or

organism,

the

at

persistentviolent

no

for
weight-lifting,

Consider

be

thorax,

easilyproved by testingit.

more

the

any

cyclistand

part of your

upper

the muscles

; but

in

progressionby pulling on

stand

to

holding

are

diaphragm

right when

it is not

that

proof
for

it

is

243

indifferent

an

breathingwill

easy

means

the

or

difficult

shoulders,back,

good

are

curiouslyand

so

This

The

"

you

of exercise

well,by all

up

ribs

forcingthe

reason

similar forms

back,

the

your

the

same

BREATHING

forciblycontractingmuscles

no

position. If

endeavour

or

AND

CHEST

time

of blood

excess

an

working

already

an

of which

is thus

doubly impeded."
This

is well

leading

to

said.

Exercise

increase

an

the

in

of the

chest

size of the

if

muscles, even

be

thorax, may

positivelyharmful.
The
be

an

prominent, pouting
anatomical

in the
Still,

adopted
and
is of

cases

the

deception,and
of

improved.

of the
a

soldier,then,

even

if the

chest

with

mobility
the

ribs

the
of
more

the ribs have

where

sufficient
positionof expiration,
increase

may

physiologicaliniquity.

chests
ill-developed

separate the ribs and


value

chest

exercise

capacity of
the

chest
or

to

the

wall

less fixed

lift

chest

be

not

in the

AIR

244

positionof
chest

and

also

such

and

as

violent efforts may

certain

subjecthas

almost

no

Daily

Mail

"

writes
"

on

hands

without

back

your

and

mouth

legs

shut.

gentlyas

can

air

fifteen

or

twenty
the

manner,

but

gentlyby

rightnostril.

every

morning through

leave

your

seems

bed."
but

preventing or
In

an

Breathe,"
ribs

of
in

American
we

should

left

the

are

first

This

the

breath

Retain

for about

chest

breath

air

gradually

in the

same

let it out

very
times

ten

alternatelybefore

is not
have

no

you

absurd

quite as

as

much

as

like this about

nostrils

good

lie flat

Then

slow

the

nostril,and

it could

course

very

the next

exercise

room

your

let out

Breathe

writes,

possible. Keep

well-inflated

Take

in the

your

your

left nostril.

the

as

Then

instance,

for

head, with

your

rightnostril.

seconds.

through

draught.

the

In

soon," he

the

through

heart,and that

into the

long, deep, and

possiblein

as

through

of

much

as

It

lungs,

written.

As

"

pillow under

the

for influenza

cure

morning, let

relaxed

Take

you

of the

it

fresh air ; but beware

supply of

it.

through

write,

we

breathing.

in the

lating
its venti-

people have found


physical,and on

been

which

on

of

increase

questionof breathing

and

nonsense

recommend

to

awake

are

you

more

To

to the

some

mental

date

method

pranayam
as

the

of

somebody
"

both

panacea,

flow of blood.

of
elasticity

the

breathing exercises

In

exercises.

consider

must

we

change,
inter-

the elastic tissue.

overstretch

In this relation

tion,
inspira-

extreme

circulation

later,is of assistance

than

for gaseous

to

that the

remembered

shall show

we

assist the

to

be

always

to the

impediment

more

chest,therefore,is both

power
must

it offers less surface

course,

useless

more

even

positionof

less fixed in the

or

since,of

expand

expiration is

extreme

more

HEALTH

AND

effect

as

either

in

How

to

curing influenza.
magazine, under
told

that

expand,

"

in

and

the

heading

inspirationthe
the

motion

"

three

should

lower

spread

; while

upwards

first contract

and

more

In

article in

an

views

habit of
the

nose."

interviews

they

"

let the wrinkles

and
take

they

should

breath

deep

breath

it,lettingthe
muscle

every

the

as

much

nose.

and

slowly, and

forward, and their spine will bend


exercise

one

and

is short

for calm

thought

is to

sages

their

Then

they

should

then

gently expand

meanwhile

relaxing

will

head

slowly fall

This

too.

is

just

it because

mention

it also clears the


After

this

it

head
are

we

of the Indian

of the exercises

"

to

cool

the

top of the brain

just above

found

"

the

brain where

or

in

to

illustrate the

the

the

"

chest

far

not

heart."

the

Even

writing

on

magazine
of

at

them

concentrate

saints is often

of

halo

from

either

concentrated

often

Indians

sword

hang limp,

arms

this inhalation

judgment."

one

important

into their nostrils in order

aspiratewater

be

feats

learn that

only

wiping

After

forward

because

clear

and

most

heads,"and that during breathingexercises the thoughts

"may

the

and
refreshing,

surprisedto

not

of many.

out

very

of the

in

between

possible. The

as

tennis

that

states

let their

abdomen,

out

breathing.

righthand

that

and

their

through

contract

He

of their faces.

go out

better

Breathing, and

in the
men

sit down

may

know

"

tells business

He

of

to

place

well-known

are.

handkerchief

holding the

takes

about

write

deeply

closed, partly because

left nostril

the

have

Art

the

on

of his views

extraordinarysome
people

ought

English magazine

an

player gives his

who

We

more

oxidation

they

when

ribs should

upper

and the
life,

more

those

live." Even

we

lose their heads

to

seem

the

245

spread downwards."

is

oxidation

breathe

frequentlywe

and the

"

that

three

should

the motion

told

BREATHING

expiration the

in

and

further

are

AND

CHEST

THE

doctor
the
we

be

may

subject of

find

doctor

quoted

respiration.In
talking with

"

expansionists. Ranking,"

swallower

and

the

man

with

he

American

an

admiration

writes,

the iron

jaw

foolish

"

of
with

is the

the
the
man

HEALTH

246

AIR

who

by practicehas developed

strength and
feats
A

excite

favourite

AND

his

mobility of
the

and

wonder

is to buckle

act

requiresonly

strap around

flat chest and

inches,and

six

"

have

men

many

worked

with
their

out

their

breathing capacity,one

time

he

crossed

of

of not

felt hat

This

trick

more

than

practice." Again,
of

methods

own

his

by holding

increasing

breath

the
by filling

his closed

it with

gently pummelling

hard

it in astonishment

at

little

street, another

the

bursting straps

looks

beholder.

wall.

chest

his

fullyexpanded

slipa

to

the

of

some

every

expansion

who

readily duplicate it

would

out

the

an

man

many

until

incredulityof

strap and

loosened

the

walls

chest

chest,and then after forcingthe air


between

lung capacity,and

his

chest

fists,and

increasing strength

every

third

buckled

and

by

about

his

chest."
Not

of

word

warning

or

disapproval does

utter.

Now, if these experimentistsare

exhibit

themselves

at Barnum's

Man, good and

the Skeleton

increasingtheir

are

ought

to be

tissue,and
which

on

Such

made

they

health

ruining the

there

much

an

natural

of the

no

science
to

act

the

is timed

organism.

new-born

babe

that

of
elasticity

doubt
and

is

quoted

they
more

the

lung

circulation

certainlyreprehensible,

at all that
art

of

faddists

breathing.

have
In the

tially
recognisethat breathingis essen-

regulatedin

of reflexes.

breath

and

feats

and

breathingand

We

breathe

minute, nearly twenty-four thousand


every

to

Lady

such

sadly mistaken,

have

we

be

can

automatic

multitude

Fat

order

depends.

first placeit is necessary

are

pseudo-scienceas
too

in

well,but if they think that they

between
relationship

the

and

alongside the

breathing capacity by

told that

probablythey are

working

"

"

this doctor

and

The

doctor

and

it gasps

modulated
flicks the
its first

wonderful

about
times

by

way

fifteen times
in the

by

the

face

and

day,

and

necessities
chest

breath,and

from

of

of the
that

CHEST

THE

forth

time

the

AND

and

breathing stops,

the

in

little snuff

quickens,a
little

breathing is

the

at

circumstances

it is

"

reflex.

and

under
we

and

the control

improve

may

That

educate

it is

it even

it

sneeze,

The

of many
tially
essen-

that

noted,
"

still it is to

But

will,and

it is

fact to be

and

cough.

control

reflex.

of the

and

is

blood
dioxide

control

the

no

the

have

we

have

under
have

we

automatic
essentially

extent

that

which

in

reflex

little fever

and
we

of

carbon

and

and

control

much

nose

throat

mercy

over

automatic

the

in

in the

mucus

little too

247

dioxide

it is stimulated.

and

blood

the

little carbon

action.
the

is under

breathing

little too

BREATHING

some

quite possible

without

practising

pranayam."
Again, the

have

is to

seen,

expirationof
of

amount

permit the consumption

carbon

dioxide.

breathe, but

not

the

on

down

of

tissues

partly a question of

of

muscular

the reflexes

fill the

and
one's

chest

tissues

delusion
in the

and

is,no

all the

morning

interchange of

of

is

and

the

the

of

that

and

up

this

Nor

stand
is

one

have

pranayam

the least effect

gases.

We

are

"

"

can

the

on

told

by

we

and

again

constantlyregulated
at

window

oxygenating

doubt, a pleasantimagination,but

same.

charged
dis-

partly a question

carefullyand

imagine

the

often

building

and

respiration.To
to

and

dioxide
how

body,

we

also seen, the

carbon

on

"

constitution

and
activity,

have

we

of

breathing,as

of oxygen

deeply

metabolism

the

as

and

how

on

is

by

But

consumed

oxygen

depends
breaking

objectof breathing,qua

main

it is

for ten

times

twenty-fourhours'

the

apostlesof deep

breathing that by practisingvoluntary deep breathing the


involuntarybreathingwill
that
so

the

it is

also become

involuntarybreathing may
simply, so

concerned,
enthusiasts

waste

far

as

oxygen

of muscular

blowing out

their

deeper.
become

and
energy.

chests,and

It is

possible

deeper ;

carbon

but

dioxide

Similarly we

if

are

find

perhaps succeeding

248

AIR

in

measurement

increasingthe

largelya
succeed

of

waste

Is there

the tissues ;
the

and

increase

good

obtain

the

important

to

that

as

the

wish

movement

probably much

best

other

which

exercises

the

wall.

chest

the

to

inflate

attained

our

and

the

"

deeply for
and

chests
of

it is

the

quite

It is the

down
is

this increase

and

by running

as

ment
move-

movement

though

naturallyand

in

easilyand freely,

fill it.

increase

power

be

may

purpose

to

as

the

perhaps

breathe

for this

maintain

selves
tissues them-

breathe

expense

must

we

the

to

are

the

and

of

of oxygen

can

lungs

merely

at

we

when

the

metabolism

wall

chest

we

up,

of the chest

movements

if

the chest

we

higher

telligen
practisedin-

consumption

that

not

air-cells ;

of the chest

the

so

inflation

empty

the

be

dioxide, but

But

remember

must

the

oxygen

must

we

purpose

of
elasticity

well

it.

maintain

proudly

walking,and

reflexlyemphasise

the

wall,yet simple breathing exercises

also useful.

are

Deep

mobilityof

the chest

supply extra

oxygen

and

the

The
chest

be

practised may
breathing,then, intelligently
maintaining and

in

use

man

carbon

require extra

positionto

rather

By deep breathingin

increase

respiratorymuscles,
do

ribs in

increase

mobilityof

the

ceed,
suc-

gained,then,by practising
breathing

cannot

cannot

we

all,they merely

mobility of

purpose.

we

discharge of

and

as

good

of exercise

not

is, if the exercises

Yes, there
to

the

do

at

case

it is

Again

they probably

fixingthe

in

be

nothing to
and

and

energy

decrease

thus

exercises ?

of the

of their chests.

muscular

gymnast,

position,and

absence

HEALTH

enlarging the bony

in

like the

this

AND

of

may

be

taking

that if called

the chest may

mobilityto
power

so

do

the

very

muscular

increasingthe
have

the extra

work.

thoracic

muscles

great.

Hutchinson

deep inspirationmust

by

upon

the tissues to
power

expand

calculated
have

and

power

the muscular

which

of

exerted

the

that
a

mus-

AND

AIR

250

cavity of

the
the

through

the

do

thus

that

and

since

do the

suction

more

heart

and

action

of

the

the

diminishes

of
elasticity
disease

the

exercise,or

tries to

organism

the chest wall

in

called

order

is not

chest
a

assist

to

it.

of disease

have

theory we

been

quitesure

or

old

as

the watch

on

in

increase
middle
as

every

proud

at

thoracic

life or

tailor and

of his

index

the

ideal

and

goes

one.

along

by holding

girth which

tends

Deepness
with

The
of

the

Were

sign

whose

lungs

my

older,I

years

expand

to

am

notable

Hence
to

much

moderately
range
a

monary
pulsteady

the

take

place
the

testify.Many

be

wide

maintain

shorteningof

can

of chest is

defective

of

muscles, ever
inspiratory

level.

capable

"

twenty

its normal

dressmaker

infrequently

Campbell,

to
nerve-centres)

it,and

big

skin, just a

Harry

forthwith

expands

enlarging chest

the wrinkled

4O-inch chest would

of 70

the

age,

before,

is not

The

of the

their

36-inch circumference.

an

and

one,

grow

action

before

even

great

injudicious
old

or

said

expounding, writes

(through

suction

as

action

we

age.

chest would

that my

degree,through extra

Hence,

suddenly to

this moment

at

blood,

anything

find that the chest

diminishing elasticity.Dr.

of

see

of

if

that

suction

we

probably,like

is

later years

We

it assists the

probably

emphysema^

a good
necessarily

symptom

the

positionof deeper and deeper inspiration.

Further, if the heart be weak,


in

is

lungs, such

the

and

requiresassistance.

find

we

the

maintain

it

lungs

physiologicalimportance, and

deeper

of the

exercise

justwhen

most

The

lungs exert,

by

blood

assists the

the circulation.

caused

deep breathing is

suction

it also

the circulation

deep breathing assists

circulation of the blood


This

heart,and

after its contraction.

assist the

they

helps to bring the

suction

to the

heart

the
inspiration

more

This

largeveins

of

expansion
the

chest.

HEALTH

better

neck,
man

off with

flat chest
of

after

movement

with
is

sign of degeneration,

mobility."

CHEST

THE

AND

BREATHING

have

Deep-breathing exercises,then, may


for

lungs

circulation

heart and

aiding the

well

as

easily,and

freelyand
should

be

should

not

preparingthe

in

as

in
utility

the

imitated

the

be

held

breathing
breath

possible. The

expirationshould

held, and

be

of natural

movements

closely as

as

be

should

body

complete

as

inspiration.

as

Nose-breathing. It
"

doubt

about

nostrils.
air

stronglyinto

more

the

deep breathing,by drawing

the

deeper parts

the

of

purpose

for which

intended

Nature

if
freezing-point

is warmed

them.

Their

water

to

F. ; and

one-third

of its

Thus, when

nose.

their chests
to

with

air, and

are

they

made

Any
nose

found

one

to

who
see

that

that

the

they are

how
whereas

the

way

as

they

are

air

there

were

offer

the

were

the

noses

And

purpose.

Not

extensive

an

sticky fluid,the
is fatal

moistened,

to

in its cavities.

20,000

with

affecting

regulardeath-trapfor
caught

65" F.

of their

smoky cityhas merely


is

14" F.

equallyperfect.
to

structed
speciallycon-

are

for the

air ; but

soot

air,in expired air there

noses

as

through

cold

the

Air

air at

its way

about

purpose

saturated

always

nostrils is

in such

lives in

air is

ing
filter-

is warmed

nose

throat,and

the

surfaces

"mucus," wherewith

bacteria,so

great.
the

through

their

that

to

for the

it is the function

of the

moist, sticky surface


so-called

talk

vascular

warm

the nostrils

efficacyboth

is very

capacity on

people

function
filtering

only

the

they forgetthat

the

warm

the

breathed

88"

to

used

be

it reaches

77" F. by the time

lungs,increases
and

germs,

always

moistening and warming apparatus


below

of the

warming, moistening,and

air,and they should

the

air,to breathe

through

the

infection if the air contains

for the very

are

of

act

very

if there be any
well,especially

will be

purity of

the

The

to
liability

to

certain

emergencies.

exercises
During deep-breathing

to

251

bacteria

only forty,and

in

germs.

blow

his

Strauss

inspired

probably

the

AIR

252

majority of

those

would

which

the

caught by

were

contains

nose

bacteria,and

consumption

some

disease

cause

scientist when

French
of

of

HEALTH

retained

ordinary conditions
kinds

AND

if

with

same

however, caught

of the

the

would

nose

about

14,000

noted

that

in

and

germs

known
with

that

Of
and

turned
well

as

as

catch

cannot

breathing

to

importance

of the

at

and
"

I have

Where

lowering

her

togetheras
afterwards

it falls
looked

of such

such

mother

I
practice,

In

is well

deserves

be

of the

renders

access

It is well

twisted

kept

neck

out

of it

has its limitations

the

always

to

nostrils.

are

we

to
filter,

Seeing

the

of their passages

the

to be

Shut

to

the

Your

little book

nurse

he

writes

pressing its lips

in the open

multitude

myself

Mouth

in the wilderness

woman

its cradle

Indian

said

"

Indians,

the

among

breast,and

the

asleepin
have

this

Indian

poor

from

into

It may

still,whether

but

called

little book

infant

that

sealed.

traveller

famous

impure

to.

seen

seen

cavities

opening

be

can

largestnose,

air with

Life."

Your

so

difficult.

nostrils,
any narrowing

amusing

Save

the

the

warm

be

once

an

be

everything;

George Catlin, a
wrote

mouth

even

was

of the

germs

The

St. Clair Thomson

hourly.

very

with

nose

plugs.

long,narrow,

deep breathing,it

or

moisten, and

should

lungs

bottle

if the

germs

membranes

backwards

course

downwards

the nose,

course

inhaled

the
a

the

his

mucous

air

direction

to

by giving

mouth

almost

dust

the

nose.

with

the

on

destroyed,for

were

their devious

germs

great majority of nasal

downward

the

be

give guinea-pigs

to

the

on

where

cases

organisms

nostrils and
of

been

that the

even
aseptic,

were

able

ferent
thirtydif-

the

plugged

caught

germs

have

found

Hewlett

may

they passed

was

consumption
germs,

of these

"

afterwards

cotton-wool, and

than

bacilli

Under

nose.

more

making experiments

the tubercle

"

the

'

air,and

for the

Glorious

of emperors

results

education
!

'

And

I have

when

and

faces

with

have

been

when

into

the

believe
habit

Nature's

Of

that

doubt

no

breathe

through

It

has
in
it

the

rarefaction

through

of

the

the

through

the

dioxide
"

air in

the

the

compression ;

to

narrow

cannot

the

nostril

and

mouth.

expire

suction,with

does

inspiration

the

than

nose

does

causes

tion
expira-

this greater rarefaction

If

dischargeof
we

nostril and

one

far the

and

carbon

inspireair,after

still further increase


so

gases

Accordingly

more

lungs

facilitate the

we

in

the

of

inspireand

expirationthrough
; and

moistening,

normally patent

are

lungs, than

the air in the

the

nose-breathing
nostrils,

rather

fashion,through

the other

for there

instances, e.g.,

pressure

the diffusion of oxygen.


"

too

can

safer to

and

nostrils

normal

effort to

causes

nose

somewhat

pranayam

through
and

and

there

cases,

be

nostrils

through

mouth

compression must
the

the

compression of

more

most

other

are

the

on

the

than

; and

mouth

excepting

nature

may

of

muscular

more

inspiration
through

to

apart from

even

when

Even

nostrils

the

contravention

required.

particulareffect

requiresrather

this

in

even

functions
filtering

chest.

through

there

of

faddist ; but

say

shocked

."
.

passages

and

that

noted

and

warming,

air

extra

be

may

nasal

exercise, when

during violent
the

We

incipient

and

it is healthier

cases

nose.

air ;

sufficient

supply
supply

the

where

instances

are

in most

in

open.

writing of

is the

this

struck

results

the

by

animal

no

breath,

Mortality,which

Bills of

its mouth

sleepswith

course,

is

There

this

of

practised in

contracted, and

for

been

struck
forcibly

swelled
frightfully

so

design.

that

be

be

to

thus

man

looked

have

overheated

gasping

multitude, I have

stage of education, and


I

and

lastingresults

evil and

evident

the

in civilised life

sleeping in

open

into the

looked

afterwards

253

mothers

their infants

of

their littlemouths

with

rooms,

the careful,tender

seen

the

covering

BREATHING

AND

CHEST

THE

the
"

"

pranayam

expire

it

suction

has

some

AIR

254
in it ; but

sense

few breaths

the

AND

it is nonsense,

then

This

is known

Mailer's

as

expiration.

Both

still more

cause

and

nostrils after
of

movements

experiment.

then

This

experiments

making
known

is

have

the

It is

on

suction

expiration
inspiration.

possiblealso
and

muscular

to

nostrils

movements

Valsalvds

as

effect

any

compression by closing mouth

and
inspiration

after

have

can

possibleto

muscular

the

making

still more

of

It is

by closing mouth

chest

and

cause

nevertheless,to imagine that

in this fashion

drawn

generalhealth.

in the

HEALTH

experiment.

physiologicalinterest

but

of

are

value.
little practical
There

specialists.In

exercises

breathing
with

(#)

for

of

by

i.

the fullest

Take

2.

Expire

the vertical

deep

the

lower

5. Stand

deep

breathing exercises

abdominal

muscles.

We

the active breathing


illustration,

6. Stand

abdominal

bending

the

body

somewhat

ordinary inspiration,
resuming

an

with

and
possiblethoracic inspiration,

bending
lower

thoracic
the

the

with

legs

well

by

forward.

followed
inspiration,

by

apart and

take

deep

i.e.y
passiveexpiration,

merely.

legs

well

inspiration,followed

expiration.This

then

expiration.

recoil
the

body

thoracic

followed
inspiration,

resultingfrom
"

the

joined
con-

followed
possiblethoracic inspiration,

take

the utmost,

abdominal
one

breathing exercises

(c)Passive

utmost,

the fullest

"4. Take

"

(a) Active

position.

3. Take

expire to

to

then

forward, and

"

into

ordinaryexpiration.

an

"

cises,"
RespiratoryExer-

recommends.

exercises he
"

"

prescribed by

exercises

Active

developing

quote here, by way

may

on

divides

other exercises

(d) Exercises

exercises

fascinatingbook

his

Harry Campbell

Dr.

breathing

various

are

latter is effected

apart and

by

take

deep

deep

abdominal

by retractingthe belly

CHEST

THE

by

abdominal

in the

8. Take

by

the
lifting
inspiration,

abdominal

the

9. Assume

lap, flex

the

body

and

mouth,

After
with

as

take

should

Expiration

expiration,and

not

not

neurasthenia, they
constipation,

to

most

of

cases

the

exercise

the

where
of

form

disease

singing

of great value

since the

lung

and

is almost

certain

in

forms
of

distinctly

are

of

bronchitic

indigestion,

physiologicalservice.
usually best

it is
at

all

not

active,implies

Only

requiresrest.

be used
hears

one

On

second,

one

in

cases

completely arrested,should

the

for those

breathing exercises
thus

are

ordinary

six."

some

or

should

even

of wonderful

breathing exercises, but

well authenticated.
are

inflammation

It is true

and

than

more

phthisis,however,

breathing exercise

permitted.

the limit of

lungs. Tuberculosis,if

inflammation, and

drop suddenly.

to

arms

than

in

tion.
inspira"

heart-disease,in asthma,

In

arms

i.e.,
by recoil merely

respiratory exercises

conditions, in emphysema,
In

possiblethoracic

occupy
more

closed

lift the

body,

proceed beyond

should

diseases

some

useful.

the

the

allowing

inspirationoccupying
In

inspirationwith

fullest

take

possible. Now

abdominal
raise

the

on

as

the

not

hands

the

far forward

"

mouth,

abdominal

expiration.

fold

this, passivelyexpire

open

by

follow this up

deep

thoracic

sittingposture,

gradually

head, and

the

over

then

lower

clavicles to the utmost.

make

inspiration
;

deepest possible

the

anterior

breath

the

inspirationand

thoracic

lower

a
deep
expirationand, finally,
"

the

order.

reverse

deep

of

then
inspiration,

abdominal

deep

thoracic

Expire
"

muscle-fibres

transverse

and, finally,complete
inspiration,

thoracic

deep

255

wall.

"7. Take

the

of

means

BREATHING

AND

other

they

are

any

singing be
cures

due

to

usually not

hand, breathing exercises

merely predisposed to phthisis,


increase

improve its nutrition.

the

blood-supplyof

the

Position.

We

"

reference
the

on

chest's

the

productive of
be allowed
sit with

exercises

always
and

be

calculated

expected

of the

taught
be

its chin

that

If

to

thoracic

desk

table,it

deformity.

from

prevented

adopting

knees, or

Children

stiff

can

breathing

or

easilyand

themselves

carry

child

its

dumb-bell

few

be

the chest

day

or

to

to

between

pressed against a

expected

should

cises
breathing exer-

exercises

hardly

with

day

will prevent

be

athletic

postures

handicapped by faultypostures.

its chest

be

hardly

minutes'

if for the rest

good

sit all

to

few

action, can

much

and

hampered

the effect of habitual

of

minutes

out
subjectof breathingwith-

the

questionof

to the

few

develop

to

leave

cannot

breathing capacity.

or

is

HEALTH

AND

AIR

256

should

straightly,
cramped

or

attitudes.

Singing and speaking are


exercise,and

both, owing
of

compression

cause

diffusion

beneficial

of the heart
with

climbed

the

heart

The

is often relieved

the

the

better

pupilswere

made
with

to

masters

seating themselves
In

as

the schools

We

were

to dilatation

are

were

even

familiarly
upon
seen

said

has

clergyman

all

been

has

notably

has

from

free

health

and

however, recommend

lying
less

I have

and
difficulty,

utmost

cannot,

or

William

of the voice.

rule,enjoy robust

sing while

to be

Sir

singing taught by Mandl,

of

weights,more

region:

due

comfortably,but

vigorous appetites.
method

respiratoryexercise

which

Singers, again,

pulmonary troubles,and,
the abdominal

in

the

sermon

for it."

as

exercise

by

pulpitwith

only preached

sternal

cords,

assist the

lungs, and

breathlessness

instances

numerous

into

sometimes

respiratory

of the vocal

recognised by

was

"

wrote

not

have

air in the

of

forms

to the resistance

public speaking

the

to

Broadbent, who

met

natural

of oxygen.

effect of

The

both

down

on

"

whose

mattresses,

heavy, placed on the


of
to make
a practice

the chests of their

gallows with thongs and

pupils.
rings

258

AND

AIR

conditions

nary

greater than
be

the

without

immobilityof
And

the

that

expand.

corset

the

There

can

be littledoubt

abdominal
and

than

becomes

the

except where

is

Of

"

to

the

thought

ribs fail to
be

of her lower

unduly tight.

The

it weakens
minal
abdo-

importance

he

the

gives a harrowing
evils to

two

as

so

belt and

we

upon

diminish

descend
and

their active

and

the

to

so

impair

the

secretingstructures.
great

divides

the

liver and

the

effect of

stomach,

through these

organs,

make

them

that lie beneath

action

to

them,

of all the

great

interfere with

breathingmuscle, the diaphragm

or

midriff,which

lungs to

themselves.
recorded

The

and

to

upwards, and

press

one

effect,again, is

The

the chest from

causes

and

refer,the

at

function,to
physiological

growth

of

tight corset,

general.

the vital organs

compress

the

even

account

that it acts

adapted

compressor

down

press

which

than

is, I think, worse


is

tightwaist-belt

prevent the free circulation of the blood

from

lower

indirectlyweakens

thus

corset, and

the corset

time

same

either

on

chronic, so

the action

be not

if the corset

Richardson

evils of both

the

great disadvantage.

diaphragmatic breathing,whose

tight waist-belt

to

the

just seen.

worse

the

that full vigour cannot

hampers

muscles, and

Sir B. Ward

the

who

woman

can

breath, then

but
only impedes respirationdirectly,

not

have

for

off the

is taken

corset

any

much

so

of the chest

corsets

the

corset, even

by

when

enjoyed by
by

made

be

caused

is

chest

respiratoryembarrassment

ribs will prove

the lower

immobility

even

ribs

demand

extra

of the

that the movement

is necessary

if any

action

bellows

greatly hampered

but

HEALTH

many

An

fillin
to

so

eminent
years

rightside

ago

of her

the collar-bone

abdomen, and which

the

to

by

breathing. Lastly,the
interfere with

facts

throat,had

heart

effect is to
and

physician,M.

Parisian
the

the

its descent

relatingto
a

woman

swellingwhich

the level of the

lungs

Breschet,
who,
reached

and
thyroidcartilage,

CHEST

THE

which, when

enlarged

the

chest

respirationcould
it ; but

over

when

swellingwas

gently pressed downwards,

it

behind

the

into
altogether,
close

many

lungs to

thorax, and

extremely displacedby
In

children

apart from
There
chest

much

the

be

can

harm

is done

little doubt
due

are

breathing

tends

develop

development of

to

the
or

oxygen,

seen

known

the

compressed

in the

the

heart

clad

so

that

calls

the

chests

of

in

better

children

pull on

children

of the

and

ment
develop-

any

that

cases

demands

the

are

so

that
for

tissues

impossible and

becomes

exercise

deepened

tightlyfittinggarments
the

to

defective

clothingin

for

than

exercises

many

such

in

respond

cannot

kind

is much

But

of

cases

restrictions of

gymnastic

any

arms.

are

and

any

this kind

produced by

chest

I have

...

known

many

the

to

of

the

chest

the

by tight clothing even,

that

Exercise

overclad

have

In

pressure."

same

children.

by

the

tightlacing.

development

chest

cavityof

place and

of

pushed quiteout

applied

actuallybeen

several times

it. I have

of

murmur

disappeared.

the loose tissue of the neck.

part of the

upper

of the

was

libertyand

had

right lung

collar-bone,out

approaches to

be

was

the

corsets,

stethoscopewas

at

portion of

in

swelling the

when

chest

the

259

set

this instance, a
forced

the

In

heard

be

BREATHING

tightly laced

was

fullest.

its

to

AND

the

child's

its chest,suffers.
generalphysique,and especially
The tightclothingof infants is particularly
deplorable.
his excellent

book

Cavanagh

writes:

after round

of

and
man,

it is

sympathy
garment.

in

the

The

Body,"

this binder

infant

excuse

as

say

is wrapped round

that the average

applied,will

it is revolved

with

Dr. Francis

binder, also non-absorbent,

exaggeration to

conformity

The

of the

Care

interminable

an

he first sees
with

"

"Encirclingthe abdomen,

absolutely no

when

revolved

on

In

the

for it is the

needs

and
of

turn

giddy

revolved
this

prevention of

in

and

appalling
umbilical

260

AIR

rupture, and

in

support is needed

after

be

impediment

has

child who

stupid;

the
child
and

known

removal

in

greatest importance that

the

should

of the

individual

chest, they

to

is fastened
with
and

tight belt

other straps

impede
Even

than

respiration.
in

"

the

the

to

Dr.

are

so

bound

Cavanagh

his savage

made

majesty

the

neck

His

waist

often
to

mentions
the

King

not

reduce

exercise.

the
In

specially
of

clothed
common

generally

material, and
is

abdominal

hampered
breathing,

haversack

stillfurther

body."
by

worn

no

in order

women

interfere with
that

and

movement

tunic

; his

and

are

been

thick

and

very

ment
develop-

seems

of

interferes with

tightgarments

the

impossible for

has

and

infants

defiance

open

proves,
im-

once

of

athletic

He

pharynx.
naso-

physical

of

soldiers

of

of his limbs

the movement

at

permanently

it

is

usuallystunted

life,when

from

supportingvalise

to be in the fashion

and

clothing

which

in the

matter

render

possible,is

right up

breathing

its

garments

benefit

Pembrey,

tightlyas

as

is

physiologicalprinciples.

and

sense

and

mental

finished,tight garments

may

impede

to

hitherto, says

fits

the

is

way,

temporarily or

due

derive

both

still,
by hampering the

may

motility,and

designed

thorax

adenoids

the

later

In

is

but

pernicious;

instances

many

loose.

be

where

adenoids

amazing

an

it

individual

In the result

adenoids

as

of

Therefore

thoracic

them.

cases

sufferingfrom
the

vigour.

the

layer

are

concerti
equally dis-

development

in

seen

growths

sometimes

quite so

substance

articles

unprotected,the
practically

is well

physical,as

children

don

to

respirationchecks

to

hampered by

of

these

some

of expansion'' Any
defrauded of possibilities

are

mental

child

suitable

more

Outside

ample.

left

are

abdomen

and

layer of clothing equally ridiculous,and

arms

and

folds of

; two

to the

the

HEALTH

straining,struggling,crying

would, however,

AND

less

of Cambodia

full

tion,
respira-

authority

an
was

of the

THE

CHEST

that

opinion

close

wear

the

to

harness

heart

the

which

is

perhaps

respiration.

The

temperature

steady

stimulus

As

we

commonest

deficient

pampered

skin

is

not

The

play

heat

and

skin.

are

all
in

the

simply

due

to

to

colds,

hampered

air,
and
of

changes
at

to

respiration
is

the

of

and

cool

certainly

life

skin

to

of

hot-house

respiration

the

play

change

modulate

through

of
of

causes

tissue

mechanism

lassitude

predisposing
vitality

to

fair

of

extent

to

are

amount

access

in

some

and

give

respond
kept

to

stimulus

part

later,

the
of

be

meant

skin,

reflex

see

they

garments

certain

to

to

and

they

permit

meant

is

first

the

shall

it

do

stimulant

meant

cold

Besides^

light

allow

they

best

from

to

meant

is

to

accordingly.

and

and

only

they

the

temperature

exposed

but

skin,

it

fitting

one

first.

the

loose

view
Not

lungs,

by

garments,

covering

desirable.
and

breathing

of

point

every

two

clothes.

many

tight?

too

physiologically
the

other

261

too

wear

than

more

the

skin,

BREATHING

women

no

themselves

From

be

European

"

should

They

AND

is

many

often

skin

is

respiration.
of

one

the
of

cases

respiration

and

CHAPTER

XV

ARTIFICIAL

did

sooner

NrO

the

about

the

mechanical

who

had

began

pressure
the

whereby
No

opened
And
of

could

be

discovered

spheric
atmo-

propose
No

Torricelli
of

name

solution

for

sooner,

of

in

1643,

Henshaw,
under

gas

varying degrees

to

chamber

he

could

included

increase

or

barometer

accuratelygauged.

than

for the

Dr.

Beddoes, of

inhalation
the

and

Bristol,

of gases.

disinfectant

properties

antisepticinhalations

than

of

with

Cavendish, Scheele,
Priestley,

again, were

sooner,

the

propertiesof

pneumatic

even

oxygen

institution

an

by

whereby
he

again, did

discover

no

gases

and

pressure

sooner,

Lavoisier

built

bellows

of

arrangement

decrease

invented

He

to

purposes.

subject people

to

atmosphericpressure.
an

began

principle of

the

grasped

something

chemical

English physician of

famous

pressure,

he

for medical

barometer

the

understand

to

and

than

atmosphere

instance,was
a

begin

man

modifications

than

ATMOSPHERES

into

came

vogue.

rather

Naturally the poineers of aero-therapeuticswere


wild

in

and

similar

does

their ideas.
diseases

thought

atmosphere

he

Henshaw
in

could

containing

his

treated

relapsingfever

pneumatic chamber,
consumption by

cure
a

even

reduced
262

quantity

an

of

and

Bed-

artificial
oxygen.

ARTIFICIAL

Yet

their

though

right track, and


important
Indeed
in

ideas

of

medical

subject is

these

rather

were

wild

has
aero-therapeutics

branch
the

263

ATMOSPHERES

since

the

on

were

into

grown

an

science.
it is

large that

so

now

do

to

pages

they

outline

than

more

sible
imposgeneral

its

principles.
far

as

atmospheres,

be

may

said

to

aim

physiological effects
In

order

composition of

of

sort

been
In

broad

kinds

way

is necessary,

and

immersed,

or

pressures

only

apparatus

has

mechanical

the

to

its

and
and

easily kept steady,

easilykept

more

on

the

other

atmosphere

be

the

whole

which

body

lungs.

Each

disadvantages.

and

by

two

apply varying

of

In

more

inhaled

the

inhaling apparatus,

an

be

can

pressure

be

may

composition
;

of

may

cabinets, pressure

constant

hand, the

contrivances.

air-passages and

the

some

great ingenuityhas

contrivances

advantages

pressure,

atmosphere.

the

inhaling appliances which

pneumatic chambers,

gas

the

mechanical

of

invention

pneumatic cabinets, in

either

"

of the

in the

expended
a

is

apparatus

an

the pressure

modify

to

beneficial

producing

at

varying
by artificially

temperature, humidity, and

artificial

with

it deals

so

in
Aero-therapeutics,

easily

more

altered.

By

of

means

of

either
be

effects may

rarefied

or

compressed

rarefied

or

compressed.

thus

have

at

gases,

least

Inspirationof

contrivances

produced.

pressure

We

these

four

and

The

variety of

expire

into

them

"

(1) Compressed

Compressed

(2) Rarefied

Rarefied

(3) Compressed

Rarefied

(4) Rarefied

Compressed

Methods

(3) and

(4)

will

gases

:
possibilities

Expiration

"

inspire

patient may

obviouslypromote

an

into

"

interchange

264

AIR

of gases

in the

interchangeis
of

desirable.
the

HEALTH

and

lungs

massaging

the

AND

will be

will deal

we

with

the

altitudes

breathing at high
have

the

physiologicaland

e.g., it would

skin

and

number

of

far, it

the

red

would

blood

This

is

conditions
consider

it

in

as

effects

produced

chemical.
to

The

the

expands
At

the

elastic tissue of the

further

and

parts.

causes
internally
a

course

may

The

be

the

skin

and

The

of
more

an

The

atmospheric

increase

in the

less

permanently

physico-chemical effects

depend chieflyon

the

increased

physiological

pressure

The

chest therefore

of

and

is

chest

air is

the

is

pressure

blood
of

to

respired.
slowed.
surfaces

mucous

secretion

the

does

the

quantity

greater

compressed-airbaths
or

and

pulse-rateare
in

is

partlyphysico-

correspondinglygreater quantity of

internal

to

breathing and

in the

exposed directlyto
a

greater volume

the

time

same

lungs.

now

pressure

increased

of

air.

pressure

will

we

and

the

of

compressed

increased

inspiratoryforce

Further, the blood

and

effect of

too

(i),the inspira-

useful,and

partly mechanical

natural

carried

atmospheric

atmospheres.

the

symptoms

method

The

the

to

increase

pneumatic chamber,

in

would

blood

of

the

of

most

detail.

are

the

augment

stretch

and

modification

rule, exceed

used, but

would

expiration into

generally provided by
not

and

with

more

oxygen,

little used

corpuscles,while, if

used, and

most

little

remains

the

probably

With

obviouslysimulates

There
air

means

of

are

transitoryflux

produce dyspnoea

compressed

tioned,
therapeuticeffects already men-

membranes,

mountain-sickness.
of

(2)which
is also

cause

mucous

be

inhalation

separately,
they

general therapeutics.Method

increased

membranes.

respiratorymucous
of

where

will likewise

They

exception, however,

which

useful

reduced,
is

blood

sent

of urine.

capacityof

the

sent

By
chest

increased.

of

compressed-air

solution

and

baths

absorption

266

AIR

catarrh.

Here
air

gives great

relief.

increases

In

of

cases

with

In

where

form

of

disease

in

of

The

heart

We

have

used

with

Air.

considered.

is of very

In

"

The

carried

to

ancient

was

this

sea-air and

the

used

As

believer

they

air,but of

composition,
medicated

in

gave

are

inhaled

sometimes

in

and

new

as

shape

of

doubted,

dusts

lungs, and

the

stances
sub-

medicinal,

be

of

time

Homer

disinfectants.

fumigation.
and

can
can

germs

and

impetus

to

pocrates
Hipadvised

Galen

Etna,

be

the

so

to

as

spread

medical

fine dust ; sometimes


a

inhaled

disinfect

not

been

established

into

only

as

Though

fine spray.

it has

have

inhalations
Sometimes

purposes.

of the

idea, and

this old

medicated

years

variety of

the

often

might

as

Vesuvius

near

last hundred

substances

been

air

may

and

vapours

early as

in

air

sulphur-vapour.

the

but

medicated

certain

employed

were

for

sprays

in

cases.

in

and

gases,

the

lungs by

live

to

antiseptictheory

has

altered

be

connection

Naturally,the discovery of

been

might easilyprove

natural

compressed

that

origin.

firm

consumptives

during

is acute

there

in such

caution

foreign

idea

the

sulphureous vapours

inhale

of

useful

ways.

Medicated
be

with

do

may

be

subject of debate;

in

or

compressed-air baths

of

air may

compressed

moistened, mixed
various

is

spoken only

the

course

it

haemorrhage

to

disease

where

but

used

disease,

it may

air.

be

must

the

disease

usefulness

certainlybe

rarefied

it
filled,
insufficiently

are

of arrested

tendency

air

of

stages

pulmonary gymnastics ;
or

should

lungs

cases

detrimental.
cases

earlier

sometimes

given

relief still is

and

blood

the

to

inspired is expired into

the

the

; and

good

supply

oxygen

of

volumes

large

consumption compressed

caution.

cases

of

entrance

Greater

air

compressed

HEALTH

the

again

compressed
if the

AND

the
the

very

gases

the

fact

that

fine

air-cells of

larger air-tubes

but

ARTIFICIAL

ATMOSPHERES

also their ultimate

subdivisions,and

and

secretion
and
There

it is

spread

of the

from

valuable

has

useful

effects.
physiological

the

Inhalations.

of

and, of
pure

mentioned.

of

supply much

than

oxygen

into

oxygen

to

during

if oxygen

the

of
the

it is

or

be

mentioned

given

in the
even

at

be

too

high

pointed

the

supply

and

exercise

It is not,

change

merely by

by forcing more

when

the
and

is

of

supply
when

abnormally

service.

pressure

and

death

and

of

(as
Even

it causes,

previous chapter, inflammation

convulsions

of

consumption

abnormally low,

can

pressure

relationship

demand.

even

only

obtain

to

not

rest

tissue

as

spheres,
atmo-

have

factor in the

lungs

inhalations

oxygen

lungs, or

is

and

exercise) its consumption

violent

then,

the

; and

tissues

the

that

we

blood

the

high,

as

to

oxygen

the

and

tissues

stimulate

of

easy

mentioned

meets

concerned,

atmospheric

conditions

more

therefore, possibleto

offeringmore

the

normal

Under

more

organism,

determining

is the

oxygen

the

demand

the

oxygen.

the

and

oxidation

that

already

is

pressure

the

By

chemico-physical

oxygen
a

produce

to

have

We

between

of

as

it is much

course,

than

oxygen

out

far

of oxygen.

same

respirationof air, under

the

by

the

produce

to

interestingand

most

inhalation

oxygen,

pure

of water

medicine.

used

be

can

the

is the

produced,so

be

can

air

of

One

"

inhalations

of

inhalation

effects

the

extent

some

domestic

place in

heated

and
refrigerated

important

lungs,

therapeutic properties,and

long held

Even

Oxygen

useful.

in the

medicaments, the vapour

any
has

cold

or

steam-kettle

the

septic
anti-

actuallykill

can

to

of

very

disease

prevent

may

purulent

disease.

Quite apart
hot

other

of any

possiblethey

though

given

be

may

inhalations,however, which

consumption, or

of

germs

of

cases

inhalations

medicaments

soothing

no

are

in

irritative conditions

of

of

267

it

can

of
be

268

AIR

of service

only

Thus

tissues

the

more

case,

chieflyuseful
and

the

blood

oxygen

trucks

where

the

in

impediment

where

cases

the

oxygen

consumption

exercise

where

supply

instances
Last

be

inhaled

experiments
the

than

had

inhalations

better

describes

in
run

The

formerly.

For

in
still,

hard
cases
some

some

standing
I

minutes
the

at

and

quarter-mile in

half-mile

as

trials

started

just inside

short
and

well-known

ran

few

min.

54
55

healthy

of oxygen.

times

experience

would

which

before

his

some

oxygen,

the -half-mile

such

of

by
make

first

but

energy

could

July 27th,

the

muscular

increased

afterwards
covered

In

athletes

on

they

Bridge ground.

violent

physiologist,Professor

runners,

fatigue than

the

working

are

service ;

to

less

Just,

less

of

cases

tissues.

greedy

oxygen

found

useful

is

It

normal, but

is

heart

of

and

that

and

well-known

that

prove

inhalations

Monday,

some

useful.

be

Hill, made

H.

is

there

catarrh, asthma, and

supply

lungs

of

the

may

T.

the

where

cases

where

bronchial

the

is

summer

to

gave

is sufficient

is insufficient

there

excessive, e.g., in

to

oxygen

it may

Leonard
seem

is

Oxygen

expiration.

oxygen

the

both

inhalation

oxygen

second

in the

heart-power

where

are,

troubles.

such-like

to

the

offer

there

engine-power.

mobility,or

accordingly in emphysema,
In

it,and

carry

inspirationand

to

first case

air-cells,
e.g.^ in

in

heart-disease

or

it is futile to

in the

but
satisfactory,

is deficient

wall

to

satisfactory.

are

anaemia
; but

little

too

cases

pressure

chest

with

man

lungs,since

few

in

of transport

of oxygen

the

speak,

to

so

lack

speak, too

to

HEALTH

means

of

at

oxygen

so

if the

suffer from

may

AND

on

He
races,

with

run

Mr.

runner,

follows
the

dividual
in-

"

On

Stamford

previous to starting

mediately
starting-point. Im-

half

ran
sec.

before,

;
sec.

my

and
This

mile.

completed
is faster

previous

best

ARTIFICIAL

performance being
In

practice
min.

58 J

The

in
I

about
"

Whilst

for the
fact

were

I felt

running

part with

that

after

I had

though

I did not
"

to

it

me

quarter took

the

last

260

53^

yards

strongly. Shortly

sec.

were

wards
after-

hard

if I had
a

remarkable

not

not

stiff,

quarter they
at all.

run

short

very

all

at

; after the

run

within

much

legs were

my

feet,running

my

little exertion.

springy as

so

; and

Even

of

space

time,

the

so

my

week

three

usually tires
I had

I had

three

run

erred

probably

just run

I had

that

days previous to

before

condition

add

slower

much

quite easy, although

quarter-mile. I might

in

and

seemed

pace

sprinting,which

even

smoking considerably for


that

the

easilythat

much, seemed

half- and

races,

This

than

quarter-mile,

extremely lighton

very

after

run

reallywas

very

and

better

ran

sec.

feel in the least tired.

I travelled

than

done

never

55*

yards,going quite easilyin

100

running

supple and

as

min.

sec.

most

was

did

I finished

separate

269

time

slow, but
and

they usuallyare

as

two

ran

short

oxygen.

was

sec.,

when

race,

previously

inhaled

30

if

After

sec.

first part

covered

in

have

having again

ATMOSPHERES

been

the

trial,

Soo-metre
the

upon

stale

side.
"In

conclusion, I might say that

I felt

after-effects

no

all."

at

Mr.

H.

beating his

E.

former

of

distressful

the

legs,and

As

that

the record
of oxygen,
To

best

able

was

athletes
times
or

inhale oxygen

to

'

"

and

he

again

run

every

with

the

hope

succeeded

noticed

and
grogginess,'

experiments
have

also

runner,

times, and

dyspnoea, of

result of these

a
"

use

Holder, another

of

of

the

in

absence

stiffness

unusual

of

ease."

cluded
experimenters con-

ing
materiallyshorten-

accomplishing greater

feats

by

the

deep breathing beforehand."


during a

race

might be

difficult matter,

made

that

under

which

run,

and
the

runners

could

be

who
the

of oxygen

help

about

breathing
breath
and

in workman-like

experiments
and
of

the

proved,on
able

do

to

work

systems

and

heart

co-ordination

that

horse,

functions
oxygen

the

on

as

be

the

in all

slower
away

Hill also

made

Marathon

that

cases

of work.

tions
inhala-

Some

made

of

horses.

on

administration
in

effect.

the

the

the

In

; and

the

supply oxygen

to
even

on

supplied by

other

of

In

hand, the

equal

muscular

to

the

system

the

the

He

there

6-furlong
the
the

of

the

respiratory
their

working
of

the

breathing

such

was

perfect
of

plenty

race

mechanism
of

the

respiratoryand
task

of

case

muscles

natural
case

were

perfection

of the

power

his

of oxygen

perfectionof

power

circulation.

not

were

no

do work

to

respirationand

Professor

his

plugged

race-horses

on

to

up

between

could

On

wasting

was

muscular, circulatory,and

built

were

legs and body

oxygen

had

the

"

powers," and
muscles

disheartened.

who

were

after the

hand, that

oxygen

horses

talked

he

hand, that ordinary working horses

more

of condition
race

that

refused

breathing become

power

experiments

one

the other

on

his

found

increased

oxygen

instructive

most

far done

man,

further

swimmer,

Wolffe

"

liftingweights, on

himself, and

on

of oxygen

Wolffe, the

on

fashion."

workmen

on

escape

reporteda

distressed,he stopped talking,and

less

runner,

Hill

so

done-up

to

breaths

thoroughly

was

the

oxygen

was

could

runners

allowed

the Channel.

talking,quieted down,

in

again

and

till he

out, and

coming

Flack

swim

attempting to

was

awning

."

be

low

the

few

Leonard

Martin

Mr.

experiment by

lap.

Professor

in the year

Later

each

at

Thus

it.

to

came

inhaled

might

oxygen

suggestion is

place

to

track,through which

the

quote, the

we

quite easy

be

portionof

over

as

it would

"

which

from

but, in the paper

HEALTH

AND

AIR

2/o

common

circulatory

supplying as

required;

and

of

much

hence

an

ARTIFICIAL

of

supply

extra

the

to

of

the weaker

muscular

diminished,found

was

Jabez
work

given

the

such

Flack, who

"

the

the

mouthpiece

the
to

was,

cylinderand

dyspnceic

perhaps

not

that
leak

leak

indeed

such

only into

the

relief

given by

but careful

the

muscles

had

still energy

that

which

realisation,and

that

due

deficient

simply

from

to

weakening
be

of

energy

not

the

case.

is failure of

oxygen

can

oxygen

can

the

thought

extended
indefinitely
this is

the

lack

the

of

ness
complete-

leak

and

swimming

in
the

administration

for its

oxygen
the

blood

It
energy

might
might

of oxygen.

and

no

prevent this failure.

The

benefit derived

only temporary,

and

cordingly
ac-

be
But

of failure of muscular

energy,

be

was

lungs resulting

movement.

the

nerve

Now,

heart

of

cause

it

that

circulation

strength and

final

too.

the

oxygen

ventilation

bag

that

that

The

big

of

tube

first. The

requiredonly

thoracic

by

of

inspectionshowed

showed

"

effect of

rapidity and
a

This

oxygen-starved man."

oxygen

comparatively all right

pulated
mani-

F.

M.

end

the

at

probable,and

an

Flack,

Dr.

striking. The

man

the alveoli of

when

the effect of the gas.

amazing

seemed

lacking

point

while

swimmer,

easilyappreciatedat

there was,

was

was

with

how

the

at

have

not

Dr. Martin

pilot,"writes

least,somewhat
chested

emptied

been

watched

51 -inch

is

oxygen
was

the

say

could

shows

swimmer,

the

to

respiratorymuscles
given by

account

"The

halation
in-

especiallyuseful.

oxygen

have

must

administered.

was

held

blood

The
the

accompanied

in oxygen
oxygen

relief.

will

Channel, his failure

of the

to exhaustion

portion
pro-

respiratorycapacity

the

cross

thorax, otherwise

marked

in

Hill, therefore, who

inhalations

failed to

moral

useful

more

Professor

oxygen

Wolffe

apparently due

which

the

power,

heart," and whose

"

The

respiratorypower

tobacco

was

When

the

be, and

had

271

necessary.

oxygen

had

became

oxygen

all this is that

of

ATMOSPHERES

will

administration

be

marked

of
from

only

if

the

of

cause

have

do

to

Before
also
forced

to

"

lack

his

hold

to

showing

sec.,

add

the

to

how

showing

since

and

it
of

is

excess

oxygen

blood,

or

much

of
that

of

mention

much

how

It

be

must

but

energy,

inhalations

oxygen

that,

by

that

the

of

to
"

carbon

dioxide

carbon

dioxide

be

it

oxygen

in

respiration.

is

possible
the

blood

was

of
is

physiologically
it

may
of

Vernon
time

extraordinary

excess

it

combination
Dr.

inhalations,

rather

compels

lungs.

which

realisation.

its

for

muscles

create

not

oxygen

breath

the

tion
exhaus-

nerve

and
of

subject
to

breathing

able

13

the

general

nerve-centres

of

interesting

much

so

does

oxygen

leaving

be

not

ventilation

condition

HEALTH

the

the

that

only

is
of

with

understood
is

failure

exhaustion

as

it

AND

AIR

272

min.

possible
accurate

to

remove;

and

not

AIR

274
talk
of

of

The

climate, have
shall

sunshine, "c.

be

almost
We

much

as

and

temperate, and

and

temperate and

exceeds

temperature

average

climates

Temperate
Cold

climates

Such

subdivision

therapeuticalvalue.
and

Karroo

Davos

have

When,
and

is

very

humid
we

exhausting

we

and
invigorating,

at

once

dry

and

into

tropical

divide

tropical

"

moist.

those

which

the

in which

the

which

the

in

as

those

those

in

little

physiologicalor
of 70" F. in

temperature
of 70" F.

the African

on

that

and

Peterhead

wise
Like-

20"

F. at

meanings.
the

the value
a

and
debilitating
that

can

subdivide

greatlyincrease
at

has

of climates.

physiologicalmeanings.
F.

20"

we

as

of

average

further

we

know
and

is

different climatic

however,

Thus
is

of

temperature

altitude

40" F.

far

different

very

greatest heat

that

types

as

temperature

average

have
a

dry

an

into

defined

so

An

the

50" F.

is below

temperature

average

India

be

may

irregular

very

70" F.

exceeds

temperature

average

into

be defined

may

logical
meteoro-

latitude.

as

defined

be

may

find

climates,and

cold climates

Tropical climates

find

we

climates

cold

in

generalclassification

of climate

for the various

we

heat

with

divide

roughly

can

Thus

however, make

can,

We

do

to

we

classification of climate

vary

Equator, and

of the

north

of

making

geographical classification

fashion.

independent

metric
baro-

types.

signifyclimate

that

the

to

go

the

impossiblematter,

an

factors

be

climatic

definite

to

few

make

is found

to

talk

we

separately discussed,and

only deal brieflywith

now

To

which

"

been

already

describe

and

mean

meteorologicalfactors temperature, humidity,


pressure,

and

annual

or

climate."

"

as

weather," the seasonal

"

as

HEALTH

AND

temperate

climates

tion.
of the classifica-

tropicalhumid
that

humid

into

cold

dry

climate

climate
climate
may

be

CLIMATE

soothing.
the

As

followingmight

be

useful

Tropical" average temperature


Temperate

"

F.

70"

over

i ?'^oist

...

temperature between

average

"

accordingly

classification of climate

rough

275

40"

and

60" F
Cold

of

Climatic

below

temperature

the

is

best

that

and

40" F

a.

Moist.

Treatment."

It is

follows

as

WHERE

CHANGE)
MeteorologicalCharacters
climates:

is

I.

EXCESSIVELY

SMALL.

for heat

Demand

over

(22"C.)

change

so

TISSUE

FOR

Characters
Physiological

temperature

work

"

(OR DEMAND

"

his

DEMAND

HEAT

THE

in

of

CLIMATES.

OF

GROUP

CLIMATES

Moist.

classifications

of

Huggard

Dr.

proposed by

a.

"j

useful

most

CLASSIFICATION

7 1 -6" F.

Dry.

climate

Hot

b.

( b. Dry.
average

"

One

"

"

and

for tissue

culty
that there is diffi-

small

getting rid of the heat


by the healthy body when

in

formed

Heat

a.

Dry

Demand
relative

mean

60 per

under

(or Demand

cent

humidity

production

is at its lowest.

for

Change) Regular.

Tissue

in

Fluctuations

fairlyregular and

heat

demand

comparatively

small.

Demand

b. Heat
Not

ity over
Wind

dry

dry hot air.

not

in

irregularand

increases

does

Change) Irregular.

Fluctuations

cent.

largely

humidity,but

for Tissue

Demand

relative humid-

mean

60 per

(or

the

heat

demands

greatly increase

the

heat

demand

comparatively great.

by atmospheric
of
heat-removing power
made

276

HEALTH

AND

AIR

II.

GROUP

CLIMATES

WHERE

HEAT

THE

CHANGE)
Characters
Meteorological
Warm

climates

Characters
Physiological

"

Heat

Dry

under

72

or

relative

about

66
at

b. Heat

dry

ity over

Demand

to

60

clothes

per

(or Demand

CLIMATES

irregular and

cent.

heat-removing action
the heat-removing
only slightly

WHERE

HEAT

THE

"

under

78

60-8" F.

48-2to
Heat
:
or

at

about

16"

ity over

dry

75 per
at

9"

C.

75

humidity
cent, (from
to

72

per

C.).

mean

per

(or Demand

relative

humid-

action

is

at the lower

Medium

air.

warm

TISSUE

FOR

or

for Tissue

except

for

so

wind, and
Tissue

in

far

heat
and

as

then

regular,
they depend
controllable.

in

heat

demand

relativelylarge

Fluctuations

in

demand

Change) Irregular.

Fluctuations

not

de-

races.

in amount
in

heat

Change) Regular.

Fluctuations
moderate

"

normal

for white

mand

action of moisture

temperatures.

dry

Characters
Physiological

wind

intensifies the

trolled.
con-

MEDIUM.

amount.

Wind

of

DEMAND

irregularand

cent.

easily

not

atmospheric moisture

of

(OR

on

Demand
:

16" C.).

(or Demand

relative

mean

b. Heat
Not

Demand

cent,

per

cent,

(9 to

demand

III.

DEMAND

MeteorologicalCharacters
Temperate climates : tempera-

heat

in

Fluctuations

CHANGE)

Dry

Change) Irregular.

for Tissue

GROUP

a.

shelter,

and

intensifies the

but increases

ture

by

controllable

and

regular

relative humid-

mean

66 per

Wind

C.

(from

demand

heat

in

Fluctuations

humidity
cent,

Change) Regular.

Tissue

C.)

at 22"

Not

per

16"

easilyremoved.

be

for

(or Demand

mean

cent,

per

cent

Demand

small, but

normally produced

that heat

such

"

heat

for

Demand

can

a.

TISSUE

FOR

SMALL.

is

temperature
to
F.
22" C.)
71-6"
(16

60-8 to

(OR DEMAND

DEMAND

due

in
to

easily controlled.
removing heat, especially

CLIMATE

277

GROUP

CLIMATES

WHERE

HEAT

THE

DEMAND

CHANGE)

MeteorologicalCharacters
Cool

climates

Heat

a.

Dry

(or Demand

relative

under

or

80 per

cent, at i" C. to

about

for Tissue

cent,

(from

78 per

cent.

79 per

Not

dry

ity over

Demand

wind,

79

and

far
then

as

in

amount,

they depend
controllable.

Change) Irregular.

Fluctuations

in

demand

heat

irregular, relatively large in


lable.
not
easily controlamount, and

cent.

per

so

for Tissue

(or Demand

relative humid-

: mean

in

except

demand

heat

in
moderate

regular,and
on

b. Heat

Change) Regular.

Fluctuations

humidity

9" C.).

at

Characters
Physiological
for production
Large demand

of heat.

Demand

mean

TISSUE

FOR

"

"

48-2"F. (i to 9" C.).

to

DEMAND

(OR
LARGE.

is

temperature 33*8

IV.

Wind

greatly intensifies the action of low


temperature
off
heat.
in carrying
atmospheric moisture
Clothing gives
protectionagainst dry, but not against cold air.

GROUP
CLIMATES

HEAT

THE

WHERE

Meteorological Characters
Cold

33-8" F.

under
The

the

climates

group
80

per

humidity

included

is

in

at

the

usually high,

cent,

or

more;

but

humidity is so small
relative
that the
humidity has
little physiological
cept
significanceexits
action
indirectlythrough

the

on

(OR

absolute

DEMAND

TISSUE

FOR

EXCESSIVE.

Characters
Physiological
Very large demand
duction

(i"C.).

temperatures

about

"

temperature

relative

mean

is

efficient

V.

DEMAND

CHANGE)

of

and

of

"

for

pro-

heat.

Fluctuations

in

demand

heat

present
considerable,generally fairlyreand
under
for the most
part
gular,
in
far
so
as
control, except
they
wind,
depend on

cloud.
Wind

enormously

temperature.

increases

the

heat-abstracting
power

of

low

2/8
These

categorieswould

of certain

broad

types

the

ultimate

few

broad

detailed
not

selection

features

resemblances,but

specialreference
specialstudy
climate

of

made

are

by advising climates

patientis advised

climate

there

is

and

big word,

different from
to

and

hot

dusty

value
therapeutical
It is

justthe
if a

it had

best be avoided

be useful in

may

Here
Desert
to

classified

placebe

us

we

as

high

the

only

where

cloud-level.

in

because

Islands

Canary

we

it is

dry

intolerably
to

be of

in climates.
a

classification indicates

requireto

know.

hill station,
it informs
weak

expansion of

sent

it is

climatologyis

cases

is very

patient is

because

that

the

Thus
one

that

hearts,and that it

the

lungs is desirable.

brieflydiscuss only High Alpine Climates,


of the

Sea, since these

distinct
sufficiently

climates

to

deserve

seem
sideration
con-

types.

High Alpine
the climate

If

by people with

Climates, the Climate

as

in

cases

shall

some

climatic feature

broad

the

Karroo

gets there

that in

perfectlytrue

Islands

Or

individualise

it must

of

principles.Thus

but

African

he

broad

Guimar, for instance,

for his heart.

high

too

or

when

required is

greatest mistakes

of Orotava.

the South

find

to

of

the climate

is

with

The

Canary

equable ;

the climate

place on

some

and

dry

on

the

to

to go

each

of

study

Karroo.

or

their broad

Sidmouth, the climate

of

Davos, the climate

typicalclimates,e.g.,the

of different individual

part of the Sahara

some

detailed

What
differences.

their

to

indicates,but

placesaccording to

not

cases

required in climatology is

is

of

most

classification

as

specification.What

climatic

is

such

little value, since

of

are

require in

must

peutical
for thera-

selectingclimates

in

; but

climates

to indicate

roughly

serve

logicalclassification

HEALTH

classifications

purposes

AND

AIR

Climates.

Europe
All

By

"

at

climates

detail,will have

certain

high Alpine

height
at

such

somewhat
a

climate
above

we

mean

ordinary

height,though varying

characteristics.

The

air will be

CLIMATE

less dense

drier

and

less dust

and

fewer

will be
and

rapid changes

cold.

climates

The

climate

of Davos

be

with

The

"

and

rather

windy

; but

mountains

summer

is,as

though

its

calm
"Even

prevailsuntil the

"

5"

to

and

blue,and
when

(9

of them

many

no

and

conducts

in the air
watery particles

radiation

is

lower
from

the

altitudes.

the
snow,

sun

sunshine."

from

on.

The

the

body,

make

to

addition

togetherwith
unbearable

is dark

Furthermore, there

when

to

it

damp

this, the

the heat

give a temperature

almost
occasionally

still in the

In

walk

comfortablywarm

away

minute

at

sky

thin coat

the effect of the calm.

reflection from
which

less heat

to

are

specialwraps,
The

feels

front of the hotel with

out

go

overcoats.
one

spring.

any

apart from

as
chilly,

direct

Davos

a.m.)without

without

even

atmosphere

even

10

form
uni-

early morning

in the
at

almost

an

in the

are

well sheltered

valleyis

melts

invalids

to

snow,

consequently there

the

as

snow

in the strong sunshine

sittingin

rarer

the

20"

"

after sunrise

soon

the temperatures

when

the

temperature, either of the

the

and,

air ;

sky

solar rays,

melt

to

the

The

the

as

general atmospheric movements,

more

from

incompetent

enclosing mountains

of heated

currents

; and

nearly so

or

little effect upon

have

play,and

into

come

exceedingly remarkable.

becomes

powerful,are

very

valley or
from

of conditions

set

rule,cloudless

rounding
sur-

and for the winter perthickly,


manently
which
usually happens in
snow,

with

new

climate

winter

they

cool

"

Prattiganand

the

as

and

become

covered

November,

soon

so

such

of Pontresina

similar to that

is very

of hot

typicalof

E. Frankland

by

There

extremes

is

which

more

higher.

Moritz, in the neighbouringvalleyof the Engadine

St.

are

will
potential

of Davos

described

levels,and

lower

at

of temperature

climate

is thus

active,the air will have

more

than

germs
electric

The
radio-activity.

sea-level,solar radiation

air at

terrestrial radiation will be

and

no

than

279

due

to

in mid-winter
one

is

sitting

280

AIR

AND

HEALTH

CO

CO

OO

00

CO

*3 '35 O
M

t-i

c"
"u

*-i

"S

",
T3

1?'"1"05a3
5.3ft"o o
U

282

AIR

peasants, and
life

are

recognised,too,

that

if the
be

digestionbe

It has

been

that rarefaction
of the red
increase

of the

air

altitude

evident

An

become

in

who

live

on

with

poor

creatures

some

above

the

"

at

who

Many
in the
an

that

immediate

2,000

of

they

may

will

of
resembles

blood
the

opinion

found

to

not

go

because

corpuscles.

think

the
The

treatment

viduals
indi-

colour,

that

by

Jour-

altitude.
mountains

the

treatment

in

the

altitude

an

deficiencyof

organism

an

in

influence

beyond

to

that

I, too, believe

the

heights

speedilyowing

more

favourable

at

earthen

patientsinto
air.

in

shepherds and

caused

anaemia

meets

of these

of the

one

within

hydropathic

not

of the year

one

inclines

recover

often

goats

an

exercise

reaction

and

is of

of the

metres, but this is not


to

this

individuals

those

months

sheep

their

invalids,if they do

gives rise

In

ing
the colour-

One

skin

theory of

rarefaction

climate

Alpine
case

his

physicians send
hope

in

flourishinglook

aspect almost

rightin

was

the

does

blood

will examine

spend several

who

peasants of the plain. Their

danet

his

and

the

that

membranes

never

their outward

of

are

anaemia.

high Alpine pastures.

the

such

whether

able
great altitudes,is easilyobtain-

I have

had

number

in the

doubtful

opinion

says,

mucous

metres.

elsewhere

mentioned

observers

Mosso's

their

who

that fuel may

so

increase

some

lonelyvalleyherding
2,500

stimulant

general.

abundant

of the skin and

be

must

lant,
perniciousstimu-

also

it is very

all mountain-climbers

by

air is

eventually causes

proof,"he

more

be

an

and

quote

may

climates

may

causes

we

cold

experiments

is permanent

Alpine
"

in

; but

connection
of

found

blood-cells

that

opinion

dry

stimulated

not

It

early.

indoor

an

fire.

for the

provided

the

futile and

old

grow

though

metabolism, it is

to

and

anaemic

live

peasants who

of the Swiss

many

very

HEALTH

AND

and

by

of

oxygen

to

an

crease
in-

altitude

its processes

and

CLIMATE

in its

effects,
only

baths, we
act

have

the

on

blood

and

natural

It does
of

alveolar
and

not

and

carbon

the

the

Like

In

and

red

normal

be for

Climates.

even

relaxing in

felt

be
to

summer

some
a

way

height

to

of

aid

and

4,000

or

bolism
affectingmeta-

other

are

dry

are

imply

and

life

owing

dry

and

and

hot.

rapid

to

The

that

is

lation
circu-

their heat

moderate

The

more.

skin

the

on

when

the

rapid evaporation

cool, and

5,000

is

African

the

dry

respiratoryexchange
or

writer,who

energetic even

or

the

work

to

season.

heat, found

the

tension

number.

each

quite bracing.

30" F.,

the

owing

extra

however, the heat

perspirationkeeps
in

do

hand,

but
tissues,

quite active
was

other

the

their

dioxide

climates

climates

season,

air may

itself to

sea-level.

at

Alpine
the

dioxide

activity.As

in

in

in

of the

action

carbon

of

factors

various

desert

through

temperature

at

increased

of the

high altitudes,

at

heart

and

rate

tension

in metabolism

the

as

High

"

climates,on

water

of
seems

be
the

time

particularlysensitive

sun

diminution

same

he

the

increase

an

the

dry

same,

alveolar carbon

blood-cells

their winter

Karroo

to

much

desert

that, the

production

tension, unless

after

very

the

the

of

hygienic and

more

lowered

differences

are

the

breathing accommodates

Alpine climates,

they

be

for

of

altitude

circulation

noted

the

compensate
on

been

will

first

at

the

as

oxygen

Desert
cold

lead

restores

Probably

goes

have

increase

to

tendency will

unless

which

sun

by

lowering togetherwith quickened

however,

lessened

of treatment,

dioxide

tend

altitude and

the

Alpine surroundings,the obligatory

to

seem

will thus

soon,

the

modify

breathing remaining

will

and

plunge-

of life."

that this

heart

which

rules

the

and

factors in the treatment

the

lymph,

mode

depth

Other

motion

following of

of shower-baths

sharp air, the wind,

body.

light and

are

instead

that

the

283

feet,in

air
for

hot, dry

air,climbing

lungs

in

England

does, in

air

of the

ulceration

less effort,and

that

some

way,

aid

but

its

lungs ;

exaggerated,for
form

; and

patients who

have

too

rather

dry climate,or

in time

capacity,seems

European constitution,and
places find
extreme

is easier
much

valuable

more

marked

and

reach

to

advantage

climate

as,

it
say,

malaria, and

healthy
a

climate.

climate

much

with

processes

of

on

bracing character,

much

America
American.

may

The

help

to

Irishman

of

the

in

the

night
and

dry

It is
of

dry

is

climate

for

is

the

that

It is

give

of temperature
the

debilitated,

temperature

climate

colds,

vitalitydepends.

extremes

account

in

One

the

theory
and

nights and

Tenerife.

old

be

stimulating to

more

which

on

and

very

Egypt

Africa.

equable

an

variations

probably partly the changes


its

many

always

such

wrong

for the

and

metabolism

that

and

day
of

climate

the

considerable

bracing

more

certainly

sojourn on

South

the

suchlike, that

Except

is

it will

greatly excels

based
popular superstition,
and

in desert

is the cool

climate

the

on

refreshing. The

summer

than

resort

between

Herein

temperature.

have

great drying

too

little doubt

leave

to

desert

difference

marked

equable

health

of

many

Indeed, simply because

easier

and

climates

desert

compulsory

Karroo.

African

South

by

natives

that

too

most

be

can

not

acute

live inland

who

African

the

the

most

with

seaside

there

lost

been

lives have

the

of

heat

summer

tubercular

exhausting effect

an

those

the

to

enervating and

most

the

change

the

damper English climate.

the

have

to

in

climate

of

power

that

desert

in

badly

done

air.

healing efficacymust

remembered

be

it must

cooler

healing of

tuberculosis

regainedstrengthand vigour in
A

the

and

heart

tax

drying

be remembered

it must

of the desert often contract


virulent

the

to

in much

sea-level

at

little doubt

seems

desert

HEALTH

be

to

seems

less than

There

be

AND

AIR

284

energy

of

it
in

the

dry, stimulating,change-

285

CLIMATE

in his

is

dust

desert

and
aseptic,

of

disease

pulmonary
In

fibrosis.

be sent

Dr,
The

"

violent

weather

of the

other countries

any

it exceeds
"

to the

of temperature

be

and

than

next

to

17 to 25

should

is

as

"

by great

is

of

are

day

one

in

perhaps
the

Nevertheless

considerable, amounting
36"

low

larity,
regu-

There

be found

to

invalids.

by

Europeans,

the weather

are

even

or

for

8"

as

Occasionallythe

F.

F.,and

occasionally

greater dryness of the air these oscillations


marked

more

are

the

stations

cold

even

four o'clock is
is

from

changes

Cairo, at Helouan,

at

Egyptian
may

"

40" F.

Owing

than

case

climates.

European

of temperature

dailyrange

throat

is marked

Egypt

resorted

to from

commonly

of

of temperature

daily oscillation

ever,
larynx,how-

thus

its climate

with

compared

of those

the

to

climate

winter
as

fewer

"

no

of the

desert climate

convenient

describes

Huggard

cases

desert localities.

dusty

is the most

Egypt
and

to

suggests that in

disease

undoubtedly harmful, and

it is

health ;

to

healing by stimulating

aid

may

of tubercular

cases

favourable

hardly

the writer

it

than

animal

active

more

island.

factor

but the dust is

ever

much

damp, equable

own

The

is

climate

able American

giving

of

of

sense

and

day

evenings

from

This

warm.
distinctly

of the charms

one

the

House.

Mena

at

mornings

while

"

or

all the

In

cool

are

eleven

three

to

it

"

or

alteration of temperature

Egypt, making

buoyancy

at Luxor

and

Assouan

at

and

the heat

bearable,

to
elasticity

the

inhabitants.
"

Luxor

be taken

may

Cairo, Mena
than

warmer

in the

the
at

House,
Luxor.
from

months

same

Helouan

at

Luxor
it

was

being roughly 4"

as

or

Helouan

The

at

22-3" F."

and

to

March

than

warmer

Assouan

dailyrange

mean

December
and

F.

5" F.

as

of

temperature

for two

years

was

Assouan, namely, 28-5" F., while


that

is,6" F. less

The

relative

286

AIR

humidity
Mena

is

15

House

Helouan, but
than
"

Cairo

number
varies

spring

than

times

as

Rain

occurs

than

less

"The

at

Mena

Climate

six

or

House

from

little

only

two

three

or

in amount.

much

and

Helouan

at

from

hours

December

10

a.m

March

to

include

to

certain

be considered
The

in

differ

widely,yet

equable, and

varies

and

case

in

every

and

germs,

will at

we

sea,

differences

shall

never

found

on

in

in

Bay

more

shall

find the

of

"

or

the

dust

dry

temperature
of
and

one

day

germs

of

type.

and
and

Red

the

Sea,

of Mexico

the Gulf

and

is moist

day

salt,free
Go

climate

day

the

"

therefore,

may,

little from
with

be

voyages

common

rapid motion.

find

never

sea

the climate

case

less

and

climatic

in

and

Bay

every

in

Biscay and

air is laden

temperature

land.

ocean

As

sometimes

may

characters

mean

we

voyage.

climates, but all

comparatively

the

between

the

between

the

sea

long

voyage

of the

in Baffin's

temperature

sea

singleand separate

temperature

of the

during

sea

climatic

characters

as

climate

various

distinctive

general climatic

at

long

30-5."

36-3

the

By

"

Assouan

Luxor

427

experienced

considered

and

in the

Assouan.

in the

Helouan

of the Sea.

climate

may

and

months

as

is

at

occurs

nearly all

House

humidity

four

rain

Mena

rain

rainfall is

times

seven

Luxor

rarelyat

regards temperature,

the

the

Alexandria

517

have

also

"

"

the

and

frequentlyat

for the

p.m.

at

than

probably

which

on

seventeen,

to

At

relative

average

till 6

nine

months

Cairo, and

wind

more

and

Luxor,

in the year

about

inch.

an

has

than

House.

days

winter

than

Assouan

at

Assouan

dusty

frequent,and

at

was

from

and

more

of

lower

cent,

per

Mena

or

HEALTH

Helouan.

at

is less

Helouan
The

20

or

or

AND

and

the next
vapours

day,

to

dust

from

where
with

we

great

night, or
; and

which

we
are

CLIMATE

In

the

fastest steamers

changes

comparatively quickly;

come

rapid

not

so

are

the

the
third

day

changes

from

board

steamer

The

to

that

get

an

heat

and

from

increase

are

would

and

decrease

be

pernicious,but,

be

much

to counteract

W.

voyage

"

The

2.

from

entire

sea

as

that

have

we

humidity

much

so

always

have

voyage

humidity

seen,

is

sea-breezes

the

for

Ocean

"

the

as

Health

healthfulness

Resort,"
of

sea

habitual

3. The
those

4. The

of

scene,

and

the enforced

rest

from

being constantly in

the

open

air

greater part of the twenty-four hours.

the

purest air

change

facilities for

organic
dust

particlesof
"

it will be

occupations.

The

during
"

on

"

customary
"

again

gradual.

both

are

thought

Wilson, in his book

S.

cold

to

this influence.

gives the followingreasons

i.

heat

progressive

the

chieflyby preventing heat-loss,and

harmful

Dr.

of

by taking

temperatures, and

noon

recognised. It might

been

idea

Sobraon

ship

"

health-givingpropertiesof

The

the

London, and

and

Hope

are

temperatures

noticed

do

cold

board

on

changes

the

so

may

following temperatures

will

one

dailytemperature

even

The

taken

of Good

Cape

in

but

land.

upon

temperatures

between
every

as

287

on

and

when
respiration,
and

on

deck, of air free

inorganic impurities,and

carbon, that

are

met

with

in

floating
even

the

land.

presence

in the

air of certain substances

such

as

AIR

288

saline

which
particles,

the electrical conditions


of

5. The

greater equabilityof temperature

"

6. The

sedative

"7. The

bracing
of

passing through

the

considerable

but

loss.
in

by Taylor
in Phthisis"

WEIGHTS

hardening

the

different

CLASS

II.

"

OF

"

On

DURING

gained 64^

the

voyager

there

AT

INTERVALS

VOYAGE

TO

be

may

Health

given
Resort

Lat.

Weighings.

Number

I.

OF

ABOUT

AUSTRALIA.

28" N.

Healthy persons, or those sufferingfrom


Phthisical patients.
weighed,

minor

complaints.

32.

Ibs.,averaging 3-4 Ibs. ; 8 lost n Ibs.,averaging 1*4 Ibs. ;


lost.
5 neither gained nor
CLASS

Number

II.

gained 28 Ibs.,
averaging 2*33
3 neither

CLASS

weighed,

Ibs. ; 5 lost

gained

20.

averaging
9^ Ibs.,

nor

(nearly);

lost.

Weighings. Lat. 5" N.

Third

I.

Number

weighed, 36.

gained 9 Ibs.,averaging r8

Ibs. ; 27 lost 99 Ibs.,averaging3*66 Ibs. ;


gained nor lost.
4 neither

CLASS

as

in

ocean."

and

weather

the Ocean

TAKEN

PASSENGERS

CLASS

experienced

of the

sea,

constant

(Medical Chronicle,1885) :"

Second
"

at

by
high

figuresare
followinginteresting

The

FORTNIGHT

I.

regions
hotter

the

with

effect of almost

stimulated

during

article

an

combined

'

at sea.

of climate

changes

appetite is

rule

gains weight ;

CLASS

in

in the amount

the constitution

on

atmosphere

and

sea-breezes, and

exerted

influence

comparatively humid

As

effect

differences

and

atmosphere

of the

"

pressure.

12

beneficial
specific

in the sea-air.

ozone

barometric

19

exert

may

also probable
lungs and air-passages,

the

upon

HEALTH

AND

II.

gained 6" Ibs.,averaging

2*16

Number
Ibs. ;

weighed, 15.
12

lost

averaging 4-54 Ibs.


54^ Ibs.,

AIR

290

regions,with

draughts

its

being probably
struggleto

the

may
a

well-selected

beneficial ; but

prove

rule the

patient will

there

do

sent

they

not

unfrequently sent

die

the

on

has

voyages
and

sea,

The

way.

few

very

Change of Air.
of air "
of

air"

what

of the

sense

any
to

do

possess?

Clifton

to

from
or

from

to

Hampstead,

air"
and

for

for

"

it.

He

of air

change

"

the

bacilli.

In

makes

unimportant:
or

from

to

Manchester

is

most

equallyefficacious.
is almost

of

belief.

In

seen

that

the
have

postion

of

the

him

air

Let

apart from
is

he

us

the

see

"

feeling
hanging

change

annihilate

change

seems

Hampstead

from

Margate

; the

of
efficacy

change
"change

is the

what
of

change

have

even

to

be

air

uniform

"

basis

consist?

artificial pollutionthe

remarkably

of

insomnia,

may

to

say,

Margate,

from

Margate

to

supposed

cold

seems

belief in the

does

the

; it may

Manchester

what

two

Richmond

Richmond

universal.

of the

nature

air," in

returns

suffered

of air "

from

The

or

change

Richmond

from

had

sleep;

the

be

from

or

day

"

goes,
to

air,"and

have

change

cases

to

of air"

We

"

it may

Hampstead

he

even

have

may

may

and
incipientphthisis,

of

change
in

virtues it is
and

Ballachulish,or

to

of
of

Manchester

from

the

to

voyage.

"change

down

run

Brighton, or

weeks, and

banishes
"

feels

man

has

long

questionof "change

the

mysterious

invigorated. He

him

and

mean,

term, the

London

fresh and
about

they

and

Sea

several

people speak

When

and

committed

the

by

Red

as

cases

many

been

has

consumptives

be considered.

may

voyage

voyage,

the

through

In this connection

"

ocean

an

reallybenefited

In

shore.

who

writer

several

seen

airy cabin,

always risks,and

on

for

haphazard

are

Granted

early case

are

better

patients
are

its vitiated air."

with

weather, suitable food, an

and

route

but

slippery for anything

and

wet

fine

"

well-selected

too

ventilation,the deck

of

want

or

smoking-room

conditions

good

HEALTH

AND

always

com-

about

CLIMATE

21

cent

per

"03
of

the

air

benefit

any

it may

Sidmouth.

at

difference
it is

In

consist

metabolism
and

is

which

is

and

If the saturation

if it be

to

cause

smaller

alteration
A

ways.

from

logical
physio-

an

metabolism

of moisture

the

feelingof lassitude

indirect

stimulates

skin

The

stimulated, and

likelyenough

direct

in

air

humidity:

is considerable

case

the

the

drying

; but

at

body

it may

the

constipation.

cause

deficit."

is increased

abstraction

by

in

there

health, both

time

difference

is

from

consist?

In

by cooling the

same

difference

the

is

either

cases

from

there

change
air

many

diminished, and

languor.
the

air in

different

saturation

energy

is not

cases

Margate, quite apart

chieflyin

"

about

composition

most

the

larger metabolism

general feeling of

in

"

seems

does

what

largelya question of
deficit be

in

air at

bestow,

to

seems

chemical

The

locality.Yet

The

changed.

seem

nitrogen,and

cent,

per

pollutionapart

of

by change

changed
does

artificial

"

79

dioxide.

carbon

cent,

per

and

oxygen

291

similar
from

change
windy

is found

difference

windy

is

climate

to

which

change owing

windless

A
to

necessarily
impliesphysiological

different

to

of wind.

matter

windless, from

change

in the

degrees

of

abstraction

of heat.

Again,
altitude

if the

have

have

we

difference

change

be

change

to

And

pressure.

changes produced by
physiological

of sunshine
The

term

and
"

change

results ; but

in the

of the

lower

or

likewise
increase

we

the
may

decrease

or

in temperature.
of

and
significance,

matter

higher

physiologicalchanges produced by

barometric

in

of chemical

change

it is not

change

humidity, movement,
atmosphere.

air,"therefore,has

so

"

of
as

much
pressure,

air
the
as

has

definite

logical
physio-

definite

public suppose
a

matter

of

siologic
phy"

change

temperature, sunniness

AIR

292

of

"change

therapeutic

weapon,

the

the

of

root

To

discuss
in

one

of

the

be

to

and

effect

climate

required

Isle

Davos
In

of

some

mentioned
be

know

we

alteration

remembered,
in
goes

from

polluted
to

an

only
not

to

physician

the

of

air

much

change

if

possible

sedative

insomnia,

or

humid

freedom

but
of

air

other

changes,

who

of

air

besides

more

have

we

there

things

not

which

to

of
sees

be

change

man

who

only

from

sedentary

goes

may

must
a

"

indoor

gets

sea

not

correspondence,

business

change

prescribing change

produce

air, it

goes

to

stimulating.

factors

of

from

from

but

be

enviroment.

man

Exeter

radio-activity of

many

usually
A

will
to

Margate

to

from

the

from

sent

producing, and
as

mental

be

or

of

required,

atmospheric

may

seems

of

change

is

many

change

life.

as

change

such

But

air, but

change

contains

if

change

Berwick

of

in

outdoor

in

guide

sheltered

person

capable

pure

that

climate

of

scenery,

sea-breezes

and

excitement,

simply

any

Manchester

active

only

seem

means

food, in

if

way

windy

climate

than

little.

very

of

Thus

change

factors

potent

should

recapitulate

to

involving

certainty

would

of

North

to

cases

constitutional

which

to

random.

at

chosen, while

be

if

chosen

possible.

the

much

general

bracing

cases

too,

way,

Wight

with

in

reaches

chosen.

be
as

or

changes

be

should

in

as

to

general

alterations
the

simply

be

often

very

principles

should

climate

should
a

place

would

stimulating

dry

be

In

full the

in
air

sensitiveness

or

used

when

even

valuable

most

that

weapon

preceding chapters, but

is meant

high

and

here

undoubtedly

is

air"

evil

changing

HEALTH

AND

The

scene.

that

change

of

his
air.

wise

tion
prescrip-

CHAPTER

THE

GASES

OF

XVII

THE

THEIR

ATMOSPHERE"

DISCOVERY

natural

THE

carbon

of the

gases

dioxide

are

"

air

potency,

intimate relationship
with

known,

as

vague,

The

but the
shown

the

in

first theories of
of which

out

the

the

heart,and
carried

was

into
The

the

spirits the

belief in the middle

"

for

received

of
mass

of the blood

makes

the

"

which

heart."
293

substance
into

spirits."
century is

in

1644 that

yieldsmatter

"

for the

transude

to

of the
that
out

cisely
con-

The

chiefly

it dischargesthe

seems

the blood

spirit.

as

manufactured

was

respirationserves

into the branches

to squeeze

it

that
it

course

breathed

was

writes

interestingsuggestion

is
respiration

it

of

who

that

Their

there,into "vital spirits,"

and lastlythat
spirits,

excrement
fuliginous

crude

of the seventeenth

opinion is

coolingthe heart,next
of vital

it the
:

animal

put by Dr. N. Henshaw,

commonly

terms

brain,where

"

ance,
import-

mystic and

of such

concocted

first refinement

of life was

was
relationship

connotation

was

in part to

still finer

the

and

unsuspected.

was

air,indeed, made

soul

after

their chemical

the processes

conception of

tasteless

subtle, so

so

odourless,that for centuries


like their mechanical

nitrogen,and

oxygen,

"

duction
pro-

lungs

from

the

and
rough artery,"

the

of the

main

object

lungs into

of

the

AIR

294
The

theory

AND

is stated

HEALTH

fullyby Foster, thus

more

first place the air introduced

maintain, and

to

the

innate

heart
the

at

one

heat

of the

source

of the warmth

left side

thence

distributed

place the
the

Both

the

way

the other
idea

"

but

the young
of the

it would
The

much

of fine

have

furnace

agitationand
him
know

at

air
a

labours,were

the

heart.

the

foul

supposed

pulmonary vein,the

one

of

air in

to

one

this date ; and

other

respect, e.g.,in

misty

surmise.

dioxide

and

was

the

small

taken

was

entering into
hint

tin in

for the

thirteen
with
the

seven

iron

an

two

and

amazement,
ounces

white

of

of the
the

first hint

been

This

is his

pounds

six

to

solid

with

if it had

it

hours

adding anything
of

the

gave

vessel,heated
of six

bustion,
com-

his contemporary,

combination

years.

space

ounces

invention

the

step towards

by

perhaps,but

hundred

was
respiration

at

"having placed

without

first

whence

were

In

arteries.

and
spirits,

doctor, Jean Rey, who

Brun

pounds

which
spirits

the

of the

matter

greater step

saved

English

open

generation

fire burning in the

air in any

Helmont

only

was

Sieur

two

Van

French

It

introduce

to

get rid of the fuliginous

to

inchoate

carbon

of
possibility

bodies.

an

by

second

the

for the

vital

the vital

heart's

and

of the

discoveryof

light;

served

action

equally a

gas

served

body by

engendering

vague

action

"

term

of the

the innate

of chemical

was

chest

was

the other."

evidently very
chemical

refrigerate

to

In

body.

necessary

the vein-like artery, the

by

The

action

effect of the

pass

The

was

the

over

air

of the

heart

products of

the pure

vapours,

of the

same

temper,

there all life long and

of the

the air which

in the

vapours,

action

pumping

to

regulate,

to

heart,that fire which, placed in the

beginning,continued

into the blood

third

time

same

the

the

place

the

at

by breathingserved

the

In

"

taken

story.
ounces

strongly on

with

continual

it,he recovered
calx, which

with

surplus had

filled

desire
come."

to

It

THE

was

difficult

and

courage
doctor

GASES

problem,

and

who

maintained

the

that

of air.

this

To

"

That

the

this increase

vessel

the

the

has been

distressed

it,have

encircled.

so

striven

I,first of all,have

the

to the

Such

goal.

labour

This

sixty years

published his

the

it was

but,

effluvia."

different
and

shrewder

and

carbon

which

it is which

has
to

held

for

it

; and

later

he made

or

to be

the
"

he

ancient
confused
shrewd

many

gases

suggested that

substances

little use

experimenters reached

the

so

road

far.

year.

Boyle

the

began

of

Air."
be

to

geneous
simple homo-

philosophers,
aggregate

of

experiments
as

hydrogen

air contained
for flame

necessary

of the

clear

"

Robert

of the air

prepared such

; he

long

History of

General

Boyle,

never

profitbe

made

mighty genius

made

Boyle

specialsubstance
But

of

he

for many

taught by

being but

the

; may

which

lead

which

road

longer considered
as

may

glory."

composite nature

surmises
dioxide

all others

mine

the

Others

follow the road

alas ! the

later that

rather,in the words

for life.

drawn

who, wishing

byways

untrodden

no

substance

some

now

it is to which

This

men

royal:

has been
alone

Memoirs

"

this time

suspected;
but

God

to

remained

royal

About

in

some

Behold
I have

perceivedit.

never

inextricable

his paean ;

was

Some

in

difficulties which

the

clear and

made

reader,and
"

and

"

This

vainlyif they fail to

thorny footpaths and


to

air,which

the

which

obscurity.

clear

to

already laid,

he conclude

learned

many

and

Libavius
Cordon, Scaliger,
Fachsius, Caesalpinus,

its quest, but

on

from

comes

inaccessible.

carefully
sought it,but

have
be

toil

with

due

was

denser, heavier,and

of

hitherto

weight

foundations

might

deepest dungeons

path

know

weight

Well

French

the young
in

brilliance strikes the eye

truth,whose

from
the

"

increase

the

admire

question,then, I respond

rendered

been

adhesive.'

measure

this

has

in

295
but

cannot

one

sustain, proudly resting on


(

ATMOSPHERE

prescienceand imaginationof

accretion

to

THE

OF

and

Jean Rey by

296

AND

AIR

His

friend Robert

further in

that

and

Borelli

time

also

the

in the

same

suggested
The

that which

that

the

subacid

and

the

by

brilliant

published four

respiration.This
teach

that

combustion

brilliant thinker

and

respiration.The

there is

doubt

no

he meant

There

oxygen.
science
here

is

by

shall

we

is not

comparison
"If
same

vessel,the

have

will

by

togetherwith
more

than

without

whole

to

time, was
in

first

the

1674

air and

clearlyto
for

necessary

he calls

in the

record

whole

few

that

shown

but certain

his views

food

the

in
particles
the

his

show

to

passages

of

of

itwhich

following

"

and

lightedcandle

into which
in

see

short

long survive

candle

half the

later called

the gas

breathing and burning :

observation

the candle.

due

this

he proceeds to make
nitre,

entrance

will the animal


found

Sylvius

was

exposition of

Having
a

animal

prevented,you
nor

as

in

between

small

and

specialconstituent

his

only quote

the air

also contained

"

dealing with

was

perhaps nothing

extraordinary acuteness.
flame

about

these terms

interestingthan

more

to

of it.

special constituent

"

and
or
nitro-aereus,
igneo-aereus,
spiritus

sal-nitro-aereum,or

are

"

tracts

air had

with
Hooke

Oxonian, John Mayou, who

the

same

is due

blood

the

on

parts

remarkable

very

the

life.

to

Salt-peter;

greatest advance, however, made

made

but

of air

colour,

air,that is like if not the

is fixt in

action

in the

mixed

were

flame

that

with

mixt

air

necessary

surmise

in and

with

nitrous

were

shrewd

inherent

about

step

in

thereby brightened

was

and

went

the blood

by

up

Sylvius of Leyden

lungs

the very

substance

"

taken

was

Lower,

recognised that particlesof

also made

certain

the blood
and

Richard

and

that air

of Pisa

blood

very

Hooke

showing

lungs,and

HEALTH

that

Nor

that

of air from
time

the

its funeral
an

will continue
time

be shut

animal

to breathe

supposed

Indeed,

in

up

for not
would

"

be
out

go

torch.

it otherwise

is it to be

without

candle

shut

in the

up

flask
much

that

is,

that the animal

HEALTH

AND

AIR

298
of the

blood, for liquidswhich

source

unite
that

seems

about

something
ebullition

the

We

"

from

furnished
particles

structures, excite

muscular

to

the

by

The

contraction,as
of the

movement

have

which

gives

elsewhere.

fullyshown
in the

out

rise

same

way

in other muscles.

as
"

Hence

needful
and

for all movements

therefore

that

the

death

breathing is

order

that

through

the

increased

and
one

lungs, but
of the

of

in order

He

Rey

realised

at

least set

; for he

that

in

the

from

"The

atmosphere
least:

one

of

burned

consists
these

breathing

we

road

by

of

Jean

sun's rays

hardly

can

antimonium

The

ceive
con-

arises

'

important

most

the

chemistry of

the

Ramsay

particlesof

termed

Still

serted
igno-aerealparticlesin-

Sir William
of

"

of the

the

to

royal

when

calcination."

by

"

clear and

weight

part of Mayou's contribution


is summarised

muscles."

leaving this genius.

before

Now," he says,
of

vescences
effer-

plantsbreathed.

even

antimony

else than

during

"

greater

of the

relationshipbetween

the

increase

anything
into it

"

for the

of the

contraction

notice

on

that

weight.

the

the

must

foot

notes

the

provide

in

not

place freely

salts in many

taught that

point we

increases

from

also

to

exercise,
take

may

rupted,
inter-

explains

he

Further

violent

blood

nitro-aereal

bodily heat,and
more

during

heart,

brain,are

the

to

follows."
necessarily

taking place in
Mayou

blood

of the

beat

lacking,the

of the

greater flow

expenditure

flow

is

salt

aereal

that

breathing is stopped,since

when

and

at

particles

blood, but dwellingin the

is carried

heart

it

salino-sulphureous

effervescence

we

that

class of motive

one

other

of

that

same

movement.

the nitro-aereal

the

mass

So

muscular

to

that

with

particleswhich, meeting
motor

leads

inspiredair supply the

the

the

requisitefor bringing

is

extraneous

suppose

from

effervescence.

any

which

therefore

may

derived

without

again

derived

are

two

nitro-aerial

as

kinds

sphere
atmo-

follows

of gas

particles'is

THE

GASES

for the

necessary
inflammable

while

ATMOSPHERE

the

portionwhich

The

of motion

One
that

would
the

the

His

he

wrote,
date

which

substance

In 1732

of

said, in

of

far

so

sixty

progress.

theory of

false

came

for

not
retrogression,

concluded

contained

bodies

in

impartial

float in

off into

particleswhich
"

should

that

considered

in

as

true
"

this

no

are

no

elastic

fixt

now
"

now

chemical

overlooked

been

entitled

way

phureous
sul-

permanent

the

among

hitherto

"

rejected by chymists

the

as

permanently

constitute

pleaded

be

well

it,as

earthy particleswhich

thrown

he

is

atmosphere

of elastick,but also of unelastick

plenty

nevertheless

that "our

principles,"notwithstandingit has
and

1674, and

phlogiston,"
prevented an

Hales

being

state, like those

volatile Proteus

on

that all combustible


"

got

quickly solved

be

accepted,and

saline,watery, and

But

had

stony soil and

as

was

chief

plants."

John Mayou

we

for life

facts.

which
air-particles,

air."

in

fell

not

as

Stephen

capable

stituent
con-

It is the

blood.

sowed

Chaos,consistingnot only

ways

of

combustion

is necessary

of air would

there

held

known

consideration

when

were
generalisations

combustion
a

truth

after that

years

that

chemistry

He

nothing.

and

animals

think

but, alas ! the


to

in

further

for the

other, left after this

into
enters, during respiration,
cause

299

removed, is incapable of supporting either

been

combustion.

or

THE

support of life and

bodies

has
life

OF

to

that

denomination."

its

composition
much

was

at

much

hand
to

; for

has

often
were

the

time

of

only twenty

elucidate
as

function

of air

one

the

constituent

happened
made

in

later

composition
in

the

the
course

of

the

dubious, and
not

Nevertheless

Mayou.

years

was

things had

chaos, it is evident

since

it contained
As

chemical

the

If in 1732

Joseph

air
gas

Black

by proving
carbon

light
did
that

dioxide.

history of science, his


of

gressed
pro-

coveries
dis-

apparently irrelevant

AIR

300

magnesia

on

weight

as

undertaken

had

investigations.He

HEALTH

AND

the

heating through

on

volatile

The

in the

that this gas

(which had

been

and

many

Helmont

Van

by
in

particlesof

attracted

ordinary air

but

that

this

therefore,does

not

that

is

of gas

the

of

shape

dispersed through

of

in that

elastic fluid.

an

of fixed air,and

name

it better

to

to invent

the

use

propertiesof

subject of
Black

before

further

that

surmised
with

its

Dr.

that

given
I

the

thought

philosophy than

in

fullyacquaint with

more

will

be

it

that

probably

the

fire and

gas

breathing

poured

be

the

from

extinguished

one

flame.

mentatio
fer-

produced by
breathing, and

charcoal, by

burning

Twenty
"

achievement

The
as

candle

; and

later

years

Gases

ordinary air by
a

and

it with

Rutherford, discovered

or

ably
prob-

more

this I have

could

Joseph Black, then, showed

book,

in

had

something

he
do

to

production.

dioxide.

his

powder, or

which

this gas

identified

by

ordinary

inquiry."

receptacle into another,


He

be

lime,
Quick-

atmosphere, either

To

we

this substance

showed

"

not

species
particular

one

already familiar

further

my

attracted

in its most

the

lime
quick-

atmosphere,

perhaps very improperly,but

word

name,

new

of

in the air.

to

subtile

exceedingly

an

the

quicklime

air when

attract

contained

also

from

form, but is capable of being joined

only, which

discovered

solution

gas

kind
particular

carbon

course

others) was

conclusion

the

to

came

stituent.
con-

obtained
previouslyartificially

found

He

atmosphere.

the

and

course

volatile

of

was

it lost

that

he
investigations

of his

dioxide,and

of

escape

constituent

experiments

found

for stone, and

remedy

of

course

student

nitrogen.
of the

follows

"

air contained

that

Sir

of

his, Dr. Daniel

William

Atmosphere," states
He

combustibles

having got

removed
such

as

carbon

the

Ramsay

in

Rutherford's
oxygen

from

charcoal, phosphorus

rid of the

carbon

dioxide, in

THE

those

when

cases

residue,now

but it was

of the

flame, and
burn
as

in the

mixed

the

the

third

On

given

He

to

obtained

the

oxide

combined
of his

be

the

function

in

to

satisfied

oxygen,

he

it

idea

my

of

name

in

he

from

all the

quotation

set

free from
had

Mayou

realise the nature

not
not

He

purity or

The

that

"

air,and

the

and

had

of

and

phlogiston
air."

longer

dephlogisticated

it."

to

oxygen

common

"

greater perfection,

prepared oxygen

considered

the gas

live

"

of

combustion

nimium

"

that

to

I gave

red oxide

could

much

in

the

air)to

reason,

as

between

did

quite

constituent

not

of

four and
realise the

misconceived

its

respiration.

to
interesting

prepared.
having

from

gas

free from

very

good

oxygen

after

air

air."

supported

oxide, yet that he did

an

place of

he

degree,

common

collected

igneo-aerealsubstance

same

air,but merely
as

same

(according

though

discoveryand

It is

in

discovered

mice

that

air,only

entitled

that

as

five times

bodies

less

this burnt

gas

and

was

common

air,which, for that

an

air

ordinary

impurity with respect


will show

common

making

seconds

Scheele

the

that

and
precipitate,"

as

for

burning glass,and

found

propertiesof
so

that of

August, 1874, Priestleyheated


of

He

than

red

exactly

specific
gravity

air,but in

80

Priestleyand

means

off.

it.

about

in

year

The

unfit

proportion of

same

of

ist

by

better

nitrogen,

of this great trio of gases.

the

mercury

"

of

lighter. It extinguished

fixed

as

same

littlefrom

air

common

burned

little later

it thus

rather

manner

which

with

"

same

candle

in

rendered

in the

differ very

to

it seemed

two

lime,he obtained

or

the discoverer

Cavendish

describes

found

301

nitrogen."

as

He

was

ATMOSPHERE

usuallyconsidered

is

way.

of this air

THE

formed, by alkali

was

prepared by

same

air ;

it

known

Rutherford

the

OF

GASES

"

note

that

My reader," he

ascertained

the

Priestleyinhaled
"

says,

will

not

superiorgoodness

the oxygen
wonder

of

that

dephlogis-

AIR

302
ticated

air

by

mice

should

mentioned,
I have

large jar
it to

of it to

air,but

lightand

easy

in

time

in

the

and

it

I reduced

means

air.

common

breast

my

become

from
felt

feeling
of

that

peculiarly
tell but

can

fashionable

article

have

had

Priestley,and

had

and

mice

two

The

Who

afterwards.

air may

various

substances.

calls his oxygen

experiments

were

he
Priestley,

was

unable

myself

It

left to the

was

plain.

He

Scheele
the

on

blinded

"

his

clear and

burned.

of Sciences
that

In

follows

as

that

than
the
same

great

say,

gained

from
The

phenomenon.
quantity

combustion, and

discovery,which
decisive,led

of

which

air

to

one

the

same

he

began

of substances

the French

of

of

sulphur

produced, not

what

much

ing
count-

Phosphorus presents
of

becomes
with

I discovered

losing weight gains

pound
air.

ago

Academy

is due

to

during

the

weight
fixed

the

This

vapours.

by experiments which
that

things
in which

year

weight

increase

combines

think

obscure

eightdays

which

I confirmed
me

in

reported to

from

was

Jean Rey by repeating

of vitriolic acid is

pound

moisture

of

burned, instead

is to

one

the

"

gain

About

"

make

to

strangelyenough

road

the
he

1772

sulphur,when

weight ;

of

and

correctly.

and
fire-air,

royal

ingenious,but, like

phlogiston theory

in 1772

"

of Scheele's

Many

and

great Lavoisier

Mayou's explanation
when

the

facts

his work

began

found

by

notice

interestingto

fire-air."

"

English chemist,

this

It is

exceedingly acute

interprethis

to

than

earlier than

year

that Scheele

as

of

greater chemist

oxygen

by heating

this

by

that

time

some

this pure

was

obtained

the

myself.

privilegeof breathing it."

Scheele

more

it

taste

sensibly different

not

was

luxury. Hitherto, only

the

above

tests

curiosityby breathing it,drawing

I fancied

for

other

the

curiosityto

the standard

lungs

my

common

that

have

glass syphon,

HEALTH

livingin it, and

gratifiedthat

through
of

AND

is observed

regard
in the

THE

OF

GASES

combustion

of

place with respect


by combustion

and

303
likewise

phosphorus might
bodies

all the

to

the calx

which

; and

calcination

gain in weight in

the

and

sulphur

ATMOSPHERE

THE

in

augment

weight

persuaded

that

from

the

was

of metals

take

proceeded

cause."

same

of course,

This,
of

and

Rey

two

only

not

and

in

few

chemical

the

combustion

confirm

the

carbon

nitrogen, and

"acide

"azote," and

carbon

that
carbon

and

he

time

same

the

showed

dioxide

showed

into carbon

Finally,in
tells how

he formed

then

red

precipitate.

gases ; and
after

only a

in
gas

red

had

these two

kinds

Not

that
of

the
the

been

new

surmised

great modern

but

so,

he

the

published

nised
recog-

union

by

and

the

and

tion.
respira-

important

it

was

the process

of

respiration.

ele*mentaire

de

partly

Chimie," he

oxygen

definite group
details

and

further great

which
Cavendish

chemists

the

that

Ramsay

by

of

about

and

was

oxygen

gases

gas

1777

air,"

in

by heating mercury
precipitate

no

of

"pure

combustion

air

"Traite

few minor

nature

respirationof animals,

between

Sir William

the air

the

of gases, oxygen,

only

paper

the

air became

investigators
; and

till 1894, when

problems

published in

by again heating separated the


Lavoisier

the

produced by

dioxide

his treatise

and

With

In

with

respiratoryconstituent
converted

of

paper

three

was

air."

dealt

and

ceeded
pro-

explain them,

dioxide, calling them

resemblance

also

He

air

of

crayeux."

"pure

chemist

also to

but

experiments

French

but

views

equallylittle ;
of his

the

respiration. In

and

of the

solved
practically

composition

distinguishedbetween

he

Lavoisier

them

had

he

years

led to

lead,and

red

to

resuscitation

have

might

Priestleytold

later

and
precipitate

with

of

and

Mayou

years

merely

was

and

Lord

; but

the

chemical

were

left for

discoverywas

they called

to prove

of

from

air,

made

covered
Rayleigh disargon.

it remained

This
for

its actual existence.

In

seeking

further

found

and

the

and

mineral

by

for

The

waters.

it

existence

almost

other

certain

diligently

for

elaborate

an

showed
but

also

and

two

other

minerals

previously

detected

in

with

and

exist,

must

and

argon

gases

accordance

in

found.

were

distillation

that

cleveite,

helium

made

Mendele"eff's

law,

began

chemists

hunt

to

them.

they

1898

called

found
been

Ramsay

sun.

the

that,

still

gases

In

of

William

mineral

had

gas

the

in

in
been

since

has

Sir

argon

helium

called

gas

spectroscope
The

of

compounds

gas

same

HEALTH

AND

AIR

304

the

three

of

air

liquid

contained

other

Ramsay
and

argon

named

of

means

William

Sir

only
he

by

year,

air,

not

which

gases

that

In

helium,

krypton,

neon,

xenon.

Still

there
of

was

radium

led

substances

to

more

the

to

and

gases

follow,

discovery
which

for

Madame
that

may

air
be

Curie's
contains
of

covery
disactive
radiovital

great

importance.
Such

gases

then,
of

the

in

brief,

atmosphere.

is

the

history

of

the

discovery

of

the

306
air,and

the

rises

Districts with

"

second

ventilation

as

the cubic

10-15

"

15-20

"

4*35, and

the

with

20-25

"

25-30

"

209

3"-35

"

23*

"

259

35

death-rate

at

from

time

one

ventilation

23

to

and

bad

air

Equally
disease

with

temples

of

precursors
But
it

very

be

and

of this

in the

fact,and

which

modern

for centuries

and

Walther

not

quite so

to

the

convince

dangerous

fact

value.

sumption.
con-

crates,
Hippo-

physicianshad

open-air verandahs
the sick

that

actual

of the

treatment

were

in the

treated,were

sanatoria.

open-airtreatment

efforts of

minous
it is volu-

aetiologyof

other old

many

thousand.

proven

greatest curative

^Esculapiusin
of the

in the

important part

air is of the

as

was

improving

6 per

evidence

more

Again,

barracks

fell with
to

fell

numbers

the

per cent."

then

accepted

is it that

that where

certain number

in Canadian
and

adduce

to

it may

requiredthe

it is stated

"

diminished

had
printers(compositors)

thousand

Galen, Sydenham, and

knowledge

always

larger space

thousand

per

certain

pure

has

enlargement to

per

plays a

J77

consumption

It is unnecessary
;

144

of the

cent,

further

per

161

consumptive symptoms,
to

Phthisis

from

Population, 1894-98.
in

printing-roomsfell below

head, 12*5 per

per

of

100,000

improved. Thus,

feet in

Average Annual

"

place,consumption

has

"

per cent

10

over

"

London
Death-rate

(in
Rooms.)

Room

Five

under

"

the

from

death-rate

increases

Population living

of

in
than Two
of less than

Tenements

the

how

overcrowding

as

Proportion

"

more

In

shows

followingtable

consumption
London

HEALTH

AND

AIR

McCormack,
the
as

had

were

and

Bodington, Brehmer,

public that

they

little vogue,

open

windows

supposed

to

are

be, and

OPEN-AIR
that

TREATMENT

in the

even

CONSUMPTION

OF

weather

worst

the

open

the

theory

in

exercise

307
air is

desirable.
We

have

time

practiceof
In

these

published

Consumption

in

them

contaminated

persons."
be

to

the

with

What," he

"

result

of

slow

fit for the

gas

fear ; its

frequent cause

of the

breathe

the wind

or

in

arrestingits

to

have

privationis

progress

"ought

covered

The
in

from

vehicle

cold
this

exercise

is

should
too

never

climate

lungs,the greater

the

lungs

is the

cold
most

cooler

in the
pure

the

winter

powerful

and

To

only

"

deterred

The
the

with

air

appears

lest

alarm

the

patient,"he
of

state

and

open

the

rainy,

windows.

consumptive patient

which

into

passes

the

patientwill

are

most

favourable.

the

interior surface

sedative

by

remedy

there

air ; if wet

the

and
live in

essential

by

open

for

to

The

constant

being

cold."

the benefit

air

version
con-

intense

an
"

most

employed,

severe

will be

Sharp frostydays
applicationof

be

air
own

the

of

which

deterred
the

in

their

into

groundless

take

be

to

never

foul

disease.

about

one

"

generally prevailed a

weather
a

of the

important

consumptive patientshould
says,

the

air, without

one

forcing

tered,
atmosphere freelyadminis-

pure

open

weather, is

that

declares

boldly

progress

freelythe

as

rationallybe expected

could

consumption

he

is the

lungs

without

and

And

thus

of

the

far

same

effluvia

practice,than

such

"

"

moderate

or

galloping one

or

asks,

from

of

shutting

as

; and

the

again

over

in

"

exclude

to

diseased

the

Cure

criticises

consisted

room,

and

over

and

atmospheric air

of the

access

breathe

to

and

Coldfield,

Sutton

Bodington

essay

close

of

Treatment

prevalent which

patients up

possiblethe

at

PrinciplesNatural, Rational,

on

this

In

of treatment

the

the

On

"

essay

Successful."

mode

hint

to

Bodington,

George

his

Pulmonary

merely

pioneers.

Dr.

1840

and

here

that

can

be

the

derive.
The
of the

applied,

AIR

308
and

does

cavities
that
It
did

and

can

be

was

proved

should

sound.

have

if

houses
with

they

certain

class

this

in the

practiceas

all

appliances

should

largetowns

confide

"c. ;

instead

of

sending them,

chance,

or

probably

at

distant

some

friends

from

"With
who
sort

the

to

respect

afford

large towns,

in

to

but the seeds


In

entitled

tract

Air," and

"

the

Henry

His

real,the

of tubercular

for

pay

be

do,

those

whom

their

take

to

of mercenaries

hands

the

die,far

away

fell upon

disease

in

and

;
prevision

thorny soil.

as

much

causa,

vicinity of

the

of courage

of

the

indeed

in its every

Belfast,published a

Engendered by

pathological theory
vera

of this

treatment."

MacCormac,

very

in

those

properly appointed

receptionand
man

"

treatment

proper

and

patients

poor

established

Consumption,

preached

Bodington.
was

he sowed

"

exclusively

should
to

as

consumptive patients,

consumptive

certainlya

was

1855 Dr.

own

should

there

they commonly

fit situations

all respects for their

Bodington

their

home.

hospitalsshould

"

fall into

means

all respects

or

now

many

seaport where

and

cannot

to

as

their

ing
treat-

and

under

be

branch,

distinct

thus

situations, well

proper

regulated in

and

the

succeed, they

to

are

practitionerswho

of

and
practice,

in

patients should

watched
strictly

Bodington

opportunityof

the

not

provided
their

but

generalityof

"The

regards exercise, air, diet,medicine,

pursue

means

actuallyadvocated

he

so,

system.

country

boot, where

other

any

of

closing

his theories into

only

Not

sanatorium

ventilated,and

be

and

heresy to preach ;

consumptive patients;

and

than

lungs

preach,he put

professionhave

their

eyes,

the

audacious

most

modern

to

of

healing

employed."

them

medical

the

promote

ulcers

than

more

the

to

more

HEALTH

AND

doctrines

same

rebreathed

that

the

causa

guise and

Rebreathed

sine qua

form," and

as

air
non

that

OPEN-AIR

tubercle
sound
and

effete

was

; but

his

"

least

far at

so

closed

window
sword

or

they

No

combined
lament
and
do

and

when

look

upon

their

countenance,
found

of

mother

anxious

sufferer

into

free

some

repulsivedrug

but

as

yet during the


from

chamber.
There

was

MacCormac's

we

says,
are

the

them,

greatest
lake

English

articular

give

swept without

let

Of

pleased,
it.

wild

hindrance

or

young

utterly.
of

sweet

But

the

you

none

spent there, the

her

admit

to

what

have

of

the

declined

truly

origin.

carry

and

in

"

the

character

actual

to

she

would

disease

make

to

and
her

girlwhom

young

serious

would

she

the

the

tried

nature

air, she

the hills about

at

light without,

nights

and

shriek

pallid foul-air-poisoned

look

atmosphere within,
renewed

to

epidemics

satisfaction

prove

in

when

to

of

real

fresh

which

hip.

sun's

the

almost

upon

and

complacency

entreated

further

when

the

and

wars

people

scrofulous

under

its

The
than

agencies,the

destroyersare

many

aware

malady,

of

How

Once

asked

labouring

respire

to

they perish.

even

casements,

saw

was

word, tubercle

child's

and

district, where

closed,and

stuffy,carpeted,airless chambers,

all." ..."

destroyers of

not

these

unruffled

sashes

Listen

greater destruction

many.

what

closed

and

baleful

war,

so

exclaim

constrained

entails

yet with

they

with

half

successful.

thereby
sicken

eloquent

was

windows

most

epidemic,no

slay

and

not

consumptive, scrofulous,tuberculous

begetter of

disease.

he

are

It is the

perhaps

was

well with

do

cannot

by night

gun.

exclusive

my

practicebold

his

as

carbon,

309

open-air treatment

already breathed, they

air

of

advocacy

People

CONSUMPTION

unoxidised

convincing and
this.

to

OF

TREATMENT

And

winds

through

."
.

no

views.

"it

is the

to

dread.

timidity,
"

For,

indoor,

Wind,

as

not

no

half-heartedness

I must

the

about

incessantlyiterate,"

outdoor

exposure

wet, rain, cold,

coupled

which
with

AIR

3io
wholesome

be

to

Again,
should

be

the

by

thrown

damp,

guarded against,are
yet

of

matter

nor

yet

as

no

is

only necessary

wind,

more

although

not

With

always.

of risk.

shadow

bronchitis

in

"

It

that

Germany

in

was

first took

started

started

Walther

the

considered
which
open
Now

there

the

It

matter.

of the

state

winter

and

when

summer

of

rheumatism,

is
of

none

his

theory of

the

so

of

Dr.

1888

Colonie

modern

sanatorium

spread

the

Otto
the

in

doctors

to

that

Brehmer

German

much

sumption
con-

time

Hermann

Nordrach

"

converts.

very

in

the

carbonaemia

open-air treatment

tract, Dr.

the

"

than

enemies

About

two

of

had

be

must

cult

ment,
treat-

of

the

window.
all

over

Open-air
of

these

done

effectively

enthusiast, and

famous

fathers

has

it is

night,however,

Gorbersdorf, and

at

his

Forest, and

of

about

none

the

root.

sanatorium

air."

night coverings there

more

published his

MacCormac

Black

; but

he made

and

againsthim,

was

be

to

course

means

it down

evidently an

was

of

risk whatever."

of his convictions

courage

is

There

night

freely,and, except

abundant

short,no

MacCormac

At

whatever

window

warm,

by

driftingwind,

less,according to the

the

wind,

undecided, and indeed

are

dressingand undressing,to keep


and

open

the

is confined

as

by day.

or

pull down

to

of

Nor

to the best

as
uncertainty,

or
ambiguity
difficulty

is

winter.

dreaded

be

ventilation

securinghouse

freely

snow,

to

People

"

again :

Yet

and

summer

rain,

nor

and

English,

or

direction

and

degree

largely

in

French

whether

windows,

both
particularly

no

"

enjoyed."

"The

qualifiedindeed

nor

vigour blessingson

health, cheerfulness,and

terms

sharp restoratives,

Nature's

vigorous effort,are

maintain
other

HEALTH

AND

the world

Treatment

consumption

is

sanatoria

legion.

are

of Consumption. Open-air
"

tripletreatment

treatment

by air,food,and exercise,

OPEN-AIR
and

shall

we

three heads
Air.

i.

which

This

will

then the

argument.

But

and

temperature?

at what

distinctive

McCormac

and

administered

but

must

he

must

not

go

out

comfortable

Madeira,

conceded

It is here that

and

and

avoid

damp

in bad

and

weather.

the

Riviera,or

Torquay,

of

air

was

patient was

inches
and

the

at

top

draughts, and

kept

in

in winter

or

time

pure

was

and

equable temperature,

or

till the

cold
He

air,

pure

open-airtreatment

few

is

all without

half-heartedly.The
his window

He

seen,

much

Walther

open

down.

by

original. Up

timidly and

he

be

means

pulmonary

have

we

questionarises,How

Bodington

that

must

impure air, as

much

air

impure

infect his diseased

may

air because

enervating.

that

the

consumption requires

suppuration and rapid breaking

cause

requires pure

told

311

broadly under

air because

requirespure

air rich in microbes

becomes

brieflyand

it

patient sufferingfrom

He

tissue,and

CONSUMPTION

air,food, exercise.
A

"

consider

now

"

air.

pure

OF

TREATMENT

sent

was

similar

some

at

room

to

warm

climate.
modern

But
three

have

pioneers we

drastic
inches

and

Instead

of

windows

stagnant air.

Day

and
about

10,

13

just

or

the

and

any

parts in

in the

night,winter
the

and

more

for

and

open,

space.

recognises that
healthy and
and

There

is

dioxide

should

be

it is present indoors

rooms

enter

of in

hot

summer,

outdoors.

as

open.

are

carbon

10,000,

may

it

the

open

window

outdoors, are

or

microbes, for the


that

much

wide

more

room,

of

instead
thorough perflation

proportions

microbes

lead

window

have

to

as

all windows

whether

same

question of

and

dry,

question
or

of

windows

indoors

believes in

invigorating. It
wet

so

fearing breezes

gentlebreezes,whether

cold,

Instead

top, it encourages

prefersFrench

the

mentioned, has become

audacious.

the

at

under

open-air treatment,

are
are

There

is

no

9,
in
no

kept dustless,

quickly

attenuated

by light and

air.

HEALTH

AND

AIR

312

is

There

for the indoor

steady indoor temperature,


with

the

80" F. at
The

temperature, and

may

12

and

lower

noon,

because

the

draughts

equallyall

dustless,

colds

unknown,

and

"

round
"

during

when

imported

infection.

as

seem

some

shawls, and

they
Nor

with

The

and

Patients

come

double

straightto

blow

may

around

freezing,
yet they

that is not

The

open

window

is wide

is not

for two

perniciousdraught produced by

for

few

inches

secondly, to

house
hot-

other

catch

not

cold.
may

foolish

Some

cause

at

all.

to
firstly,

"

window

first.

at

begin

to

open

circulation

sensible

begin

inches

reasons

the

and

few

avoid
a

to

fires,and

from

colds.

windows

open

due

patientsshould

that

begin gradually,it

to

almost

are

being "hardened,"

they do

catch

do not

open-airgraduallyby opening

are

beds, the temperature

inexperiencedpeople propose

But

rooms

barely furnished,windy

and

their

or

more

always

windows,

wide-open windows,

wind

be below

go

the

seem

of

of

views

circulate

to

case

it

chapter. Simply

because

they

occur

is it

and

screens,

the

open-air treatment

think.

to

luxuries,and
room

the

midnight.

12

of

in the last

body, and

the

be

"

audacious, but

and

large enough

are

at

in favour

evidence
maintained

have

we

100"

drastic

certainlyis

circumstantial

ventilation

less

perhaps

Davos

in

as

"

varies

temperature

outdoor

treatment

affords

question of maintaining

no

of air.
The

results of

Night-sweatsand
muscular
results

and
of

when

The

fact

window

by

the

the

only

not

that

the

wind

tone

is

that

to

upon

air may

of
the

results

inches

seems

metabolism

playing

these

the

These

improved.

are

opened

matter

extraordinary.

are

appetitereturns, cough decreases,

windows, and

open

necessary

order

fever go,

nervous

of

ventilation

open-window

the

in

not

dusty

the

follow
room.

be

that

perflationis

be

pure,

but

body

skin.

do

are

We

may

be

know

also

in

stimulated
the

potent

AIR

314
in

treatment

AND

climates,such

drier

and

warmer

HEALTH

and

Egypt

as

Tenerife.
Here

we

climate

does

where
a

air is

humid

climate

In the very

supposed.

patientswill
evil

as

roof

is least

shut

one

in

will find the

he

and

change

treatment

in

beneficial

than

food

Food.
and

"

in

and, other

damp

The

both

may

therefore

exercise

soon

after

of

too

food

the

Thus, after

exchange.
is

by

an

affects the

increase

the
But

in the

when
most

are

in

with

dry weather,
weather.

than

damp

one,

water

flux

pleasant and

mechanical
food

more

it

is well
meal.

meal

chemical
may
of the

to

take

violent

Chemically,the
of

in

the

nature

respiratory

carbohydrates,there

of carbon

amount

and

movement

not

nature

rich

Between

in the stomach

prevent free

chemical
a

air, and

of eire is overtake."

heavy

when

indoors

wet

more

both

are

and

fact

things being equal,open-air

eke

diaphragm,

the

time

it stimulates

relationships.Mechanically,heavy
and
impede circulation,

Ireland

or

one.

stomake

breathing there

to

and

damp,

seen,

air will be

dry

"

even

commonly

windows

is better

already

but

just to

just at

weather

wet

climate

dry

is

his sensations

stuffier in

have

we

as

tissue

2.

due

open

compare

rooms

point ;

England

pervious

when

damp,

Nevertheless, a
because,

and

climate

"

rainy

consistently
open-air life.

windows

least

are

wind

If any

required.
windows

rule,closed

and

walls

there

lead

they

of

reputationof damp, indeed, is

that it means,
the

dampest parts

well if

do

saturation

perniciousthan

less

damp.

climate

humid

constantlynear

is much

of

question

the

mean
necessarily

not

warm

The

discuss

may

dioxide

discharged

lungs.
the

intimate

than

food ; for

chemical

between
relationship

this.

time,

at

association

Air may

food

and

air is

be
quitelegitimately

even

more

considered

least,the oxygen

of the

with

of the tissues derived

the elements

air enters

into

OPEN-AIR
from

food;

endure

for

and

eating nothing, may


winter

they

the

chief

with

which

The

the

it breaks

it cannot

formed
it

of

oxygen

consumption

of

oxygen

swim

oxygen

; but

to

the

best

more

but

This

is

result of

energy

is

more

failed

point to

Wolff

his

wise, and

if

and

that

if

be noticed

without

seem

lungs

more
more

strange

perhaps,

can,

developing

that food

"

it
it

give

we

is

oxygen

give

we

heat

probably

was

useless

It may

the

in

produce

Much
is

the
the

it

and
developed by filling
a

combination

after food

to

food

food.

it is true

that

else.

much

be

cannot

during fasting

oxygen,

acquisitionof
also

more

increased
The

oxygen.

lengthened ;

is

open-air treatment

leading to

are

and

; but

energy

the

develops

breathing capacity.

The

is

of

oxygen,

for

filled and

stomach.

explosive,and

When

cold, and

organism

up

aver,

and

and

increases.

inhalation

it cries out

thing

round

oxygen

to heat

decreases, and

food, and

it takes

to

send

its part of the

"

without

oxygen

have

required nothing

was

useless

food

heat

so

grew

after

energy
that

gives rise

food

the

consumption

food

to

follows, accordingly,that

cross-Channel

inspiredis

oxygen

is unstable

formed, and

produced, unless
It

the

blood.

down

be

ready.

of

combine, it is useless

combination

when

the

till

combination

the

combination, and, unless there be material

to

in

body

be

take

their tissues

oxygen

quietlyin

remains

object,indeed,

into such

enter

and

the

their

weight during

waken.

The

the

unstable,yet it may

is

in

actuallygain

oxygen

315

Hibernating animals, though

time.

sleep,simply through

; and

up

the association

though

considerable

CONSUMPTION

OF

TREATMENT

there

building

is
up,

ingestionof food, and


swing

of the

breaking

more

and

stimulate

to

all excretions

correspondingly increased.

increased

pendulum

down

Increased,

; but

and
no

bolism,
meta-

of life
there

is

secretions

doubt, also

3i6
the

are

of

secretions

and

thus

HEALTH

AND

AIR

disease

the

of

microbes

the

toxins,
anti-

natural

form

which

cells

the

directly

are

attacked.
The

stimulation

striking. Even
have

Reid, in his

this direction.
members

of

by

excluded,
connected

they

in

which

quantitiesof
and

in

passed

throughout
time

air should
an

the

of the

British

time

the

members

habit

of

dining

by
not

gentlemen

of

in

were

to

send

the

effect

the

that

whose

usual

habit

half,and

he

as

of

had

that

surprisedto

half
half

for

two

was
a
a

that,in short,he had

hackney-coaches

who,
the

bottle

"

bottle
been

additional

their
the

times

sumed
usually con-

was

lightedby

room

been

taking

Barry,

with

three

that

taken

as

Mr.

familiar

was

allowance

much

noticed

dinner, and

the

the

field,of

lavender

from

that

special was

committee

party in

varied

being frequently in

Club

been

being

apartment

members, but

rooms,

the

same

"

of

provided

the

the

materials,so

very

the

by

his

at

had

hesitation

without

and

wines

ventilated

Nothing

Gothic

of the

constantly supplied,

successfullythat

constitutions,showed
of

an

placed. Large

through

evening,the

Hotel, who

drop

were

succession

of dinner

from

in

ventilatingtube

lights were

atmosphere

"c.

grove,

during

amount

central

whole

imitate

orange

the

by infusing odoriferous

time

to

the

quick

the

fifty

essentially

were

by

in

concealed

mild

its combustion

of

all removed

were

with, but

pendant

about

"

dined

Clubs

Royal Society

in

constructed, where, though illuminated

products

as

writes,

he

made

he

experiment

ago,"

years

of the

had

the

gas,

Some

one

may

"Ventilation," gives

on

amusing

very

"

apartment

work

well-known

of

account

an

very

effect.

pronounced

is

air

ventilation

in

slight improvement

fresh

appetite by

the

of

gas,

but
that

observe

glasses,took
that those
took

compelled

who

bottle
twice

supplies during

OPEN-AIR

TREATMENT

dinner, though

he

OF

had

provided

usual, considering the


members
"

other

meeting, nor
had

showed

that
it

found
is

even

the

of

with

to

his
taken

not

impede
The

to

and

"

been

men,

applied

their

appetites
the

improve

may

wonders

work

it

appetite

eating only enough

to

rule,acquire the appetite

due

with

to

his

of

exhaust

the

patient to

the

food

due
of

so

long

as

But

and

of

nature

are

the

matters

and

also

is

be
siderably
con-

should

also

by

be

working
over-

should

such

an

extent

little

so

long

proteids and
all that

fire of

weight

care

care

proportions. Milk, eggs,


them,

patient'snerve-energy

digestive system,
fatten

gained

weight.

the

of

anti-toxins,it should

patient has

normal

fanning

vigorous metabolism,

formation
the

the

respiration.

plenty

who

experienced no

and

in

of the

rations

open-air treatment

his heart

and
digestible,
mixed

have

quickly,as

the

until

over

not

of

have

who

appetite is

encouraged
taken

who

associated

probably

the

improved

was

Hottentot.

the

life and

Barry

connection

ventilation

wonders

Patients

sparrow,

hungry

Since

and

work

to

months, and

barracks

in

improvement

certainlydoes.

of

till Mr.

same

since it increased
ventilation,

an

usual

means.

expected

support

that

moment

seamstresses

appetite,the perfectventilation

for

this

followed

the

the

in

increase

story told

their

of

to

ache
head-

no

place."
note

ventilation

that

me

at

aware

taken

necessary

against better

beyond

had

interestingto

the

there

be

the

which

had

heartilythan

more

what

be

may

assured

member

any

partaken
them

was

If

under

injuriousconsequence

was

when

and

than

larger supply

circumstances

inquiriesafterwards

nor

It

317

met.

Minute

they

CONSUMPTION

be

as

as

to

it is

carbohydrates are
bread, butter,meat,

required.

3. Exercise.
connected
be

The

"

with

much

the

Ibs.

as

only

make

to

exercise

on

to

eat

the

couch

or

and

and

bed

have

obstinacy

without

with

seen

of

regard

friends,kept

muscles, including the

flabby

and

atonic

would

probably

disease ;

life

endangered.
and

become

On

the
their

out

it is also

exercise

his

It is

absolutelyessential

should

be

decided

to

patient

throw

off

and

his

patientsdo

too

absolutelyessential

that

by

in

were

the

point should

certain

and

till all his

retarded

many

above

medical

ignorance

heart,

was

this

temperature.

exercise

hand,

strength.

maximum

for months

of

air,and

under

the

as

healthy

patient,and

pulse and

to

high,

sufficient,

open

strong enough

other

is

soon

as

aid

to

exercise

his recovery

was

walking

too

It is not

the

With

patientswith temperatures

rest, and
and

wear

it

as

muscles

but

attain the

to

rest

condition.

have

the

at

order

patient,through

muscular

perature
patient'stem-

live in the

to

not

treatment

the

heart.

suitable

due

stone

disease,be

in

begun

vigour possible for

attained

as

temperature, which

the

fat ; it is necessary

and

and

regular slow

If the

strengthenthe

to

open

seen

them

is necessary

be

must

grow

be

We

make

to

activityof
in

the

have

open-air

in view

unduly high.

supervisionand

that

but

patientsthink,simply

cannot

much

of

not

of

it may

nothing exceptional.It is,

is

be

health

of

We

single week,

this end

with

that

resting in

prescribed,provided always

metabolism
many

man

object

and

possibleexercise

as

closely

is so

food

is

fair index

rest

air and

patients stout,

strong, and

and

in

gained

aim

exercise

readily fattened.

first month

in the

however, the

here.

and

rest

of

question

be

usually

increase

questionof

brieflyconsidered

air may

HEALTH

AND

AIR

3i8

questions of
watchful

and

rest
perienced
ex-

physician.
This, of
treatment

course,

is

; for this is not

most

the

cursory

place to

sketch
describe

of

the

open-air

it in detail.

OPEN-AIR

There

be

can

dust.

At

which

must

home
to

least

at

few

in

sanatoria

for

fresh

afford

it should

at

There

prolong

or

certain

class which

"

Hence,"

national

as

probable
been

more

poor

and

that

profitablyspent
in

country

are

in

the

about

cases

is much

after
too

Open-air

they leave

sanatoria

the

it

might
of

for the

environment

sanatoria.

The

the

poor

and

in

and

is

have

housing of

Two

are

the

most

this
the

occupation

subject,however,

discuss here.

largeto
Schools.

schools

are

hand, they

in obtaining early cases


difficulty

of obtaining suitable
difficulty
for

improving

startingopen-air schools.

features
unsatisfactory

great mistake

sanatoria

on

of

against

against disease, and

spent

money

other

the

On

of warfare

the

it is

they

value

taken

be

merely cure-places.They

importance."

costly weapon

very

teachingthe
"

Newsholme,

says

They

of lives,but

should

air,and the precautionswhich

perform

poor

functions.

number

needs

most

good

many

for the

educational

and

be

may

England.

Sanatoria

"

he

now

are

possible
im-

always spend

that

sanatorium

treatment.

regard sanatoria

of

can

medical

the

infection.
to

treatment

for the Poor.

also teach

ments.
excite-

successfully,

drastic

paying patientsall over

only save

fussy

it is almost

the

months

valuable

not

out

the

Sanatoria

the

from

temptations and

all

private house

any

patient who

educated

most

in

or

carry

every

laid down

are

regularmeals, regular rest, regular exercise,


in every
is conserved
and increased
possible

has

At

of

possibleaccumulation

patientescapes

from

of friends and

his energy

and

the

it is furnished

and
perflation,

prevent any

kept,and

be

He

way.

is built in such

sanatorium

freest

can

buildingunder

sanatorium, too, hygienic rules

interference

and

to

as

319

open-airtreatment

constructed
specially

supervision. A

way

CONSUMPTION

all that

at

facilitate the

to

in such

in

out

specialmedical
as

doubt

no

be best carried

way

OF

TREATMENT

"

No

movement

of the

last

fiftyyears

AIR

320
is

fraught

more

schools.

school

impurity of

facts and

Salford.

found

He

in every
rise

oppressive,giving
"

odour

the

in

also found

He

cubic foot.

constructed
a

found

marked

deal

from

visits round

the

of

good

class-room
less

If the

I have

school

windows

children

can

draught

is not

be

real

out

all schools
Even

as

led the way,

are

in sanatoria
and

so

the great

encounter

of the

any

open

my

work

my

in

draught

of

fetid,

evils of

them

tilation
ven-

; and

is often
Kerr

point of

an

for

excuse

declares

"

tically
Prac-

ventilation."

open-airschools, Germany

open-airschool

the
The

if necessary.

room

FinallyDr.
in

on

inhalation

can

you

in

I suffer

be altered in five minutes.

not

defective

this

inadequate
"

says

I consider

across

objection,but

air."
tolerating
irrespirable

get into

provided with

not

constant
come

open

cleared
a

the

seldom

not

are

Eichholz

windows.

the

well-

health, and

to

are

bearable."
un-

10,000

and

to

constantlybegin

that could

are

is allowed

compelled to

than

they

cases

microbes

286

large

schoolrooms

Dr.

am

schools.

by opening

air.
in

what

importance

vitiated

where

of ventilation."

means

proper

most

ing
PhysicalTrain-

in

even

the

"very

simply

as

on

detrimental

where

and

was

in

many

Commission

be

must

as

given

14*5 parts in

as

atmosphere

attendance, and

the

case

"that

the

that

more

one

be

air

the

especiallywas
much

as

Royal

rooms,

condition

is much
to

The

Scotland

in

in

dioxide,and

of carbon
per

class-rooms

the

more

Manchester

headache," and

to

few

College,made

in

that

case

and

showing

may

Owens

schools

air of

the

Gorst

John

Bayley, of

Dr.

ago

of

examination

an

Sir

opinions quoted by
few years

ordinary schools,but

air of

the

ordinary

tables

various

more

mental

both
debility,

much

already quoted

have

We

air of the

vitiated

the

responsiblefor

is

here.

and

open-air

of fresh air,even

require abundance

requireit ;

physical.
the

than
hygienic possibilities

with

If adults

do children

HEALTH

AND

has

started at Chariot-

children
children
it

and

healthy

brought up
The

from

the

merry,

their

almost

all

The
"

The

Anamic.

none

had

"

got better,and
"

26

The

2.

girls
"

"

10

9 had
"

girlsand

during
had

with

boys

weight

and

had

The

none

"On
exercised

the
a

24

"

boys

and

of

"

had

these

In

none

worse,

grown

diseases

the

the whole

Even

or

results

character

favourable

Of

School.

time

the school

3*316 kilo

was

cold

and

cold

or

those who
was

each

open,

in 1904,

rainy weather
shoes

and

suffered

from

deficiencyin

caught

greatly

air-vessels of the

lungs."

equally remarkable.

were

of

"

unaltered,

were

increased

children

during the

of the

children

12

worse,

Forest

weight

of

Out

"

cured.

were

all the

at

of

nose,

educative

had

Affections.Out

grown

of the children

of the

19

unaltered, 34 had

were

got better.

October, notwithstanding some

catarrh

none

"

Disease.

of almost

increase

stockings,none

18

question.

none

3-825 in 1905.

girls and

unaltered,

children

50

Heart

all had

during

the average

boys

their residence

remained

"

24

"

were

worse,

Lung

"

cured.

were

got better,and

The

of

sufferingfrom

"4. Those

girlsand

of

appearance

cured.

grown

of the

worse,

were

had

none

children

42

"

is out

cure

of

grown

unaltered, but

were

in

Out

Scrofulous. Out

3. Those

children

the

and

joyous

report of Dr. Bendix

the
"

18

got better,and
"

lively,and

was

ordinarily
extra-

thoroughly satisfactory."

followingis

i.

boys

attention

appetite was

Their

"

weeks

few

dispositionbecame

their

improved,

after

scholars

the

in

astonishing.

was

pine-trees,

Charlottenburg."

of

streets

improvement

residence

the

under

the grass

upon

rosy-cheeked

merry,

recognise the feeble,pale-facedpatients

difficult to

was

the

In

happy.

about

jumping

HEALTH

AND

AIR

322

the

children

the

Forest

School

influence,especiallyin good order,

OPEN-AIR

TREATMENT

cleanliness,and

the

livelythankfulness

worked

the

upon

themselves

"

the

children

inquired of

latter than

the

the

headmasters

scholars
the

in

As

lessons

result of

school

reports

freshness

the

on

keener

and

Bendix

years'experience,Dr.

two

authorities

terest
in-

remarked."

again

was

of

of the firstbatch

favourable

their greater

"

far less

was

different schools, and

three

exception,

show

to

first weeks.

in the

of

all this

"

strove

; there

ordinary schools, the

received, without
returned

they

after the return, in 1904,

to

all

from

them

to

of the benefits received

the

few weeks

that

for

people of culture,

done

good

children, so

worthy

naughtiness in

for the

removed

with

influences,the association

323

in consideration

as

still wood,

the

in

Life

mischievous

well

punctuality,as

another.

one

CONSUMPTION

OF

mends
recom-

"

"

That

i.

after year

continuouslyyear
"

That

2.

the

in the

first

winter

months.

"

3. That

And
the

the

school
to

be

should

as

Sir
air of

John

the

school

Gorst

and

"

writes

the

poorest

abilitywhich

What

medical

country.

life to

It may

United

is

considering
school

struck

had,

at

these

as

pervaded

I marvelled
small

at

cost,

poor

the

the

'

Go

to

and

every

do

whole
to

the

trative
adminis-

provided such

least the

neglected in

children,so

said

the

was

happiness,to brightenat

justlybe

Kingdom

so

most

me

superintendentdown

child,and

great portionof health and

beginning of

enable

to

as

boarding

extraordinaryjoyfulnesswhich

smallest

so

the

school.

establishment,from

in the

enlarged

Municipality of Charlottenburg
day

in

it available

be,

in."

taken

of making
desirability

well

be

be sent

buildingsshould

making

to

should

School.

of the school

extension

the

the Forest

to

instance,directed

children

more

of sick children

greater number

our

sanitaryauthority

thou

likewise.'

"

AIR

324
The

AND

and

have

been

done

at the

suggestionof
Arsenal

sufferingfrom

on

heart

was

the
meals

arid

adapted

great

success,

for treatment.

to

the

in

is

no

doubt

of

cases

July

the

cases

who

when

air.

All

while

from

not

eager to

two, while

6 and

of

for many

fail to

read

During the
air schools

could

help

months, and

light,improved
she could

were

be cured
in

so

lungs,heart,"c.,there
enable

be

the

majority

so

other

notice

voice

volume,

scarcelywalk

in all kinds

had

was

unable

kept

pain
and

opened.

before

autumn

of

the

firstwere

at

in

after

two

or

able
a

week

darkened

the

school

1908

week

one

of movement,

power

to bear

Any

signsof improved

of tasks

been

increase

Ibs.

12

and

the

of the worst

some

and

10

in

average

rapidly that glasseswere

without

summer

while
Ibs.,
to

effected

The

admission

upon

child who

one

experiment was

throat,"c.,can

would

earlytreatment

children

Children who
and

were

the results obtained

of weakness

health,e.g.,the increased

run,

worked, played,

"

admitted, gained up

afterwards,could
"c.

the

withstandin
not-

ordinarylessons

surroundings. The

between

the

saw

October, and

children

(2) That great improvement can


generalcondition of delicate children.
weight was

followingis

to

"

of

general

cured.

be

to

children

proved

cases

that

wich
Wool-

Royal

hundred

The

certain diseases of eyes,

time

the

organised

was

"

from

season,

by open-airtreatment,
short

treatment

open

wet

and

(i) That

"

It

in 1907

lung trouble,anaemia,and

in the open

taken

measure

started

was

site

selected

School

had

England
Bridges Adams.

Mrs.

report of the results of


The

in

kindly lent by
Co-operativeSociety. A

Woods,

debilitywere

some

Already eight open-airschools


various parts of England.

in

opened

in Bostall

already in

likewise.

first open-airschool

The

and

have

sanitaryauthorities

gone

"

HEALTH

seven

to
or

room

faintest ray of
and
discarded,
closed."
more

open-

OPEN-AIR

TREATMENT

CONSUMPTION

OF

325

1.

London

County Council, Camberwell, BirleyHouse.

2.

London

County Council,Woolwich,

3.

London

Kentish

County Council,

House.

Shrewsbury

Montpelier

Town,

House.
4.

Halifax

County Borough,

Withens.

5.

Halifax

County Borough,

Bermerside.

6.

Bradford

County Borough, Thackley.

7.

Norwich

County Borough,

These

schools,with the exception of the school


conducted

were

under

the

Elementary

selected

suitable

as

short hours.

The

manual

schools

took

sought

recognitionwas

small

in

taught

must

officers of the

medical

the

by

Epileptic

children

the

Act

this

cases

be

must

Under

number

Under

Withens,

at

(Defective and

Education

1899.

authority,and
include

day schools,and

as

Children) Act,
be

Belle Vue.

and

classes

have

Act, too, the school curriculum

this

must

training.
of children

90 children

each; Bradford

The

varied.

at the schools

London

40, and

took

Halifax,

Bermerside,65.
The

children

no

At

of selection of children also varied.

manner

Halifax

most

sufferingfrom
of the

anaemia, and
the

By

the

children

scrofulous

have

we

worked

been

physical

and

mental

nutrition
mal-

glands.

able

and
satisfactorily,

admitted.

were

sufferingfrom

were

courtesy of the Medical

of Education
have

heart disease

wich,
Wool-

At

Department

of the

Board

learn

the

schools

to

that

that

great improvement

condition

of

the

children

in
has

resulted.
Of

course,

and

all these schools

they are

or

None

remained

schools

are

are

merely day

of the schools

open
to be

merely tentative

obviouslydeficient

In the first place,they

schools.

are

beyond

opened

October

in various
schools

be

Now,

mental,
experi-

respects.

and

earlier than

3ist.

fullyefficient they must

and

summer

June loth,
if

open-air

boarding schools,

and

be

they must

in winter

as

and

by night as by day, and in


indeed,it is probablethat it is by night

of

that

round

without

sanatoria

English
and

danger,

harm.

most

to

children.

the

might

be made

those

who

likeliest to

are

be

selected,and

preference to

such

the

third

of

not

cases

best

place,if

open-airtreatment

to

disease

results

and

that

as

to

seem

be

money

children

will be

much

working

power

be

can

working

if

years.

consumption

and

than

better health

It has
alone
annum.

than

first

require to

at

be

be

is

It

ently
effici-

most

under

run

the

the

same

is

always

good

spent in establishingthe health


more

which

^"2,000,000per
might

under

officers.

health

but

repaid by
adult

in

of ill-health in adult life is

wasted

obtained,

great system of open-airschools

prohibitive
;

investment, and

the nation

general

sanatoria.

At firstsight,
the cost of any
would

be

must

could

open-airschools

be

to

medical

resident

economically conducted

management

of

but

are

open-airschools,like open-airsanatoria,
possible,indeed,

naturallygive

anaemia.

the best

personal supervision of

that
requisite

it is

criterion would

organic

is certain

present be

at

cannot

therefore

respond

malnutrition,and
debility,
In

children

diseased

and

principles.It

economic

open-airschools,and

in

should

sounder

on

that all delicate

taught

selection of children

place,it is probable that

In the second

of

all the year

greatest advantage

the

with

beyond

proves

be continued

open-airschools might

doubt

as

of children

experience

air is

Fresh

round.

year

that foul air works

in winter

The

all the

open

essential to the health


summer

HEALTH

AND

AIR

326

is

spent

been
to

the

to

so

calculated

their increased

life. The

great that

prevent

no

sight appear,

for

cost

that

the

to

money

would

is

be much

elaborate

in

direct cost

open-airschools

palatialbuildings with

cost

breakdowns

ratepayers of England

Further,the

of

over

less

do not
artificial

OPEN-AIR

of ventilation.

systems

almost

are
a

saving

all that
in the

CONSUMPTION

OF

TREATMENT

clean

shed,

bill

drug

be

can

overhanging tree,

an

the way

required in

are

327

building;

of

against the

set

and

of the

cost

food.
It

be

may

Training

that

mentioned

Association

has

mental, and

remedy
"I.

the

of

large portion

population

provide

to

of open-airschools
establishing

the

in
By assisting

children

powers

of initiative

self-reliant and

independent

so

develop their

and

resourcefulness

as

to

become

citizens,
capableof bearing their

and

open-air life

for

trained

be

may

may

own

share

of
responsibility

of the

race.

2.

By acting as

3.

bureau

interested

unitingall those

education

any

interested,
by

who
and

will go

to

of

means

the work.

part of the

any

the Association

objectsof

authorities,societies,or

of

means

willingto help in

and

work

explain the

and

of information

By providinglecturers

country and
to

physical,

"

work, and

"

help

to

allowing

and

"

of

danger

drift into

to

and
inefficiency,

moral

settlements, where

the

the

to

and

declared

the

with

started

been

object of rousing public opinion


a

Open-air Schools

an

of persons

groups

lectures,illustrated by lantern views,

photographs,"c."
address

The
25,

moral

effect
and

hardly

be

of

of

open-air education

exaggerated.
for the

his

morale

counteracting the

prolonged
the

case

idleness
of poor

"

way

had

; and

danger

of the

in the

of sanatoria

of

open-air

invalid,but

case

"

can

charge
the

that
testify

can

poor

city life

on

have

who

Those

in every

schools,the chief moral

In

is

Association

the

in

only improves the physicalhealth

improves
air

Secretaryof

physicaldegeneracy consequent

open-airsanatoria
life not

Hon.

Street,London, W.

Wimpole

The

of the

of openthe

danger

is absent.

children

whose

nights are

often spent

foul

air, and

education

means

in

which
of

late

health

of

health

realise

develop
will

moral

nation

the
in

outstrip

believe
the

the

all

and

of

large

scale

rivals

mental

the

in
will

so

sanity

of

race

increase
of

the

and
has

wealth

best
the

of

open-air

life.

There

nation

is

and

physique

first

nation
and

to

education,
is

happiness,
as

been

people

education,

the

body

and

The

open-air
system

mind

nation's

schools.

open-air

importance

nothing

that

as

open-air

There

improve

much

so

disease,

degeneracy,

the

that

will

of

obtain.

physical

recognise

nothing

and

of

of

health

and
otherwise

talk

to

hotbeds

are

vigour

never

much

years

homes

beginning

are

to

whose

could

they

HEALTH

AND

AIR

328

open-air

to

reason

the

health,
schools.

AND

AIR

330

ing
Broadbent, Sir William, on speakas respiratory
exercise,256
on

Brown

and

ment,
abate-

smoke

annual

Brodie

HEALTH
Cornet

Coxwell, barometric

by,

in

dioxide

in

germs

Buchanan,
a

Dr.

settled dust, 179


G., on damp soil

of actinic
on

by, 304

consumption, 98
tion
atmospheric absorp-

on

percentage

light,105
in

of oxygen

air,

Sequard
Loye, experiments on
expired air by, 126
Davis, Geo. E., on sulphuric acid
from
coal burning, 139

D'ARSONVAL,

Chaumont

de

coddling, 100
chest
Campbell, Dr. Harry, on
expansion with age, 250

on

chest measurement

on

dioxide

carbon

germs

in indoor

in

air,192
air,177

Carpenter, Dr., on sulphuric acid


from
coal consumption, 139
Catlin,George, on the value of
nose-breathing,252
Cavanagh, Dr. Francis,on infants'
clothes,259
on

walking

exercise

for

the

dioxide

Saussure

dioxide

130

in

air,191

altitude

on

and

the

system, 59

nervous
on

carbon

on

Mont

in

dioxide

air,22

Blanc, 56

cules
Varigny, Henry, on the moleof the atmosphere, 2

de

Haldane

and

de

vital

capacity,239
respiratoryexercises,254

Anderson,
Carnelly,
on

and

smells,

carbon

on

carbon

on

bad

and

CAIUS, Dr., on

see

and

Dastre

17

on

Curie, Mme., discovery of radium

air, 21

of

cause

Bunsen

on

experiments

James Crichton, on

Sir

Browne,

carbon

dust, 187
infection,186

tubercular

on

154
Escombe

tubercular

on

dioxide

carbon

on

actinic

Duclaux, E., on
the

Dyer,

in the

atmosphere,

F., experiments

on

the

distance

by dust,

wind, 242

on

by, 44
vitality

temperature and

Ehrenberg

106

fog deposit by, 136

W.

EDWARDS,

lightand

tion
Thistleton, calcula-

Sir W.
of

air,20

velled
tra-

161

of
air
the
Eichholz, Dr., on
clothes,260
schools, 320
Cavendish,preparationof nitrogen
Elster,researches in radio-activity
by, 301
by, 112
Clayton on the velocityof wind, 14
Escombe, see Brown
Cleby on the lungs,28
Evelyn, John, on evils of smoke,
Coates, Dr. H., experiments on
152
tubercle infection by, 189
manufacturers'
on
smoke, 137
Cohen, J.B., on fog and illness,
150
smoke
chester,
on
deposits in Manon

women's

FERNET,

137
smoke

in Leeds,

production
136
Cornet, experiments on tubercle
infection by, 188, 189
on

Ferrel
on
on

on

oxygen

and

direction

heat of various

the blood, 37
of winds, 9

latitudes,7
prevailingwinds, n

Firth, see

Notter

INDEX
Flack, Martin, oxygen

OF

inhalation

experiment by, 270, 271


on
ground air,158
Fliigge,experiment on germs
in coughing by, 186
on
bacteria,173
in sewage,
on
185
germs
tubercular

infection

expired air,131
on
respiration,
49,

Foster, Sir Clement

le

monoxide

tubercle

pressure

oxygen,

bad

on

and

smells

and

Neve,

dioxide

the

on

scribed
de-

in

of

mines,

carbon

by,

188
of

on

pure
im-

of

gas

179
carbon

air-space,195

ventilation

of

factories,

gas-burners

121
on

the

risingof

coal-

products by, 122


ventilation experiments by,

204, 207

53

London, 173
Friedlander, E. D.,

in

workrooms,

192
table of various

Smith, experiments
air
by, 127
expired
see
Carnelly
tion
Hales, Stephen, on the composiand

on

with

dioxide

table

climate

in

increase

on

bon
car-

absorbed

and

Frankland, Percy,

germs

on

on

by,

dioxide

carbon

on

Davos, 279
on

in

inspirationand germs, 185


and
Osborne, experiments on
vitiated air by, 133

294

observations

bacilli

Frankland, E.,

monoxide

air, 116

poisoning

carbon

B.,

air, 21

on

impure air, 114


Frankel,

carbon

on

157

haled
ex-

by, 156
Fox, C.,

in

carbon

from

teeth

Foster

on

J. S.,

dioxide, 130

decayed

on

Dr.

Haldane,
on

sputum, 187
Formanek

331

dioxide

Fleck

on

NAMES

bacteria

in

dust

ticles,
par-

Lorraine
on

of air, 299

164

of
diseases
J. G., on
GALEN
on
respiration,
occupation, 166
32
Geitel,researches in radio-activity Hance, Dr. I. H., experiment on
dust by, 186
tubercular
by, 112
of
resistance
Hann, definition of climate by, 273
Germano, Dr., on
altitude and
to drying, 184
on
humidity, 88
germs
canic
Harries, H., experiments on volGlaisher, barometric
experiment
and
dust
influenza
by,165
by, 4
vitiation
versus
Gorst, Sir John, on the open-air Harrington on
school at Charlottenburg,321,
draughts, 230, 231
Haughton, Dr., on latent heat in
324
water
Gott, Lewis, on the tornado, 13
vapour,
72

Hall,

Dr.

Helmholtz

on

friction

and

the

velocity of wind, 14
HADLEY, George, on the direction
of winds, 8
Henshaw, N., experiments with
by, 262
air-pressurecures
Haldane, E. S.,on carbon dioxide
on
in air,21
respiration,
293
perature, Hewlett, St. Clair T., on asepticity
Haldane, Dr. J. S., on body temof the nostrils,
252
93

Heymann

voice-germs,186

on

varying temperature,

breathing,
249
inhalation

oxygen

experiments

Hofmann-Wellenhof

Holder,

poisonous
expired air,126

in

H.

E., on

oxygen

Korosi

the

air and

on

of

by, 275
Alpine climate,281
and

the

nervous

system,
atmosphericweight,moisture,
and temperature,5
latent heat in water

on

on

on

the

on

germs,

vapour,

see

quickened pulse-rate,
54
blood

corpuscles

and

altitude,57

humidity, 82
climate of Davos, 280
climate of Egypt, 285
taking-uppower of air,84

on

relative

on

the

on

the

on

the

definition

Humboldt,

of

Leroy

bare feet for

on

Blake

Letts and

and

Loewy

deep breathing,
248

JAQUET, Prof.,experiment
the blood

and

on

by, 57

dioxide

22

air, HI
altitude and

on

the

tory
respira-

mountain-sickness,63
the pulse-rate,
on
54

Lortet

Lower,
tude
alti-

carbon

on

exchange,59
on

on

children,100

Leuwenhock, discovery of germs


by, 169
Levy, see Boussingault
Lindenau
the lungs,28
on
Lodge, Sir Oliver,on electricity

climate

by,

273
Hutchinson

mountain-

127
Zuntz

in air,21,
red

of wind, 14
velocity

J. P., on the absorption


of actinic lightby air,109
Laschtschenko
on
voice-germs,186
position
Lavoisier, discovery of the comof air by, 303
densed
Lehmann, and Jessen,on the confluid of expired air,

72
on

of

infection,186,

183
Prof., on
sickness,62
pulse-rate,
54, 55

60

on

ventilation

LANGLEY,

climate

altitude

Parkes,

see

tion,
inhala-

blood, 296
Huggard, Dr., classification

on

the

on

tubercular

on

on

269
Hooke, Robert,

on

R,

Kronecker,

by, 268, 270


matter

Koch

187
Koppen on

44

forced

H.

schools,320

tissue-combustion

animal
under

on

Dr.

Kenwood,

Dr. L.
Leonard, on
ability
adaptof man
to altitude,55
Kerr, Dr.,

Hill, Prof.
on

HEALTH

AND

AIR

332

Richard,

on

air and

the

blood, 296
Loye, see Dastre

and
Lubbert
Jessen,see Lehman
Peters, experiments
Paul
on
Jourdanet,see Bert,
expired air by, 127
Just,T. H., on oxygen inhalation, Lunt, see Macfadyen

268

MACCORMAC,
KEITH, J.,

on

Houses

of

Parliament,215,

Kelvin,Lord, on the molecules


the atmosphere, 2

216
of

Dr.

Henry, apostleof
open-airtreatment, 308

the ventilation of the


on

pure

bedroom

Macfadyen, Dr., and


164
particles,

air,238
Lunt

on

dust

INDEX

Mandl,

method

of

OF

NAMES

teaching singing

Newman,

of, 256
Marker

Schultze

and

of

ventilation

on

stables,
Maxwell, Clerk, on the molecules
of the atmosphere, 2
tion
Maxwell, W. H., on Key's ventilamethod, 217
open

on

Dr.

George,on

in

germs

underground bakehouses, 181


Newsholme, Dr. A., on sanatoria,

202

windows, 234
ventilation,213

on

333

319
tubercle

on

infection,188

Newton, Prof.,on meteorites, 162


and
Notter
Firth, on chimney
ventilation,
207
on

mechanical

on

sulphur

ventilation,229
in coal gas, 118
effects of carbonaceous

the
on
Mayou, John, on air and respiration,
296
illuminants,119
of
ventilation by aspiration,
208
on
of,298
theory breathing
Melander, Prof.,on dust particles, Nowak, see Seegen
164
Meudeleef
the weight of the
OERTEL,
Prof., on
on
compressed
air
for
catarrh,
265
atmosphere, 3
Merkel
the toxicity
of expired
Oliver, Prof.,on diseases of occupation,
on
168
1 66,
air,127
altitude
the
Mermod
and
see
Haldane, Dr. J. S.
on
spiratory Osborne,
reexchange, 59
Miguel,Pierre,on bacteria in Paris, PARKES, Dr. Louis, on circulatory
air for

171

Milroy, Dr. Gavin, on damp soil a


of consumption, 98
cause
Mitchell, S. W., experiments on
expired air by, 128
Moore

on
on

air

on

altitude

on

and

the

the

on

storm,
mountain-sickness, 62, 63
Miintz,experiment on altitude and
on

in

on

the
Miintz

by, 58

blood

Aubin

and

in

NEISSER

the

air, 20,

22,

lightnessof

the

on

carbon

on

of effluvia

olfactorynerves, 130
chanical
necessity of me-

oxide
di-

23

germs,

the

principlesof

lation,
venti-

224
table of

requisiteair-space
by, 194
Pascal, barometric
discovery of, 4
Pasteur, early experiments on
bacteria by, 171
fermentation
on
by germs, 169
on
178
germs,
Dr.
M. S.,on
soldiers'
Pembrey,
per

head

clothes, 260

184
Newman,

influence

ventilation,230
nervous

electrical

an

on

the

on

system, 60

Dr.

George,

and

Public

quoted,
on

the

Alpine climates, 282

on

R.,

chimney ventilation,207
on
propelledair,215

mist, 89
circulation,198

on

Mosso

ventilation,200
Dr. H.
Kenwood,

and

carbon

air, 116

"

ology
Bacteri-

Health," by,

180
dioxide

on

wind

as

an

intensifier of cold,

75

Perrier, barometric
in

impure

by,

Peters, see Lubbert

experiment

AIR

334
Pettenkofer

air,114,
on

carbon

on

HEALTH

AND

dioxide

in

Rubner

191

ventilation,200,

on

202

the discovery of oxygen


Priestley,
by, 301
Primrose
on
Glasgow's smoke
production, 136
of
Ptolemy, Claudius, division
climate by, 273
Putnam, J. P., on ventilation,202

on

air

dryness

output,97
loss of body

heat

and

water

by

ration,
evapo-

92, 94

smoke, 136
Rollo, on
Russell, Hon.
Ruskin

on

London

fogs,143
effects

health,148
from, 147
Rutherford, Dr. Daniel, discovery
of nitrogen by, 300
of,on

financial loss

RAMSAY, Sir William, discoveryof

by, 303
discovery of helium and other
atmospheric gases by, 304
sphere,
on
Mayou's theoryof the atmoargon

Rutherford's

discovery

of

in

by, 113
Salton, Douglas, on plenum

activity
radio-

lation,
venti-

215

Scheele, the

298
on

SAAKA, Dr., researches

discovery

of oxygen

by, 301
of the
Schroeder, anticipation
of germs by, 169
Schulze, F.,on percentage of

covery
disnitrogen,300
Rauer, experiments on
expired
air by, 127
bon
carthe
dioxide in air,21, 23
Raye, Prof., on
strengthof
6
the Cuban
Marker
see
cyclone,
Scott on
the velocityof winds, 14
Rayleigh,Lord, discoveryof argon
by, 303
Sebelien, Prof. J.,on actinic light,
sorption
Regnard, Paul, experiment on ab105
of oxygen
on
poisonous
Seegen and Nowak
pressures
matter
in expired air, 126
by, 58
Regnault on oxygen in air,16
Sequard, Brown, and d'Arsonval,
ventilation
in exReid, experiment on
pired
on
poisonous matter
and
appetite by, 316
air,126, 127
of
Rey, Jean, and the combination
on
toxicityof expired air,127
air and
London's
solids,
Shaw, Dr. W.
N., on
294
M.
G.
carbon
smoke
Richards,
H., on
production, 136
dioxide in impure air, 114
pired
Sivierato,Dr., experiments on exair by, 127
Richardson, Sir B. W., plan for
smoke
consumption by, 155
Smith, E., on human
discharge of
on
corsets
and
tight
carbon
waistbelts,
dioxide, 42
258
tudes,
Smith, Graham, on germs at altiRideal, Dr. S.,on carbon dioxide
176
in

air, 118

Robertson

on

altitude

on

Smith, Lorraine, see


the
the

influence

nervous

of

system,

60
Roscoe

on

atmospheric absorption
light,105

of actinic

Haldane

Smith, R. Angus, analysisof smoke


by, 135
air pollutionby albuminoid
on
ammonia,

141

by sulphuricacid, 140

R.

Smith,
in

Angus,

air,

in

oxygen

on

Spence,

the

velocity of

Strauss

bacteria

on

and

F., experiment

influence

blood

the

on

dioxide

Harvey,

heat

on

WALLACE,
and

air

on

the

Dr.

trades,

dangerous

on

in
on

air

sea

and

losis,
tubercu-

Dr.

Scott,
in

Thomson,
in

London,

Thorpe

on

air,

tube

on

microbes

as

carbon

dioxide

in

carbon

dioxide

in

air,

the

on

air,

mountain-sickness,

on

early

bacteria

fermentation

on

germs,

53

by germs,

ZUNTZ

carbon

dioxide

in

Fodor
the

on

C.

J. H.,

on

pulse

artificial

223

on

altitude

gen,
oxy-

and

exchange,
on

absorbed

ocean

resort, 287

von

169

170
and

the

on

on

by, 171

on

pressure

experiments

of

22

humidity,

Tyndall,

230

effects

by, 54

Woodbury,

63

on

see

rate

Tschudi

on

S.,

observations

Wood,

22

inadequacy

ventilation,

W.

air,

Wollny,

the

on

colour

health

dioxide

103
Dr.

Wolffhiigel

131

21

Truchot

Dr.,

on

Wilson,

open-air

carbon

on

mechanical

dust,
180

155

air, 114

impure

Whymper

116

railways,

Clair,

St.

oxide
di-

carbon

on

impure
in

germs

on

of

the

on

the

Otto,

E.,

Whitelegge,

288

Tebb,

R.

Weaver,

167
Taylor

22

of, 310

treatment

Dr.,

air,

nuisance,

Walther,
TATHAM,

carbon

on

Russell,

A.

smoke

blood, 296

the

Wollny

in

west

plexy,
apo-

93

Sylvius

and

the

on

Tenerife,

at

Fodor

von

by, 57

Dr.

Sutton,

altitude

of

wind

the

on

pressure

56

Leopold,

Buch,

von

by, 272

blood,

the

bon
car-

inhalation

oxygen

diminished

on

and

inspired

air, 185, 251

expired
Dr.

Suter,

in

of

by, 294

Dr.,

Viault

discovery

experiment

wind,

molecules

atmosphere,

dioxide

Vernon,

by, 155

the

on

Helmont,

for

suggestion

the

on

WAALS

DE

Van

air, 17

consumption

Sprung

335

of

Peter,

smoke

VAN

15

20,

dioxide

carbon

on

NAMES

OF

INDEX

and

the

the

spiratory
re-

59

lungs, 28
Lehmann
of

on

carbon

equine
dioxide,

charge
dis42

SUBJECT
ACTINIC

rays,

absorptionof,105

propertiesof, 108
value of,in different places,107
262
Aero-therapeutics,
tory
Age, influence of,on the respiraexchange, 47
mixture, 15
Air,a mechanical
amount
required per head, 199
and electricity,
no
and

112
radio-activity,

and

solar

INDEX
Air,expired toxicity
of,127
extreme
dryness of, 223
filtration of, 224
for consumptives, 311
fresh,curative effects of, 134
ground, 158
impure, 114
inspired,percentage of carbon
dioxide

in, 33

in,33

oxygen

radiation,102

marsh, 159

artificialhumidityof, 223

Mayou's theory of, 296

Boyle's theory of the

medicated, the

tion
composi-

of, 295
change of, effects of, 290
chemical
composition of, 15
circulation of, necessityof, 198
climatic

of,87
qualities
compressed, see Compressed air
damp, influence of, on health,
98
discoveryof carbon dioxide in,
299
dry, effects

of,96

influence

low

on,

of

the

the

159

sewer,
space

head, table

per

of

site,
requi-

194

ments
experi-

absence
of germs in, 178
still,
the, drying capacity of,96
tidal,31
vitiated effects of, 125
reasons
of, 128

by
carbon

of

oxide
di-

question
in,126

from

dio