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Customer Training Material

L t
Lecture
4
Volume Meshing

Introduction to ANSYS
ICEM CFD
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

L4-1

Release 13.0
December 2010

Introduction to ANSYS ICEM CFD

Introduction to volume meshing

Customer Training Material

To automatically create 3D elements to fill


volumetric domain
Generally termed unstructured
Mainly tetra

Full 3D analysis
Where 2D approximations dont tell the full
story

Internal/External flow simulation


Structural solid modeling
Thermal stress
Many more!

Standard procedures
Start from just geometry
Octree tetra
Robust
obust
Walk over features
Cartesian
Fastest
Have to set sizes

Start from existing shell mesh


Delauney/T-grid
Quick
Advancing Front
Smoother gradients, size
transition

Both geometry and


shell mesh
Portions of model
already meshed

prism layers
Prism

Hex Core
Hex Dominant

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2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

L4-2

Release 13.0
December 2010

Introduction to ANSYS ICEM CFD

General Procedure
First decide volume mesh
parameters

Global Mesh Setup >


Volume Meshing
Parameters
Select Mesh Type
Select Mesh Method for
selected Type
Set options for specific
Methods

Customer Training Material

Set mesh sizes

Compute Prism (optional)

Globally
As in Shell Meshing

Locally
Part/Surface/Curve
Mesh Setup
As in Shell Meshing
For From geometry
only

As separate process
Also option to run
automatically following tetra
creation

Octree
Cartesian

Define volumetric region

Typically for octree on


complex models
Multiple volumes

D
Define
fi density
d
it regions
i
(optional)

Compute Mesh
Mesh > Compute Mesh >
Volume Mesh

Applying mesh size


within volume where
geometry doesnt
exist

Load/create surface mesh


As in Shell Meshing chapter
For Delauney, Advancing Front, T-grid, Hex-Dominant
Either of these types run from geometry will automatically create surface mesh
using global and local Shell Mesh settings without any user input/editing
If in doubt, run Shell Mesh first, then from existing mesh
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

L4-3

Release 13.0
December 2010

Introduction to ANSYS ICEM CFD

Body/Material Point

Customer Training Material

Define Volumetric Domain


Optional
Recommended for complex geometries
Multiple volumes
Geometry -> Create Body
Material Point
Centroid of 2 points
Select any two locations whose mid-point is within volume
Preferred

At specified point
Define volume region by point within volume

By Topology
g
by
y set of closed surfaces
Defines volume region
Must first Build Diagnostic Topology
Entire model
Automatically define all volumes

Selected surfaces
User selects surfaces that form a closed volume
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

L4-4

Release 13.0
December 2010

Introduction to ANSYS ICEM CFD

Mesh Types

Customer Training Material

Tetra/mixed
Most used
Tetra
With hex core

Pure tetra

Available in Cartesian type too


Hexa filling majority volume
Tetra (from Delauney algorithm) used
to fill between surface or top of prism
layers and hex core
Pyramids to make conformal between
tetra tri and hex quad faces

Tetra/Prism

With prism layers

Prisms from tri surface mesh


Hexas from quad surface mesh
Tetra and/or hex core filling interior
Pyramids to cap off any quad faces
Of hex core or hex prism layers

Tetra/Prism/Hexcore

Merged hybrid with structured hex


mesh
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

L4-5

Release 13.0
December 2010

Introduction to ANSYS ICEM CFD

Mesh Types

Customer Training Material

Hexa-Dominant

From existing quad mesh


Good quality hex near surface
Somewhat poor in interior
Typically good enough for static displacement
Not covered in detail here

Cartesian
Methods available in Cartesian
Staircase
Body fitted
Hexa-Core
Hexa Core
Automatic pure Hexa
Rectilinear mesh
Fastest method for creating volume mesh
Not covered in detail here
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

L4-6

Release 13.0
December 2010

Introduction to ANSYS ICEM CFD

Mesh Method

Customer Training Material

Tetra/Mixed
Robust (Octree)
Same as Shell Meshing > Patch Independent
Retains volumetric tetras
If you have complex and/or dirty geometry
Dont want to spend too much time with geometry
cleanup
Dont want to spend too much time with detailed
shell meshing
Don
Dontt want to spend time defeaturing geometry
Just set appropriate mesh sizes on geometry
Parts
Surfaces
Curves
Review Shell Meshing chapter
Part/Surface/Curve Mesh Setup

ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary


2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

L4-7

Release 13.0
December 2010

Introduction to ANSYS ICEM CFD

Octree Method

Customer Training Material

ICEM Tetra uses patch-independent Octree method

Volume first generated independent of surface model

Nodes are projected to model surfaces, curves and points

Surface mesh is created

Resulting mesh is independent of the underlying


arrangement of surfaces

Not all surface edges need to be captured!

Make curves/points dormant

Delete

Filter points/curves under Build Diagnostic Topology

Mesh detail

Sliver ignored
Geometry

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2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

Mesh

L4-8

Release 13.0
December 2010

Introduction to ANSYS ICEM CFD

Geometry Requirements for Octree Tetra

Customer Training Material

Tetra requires an enclosed


surface model
Run Build Diagnostic Topology
to find gaps/holes
Octree can tolerate gaps
smaller then the local element
size

Geometry Repair
tools quickly locate
and fix these
problems.

Recommend points and curves


at key features
Recommend Material points to
define volumes
Will create a material point if
none exists

Set Global, Part, Surface, Curve


Size Parameters

Missing inlet surface

As in Shell Meshing
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Hole highlighted by
yellow single edge curve
L4-9

Release 13.0
December 2010

Introduction to ANSYS ICEM CFD

Using Points and Curves

Customer Training Material

Curves and points included


Mesh size specified on curves
and surfaces
Mesh captures detail

Coarse mesh walks over detail


in surface model

Curves and points not included


Mesh size specified only on surfaces
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

L4-10

Curves and points


affect which
features
eatu es a
are
e
captured by the
mesh!
Build Topology
easily creates the
necessary points
and curves
Release 13.0
December 2010

Introduction to ANSYS ICEM CFD

Octree - Options

Customer Training Material

Setup options:
Global Mesh Setup > Volume Meshing parameters
Run as batch process
p
Runs as a separate process. GUI will stay interactive.

Fast Transition
Allows for a faster transition in element size from finer to coarser
Reduce element count

Edge
g Criterion
Split elements at a factor greater than set value to better capture
geometry

Define Thin cuts


Tool for resolving thin gaps, sharp angles
User selects pairs of opposing parts
Resolve elements jumping from one side to another

Smooth
Automatically smoothes after grid generation process

Coarsen
Fix Non-manifold
Automatically tries to fix elements that jump from surface to another

For a more detailed description go to Help > Help Topics > Help
Manual > Mesh > Global Mesh Setup > Volume Meshing
Parameters > Tetra/Mixed > Robust (Octree)

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2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

L4-11

Release 13.0
December 2010

Introduction to ANSYS ICEM CFD

Octree -Options

Customer Training Material

Run options: Compute Mesh > Volume Meshing


Parameters
Create Prism Layers
y

Will create prisms marked under Part Mesh Setup


Immediately after tetra calculation
Prism layers grown into existing tetra mesh

Create Hexa-Core

Will retain tri surface mesh (or tri


tri-prism),
prism), throw away tetra
mesh
Fill volume interior with Cartesian
Cap off with pyramids
Map tetra to tri or top prism face with Delauney algorithm

Input

Select Geometry
All, Visible
Part by Part
Meshes each part separately
Mesh not conformal between parts
p
From file
Select tetin file

Use Existing Mesh Parts

Select Parts that are already surface meshed


Uses Make Consistent to match octree volume mesh to
existing surface mesh

ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary


2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

L4-12

Release 13.0
December 2010

Introduction to ANSYS ICEM CFD

Curvature/Proximity Based Refinement

Customer Training Material

Curvature/Proximity Based Refinement


Octree only
Automatically subdivides to create elements that are
smaller than the prescribed entity size in order to capture
finer features
Min size limit value entered is multiplied by the global Scale
Factor and is a lower limit for the automatic subdivision
Used primarily to avoid setting up meshing parameters
specifically for individual entities thus allowing the
geometry to determine the mesh size
Min Size Limit: multiplied by
Scale Factor = global minimum
Prescribed element size: Surface/Curve Max. Element
Size times Scale Factor
Prescribed size
is adequate here

ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary


2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

L4-13

Auto subdivision
at ttighter
g te radius
ad us
of curvature

Release 13.0
December 2010

Introduction to ANSYS ICEM CFD

Curvature Based Refinement

Customer Training Material

Refinement
R fi
t
Number of elements along
curvature if extrapolated
to 360o
To avoid subdivision
always to global minimum
which would otherwise
result in too many
elements
Subdivision will stop
once number of
elements along curve
is reached
Wont exceed global
minimum set by natural
size value

Prescribed size

Min size limit

Refinement = 12

Example
Specified refinement
achieved with larger
elements
Global minimum (Size) not
realized, not necessary to
capture curvature
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

L4-14

Release 13.0
December 2010

Introduction to ANSYS ICEM CFD

Proximity Refinement, Elements in Gap

Customer Training Material

Elements in Gap
Number of cells desired in
narrow gaps
To avoid subdivision
always to global minimum
which would otherwise
result in too many
elements
Subdivision will stop
once number of cells
in gap is reached
Will not override global
minimum (Min size limit)

Prescribed size

Min size limit

Cells in Gap = 5

Prescribed size

Min size limit (1/5th smaller)

Example
Only one element in gap
Cant go smaller than Min
size limit
Have to set smaller Min
size limit
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cells in Gap = 5

L4-15

Release 13.0
December 2010

Introduction to ANSYS ICEM CFD

Mesh Methods

Customer Training Material

Tetra/Mixed
T t /Mi d
Quick (Delauney)

If already have good quality surface mesh


From Shell Mesh
From Octree
From imported surface mesh
Uses initial point cloud, distributed so as the centroid of any tetra is outside circumsphere of any neighboring tetra

ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary


2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

Setup Options:
Delaunay
D l
Scheme
S h
Standard: Delaunay scheme with a skewness-based refinement
TGlib: TGrid Delaunay volume grid generation algorithm that utilizes a more
gradual transition rate near the surface and faster towards the interior
Use AF: TGrid Advancing Front Delaunay algorithm which has smoother
transitions than the pure Delaunay algorithm.
Memory Scaling Factor: To allocate more memory automatically
Spacing Scaling Factor: Growth ratio from surface
Fill holes in volume mesh: Use to fills holes/voids in existing volume mesh
e.g. if bad quality region is deleted
Mesh all domains: For multiple sets of closed volumes in one model
Flood fill after complete

For multiple volumes: Will assign tetras within closed volume to Part designated by
Body or Material Point
Verbose output: For troubleshooting

L4-16

Release 13.0
December 2010

Introduction to ANSYS ICEM CFD

Mesh Methods

Customer Training Material

Tetra/Mixed
Smooth (Advancing Front)
Same as Quick (Delauney) but
Uses advancing front method that marches tetras
from surface into interior
g
from GE/CFX
Algorithm
Results in more gradual change in element size
Better but finer mesh
Input surface mesh has to be of fairly high quality
Setup Options: Do Proximity Checking
Check to properly fill small gaps
Longer run time

ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary


2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

L4-17

Release 13.0
December 2010

Introduction to ANSYS ICEM CFD

Mesh Methods

Customer Training Material

Tetra/Mixed
TGrid 11.0

Uses TGrid algorithm


Good mesh quality
Faster mesh generation
Setup Options:
AFT Scheme: Advancing Front Tetrahedrons
Flood fill: Same as octree Flood fill
Verbose output: This option writes more messages to
help in debugging any potential problem

ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary


2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

L4-18

Release 13.0
December 2010

Introduction to ANSYS ICEM CFD

Mesh Methods

Customer Training Material

Run Options:
Same for Delauney, Advancing Front
Create Prism Layers/Hexa-Core
Same as for Octree
Hexa-Core not available for Advancing Front, TGrid

Input
All Geometry
Will run shell mesh first with no user input/editing
Using parameters from Shell/Part/Surface/Curve
Mesh Setup
Review Shell Meshing chapter
If doubtful as to shell mesh quality, run Shell Mesh
first, then use Existing Mesh
Existing Mesh
Part by Part/From File
Same as for Octree

Volume Part Name


For newly
y created tetras

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2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

L4-19

Release 13.0
December 2010

Introduction to ANSYS ICEM CFD

Comparison

Delaun
ney

TGid 1
11.0

Octree
e

Adv.fron
nt

Customer Training Material

ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary


2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

L4-20

Release 13.0
December 2010

Introduction to ANSYS ICEM CFD

Set Mesh Sizes

Customer Training Material

Create
C
t M
Mesh
hD
Density
it
Define volumetric region with certain mesh size
where no geometry exists, e.g. wake region behind
a wing
Not
N t actual
t l geometry!
t !
Mesh nodes not constrained to density object
Can intersect geometry
Can create densities within densities
Always subdivides to smallest set size
Set Size
As for surface/curve multiplied by global Scale
Factor
Ratio expansion ratio away from density
object
Width Number of layers from object

Type
Type
Points Select any number of points
Size and Width (number of layers) will determine thickness of
volume if number of points selected is 1-3
4-8 creates polyhedral volume

Entity bounds define region by bounding box


of selected entities
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

L4-21

Release 13.0
December 2010

Introduction to ANSYS ICEM CFD

Periodicity

Customer Training Material

Define Periodicity

Forces mesh alignment across periodic sides


For meshing
g and solving
g only
y one section of
symmetrically repeatable geometry
Rotational Periodic
Enter Base, Axis, and Angle

Translational Periodic
Enter dX, dY, dZ offset

Tip: Place
material point
close to mid-plane

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2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

L4-22

Release 13.0
December 2010

Introduction to ANSYS ICEM CFD

Workshops

Customer Training Material

Workshop 4.1 Engine Block Model

Build diagnostic topology


Octree mesh
Smooth mesh
Curvature/proximity refinement
Delaunay mesh

Workshop 4.2 Valve Model

Build diagnostic topology


Create parts, Create body
Set sizes Global, Surface, Curves, density
Octree mesh

ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary


2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

L4-23

Release 13.0
December 2010

Introduction to ANSYS ICEM CFD

Workshops

Customer Training Material

Workshop 4.3

Import Design Modeler file into ICEM


Create Parts from Subsets
Global, Part mesh set up
Using ANSYS ICEM CFD Hexa to create a Cartesian initial grid with biasing
Computing the mesh
Viewing
g cut-planes
p

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2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

L4-24

Release 13.0
December 2010