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GETTING STARTED

1. What is the name of the planet you live on?


2. What are the names of your country and its capital?
I live in
and its capital is
.
3. Theres a map below of the continents of Earth. Do the tasks.

Identify the continents. Use numbers as in the example.

Africa, Antarctica, Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, South America

Where are The North and The South Poles? Write their names on the map.
There is one important line drawn on the map, the Equator it divides the planet into The
Northern and The Southern Hemisphere. Write their names down on the map.
Identify the oceans. Use letters as in the example.
A The Pacific Ocean, .. The Atlantic Ocean, .... The Indian Ocean, . The Arctic Ocean,
... The Southern Ocean.
.. Pole

....

Hemisphere

A
A

....

Hemisphere
.. Pole
3. Write the name of the direction to each abbreviation. Use the basic words: North, South, East, West.
N = .........................
S = ..........................
E = ...........................
W = ..........................
NE = ...........................
NW = ..........................
S = ..........................
SW = .........................
4. This is a compass rose, a design on a map that shows
directions. As you can see only north (N) is written down. Fill
in the rest of the directions on the compass rose, using the
standard abbreviations from exercise 3.

READING
1. Look at the text below. What do you think its about?
Talk to your partner.
e.g. I think its about .. . What do you think?
2. True or false? Choose, then read the text and find out.
A. .The Nile River is the longest river in the world.
B. .The Atlantic Ocean is the largest ocean.
C. .The highest mountains in the world are the Carpathians.
D. .The Amazon is a country.
E. .The Earth is 10 billion years old.
F. .The Niagara Falls is the tallest waterfall in the world.

The Earth is not perfectly round, but just a little flattened at the north and south poles.
Mt Everest is the highest mountain on the planet, and its peak reaches 8,848 metres.
The largest ocean is the Pacific Ocean, which covers almost 30% of the Earths surface.
Its name comes from Latin, meaning peaceful sea.
Natural gas doesn't have an odour; people add smell to it so you can detect it when it
leaks.
The tallest waterfall in the world is in Venezuela, The Angel Falls, with a height of
979 m.
The Nile River is the longest river on earth. It has a length of 6650 kilometers.
The Amazon rainforest is the largest tropical rainforest on Earth. Amazon, the widest
river in the world, crosses it.
The oceans cover around 70% of the Earths surface.
The aurora borealis, also the Northern Lights, often appears as "curtains" of folding light
constantly changing shape.
The longest lake in the world is Lake Tanganyika in Africa, around 660 km long.
The world's largest hot desert is the Sahara. It covers about one third of Africa!
The Atlantic Ocean is the saltiest of ocean. Its name refers to Atlas, primordial titan of
astronomy and navigation, of the Greek mythology.
Scientists date the Earth as being between 4 and 5 billion years old! But they dont know
for sure.
The name Antarctica comes from a Greek word meaning opposite to the north.
The Niagara Falls is located on the border of the USA and Canada. Actually there are
three falls and together they form the widest waterfall on earth.
A lake usually contains freshwater but that isnt the rule. Some can have salt water. The
deepest lake in the world is Lake Baikal in Siberia, Russia.

3. Make questions like in the example. Exchange notebooks with your partner to answer
the questions.
e.g.
What is the largest . ? ..
What is the largest
hot desert in the world? The largest hot desert in the world is Sahara.
1.What is the saltiest .? .....
2.What is the highest .? .....
3.What is the longest .? .....
4.What is the tallest .? .....
5.What is the widest .? .....
6.What is the largest .? .....
7.What is the deepest .? .....
8.What is the longest .? .....
9. What is the widest .? .....
10. What is the largest .? ....
4. Match the specifications to the names.
Mt Everest
The Pacific Ocean
The Nile River
Oceans
Lake Tanganyika
Earth
The Angel Falls

4 and 5 billion years old


6650 kilometers
660 km
8,848 metres
30% of the Earths surface
979 m
70% of the Earths surface

5. Complete the diagram below with words from the text. They all refer to the Earths
relief.
WATER

Oceans

LAND

Mountain

GRAMMAR
Grammar box The Article
Indefinite Articles

Definite Articles

a, an, some

the
Refers to a specific noun:
Did you lock the house?

Refers to general or
nonspecific nouns:

We use the to talk about geographical points


on the globe:
Natural gas doesn't have
the North Pole, the Equator
an odour.
We use the to talk about rivers, oceans and
I am a builder. seas:
the Nile River, the Pacific Ocean
There are some
We also use the before certain nouns when
elephants at the zoo. we know there is only one of a particular

No Article (-)
Occurs with nonspecific,
general, mass or plural
nouns nouns that have
no specific quantity:
Books are expensive.
Coffee is bad for you.
I like tea.

thing.
the rain, the sun, the earth

Put a, an, some, the or nothing (no article) in the gaps.


1. I need whole week to explore
12. Last year we visited London. I
London.
especially liked White Tower.
2. Jake has terrible headache.
13. Loch Ness is most famous lake in
3. Phoebes mother works as cashier.
Scotland because of the Loch Ness monster.
4. Do the Brooks have Mercedes?
14. Theyre having sandwiches.
5. Does she still live in Rugby?
15. most people like music.
6. I always enjoy piece of chocolate.
16. Mount Everest is highest
7. How about peaches?
mountain on this planet.
8. She had idea, really good one.
17. My boss often stays at Hilton hotel
9. We have too much homework to do
when he travels on business.
for next week.
18. Lucy goes to school by bus.
10. I like blue dress. Dont buy
19. Our friends Smiths moved to the
green one. Green is not your colour.
north of England last July and we miss them.
11. Is our old teacher still working in
20. smog is big problem
old building?
in English large cities.

1. Read the grammar box and remember the Present Simple. Take out from the text on
page . all the verbs in bold and put them into the correct place.
affirmative

People add

negative

Grammar box PRESENT SIMPLE


The Form - affirmative :
Subject + infinitive
Three falls form the Niagara waterfalls.
3rd person singular (he, she, it) infinitive + -s
A lake contains freshwater.
- negative:
Subject + dont/doesnt + infinitive
Natural gas doesn't have an odour.
- interrogative:
Do/Does + subject + infinitve?
Do people add smell to gas?

affirmative

Gas doesn't have

3rd person singular (he, she, it) infinitive + -s

The Amazon crosses

2. Write down the third person singular of the following verbs.


1. I go - he _______
2. I wish - he _______
3. I hurry - he ________
4. I do - he _________
5. I kiss - he __________
6. I worry - he _________
7. I teach he ________
8. I sing - she ________
9. I play - she _________
10. I read - she _________
11. I type - she _________
12. I ask - she __________
13. I carry - she _________
14. I say - she __________
15. I wash - she _________
16. I call - she __________
17. I cry - she __________
18. I watch - she _______
19. I tidy - she ________

Grammar box PRESENT SIMPLE


the spelling of the 3rd person singular
add s to the base form of the verb:
he wants
she eats
add es to the base form of the verbs that end in s, z,
ss, sh, ch, x, and o:
he kisses
she washes
he watches
she fixes
it goes
consonant + y = ies
carry it carries
vowel + y + -s
buy she buys

20. I help - she _________


21. I stay - she _________
22. I see - she _________
23. I pass - she _________
24. I enjoy - she ________
25. I walk she _________

4. Finish the sentences. Use don't or doesn't.

1. Jane
doesnt watch horror films
(not/to watch horror films)
2. We .. (not/to make muffins)
3. They ___________________________________________________. (not/to play chess)
4. Richard _________________________________________________. (not/to feed his dog)
5. Melinda _________________________________________________. (not/to have pets)
6. Tom and Linda __________________________________________. (not/to help their father)
7. You __________________________________________________. (not/to swim in pools)
8. Emily ________________________________________________. (not/to drive)
9. James and Ethan _____________________________________________. (not/to hike)
10. I ____________________________________________________ . (not/to ride that bike)
6. Fill in do or does into the gaps.

7. Fill in do or does into the gaps.

1. ..Samuel live with his granddad?


2... you learn English?
3... Will and Tom ride their bikes?
4... they work in this office?
5... Sandy's parrot live in a cage?
6...the guest sit on this sofa?
7...we want to wait?
8...you play the drums?
9...Grace wear jeans?
10. ..I clean my room?

1. ...you write with a liner?


2..... your mum make breakfast?
3.... your neighbours check the mailbox?
4...you spend time with your friends?
5...you send text messages?
6...your friend visit art museums?
7...your dogs bark during the night?
8...you learn to cook from your mum?
9...your sister play tennis?
10. ..your grandparents go on
holidays to the seaside?

Grammar box PRESENT SIMPLE

The Use

1.

Present Simple is used to express generalizations and facts about people, animals, things, places etc.
The oceans cover around 70% of the Earths surface.
Mt Everest reaches 8,848 metres.

8. Complete the following sentences using the given verbs: point, freeze, float, hunt, move, appear, make,
fly, sell, set.

1. Gravity ............ things keep to the


ground.
2. The sun ............. in the West.
3. Large carnivores ............ smaller
animals.
4. The moon .............. round the earth.
5. Pilots ............ aeroplanes.

6. A butcher .............. meat.


7. The sun ...... in the east every
morning.
8. Wood ................. on water.
9. A compass .......... North.
10. Water ................. at 0 centigrade.

Grammar box PRESENT SIMPLE

9. Put the verbs in brackets into Present


Simple to express habitual actions.

1. On Tuesday he (go)

goes

The Use

2.

Present Simple is used to express habitual actions (habit, daily


event, hobby, scheduled event or something that often happens.)
I play tennis every weekend.
Mary goes to work at 8 every day.
We never travel in winter.

to yoga.
2. You never (arrive) ................................................................................................ on time.
3. I seldom (go) ................................................................................................. to the library.
4. Ella occasionally (drink) ................................................................................... green tea.
5. Henry seldom (do) ......................................................................................... his job well..
6. They (not / often / play) ............................................................................ with each other.
7. Riley (not / watch) .............................................................................. a movie every week.
8. I (not / usually / listen to) ............................................................ the radio in the mornings.
9. (they / spend) ............................................................ their holidays in Brighton every year?
10. (he /always / wear) ............................................................................................... a jacket?

10. Use the adverb in the right position and rewrite


the sentences.

1. He listens to radio. (often)


..
2. My brother is friendly. (always)
..
3. I take sugar with my coffee. (never)
..
4. Lily helps her mother. (usually)
....
11. Put the verbs in brackets into Present Simple to express schedule future events.
Grammar box PRESENT SIMPLE The Use

3.

1. The plane (arrive) arrives in


Present Simple is used to express scheduled events in the
London at 11:45.
near future; when talking about public transportation, for
2. The lesson (start) .in
example.
five minutes.
The train leaves tomorrow at 6 a.m.
The show starts at 8.30 tonight.
3. The film (begin)
..at 8 o'clock.
4. My brother's birthday (be) .on Wednesday.
5. The train (leave) ..Manchester at 7:23.
6. The festival (end) ..on Sunday.
7. The next bus (come) .in 35 minutes.
8. Which day (open / the exhibition) ..?
9. What day (be) ..it tomorrow?
10. What time (close / the zoo) ?

VOCABULARY
Do the crossword puzzle. It refers to different forms of earths relief and land formation.

GETTING STARTED
1. What do your parents do for a living?

My mother is and my father is .. .


2. What do you want to be when you grow older?

I want to be . .
3. What are the most important things in life? Put them in order to their importance.

money, family, friends, good job, having children, love, owning a house and car, health
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.
6.
7.
8.

READING
Harry Lewis, aged 42, is a senior executive living in New York. He is married and has two
children, Amy and Ryan. Hes got a demanding job working for a famous insurance company with head
offices downtown. After a hard day at work, and they are many, he relaxes in front of the television. He
usually watches detective series, like CSY. He doesnt go out every evening, but two evenings a week
he meets his friends for a drink in a local place, a 15-minute walk. Now he is meeting his best friend,
Richard, at The Corner, their usual place, to throw some darts and watch the Sports Channel with the
guys. Theyre laughing and passing jokes. Theyre also planning a new outing to New Jersey, hiking
mainly on new wooden trails.
Harrys family owns a pet, a dog, and at the moment his son Ryan is taking it out for a walk.
This is what he likes doing in his free time. He takes the dog everywhere he goes, except school, he
doesnt take the dog to courses. At the same time his sister Amy is studying for school in her room
together with her best friend, Telma. She often studies at Harrys house because theyre neighbours.
Amy doesnt do much in her free time, as she enjoys studying. Sometimes she plays her guitar.
Johns wife, Megan, considers herself a very happy woman. She runs their beautiful comfortable
house in Long Island. She also has a job working from home, as a wedding planner. She enjoys taking
care of their garden and roses are her passion. At the moment she is in the sitting-room and she is
watching TV. She is also waiting for Harry to come home because she wants to decide where to go
during the week-end. Usually they spend their week-ends in the countryside, with the grandparents.
Harry likes it there very much because he likes the fresh air. Sometimes he even cleans the garden, and
thats a chore as her parents dont tend to it at all. Sometimes he plays football with Ryan and his
friends, or goes fishing all alone.
They might be the happiest family in New York!

1. Complete the table.


Free time activities:

Harry
Now:
Free time activities:

Megan
Now:
Free time activities:

Amy
Now:
Free time activities:

Ryan
Now:

2. Answer the questions.


1. How old is Harry Lewis? Is he married? Does he have any children?
.
2. Where does he live? Where does he work?
.
3. How does he relax himself?
.
4. What is he doing right now?
.
5. What are his children doing at the moment?
.
6. Why do you think Megan is happy? Where does she work? Whats her job?

7. What is Megan doing now?

8. Where do they usually spend their week-ends?

9. Why does Harry like the country side?

10. What does he usually do in the country side?

GRAMMAR
1. Some of the underlined verbs in the text end in s. List them down as in the example.
He has

He meets

... .. .. ....
... .. .. ....
2. Some other underlined verbs end in -es? List them down as in the example.
He relaxes

He watches

... ..

.. ....
... .. .. ....
3. Give examples from the text of negative underlined verbs.
4. What do all the underlined verbs express? Choose.

Free time activities (habitual actions)

Actions happening now, at the moment of speaking

5. What tense are the verbs in bold in the text?

..
6. Write the ing form of the following verbs.

1. to sing __________________
2. to smoke ___________________
3. to see ___________________
4. to try ___________________
5. to advertise _________________
6. to sit ___________________
7. to play ___________________
8. to study ___________________
9. to escape ___________________
10. to regret ___________________
11. to stop ___________________
12. to occur ___________________
13. to agree ___________________
14. to make __________________
15. to nod __________________
16. to admit __________________
17. to cancel ___________________
18. to drop __________________
19. to free __________________
20. to cry __________________
21. to begin _________________
22. to refer _________________

Grammar box PRESENT CONTINUOUS


The spelling of the ing-form
add ing to the base form of the verb.
go going
wear wearing
verbs that end in one e lose the e.
smoke smoking
come coming
verbs that end in ee keep the ee.
see seeing
agree agreeing
verbs of one syllable, ending in CVC, the last
consonant (C) is doubled.
stop stopping
hit hitting
verbs of two syllables, ending in CVC, the last
consonant (C) is doubled, if the last syllable is
stressed.
begin beginning
travel travelling

23. to dig _________________


24. to tie _________________
25. to argue _________________
26. to enter __________________
27. to obey _________________
28. to travel _________________
29. to be __________________
30. to wait __________________

7. Make affirmative sentences.

1. Look! It.... (snow).


2. Sony and Chloe ... (play) in the yard!
3. She ... (stand) in front of the cinema.
4. My dad .... (go) to the supermarket with mum.
5. My neighbour .... (read) a newspaper on the porch.
6. All my guests .... (have) a lot of fun at my birthday party.
7. He .... (take) a bath.
8. The teacher .... (correct) some old test papers.
9. My neighbours dog .... (bark).
10. She .... (study) for her Math exam this week.
8. Make negative sentences.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

I / sit / on a chair. .
He / smoke / a cigar. .
They / play / football.
It / rain. .
Anne / write / a letter. ...
Bob / read / a book. ...
We / walk / to work. ..
You / eat / an apple. ..
They / run / around the park. .
I / wait / for the bus. ..

9. Make questions.

1. .. Harry in the garden? (to work)


2. .. Amy ........ a cup of hot chocolate? (to
have)
3. ..Ryan ...his homework? (to do)
4. ..you ..your room or not? (to clean)
5. ... the baby .. so peacefully? (to
sleep)
6. ..your friends ..you there? (to meet)
7. ..your granny ..sandwiches? (to make)
8. ..the animals ..water? (to drink)
9. .. Ella ..a red dress? (to wear)
10. ..they ..a pizza? (to eat)

Grammar box PRESENT CONTINUOUS


The Form - affirmative :
Subject + am/are/is + verb-ing
Harry is meeting his friends right now.
- negative:
Subject + am/are/is + not + verb-ing
Megan isnt working at the moment.
- interrogative:
Am/Are/Is + subject + verb-ing?
Is Amy studying in he room?

10. Answer the questions using present continuous.

1. What are they doing?


They are playing golf.

Grammar box
PRESENT CONTINUOUS The Use
We use present continuous for actions
taking place at the moment of speaking
(now).

1.

2. What is he doing?
.

He is playing football.

3. What ?

6. .. ?

4. What ?

7. .. ?

5. ?
.

8. ?

Grammar box
PRESENT CONTINUOUS The Use
We use present continuous for actions taking
place only for a limited period of time,
temporary action.

2.

Jim is helping in his brother's firm this week.


Here we are talking about a time limit. Jim
does not usually work in the firm, he is still at
school and wants to earn some extra money
during his holidays.

11. Write sentences in the present continuous.


1. Matthew / to live / in New York / this year.

2. Molly / to help / in the restaurant this week


.
3. Max / to take / a computer course this month
.
4. I / to stay / with a friend at the moment
..
5. Mum / to cook / this weekend
..
6. You / to go by bus / this week
.
7. Toby / to study / for the last exam / this week
.
8. We / to keep / to the north path / today
.

12. Your friend is planning a holiday. Work with your partner asking her/him about her/his plans.

1. (where / go)

Where are you going?

2. (when / go)
3. (go / alone)

Grammar box
PRESENT CONTINUOUS The Use
We use present continuous for arrangements
for the near future, planned actions.

4. (how / travel)
5. (where / live)

3.

6. (what / visit) .
7. (what / do)

I'm going to the theatre tonight.

8. (who / meet) ..

In the example you can see that the ticket is


already bought.

9. (when / return) ..
REVISION PRESENT SIMPLE AND PRESENT CONTINUOUS
1. Put the verbs in brackets into present simple or continuous.

Anne Greene works


(work) in a library. She is a
librarian. She . (take) care of the books and
. (lend) them to whoever . (come) to
borrow them. She . (like) her job very much because it
. (give) her the opportunity to meet all kinds of people
interested in all kinds of books. She . (not like) it too
much because of the dust and because she never . (have)
a moments rest. Her desk is always tidy and clean.
At the moment she . (put) some books on the shelves. This is one of the
things she . (like) to do best. She is about to leave work and head back home. She
. (go) out with Mark tonight. He . (go) to propose and Anne
. (know) it. She is very anxious.
This is Mark. He is a businessman. He . (work) in the
relations department for an important oil company, Maddox Oil. He
. (make) contracts with only foreign business people. His job is
very demanding and he almost never . (have) a day off. His
girlfriend, Anne is very understanding and they never argue about anything. He
. (love) her very much and . (want) to spend
the rest of his life with her.
He . (fax) important information to a partner in the
Middle East right now, but he also . (think) about his meeting with Anne tonight.
He . (not/ want) to admit it, but he is very nervous.

2. Put the verbs in brackets into present simple or continuous.

Next week, my daughter Linda and her friends are going (go) fishing in the delta. She
.. (organize) the food, because she (like) cooking,
especially grilling. Marshall (have) a yellow van, but also a trailer, so he
. (plan) the transportation and the route. Robert
(bring) an extra tent he (borrow) from a neighbor. He also
.. (have) his own big tent and other equipment. Alicia, Lindas twin
(think) they're crazy. She (like) holidays in
comfortable hotels, so she (take) a trip to Paris instead. Guess whose
holiday is more expensive!
3. Mix and match. Draw lines between the question and the answer.

Are they coming camping with us?


Do we have to pay for it?
Is she running?

No, they dont.


Yes, it does, at this time of year.
Yes, it is.

Does she eat pork?

No, we arent. Maybe tomorrow.

Is it still snowing?

I dont think she is.

Does it always rain so much here?

Yes, I am. Why is he late?

Do they know what they want?

Yes, we do.

Are you waiting for him?

No, I dont.

Do you meet her very often?

No, she doesnt.

Are we going shopping this morning or not?

No, they arent.

4. Make sentences with the Present Tense Simple or Continuous.

1. you / to have / breakfast / at the moment


...........................................................................................................................................................
2. he / every day / to read / the morning paper
...........................................................................................................................................................
3. it / not / to rain / much / in Spain
...........................................................................................................................................................
4. you / to do / not / your work / on that computer (Its busy.)
...........................................................................................................................................................
5. you / now / to drink / cola?
...........................................................................................................................................................
6. they / to drink / every day / tea?
...........................................................................................................................................................

GETTING STARTED
1. How often do you go out shopping? Choose and then make a sentence with your option.
Once a week twice a week three times a week every two weeks usually on week-ends

2. What do you usually like to buy? Complete the spaces with examples.
. .. ..
3. What do people buy form these shops? How often do you buy form there? Make your own
sentences answering the question.

1. (bookstore)

People buy books in bookstores. I shop there once a month.

2. (grocery store) ..
3. (butchers) .....
4. (appliance shop)
5. (drugstore)
4. Where is the .? Ask your partner questions about the location of each of the buildings on the
map. Use the given expressions.
on the left of the , on the right of the , opposite the, behind the , in front of , near the

The bus
stop is in
front of
the school.

READING
1. Where do you live?

Do you like your town?

Do you want to move to another?


2. Put the following paragraphs in order. The first one was done for you.

1
Hello, my name is Gerri Wright. I am a graphic designer;
or I used to be. Now I dont know what I am going to do. I have
returned to my hometown of Heathfield after an absence of 10 years.
I left at first for university, but managed to stay a little longer in the
big city. Ok, not a little longer. I met my husband there and we share
a common passion for designing. It was his passion at first. Weve
always wanted to move into the countryside and this is our chance.
The last improvement is its growth in the number of new restaurants that are now opened
in Heathfield. We have a Chinese and an Italian restaurant, and a Mexican restaurant opened two
weeks ago, the day we arrived. I am going there tonight with my husband and our kids.
..The biggest changes were made in downtown, a year after I left. Theres new post office
just across from the old city hall. It used to be near it, but theres a caf there now and people
seem to like it better this way. The best part about the centre though is that you can't drive there
anymore, only walk. This gives people the opportunity to meet and talk to their friends; theres a
new fountain and some benches around it, trees and flowers. Its becoming my favourite place.
They changed so many things around Heathfield. When I left it, there was a beautiful
deserted park on the right as you entered the town. Theres a large shopping mall there now, with
cinemas and food court and all kinds of shops. And the lake on the opposite well, the lake its
still there, but they are building a new residential area around it; so no more fishing there.
.. I hope we can get used to the changes. Its a new beginning. Maybe well open a shop.
Who knows? What changes did they make in your own town?
.Compared to the pedestrian area, my own street looks just the same; I live downtown.
Theres a public library on the next street. It used to be painted green, but now they took it down
and gave it a historical look, to match the monument on the right and the antique shop on the left.
My best friend runs that shop together with her husband. They met and auction. There used to be
a childrens park behind them, but they moved it three years ago, because they were making too
much noise. The neighbourhood wasnt happy. But theres a lovely park there now and people
can read quietly and go picnicking.
1. Mention a change that was made in your town in the last 10 years. Compare with your partner.

2. What are the buildings mentioned in the text? Write them down.

3. There are some words in bold in the text. Complete the table with them.
I
You
He
She
It
We
You
They

Grammar box
These words are called possessive adjectives.
They express possession.

4. Complete the sentences with the correct possessive adjective (my, your, his, her, its, our, their).

1. Lucas is very upset that . bike broke again.


2. I hope vacation wasnt spoiled by the weather. We saw rain on the TV weather
report.
3. They dont keep .. dog in the yard and one day it will hurt someone.
4. .. name is Adam. What's yours?
5. This tiger is from India, not Africa and . name is Tony.
6. Nicole is buying a new fancy dress. old dress was ruined at the wash.
7. We have to go now. .. train is leaving!
8. Is that . mother? Does she know you are in town?
5. Describe the town you live in. Refer to the buildings which were already mentioned in this lesson.

I live in
On my street there are
I like my home town because
Downtown

When I eat out I like to go


I usually go with
I also spend my free time
My favourite place is

with my

.
.
.

.
.
.

LANGUAGE REFERENCE
PRESENT SIMPLE

PRESENT CONTINUOUS

The Form:

The Form:

- Affirmative: Sb. + Vb (- s pers III sg)


- es
e.g. I eat meat.
She eats vegetables.

- Affirmative: Sb. + am/ are/ is + Vb. + ing

The spelling of the 3rd person singular

The spelling of the -ing form (the present participle).

e.g. I am baking a cake.

add s to the base form of the verb:


wants
eats
add es to the base form of the verbs that end in s,
z, ss, sh, ch, x, and o :
he kissesshe washes
he watches
she fixes
it
goes
consonant + y = ies
carry it carries
hurry she hurries
vowel + y = normal
buy she buys

He is watching TV.

add ing to the base form of the verb.


go going wear wearing
verbs that end in one e lose the e.
smoke smoking
come coming
verbs that end in ee keep the ee.
see seeing agree agreeing
verbs of one syllable, ending in CVC, the last consonant (C)
is doubled.
stop stopping
hit hitting
verbs of two syllables, ending in CVC, the last consonant (C)
is doubled, if the last syllable is stressed.
begin beginning
travel travelling

- Negative: Sb. + Do + not + Vb. ...


Does
example: We dont know that man.
Mary doesnt read newspapers.

- Negative: Sb. + am/ are/ is + not + vb. + ing

- Interrogative: Do + Sb. + Vb. .... ?


Does
example: Do I know you?
Does the cake taste good?

- Interrogative: Am/ Are/ Is + Sb. + vb. + ing .. ?

example: They arent playing in the forest.


John isnt writing his paper.

example: Am I talking to you right now?


Is he trying to climb the tree again?

The Use:

I.

Present Tense Simple expresses


- facts,
- habitual actions and
- schedule future actions.

The Use:

Present Tense Continuous expresses


an action that is happening now
- a temporary action
- a planned future action

Possessive Adjectives

I
you
he
she
it
we
they

my
your
his
her
its
our
their

1. I like blue dress. It suits you so well.


A her
B your
C my
2. An important line, the , divides the planet into two hemispheres.
A Earth
B Ecuador
C Equator
3. Harry usually . in front of the television.
A relax
B relaxs
C relaxes
4. ..your sister play tennis?
A does
B do
C is
5. An . is a piece of earth surrounded by water.
A continent
B island
C mountain
6. Mt Everest is .. highest mountain on Earth.
A so
B the
Ca
7. Shes .. a cake for you.
A making
B makeing
C make
8. I want to buy a kitten. Do you want to come with me to the .
A cafe
B pet store
C animal store
9. Wheres mum? At the . Im sick and she wanted to buy some medicine.
A hospital
B drugstore
C library
10. The oceans around 70% of the Earths surface.
A are covering
B covering
C cover
11. My mother is .. engineer and my father is . nurse.
A aa
B aan
C ana
12. You never .. on time and its annoying.
A no arrive
B arrive
C dont arrive
13. Do you want piece of cake?
A an
B the
Ca
14. The Nile River is the river on the planet.
A longest
B longer
C so long
15. is flat land.
A the sea
B a lake
C a valley
16. Mary goes to school by bus.
A (-) . (-) B the . (-)
C (-) . the
17. I am waiting for you in of the cinema! Where are you?
A right
B front
C left
18. Jane .. watch horror movies. They are too scary.
A dont
B not
C doesnt
19. Where .?
A your mother lives
B does your mother live
C does live your mother
20. Natural gas .. an odour.
A doesnt have
B not having
C dont have