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6660 Comunicar em Lngua Inglesa

Conhecer os Problemas do Mundo Atual

COMUNICAR EM LNGUA INGLESA


UNIDADE

6660- CONHECER OS PROBLEMAS DO


MUNDO ATUAL

6660 Comunicar em Lngua Inglesa


Conhecer os Problemas do Mundo Atual

ndice
Introduo / Enquadramento................................................................................ 3
Referencial de Comunicar em Lngua Inglesa Unidade 6660 Conhecer os
Problemas do Mundo Atual (50h).........................................................................4
Global issues motivational activity....................................................................5
Global issues recycling...................................................................................... 6
Motivational Activity green issues...................................................................10
Global issues global warming..........................................................................16
Mother nature poem........................................................................................ 25
Global issues alternative energies...................................................................25
Alternative Energy Vocabulary Quiz................................................................32
Global issues internet addiction.......................................................................36
Global issues consumerism.............................................................................44
Global issues unhealthy eating........................................................................50
Motivational Activity world hunger..................................................................56
Helpful documents............................................................................................. 57
Grammar revisions............................................................................................. 57
Useful and daily expressions - vocabulary......................................................57
Numbers and mathematics............................................................................. 59
How to read numbers in English.........................................................................61
The plural of nouns - rules............................................................................... 67
Types of irregular plurals.................................................................................... 69
(other) IRREGULAR PLURALS LIST................................................................71
Study these groups of words to learn how they change to plural. Each group
of words has similar changes.......................................................................71
Simple Present rules..................................................................................... 75
The Present Continuous..................................................................................77

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Simple Present e Present Continuous..............................................................79


Simple Present................................................................................................ 79
Exercises with the Present Continuous............................................................80
The future in English....................................................................................... 83
Going to Future............................................................................................... 85
Will- Future......................................................................................................... 86
Going To- Future................................................................................................. 86
Exercises with the Simple Present and the Simple Future...............................88
The Simple Past - rules.................................................................................... 89
List of verbs................................................................................................. 91
The Simple Past exercises............................................................................96
Bibliografia......................................................................................................... 98

6660 Comunicar em Lngua Inglesa


Conhecer os Problemas do Mundo Atual

Introduo / Enquadramento

Este manual de Comunicar em Lngua Inglesa Conhecer os Problemas


do

Mundo

Atual

visa

ilustrar

fundamentar

desenvolvimento

de

competncias especficas da lngua inglesa, nomeadamente no tema de


problemas que afetam o mundo atualmente, atravs da anlise de documentos
ingleses, visionamento de pequenos vdeos e/ou documentrios, leitura de
artigos (entre outros), por parte dos formandos cujo intuito aprender e
aperfeioar

sua

aprendizagem

na

lngua

estrangeira.

Desta

forma,

encontraro respostas para as suas necessidades quotidianas e profissionais e,


em simultneo, aprendero a comunicar em lngua estrangeira de maneira
adequada.
Assim sendo, o presente manual servir de referncia para o desenvolvimento
de conhecimentos em Ingls Intermdio e Avanado, servindo os seguintes
documentos (que podero ser adaptados consoante as necessidades do pblicoalvo), como exemplo da informao terica e prtica a ser ministrada nas
sesses,

o que

permitir um adequado desenvolvimento do perfil

de

proficincias proposto no referencial de competncias-chave desta unidade.

6660 Comunicar em Lngua Inglesa


Conhecer os Problemas do Mundo Atual

Referencial de Comunicar em Lngua Inglesa Unidade


6660 Conhecer os Problemas do Mundo Atual (50h)

Resultados da Aprendizagem
Consulta vrias fontes de informao.
Seleciona, organiza e sistematiza a informao recolhida.
Analisa criticamente a informao.
Produz textos escritos.
Argumenta oralmente sobre os textos produzidos.
Consciencializa-se dos problemas que afetam presentemente a
humanidade.
Identifica a importncia de alterar polticas, atitudes e comportame
ntos

Contedos

Devem ser identificados dois temas que se assumem na atualidade como


um problema para a humanidade, de acordo com os interesses do grupo.
Exemplos:

Excluso social e solidariedade

Migrao e minorias tnicas

Toxicodependncias

Sida

Globalizao

Avanos tecnolgicos e reflexos no mundo do trabalho

Ameaa nuclear

Preservao ambiental

()

6660 Comunicar em Lngua Inglesa


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Global issues motivational activity

1. Watch the following video and comment on it as far as global issues are
concerned.
2. If possible, list some global issues you are able to identify on this short
video.
Global Issues

In https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EcFvT4GRpZQ
Notes:
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________

Global issues recycling

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Making a difference
1. Warm up work with your partner.
a) What three things can ordinary people do to help the environment?
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________
2. Reading
a) Read the texts below. Who do you think cares the most/least about the
environment? Comment that with your partner.

I think everyone can do something to help the


environment.
Ive replaced all the bulbs in my house with a
more environmentally-friendly type. It was a
really easy way to make a difference!
The other benefit is that my electricity bill is
lower than before.
Susan
I

get really

telling

me

annoyed
to

help

by people

improve

the

environment.
In my neighbourhood, there are so
many laws about recycling rubbish! I
dont have time to separate rubbish
or recycle bottles and cans.
I think people should be free to live
how they like!

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Billy

Last year, I got rid of my car. If everyone did


that, our towns would be so much cleaner!
I live in a small town, and I now cycle to
work each day. Its not so good in winter, but
I really dont regret the change. My health
has really improved too!

Henry

3. Vocabulary Building
a) Match the two halves of the collocations.

1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

environmentally
to make
an electricity
to separate
to get

rubbish
friendly
rid of something
bill
a difference

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b) Rewrite the sentences using the language from exercise 3 a).


i)

In some countries, you have to _______________________________________.

You cant just throw it all together.


ii)

Helen ______________________________ her old car, and replaced it with a


hybrid model.

iii)

Driving is not a very ____________________________________ way to travel.

iv)

Unplugging your TV and computer at night can


__________________________

to the environment.
v)

Tom never turns the heating off. His


___________________________________

is really high!
4. About you.
a) Fill in the boxes below. Compare your answer with your partner.
Thing I do which are good

Things I do which are bad for

for environment

the environment

Motivational Activity green issues


Wordsearch

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1.

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2. Make a comment on the following pictures.


Picture 1

Picture 2

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_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________
Picture 3

_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________

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Word search earthquakes

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1. Make a comment on the following pictures.


Picture 1

_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________

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Picture 2

_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________

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Global issues global warming

1. Watch and comment on the following video.

Global Warming

In https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qTW49FSgLlQ
Notes:
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
1. Before you read work with your partner.
a) What do you do to help preserve the environment?
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________

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_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________
b) Who is the most environmentally friendly person you know? Why?
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________
2. Vocabulary.
a) Match the word / phrase with the correct meaning.

emissions (n)
catastrophic (adj)
projected (adj)
a protocol (n)
ratify (v)
lessen (v)

reduce
a set of agreed rules or conventions
gases released into the air
approve
forecast
disastrous

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3. Reading.
a) Read the following text, and fill in the spaces using a word from the box
below.

Choose from: definitely; deep; melt; consumers

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4. Comprehension Questions.

a) Answer the questions below.

i) Why are sea levels predicted to rise?


_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
ii) What is the Kyoto Protocol?
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
iii)

What factors contribute to a persons carbon footprint?

_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________

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5. Collocation Check.
a) Match the two halves of these collocations.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

hotting
become
as
an informed
here

decision
to stay
a reality
up
it stands

a) Rewrite these sentences using collocations from exercise 5 a).

i) Im worried. I hope that it doesnt actually happen.


_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
ii)

Computer technology is not going to disappear.

_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
iii)

In the current situation, I cant give you a pay rise.

_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
iv)

I need to make a decision based on facts and evidence.

_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
v)

This football game is becoming more exciting!

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_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
6.

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6. Make a comment on these pictures.

Picture 1

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_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________
Picture 2

_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________

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Mother nature poem


Edith A. Phinazee

1. Read and comment on the following poem.

Our world is always changing,


Constantly re-arranging.
From ocean depths to mountain peaks,
Mother Nature moves and speaks.
While telling stories of our past
She tries to teach us how to last.
Mankind, so smart, sometimes blind
Leaves common sense far behind.
We're moving fast and living large,
Forgetting she's the one in charge.
Amazed when she rings our bell,
Sending us through living hell.
She can twist our steel, shake any city,
If her wrath you feel, we shall pity.
Yet some who speak on her behalf,
I fear just seek the golden calf.
It's true, we must treat her right.
Or we will incur a deadly plight.
Treat her with distinction
Or surely face extinction!

Global issues alternative energies

1. Watch and comment on the following video.

Alternative Energies

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In https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gHoto5o7kAE
Notes:
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________

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1. Before you read Work with your partner.


a) What is alternative energy?
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
b) how many different kinds of alternative energy can you name?
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

2. Vocabulary.
a) Match the phrase with its meaning.

barren
vast
renewable
viable
take off
venture (v)
once

could be successful
at some time in the past
become popular
go somewhere, despite risk
unable to produce
could always continue
huge

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3. Reading.
a. Read the following text.

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4.Discussion.
b. READING COMPREHENSION - Answer the following questions.
i)

How much energy do you think your country gets from alternative
sources?

_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
ii)

Are there any projects in your country creating alternative energy?

_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
iii)

Describe the best place near your home where a wind farm could be
placed.

_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
iv)

Are you careful about the amount of electricity you consume? Could
you do better?

_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

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To think about pair work.

c. Discuss the following.


i)

What is the problem with using fossil fuels to generate electricity?

_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
ii)

Should we turn to nuclear power as the solution to our power needs?

_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
iii)

Should the government do more to deal with this issue?

_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

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Alternative Energy Vocabulary Quiz

Choose a suitable word / phrase from the list below. Make grammatical changes,
where necessary.
Choose from: come to an end; mixed results; implement; fossil fuels; plentiful;
take off; granted; insulate; renewable energy; viable.
a) Jackie is against burning ________________________________________________
to make electricity.
b) Sunshine is ________________________________________ in the Sahara.
However, regular rainfall is rare.
c) Bob thinks ________________________________________ is better than coalfired power stations.
d) Some people think wind farms are not
____________________________________
on a large scale.
e) Tom _________________________________ his loft last week. He hopes his
house will be warmer in winter!
f) I hoped it would be a complete success. Instead, I had
______________________.
g) I fell asleep before the movie ___________________________________________.
h) The Prime Minister wants to ________________________________________ the
reforms as soon as possible,
i) Mary does all the cooking and cleaning. Her husband just taker her for
__________
_________________________________!
j) Do you think that 3-D televisions are going to
______________________________?
4. Translate the text from exercise 3.
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

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_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

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_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
5. Write the plural form of each noun.

A
B
C
D

Wish
Elf
Family
Goose

G
H
I
J

Wife
Butterfly
Shelf
Tomato

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E
F

Flash
Box

K
L

Dress
Bench

6. change the singular form of the noun to a plural form.

a) At the farm, we counted five ______________________ (pony).


b) After trick-or-treating we ate 20 ______________________ (candy) each.
c) We are studying the many ______________________ Ccountry) in Scial
Studies.
d) The

reunion

will

have

over

15

______________________

(family)

in

attendance.
e) During the summer, I like to catch many ______________________ (firefly).
f) I really njoy going to my friends birthday ______________________ (party).
g) Bears like to eat ______________________ (berry) before they hibernate for
the winter.
h) The ______________________ (baby) were crying in their cribs.
i) Our

table

at

the

restaurant

had

lots

of

different

flavoured

______________________ (jelly).
j) When I order an ice cream sundae, I ask for three ______________________
(cherry).
k)

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Global issues internet addiction

1. Before you read Work with your partner.


a) When was the last time you used the internet? What did you look up?
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
2. Vocabulary.
a) Match the words with its correct definition.

Tweet (v)
In the flesh (idiom)
Endlessly (adv)
Excessive (adj)
The norm (n)

Face-to-face
Standard
Send a message using Twitter
Repeatedly
Switch off

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3. Reading.
a) Read the text and fill in the gaps with a word from the list below.

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Choose from: interrupted; available; problem; advance

4. Comprehension.

a) Ask and answer the questions with a partner.

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i)

Why is Chuck Harris unhappy with his life?

_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
ii)

Why is the problem of internet addiction going to get worse?

_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
iii)

What three practical steps can you take to reduce your internet
usage?

_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

5. Vocabulary.

a) Choose the best explanation for the underlined expressions.

1. If your life revolves around the

You often think about the internet


Your job is related to the internet

internet,
The internet is the main thing in your
life
You do it secretly
2. Is you do something surreptitiously You do it often
3. If you opt out of social messaging

You dont like using the services


You rarely use the services

services,
You choose not to use the services

4. Is you are marginalized by society,

People are rude to you


People think you are strange

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People think you are unimportant

5. If you abstain from the internet,

You use the internet too much


You dont use the internet
You use the internet very little

6. Fill in the gapes using a word / phrase from exercise 5.

a) Liz has _____________________________ joining her family over the summer


vacation.
b) The elderly often feel _____________________________. No one listens to what
they say.
c) Justin

is

supposed

to

be

on

diet.

However,

he

_____________________________ has a cream cheese bagel before bed.


d) Since he got married, Andrew has _____________________________ all
alcohol.
e) Julias life seems to _____________________________ her job. She never has
any free time!

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7. Discussion.
a) Ask your partner these questions.
Questions related to the text.
i)

Do you think there are many people who are addicted to the Internet?

_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
ii)

Do you use the Internet much? In which ways is life better / worse
because of the Internet?

_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
iii)

Do you have a Facebook or Twitter account? Why (not)?

_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
iv)

Do you think that people reveal too much personal information online?

_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
Other questions
a) Which groups of people do you think are marginalized in your country?
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

b) Do you do anything surreptitiously at home or at work?

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_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
c) Does your life seem to revolve around anything? What (else) do you do
too much?
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
d) Your ideas!
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

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Global issues consumerism


1. Watch and comment on the following video.
Culture in Decline - Consumerism & Advertising

In https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=74ofI3Zz8hM
Notes:
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________

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1. Read this newspaper article to answer the questions below.

Consumerism and Consumption in our Modern Society


The rise of consumerism in the developed world occurs as buying habits
are transformed, and luxuries are turned into necessities.
The idea of getting more and more helps to stir up anxieties, greediness and
restlessness over the possession of things. Fashion pressures people to buy
out of need, just for style, to be conform to what others define as
fashionable. But as well as meeting consumers desires there is a more
fundamental political and economic reason for promoting consumerism.
That is, this support for fashion is seen as very valuable because it is a
subtle form of imposing social control, as people become more individualist,
turn more inwards on themselves. People who were once concerned about
social issues are now largely transformed into exploring and fulfilling their
individual desires through the purchase of material goods.

2. Find equivalents in the text for these words/expressions.


a) growth
b) cause an unpleasant sensation
c) wanting a lot more than you
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)

need
feeling unable to be calm
in popular and modern style
matching
satisfying
buying

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3. Answer these questions.


1. What exactly makes consumers buy things?
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
2. Why is it dangerous to promote individualism?
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
4. Look at this advertisement and comment on the following
statement.

Living

in

consumer

society

has

profound

implications on how we behave and relate to


others.

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5. The words in the boxes form a quotation by Ghandi.

Look at the

pictures and try to write it in the correct order.

Quotation:
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
6. Do you agree with Ghandis quotation? Justify.

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_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

7. Writing.
a) Choose one of the following topics and write about 80-100 words on
it.
1. Fast food in US schools.
(Refer to the advantages and disadvantages of fast food.
Say whether you agree with the fact that fast food companies give money to
schools to

advertise fast food there.)

2. Are you a shopaholic?


(Refer to the way you deal with your money, who you get your money from,
your shopping habits, shops you prefer, items on which you spend most of your
money... )
3. Comment on the following: If you want to feel rich, just count the
things you have that money cant buy.
Say whether you agree with the message conveyed. Explain the message. Refer
to the difficulties in following this advice in modern societies.
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

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_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

Global issues unhealthy eating

1. Before you read Work with your partner.

a)

Do you exercise every day?


_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

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b)

What is your favourite sport?


_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

c)

How important is physical activity to you?


_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

d)

Why is nutrition related to physical activity?


_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
2. Reading.

a)

Read the following text carefully.


Chronic diseases account for 7 of every 10 US deaths and for more than 60% of
medical care expenditures.
Much of the chronic disease burden is preventable. Physical inactivity and
unhealthy eating contribute to obesity, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and
diabetes. Together, they are responsible for at least 300,000 deaths each year.
Only tobacco use causes more preventable deaths in the United States.
Regular physical activity substantially reduces the risk of dying of coronary
heart disease, the nations leading cause of death, and decreases the risk for
many diseases and high blood pressure. It also helps to control weight;
contributes to healthy bones, muscles, and joints.
Moreover, physical activity need not be strenuous to be beneficial; people of
all ages benefit from moderate physical activity, such as 30 minutes of brisk
walking five or more times a week.

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Despite the proven benefits of physical activity, more than 60% of American
adults do not get enough physical activity to provide health benefits. More than
25% are not active at all in their leisure time.
But, insufficient physical activity is not limited to adults. More than a third of
young people in grades 9-12 do not regularly engage in vigorous physical
activity.
The Critical Role of Healthy Eating
We now know that good nutrition lowers the risk for many chronic diseases.
Americans are slowly adopting healthier diets, but a large gap remains between
recommended dietary patterns and what Americans actually eat.
Poor eating habits are often established during childhood. More than 60% of
young people eat too much fat, and less than 20% eat the recommended five or
more servings of fruits and vegetables each day.
In http://www.cdc.gov/nccdhp/aag/aag-dmpa.htm

Vocabulary:
a) expenditure: the total amount of money that someone spends during a
particular period of time.
b) burden: something difficult or worrying that you are responsible for.

3. Reading comprehension.
a) Are these statements True or False? Correct the false ones and
quote statements from the text to prove the true ones.
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

Chronic diseases prevent the quality of life.

Most of death problems can be avoided.


Physical activity contributes to heart attacks.
Physical exercise should be done by everyone.
Young people generally have a poor diet.

__________________________________________________________________________

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_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
b) Answer the following questions according to the text.
1)

Physical activity and good nutrition are the basis of a good health. Explain
this statement.

_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
2)

Why is it so beneficial to do physical exercise?

_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
3)

Why is much of the chronic disease burden preventable?

_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
4)

How many times per week should we walk half an hour?

_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
5)

What percentage of the American grown-up population doesnt exercise

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sufficiently?
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
6)

When do most unsatisfactory eating habits usually begin?

_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

c) Match the words on the left with the right equivalent or


explanation on the right.
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)

disease
inactivity
reduces
strenuous
engage
vigorous
gap
servings

a) big difference
b) keep interest
c) using a lot of energy and determination
d) illness
e) makes smaller
f) needing great effort
g) the fact that someone is not doing anything
h) an amount of food that is enough for one

person

4. Comment on the following picture. Bear in mind the theme


unhealthy eating.

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_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________

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Motivational Activity world hunger

5. To sum up the previous theme, watch and comment on the following


video.
World Hunger UNICEF

In https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lUer_ZA4sJs
Notes:
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

Helpful documents

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Grammar revisions

Useful and daily expressions - vocabulary

1. Read the following information.


Portuguese

English

Adeus!
Algum me pode emprestar uma caneta /

Goodbye! Bye! Bye, bye!


Can someone lend me a pen / a

um lpis?
Boa noite!
Boa noite! (na hora de ir deitar)
Boa tarde!
Bom dia!
Como est(s) / esto hoje?
Esta frase est correcta?
Esteja / est quieto /silencioso!
Estou bem.
Estou doente.
Estou muito bem.
Eu no entendo!
Faltei na ltima aula.
Isto est correcto?
No estou muito bem.
No faa(s) isso!
No, no pode(s).
O que que fizemos a aula passada?
O que fao agora?
Ol!
Ouam-me! Ouve-me!
Peo desculpa por estar atrasado(a).
Pode desviar-se, se faz favor?
Pode falar mais devagar, se faz favor?
Pode repetir a palavra, se faz favor?
Pode repetir?
Posso apagar o quadro?
Posso entrar?
Posso ir afiar o meu lpis?
Posso ir ao sanitrio (wc/casa-de-banho),

pencil?
Good evening!
Good night!
Good afternoon!
Good morning!
How are you today?
Is this sentence right?
Be quiet!
Im fine!
Im sick.
Im very well.
I dont understand!
I was absent last lesson.
Is this right?
Im not very well.
Dont do that!
No, you may not.
What did we do last lesson?
What can I do now?
Hello, Hi!
Listen to me!
Im sorry Im late.
Can you step aside, please?
Can you speak slower, please?
Can you repeat the word, please?
Can you repeat?
May I clean the board?
May I come in?
May I sharpen my pencil?
May I go to the toilet, please?

se faz favor?
Posso ir l fora um minuto?
Posso responder?
Posso tentar?
Posso trocar de lugar?
Prestem /presta ateno!
Sente-se! Senta-te! Sentem-se!
Sim, pode(s).
Tenho uma terrvel dor de cabea.

Can I go out for a minute?


May I answer?
Can I try?
Can I change places?
Pay attention!
Sit down!
Yes, you may.
Im with a terrible headache.

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Vamos comear a aula.

Lets start the lesson.

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Numbers and mathematics

Read and study the following information.

CARDINALS
1 one
2 two
3 three
4 four
5 five
6 six
7 seven
8 eight
9 nine
10 ten
11 eleven
12 twelve
13 thirteen
14 fourteen
15 fifteen
16 sixteen
17 seventeen
18 eighteen
19 nineteen
20 twenty
21 Twenty-one
()
30 thirty
31 Thirty-one
()
40 forty
41 forty-one
()
50 fifty
60 sixty
70 seventy
80 eighty
90 ninety
100 a hundred

101 a hundred and one


102 - a hundred and two
()

154 a hundred and fifty-four

40th fortieth
50th fiftieth

()

200 two hundred


201 two hundred and one
300 three hundred
()

1000 a thousand
1001 a thousand and one
1025 a thousand and twenty-five

60th sixtieth
100th hundredth
1000th

thousandth

ORDINALS
1st first (st)
2nd second (nd)
3rd third (rd)
4th fourth (th)
5th fifth (th)
6th sixth (th)
7th seventh
8th eighth
9th ninth
10th tenth
11th eleventh
12th twelfth
13th thirteenth
14th fourteenth
15th fifteenth
16th sixteenth
17th seventeenth
18th eighteenth
19th - nineteenth
20th twentieth (th)
21st twenty-first
22nd twenty-second
30th thirtieth

Mathematics
Examples:
5+5=?

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(Whats five plus five? Its ten.)


63=?
(Whats six minus three? Its three.)
4x7=?
(Whats four times seven? Its twenty-eight.)
8:4=?
(Whats eight divided by four? Its two.)

To remember:
1.456 (DECIMALS) one point four, five, six;
1/3 (FRACTIONS) one third;
2/3 (FRACTIONS) two thirds;
2/49 two over forty-nine;
1986 (YEAR) nineteen, eighty-six;
2006 (YEAR) - two thousand and six or twenty oh six;
1600 (YEAR) sixteen hundred;
sculo XVI (CENTURY) 16th century;
1456 (NUMBER) one thousand, four hundred and fifty-six;
912553330 (PHONE NUMBER) nine, one, two, double five, three, double three,
oh/zero; 22 (POWERS) two squared;
23 (POWERS) two cubed;
215 (POWERS) two to the fifteenth power (or sometimes two to fifteen);
4 (SQUARE ROOT) square root of four.
a)

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How to read numbers in English

1. Read and study the following information.


How numbers are spoken
Numbers over 20

Numbers over 100

21
22
32
99

101
121
200
232
999

twenty-one
twenty-two
thirty-two
ninety-nine

a/one hundred (and) one


a/one hundred (and) twenty-one
two hundred
two hundred (and) thirty-two
nine hundred (and) ninety-nine

Numbers over 1000


1001
1121
2000
2232
9999

a/one thousand (and) one


one thousand, one hundred (and) twenty-one
two thousand
two thousand, two hundred (and) thirty-two
nine thousand, nine hundred (and) ninety-nine

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Ordinal numbers
225th two hundred (and) twenty-fifth
20th twentieth
21st twenty-first
25th twenty-fifth
90th ninetieth
99th ninety-ninth
100th hundredth
101st hundred and first

Dates
1624
1903
1987
2007

sixteen twenty-four
nineteen-oh-three
nineteen eighty-seven
two thousand and seven

What numbers represent


Numbers are often used on their own to show:
Price - It cost eight seventy-five (=eight pounds 75 pence or 8 dollars 75
cents: 8.75 or $8.75).
Time - We left at two twenty-five (=25 minutes after 2 oclock).
Age
- Shes forty-six (=46 years old). | Hes in his sixties (=between 60
and 69 years old).
Size - This shirt is a thirty-eight (=size 38).
Temperature -The temperature fell to minus fourteen (=14).|The
temperature was in the mid-thirties (=about 3436).
The score in a game -Becker won the first set six-three (=by six games to
three: 6-3).
Something marked with the stated number - She played two nines and
an eight (=playing cards marked with these numbers).
A set or group of the stated number - The teacher divided us into fours
(=groups of 4). | You can buy cigarettes in tens or twenties (=in packets
containing 10 or 20)
Pearson Education Limited 2000 Longman Dictionary

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When expressing large numbers (more than one hundred) read in groups
of hundreds. The order is as follows: billion, million, thousand, hundred.

Notice that hundred, thousand, etc. is NOT followed by an s.

(Quando falamos de nmeros grandes mais do que um cento lemos em


grupos de centenas. A ordem a que se segue: bilio, milho, milhar, centena.
Repare que cem, mil, etc, nunca so seguidos de S.)
E.g. Two hundred NOT two hundreds

NOTE: British English takes 'and' between 'hundred and ...' American

English omits 'and'. In the examples below, this is represented: (AND)


(Nota: O Ingls Britnico leva e entre cem e enquanto o Ingls
Americano omite o e. Nos exemplos abaixo, isto representado: (E) )
Hundreds
350 > three hundred (AND) fifty

425 > four hundred (AND) twenty


five

Thousands
15,560 > fifteen thousand five

786,450 > seven hundred (AND)

hundred (AND) sixty

six thousand four hundred (AND)


fifty

Millions
2,450,000

>

two

million

hundred (AND) fifty thousands

four

234,700,000 > two hundred (AND)


thirty-four

million

seven

hundred

thousand

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Speaking About Numbers


Numbers are read in the following manner in English:
(os nmeros so lidos da seguinte forma em ingls)
Billion, million, thousand, hundred
Example:
2,350,400 => two million, three hundred (AND) fifty thousand, (AND) four
hundred
Decimals
2.36 =>two point three six

1.54 => one point five four

Percentages
Read percentages as the number followed by percent
(Leia as percentagens com o nmero seguido de percent- por cento)
37% =>thirty seven percent
Fractions
Read the top number as a cardinal number, followed by the ordinal number + s
(Leia o nmero do topo ou da esquerda como um cardinal (one, two, three) e
o da direita como um ordinal (first, second, third) seguido de S, como nos
exemplos.)
3/8 =>three eighths
2 => two fourths
4

=> three fourths


1/10 => one tenths

NOTE: =>one quarter, 2/3 => two thirds, one half

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Expressions
Here are the descriptive names of a number of important numerical

expressions:
(Eis aqui os nomes descritivos de algumas expresses numricas importantes):
Speed 100 mph (miles per hour)
Weight 80 kg (kilograms) OR 42 lbs (pounds)
telephone number 0171 895 7056
decimal .087
date 12/04/65 (month/day/year)
percentage 75%
temperature 28 C (celsius) OR 72 F (fahrenheit) graus (degrees)
height 1 m 89 cm
price $60 (dollars); 60 (euros), 60 (sterling pounds)
fraction 8/13 (eight, thirteenths)
score 2-1 (two-one)

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Conversion:
Weights and measures
Units of length
1 millimetre = 0.03937 inch
10 mm = 1 centimetre = 0.3937
inch
10 cm = 1 decimetre = 3.937 inches
10 dm = 1 metre = 39.37 inches
10 m = 1 decametre = 10.94 yards
10 dam = 1 hectometre = 109.4
yards
10 hm = 1 kilometre = 0.6214 mile
Units of weight
Units of capacity
1 millilitre = 0.00176 pint
10 ml = 1 centilitre = 0.0176 pint
10 cl = 1 decilitre = 0.176 pint
10 dl = 1 litre = 1.76 pints = 0.22

1 miligram = 0.015 grain


10 mg = 1 centigram = 0.154 grain
10 cg = 1 decigram = 1.543 grains
10 dg = 1 gram = 15.43 grains =
0.035 ounces
10 g = 1 decagram = 0.353 ounce
10 dag = 1 hectogram = 3.527
ounces
10 hg = 1 kilogram = 2.205
pounds
100 kg = 1 tonne (metric ton) =
0.984 (long) ton = 2204.62 pounds

3 feet

foot
=

1 = 0.9144 m

8 furlongs

yard
=

1 = 1.609 km

mile

gallon
10 l = 1 decalitre = 2.20 gallons
10 dal = 1 hectolitre = 22.0 gallons
10 hl = 1 kilolitre = 220.0 gallons
British and American

12 inches

1 inch
= 2.54 cm
=
1 = 0.3048
http://www.convert-

Other notes :
100 pounds = 45,36 kg
You can always use the Internet to
help you:
(Pode sempre usar a internet para o
ajudar:)
Weight: (Peso)

me.com/en/convert/weight
Length: (Comprimento)
http://www.convertExpressing Numbers in
me.com/en/convert/length
If

Kenneth Beare
you want to know

conversion:
(E se quiser

saber

English,

more

about

mais

sobre

converses)
http://www.convert-me.com/en/

64

From

The plural of nouns - rules


O plural da maior parte dos substantivos faz-se acrescentando S ao singular. Mas h
alguns casos especiais.
1. Se o singular terminar em VOGAL + Y ou W, o plural faz-se
normalmente acrescentado um -S.
Boy
boys
Cow
cows
2. Se

singular

terminar

em

CONSOANTE

Y,

plural

faz-se

normalmente mudando o Y para I e acrescentando es.


Baby
babies
Party
parties
3. Se o singular terminar em -CH, -SH, -X, -S, -Z, o plural faz-se
normalmente acrescentando -es.
Church
churches
Crash
crashes
Box
boxes
Buzz
buzzes
4. Alguns substantivos que acabam em -O fazem o plural em es; outros
tm plural
Echo
Hero
Radio
Piano
Bufalo
Volcano

em s (ou -es).
echoes
heroes
radios
pianos
bufalo(e)s
volcano(e)s

65

5. Palavras que terminam com f ou fe tm plurais regulares, com a


excepo das seguintes palavras que fazem o plural em ves.
Calf
Elf
Half

calves
elves
halves

life
loaf

wolves
Knife
Leaf

knives
leaves

sheaf

lives
loaves
self

shelf

thief
wife
selves

thieves
wives
wolf

sheaves
shelves

6. IRREGULAR PLURALS (Plurais Irregulares):


Child
Foot
Goose
Louse
Man
Mouse
Ox
Penny
Person
Tooth

Children
Feet
Geese
Lice
Men
Mice
Oxen
Pence
People
Teeth

66

Some notes on other (considered) irregular plurals


Types of irregular plurals

There are many types of irregular plurals, but these are the most common:

Noun type

Forming the plural


Change

*Ends with -fe

to

knife

knives

then

life

Add -s

wife

wives

half

halves

then

wolf

wolves

Add -es

loaf

loaves

Change
*Ends with -f

Example

to

lives

potato
*Ends with -o

Add -es

potatoes

tomato

tomatoes

volcano

volcanoes

cactus
ends with -us

Change -us to -i

cacti

nucleus

nuclei

focus

foci

analysis
ends with -is

Change -is to -es

analyses

crisis

crises

thesis
ends with -on

phenomenon

Change -on to -a

Change

criterion

the

vowel

the

word

or
ALL KINDS

Change
or

Add a different ending


Unchanging

Singular

and

are the same

theses

plural

criteria

man

men

foot

feet

child
person
tooth
mouse

phenomena

children
people
teeth
mice

sheep
deer

67

Noun type

Forming the plural

Example
fish (sometimes)

(other) IRREGULAR PLURALS LIST


Study these groups of words to

learn

how

they

change

to

plural.

Each group of words has similar changes.

US -> I

SINGULAR

PLURAL

alumnus

alumni

cactus

cacti

focus

foci/focuses

fungus

fungi/funguses

nucleus

nuclei

radius

radii

stimulus

stimuli

IS -> ES

SINGULAR

PLURAL

axis

axes

analysis

analyses

basis

bases

crisis

crises

68

diagnosis

diagnoses

ellipsis

ellipses

hypothesis

hypotheses

oasis

oases

paralysis

paralyses

parenthesis

parentheses

synthesis

syntheses

synopsis

synopses

thesis

theses

IX -> ICES

SINGULAR

PLURAL

appendix

appendices

index

indeces/indexes

matrix

matrices/matrixes

EAU -> EAUX

SINGULAR

PLURAL

beau

beaux

bureau

bureaus/bureaux

tableau

tableaux/tableaus

69

*** -> EN

SINGULAR

PLURAL

child

children

man

men

ox

oxen

woman

women

*** -> A

SINGULAR

PLURAL

bacterium

bacteria

corpus

corpora

criterion

criteria

curriculum

curricula

datum

data

genus

genera

medium

media

memorandum

memoranda

phenomenon

phenomena

stratum

strata

70

NO CHANGE

SINGULAR

PLURAL

deer

deer

fish

fish

means

means

offspring

offspring

series

series

sheep

sheep

species

species

OO -> EE

SINGULAR

PLURAL

foot

feet

goose

geese

tooth

teeth

A -> AE

SINGULAR
antenna

PLURAL
antennae/antennas

71

formula

formulae/formulas

nebula

nebulae

vertebra

vertebrae

vita

vitae

OUSE -> ICE

SINGULAR

PLURAL

louse

lice

mouse

mice

72

Simple Present rules


Os verbos s se alteram em ingls no Simple Present (Presente Simples) na 3
pessoa do Singular:
HE / SHE / IT
Nas restantes (I, YOU, WE, YOU, THEY), fica tudo igual (isto , colocamos o verbo sem
TO).
Assim, neste tempo verbal iremos ter alteraes apenas quando estivermos perante
a 3 pessoa do singular (he, she, it) ou algo equivalente.
Neste caso, temos de ter ateno aos verbos terminados em:
Verbos terminados em -o --- fazem a 3 pessoa em es (e.g. do, does)
Verbos terminados em -ch, -x, -sh, -z, -s --- fazem a 3 pessoa em es
(e.g. kiss, kisses; watch, watches)
Verbos terminados em vogal + -y --- s acrescentamos um s (eg. play,
plays)
Verbos terminados em consoante

+ -y --- o y passa a i e

acrescentamos es (e.g. cry, cries)

Quando um verbo no termina em o, -ch, -x, -sh, -z, -s ou em y, acrescentamos


somente um S, que a regra geral.
RESUMO!!!
Assim sendo,
1
2
3
4

regra geral: ACRESCENTAR S


quando os verbos terminam em O, acrescentamos ES.
quando os verbos terminam em -CH, -X, -SH, -Z, -S, acrescentamos ES.
quando os verbos terminam em Y, h que ter ateno:

*VOGAL + -Y --- apenas se acrescenta S


*CONSOANTE + -Y: o Y passa a i e acrescentamos ES.

73

The Present Continuous


O Present Continuous forma-se assim:
To be (am /are / is) + main verb + -ing
Constri-se com uma forma do presente do verbo To Be (am / are / is) com a
forma -ing do verbo principal. (Junta-se ing ao infinitivo do verbo.)
o E.g.:
I am travelling.
I am eating.
Utiliza-se sempre que se pretende exprimir uma aco que se est a realizar
num determinado momento e que ainda no terminou.
Essa
o
o
o
o

ideia , muitas vezes, reforada por advrbios de tempo tais como:


At the moment (neste momento)
Now (agora)
Still (ainda)
E.g.:
At the moment he is talking on the phone.
Now, she is calling Anna.
He is still taking a shower.

Tambm se usa quando queremos contar o que planemos para o futuro.


o E.g.:
On Saturday evening Im visiting my parents.
Next week Im travelling to Scotland.
Tomorrow Im taking a plane to Canada.
(Em Portugus a forma correspondente : estar + preposio a +
infinitivo + verbo principal).
o E.g. Que ests a fazer ? (Que ests fazendo?).
Mas h verbos que no se usam normalmente no Present Continuous (visto
usarem-se com o Simple Present).

Verbs of thinking

Verbs of feeling

Verbs of pe

To think

To want

To see

To believe

To wish

To hear

To agree

To like

To notice

74

To understand

To love

To know

To hate

To remember
To forget
Verbs of possession

Reporting verbs

Other v

To have

To say

To cost

To own

To ask

To weigh

To belong

To tell

To seem
To appear
To need

Resumindo: usamos o presente quando queremos dizer que uma ao


est a decorrer neste momento e quando queremos dizer o que foi
combinado ou planeado para o futuro.

75

Simple Present e Present Continuous

Simple Present

Present Continuous

Aes habituais

Aes ainda em curso/ a decorrer

Encontramos frequentemente palavras

Encontramos muitas vezes as

como:
Every day
Sometimes
Usually
Often
Always
Never
On Sunday

palavras:
Now
Today
At the moment
This morning

Algumas notas:
Os gerndios dos verbos no Ingls so constitudos da partcula " ING" no final,
seguindo algumas regras:
- Verbos com uma slaba, terminados com CONSOANTE + VOGAL+CONSOANTE , dobram
a ltima consoante e depois adiciona-se o ING: stop = stopping , cut = cutting.
- Verbos disslabos terminados em CONSOANTE + VOGAL+CONSOANTE e que a slaba
tnica seja a ltima, dobra-se a ltima consoante e adiciona-se o ING. Exemplos:
prefer = preferring, begin = beginning . Se a primeira slaba for a tnica, apenas
adicione o ING no final: enter = entering.
- Verbos terminados com E perdem o E e ganham ING: write = writing. Os terminados
em EE no perdem nada e s ganham o ING: agree = agreeing
- Verbos terminados com (CONSOANTE + ) VOGAL+L , dobram o L e ganham ING: travel
= travelling (no ingls britnico, pois no americano existem algumas excees)
- Verbos terminados em IE perdem o IE e ganham Y+ING: lie = lying , die = dying

76

Exercises with the Present Continuous

Am / is / are + verb + -ing form

Fill in the blanks with the right form of the Present Continuous.
1. They are having (to have) dinner.
2. He _________________________ (to stand) there.
3. She ________________________ (not / to sing).
4. They ________________________ (not / to eat).
5. Alice ________________________ (to watch) TV.
6. What ________________________ (to do /you) now?
7. Why ________________________ (they / not/ to drink) water?
8. ________________________ (he / to make) the bed?
9. ________________________ (you / to finish) your homework?
10.Jean ________________________ (not / to speak) to them.
11.We ________________________ (not / to swim).
12.She ________________________ (to buy) a record.
13.It ________________________ (to rain) again.
14.________________________ (they / not / to travel) to Italy?
15.We ________________________ (to learn) English now.

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Write in English. Use the Simple Present or the Present


Continuous.
a) Eu estou a falar Ingls.(to speak) ___________________________
b) Eu no falo Ingls. _______________________________________
c) Ela fala Ingls. __________________________________________
d) Ela no fala Ingls. ______________________________________
e) Eu no como. (to eat) ____________________________________
f) Eu no estou a comer. ____________________________________
g) Ela corre. (to run) _______________________________________
h) Ele no corre. __________________________________________
i) Ns estamos a correr. ____________________________________
j) Vs estais a viajar? (to travel) ______________________________
k) Eles no esto a viajar. ___________________________________
l) Elas no aprendem. (to learn) ______________________________
m) Eles aprendem bem? _____________________________________
n) Ela est a chegar. (to arrive) _______________________________

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Put the verb into the correct form Present Simple or Present
Continuous.
1. He _____________________ (to know) all about Wales.
2. Jane ___________________ (to talk) to a friend at the moment.
3. She ____________________ (not / to work) on Sundays.
4. Margaret ________________________ (to love) music and dancing.
5. The dog ________________________ (to sleep) under the table at the moment.
6. He ________________________ (not / to like) foreign countries.
7. _____________________________________ (they / to go) to the pub every evening?
8. Good students ________________________ (always / to study) hard.
9. ________________________________________ (she/ to see) her friends every week?
10.My father ________________________ (to do) the cooking at the weekend.
11.People ________________________ (to say) Edinburgh is a beautiful city.
12.Miriam ________________________ (still / to decorate) the Christmas tree.
13.They ________________________ (to stay) at the Plaza Hotel at present.
14.The concert ________________________ (to finish) at 12.
15.We ________________________ (to visit) the Smiths today in London.

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The future in English


Read the following information very carefully.
Weve got four ways to express the Future:
The Simple Future
The Going To Future
The Present Continuous
The Simple Present

The Simple Future:

Will + infinitive

Expressing prediction:

E.g. The Homeless will have more shelters soon.


The Going To Future: am / are/ is + going to + Infinitive
Expressing an intention to really do something:
E.g. That homeless man is going to eat at the shelter tonight.
To predict a future happening:
E.g. Look at that poor woman. Shes going to die on the streets,

homeless.

The Present Continuous:


To describe plans and arrangements which are definite:

E.g. Christine is eating at the shelter tomorrow.


Note: The time should be mentioned tomorrow, next week, next month, on

Friday to avoid confusion between the Present and the Future.


The Simple Present:
To describe planned events:
E.g. The shelters van gives lunch to the homeless on Friday at midday.
To talk about scheduled events:
E.g. The museum opens at 10 a.m. every day. So, you may go there to see
the pictures of the homeless men.

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Going to Future
Uso

Be going to uma estrutura que pode ser usada para falarmos de planos futuros de
forma informal. Going to enfatiza a ideia de inteno, de uma deciso que j foi
tomada.
Ex.: Mark is going to cross Ireland.
His friends are going to help him.
Um outro uso do going to o de predizer o futuro devido a um indcio presente.
Ex.: Look at the sky! It's going to rain.
They drive dangerously. They are going to crash.
Forma
Esta forma de futuro um tempo verbal composto, formado pelo verbo to be no
presente simples (am, is, are) e going to, ao que adicionamos a forma natural do
verbo que desejamos colocar no futuro.
Ex.: I am going to travel to Europe next year.
I am going to write a novel.
Forma Interrogativa
Basta colocarmos o verbo to be antes do sujeito.
Ex.: Is he going to be here today?
Forma Negativa

81

Coloca-se o "not" entre o verbo to be e o "going to":


Ex.: Paul is not going to marry her because of the baby.
As regras para abreviar so as mesmas usadas para o verbo to be.
What are, then, the main differences between Will-future and going tofuture?
Will- Future

Going To- Future

"Will" quando usado para falar de algo no

Use GOING TO:


* para falar sobre uma ao, facto ou

futuro geralmente vem acompanhado de

situao previamente planeada;

expresses que indicam incerteza. Como

* para expressar uma ao que

assim!? Veja as expresses abaixo:


I think... (Eu acho que...)
Probably, ... (Provavelmente, ...)
I guess... (Eu acho...)
I'm not sure, but I think... (No

acontecer num futuro imediato ou certo;


* para dar um aviso a algum sobre uma

tenho certeza, mas acho que...)


I don't know, but I think... (No sei

no, mas acho que...)


Maybe... (Talvez...)

situao perigosa.
Exemplos:
1. I am feeling horrible. Im going to get
sick.
2. Now that I have all the money, Im
going to buy a new car.
3. Where are you going? Im going to
fetch some coffee.

Como

esto

Agora caso esteja certo do que vai fazer,

presentes nas sentenas a palavra que indica

no lhe resta dvidas sobre o que far no

o futuro a ser usada "will". Assim sendo

futuro, j est decidido e praticamente

teremos:
I will probably go to Salvador in

acertado, ento o que dever dizer :


I'm going to Salvador this year.
I'm not going to the party next

as

expresses

de

incerteza

December.
I don't know! But I think I will not go
to the party next Saturday.
Maybe we will not be here tomorrow.

Saturday.
We're not going to be here tomorrow.

82

Exercises with the Simple Present and the Simple Future

1.
2.
3.
4.

Put the verb into either the present simple or the simple future tense:

Ill call you when I ________ (arrive) at my hotel.


He ________ (text) you as soon as hes on the bus.
Lets eat dinner when John ________ (get) here.
Julie ________ (be) late tomorrow evening, so Ive booked a table at a restaurant for

10 p.m.
5. As soon as I ________ (be) able to, Im going to get a new job.
6. Please wait here until the nurse ________ (call) you.
7. I ________ (get) up early tomorrow morning and finish the report then.
8. Before you ________ (leave), please make sure youve locked the door.
9. She ________ (let) us know later, when shes ready to leave.
10. I must clean the kitchen before my mother ________ (get) here.
11. I ________ (come) to meet you at the station next weekend.
12. I ________ (wait) until youre finished then we can go.
13. John will study until he ________ (know) all the answers.
14. She thinks that it ________ (rain) next weekend.
15. What do you want to do after the class ________ (finish)?
16. I think that the Democrats ________ (win) the next election.
17. Jenny will come here after she ________ (finish) work.
18. Shes going to look for a job as soon as she ________ (arrive) in London.
19. I ________ (give) up smoking!
20. She ________ (send) me an email before she leaves the office later today.

83

The Simple Past - rules

Study the following verbs in the Simple Past.


Simple Past of the verb TO BE
AFFIRMATIVE

NEGATIVE

INTERROGATIVE

I was
I was not (wasnt)
Was I?
You were
You were not (werent)
Were you?
He / he / It was
He / she / It was not (wasnt) Was he / she / it?
We / you / they were
We / You / They were not (werent)____Were we / you /
they?

TRADUO: I was eu era, estava, eu fui, estive; you were tu eras, foste,
estavas, estiveste; he was ele era, foi, estava, esteve; we were ns ramos,
fomos, estivemos; you were vs reis, fostes; they were eles (elas) eram,
estavam, foram, estiveram.

Simple Past of the verb TO HAVE


AFFIRMATIVE

NEGATIVE

I had
You had
He / he / It had
We / you / they had

I had not (hadnt)


You had not (hadnt)
He / she / It had not
We / You / They had

INTERROGATIVE
Had I / you / he
/ she / it / we /

(hadnt)
you
/ they...?

not (hadnt)

TRADUO: I had eu tinha, tive; you had tu tinhas, tiveste; he had ele tinha,
teve, etc.
Simple Past of the verb TO DO
AFFIRMATIVE

NEGATIVE

INTERROGATIVE

84

I did
You did
He / he / It did
We / you / they did

I did not (didnt)


You did not (didnt)
He / she / It did not
We / You / They did not

Did I / you /

(didnt)
(didnt)

he / she / it /
we / you /
they...?

TRADUO: I did eu fiz, fazia, etc.


E como se forma o passado dos verbos regulares?

Com os verbos regulares bastante mais fcil! Acrescenta-se ed ao


infinitivo do verbo.
E.g. Help--- helped; like ---liked; watch---watched.
No caso de verbos como like, que j terminam em e, no vamos acrescentar
ed, mas sim d, para evitar duas vogais seguidas!

85

List of verbs

86

87

88

89

90

The Simple Past exercises

1. Put the verbs into the correct form (simple past).

a) Last year I (spend)

b) It (be)

c) I (travel)

we (visit)

my holiday in Ireland.

great.

around by car with two friends and

lots of interesting places.

d) In the evenings we usually (go)

e) One night we even (learn)

f) We (be)

to a pub.

some Irish dances.

very lucky with the weather.

g) It (not / rain)

a lot.

h) But we (see)

some beautiful rainbows.

i) Where (spend / you)

your last holiday?

91

2. Now, translate the previous sentences.

b) _______________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________

c) _______________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________

d) _______________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________

e) _______________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________

f) _______________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________

g) _______________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________

h) _______________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________

92

i) _______________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________

j) _______________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________

93

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http://www.bbc.co.uk/learningenglish/index.shtml
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http://www.songtext.net
http://www.jobsearch.co.uk
www.google.com
www.youtube.com
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