Anda di halaman 1dari 15

From the time that it was initially made possible through the invention and

widespread popularity of the radio, broadcasting, the act of transmitting a


radio or television program for public use, has been used effectively to reach
millions of people. Broadcasting has a very interesting history and has
evolved much over the many years it has been utilized as a way of
communication. This was and still is by far the most convenient way to reach
millions of people at a time in a matter of seconds. Broadcasting has been,
and will continue to be, the best source of information and entertainment as
well as an industry of opportunity.
Broadcasting means the transmission of news, speeches, music, etc. by
means of electrical and ionized reflexion waves to all persons who possess
receiving sets. The discovery of the wireless or radio goes back to the first
decade of the 20th century and Sir Jagadis Bose was one of the pioneerworkers who made valuable contributions to this science. To Marconi of Italy,
however, belongs the credit of putting this discovery to practical use, when
in 1899 he transmitted wireless messages across the English Channel.
Defining exactly when broadcasting first began is difficult. Very early radio
transmissions only carried the dots and dashes of wireless telegraphy.
Broadcasting in its familiar sense, sending signals to inform and entertain
large numbers of people, began in the early twentieth century. Countries in
which notable advances were made in the early decades of the twentieth
century include the United States, Britain, Germany, and Sri Lanka.

One of the first signals of significant power that carried voice and music was
accomplished in 1906, by Reginald Fessenden when he made a Christmas
Eve broadcast to ships at sea from Massachusetts. He played "O Holy Night"
on his violin and read passages from the Bible. Reginald Fessenden, a
Canadian radio pioneer who on Christmas Eve in 1906 broadcast the first
program of music and voice ever transmitted over long distances.
Charles Herrold of California sent out broadcasts as early as April 1909 from
his Herrold School electronics institute in downtown San Jose, using the
identification San Jose Calling, and then a variety of different "call signs" as
the Department of Commerce first began to regulate radio. The son of a
farmer who patented a seed spreader, Herrold coined the terms
"broadcasting" and "narrowcasting," based on the ideas of spreading crop
seed far and wide, rather than only in rows. While Herrold never claimed the
invention of radio itself, he did claim the invention of broadcasting to a wide
audience, through the use of antennas designed to radiate signals in all
directions.
By 1912, the United States government began requiring radio operators to
obtain licenses to send out signals. Herrold received licenses for 6XF and 6XE
(a mobile transmitter) and had been on the air daily for nearly a decade
when World War I interrupted operations. A few organizations were allowed
to keep working on radio during the war. The Westinghouse Electric
Corporation was the most well-known of these. Frank Conrad, a

Westinghouse engineer, had been making transmissions from 8XK since


1916, that included music programming.
Following the war, Herrold and other radio pioneers across the country
resumed transmissions. The early stations gained new call signs. Conrad's
8XK became KDKA in 1920. Herrold received a license for KQW in 1921, later
to become KCBS a CBS-owned station in San Francisco.

The National Broadcasting Company (NBC) began regular broadcasting in


1926, with telephone links between New York City and other eastern cities.
NBC became the dominant radio network, splitting into Red and Blue
networks. The Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS) began in 1927, under
the guidance of William S. Paley. Several independent stations formed the
Mutual Broadcasting System to exchange syndicated programming.
A Federal Communications Commission decision in 1939 required NBC to
divest itself of its "Blue Network." That decision was sustained by the
Supreme Court in a 1943 decision, National Broadcasting Co. v. United
States, which established the framework that the "scarcity" of radiofrequency meant that broadcasting was subject to greater regulation than
other media. This Blue Network became the American Broadcasting
Company (ABC). Around 1946, ABC, NBC, and CBS began regular television
broadcasts. Another network, the DuMont Television Network, founded
earlier, was disbanded in 1956.

The first experimental broadcasts, from Marconi's factory in Chelmsford,


England, began in 1920. Two years later, a consortium of radio
manufacturers formed the British Broadcasting Company, later becoming the
British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), a non-commercial organization.
Lord John Reith took a formative role in developing the BBC, especially in
radio. Working as its first general manager, he promoted the philosophy of
"public service broadcasting," firmly grounded in the moral benefits of
education and of uplifting entertainment, eschewing commercial influence,
and maintaining a maximum of independence from political control.
Commercial stations such as Radio Normandie and Radio Luxembourg
broadcast into the UK from European countries, providing a very popular
alternative to the rather austere BBC. These stations were closed during
World War II, and only Radio Luxembourg returned afterward.
BBC television broadcasts in Britain began on November 2, 1936, and have
continued with the exception of wartime conditions from 1939 to 1945.
Germany
Before the Nazi assumption of power in 1933, German radio broadcasting
was supervised by the Post Office. A listening fee for each receiver paid most
subsidies.
Immediately following Hitler's assumption of power, Joseph Goebbels
became head of the Ministry for Propaganda and Public Enlightenment. Non-

Nazis were removed from broadcasting and editorial positions. Jews were
fired from all positions. German broadcasting began to decline in popularity
as the theme of Kampfzeit was continually played. Germany was easily
served by a number of European medium wave stations, including the BBC
and domestic stations in France, Denmark, Sweden, and Poland. It became
illegal for Germans, with the exception of foreign correspondents and key
officials, to listen to foreign broadcasts.
During the war, German stations broadcast not only war propaganda and
entertainment for German forces dispersed throughout Europe and the
Atlantic, but also provided air raid alerts.

Germany experimented with television broadcasting before the Second World


War. German propaganda claimed their system was superior to the British
scanning system, but this was disputed by persons who saw the broadcasts.
Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka has the oldest radio station in Asia. The station, originally known as
Radio Ceylon, developed into one of the finest broadcasting institutions in
the world. It is now known as the Sri Lanka Broadcasting Corporation.
Sri Lanka created broadcasting history in Asia in 1923, when broadcasting
was started in Ceylon by the Telegraph Department on an experimental
footing, just three years after the inauguration of broadcasting in Europe.

Gramophone music was broadcast from a tiny room in the Central Telegraph
Office with the aid of a small transmitter built by the Telegraph Department
engineers from the radio equipment of a captured German submarine.
Edward Harper, dubbed "the father of broadcasting in Ceylon," launched the
first experimental broadcast as well as founding the Ceylon Wireless Club
together with British and Ceylonese radio enthusiasts. This broadcasting
experiment was a huge success and barely three years later, on December
16, 1925, a regular broadcasting service was instituted.
The 1950s and 1960s
In the 1950s, television began to replace radio as the chief source of revenue
for broadcasting networks. Although many radio programs continued through
this decade, including Gunsmoke and The Guiding Light, by 1960, radio
networks had ceased producing entertainment programs.
As radio stopped producing formal 15-minute to hourly programs, a new
format developedTop 40. "Top 40" was based on a continuous rotation of
short pop songs presented by a "disc jockey." Top 40 playlists were
theoretically based on record sales; however, record companies began to
bribe disc jockeys to play selected artists.
Shortwave broadcasting played an important part in fighting the Cold War
with Voice of America and the BBC World Service, augmented with Radio Free
Europe and Radio Liberty transmitting through the "Iron Curtain." Radio

Moscow and others broadcasted back, jamming (transmitting to cause


intentional interference) the voices of the West.
In the 1950s, American television networks introduced broadcasts in color.
The Federal Communications Commission approved the world's first
monochrome-compatible color television standard in December 1953. The
first network colorcast followed on January 1, 1954, with NBC transmitting
the annual Tournament of Roses Parade in Pasadena, California, to over 20
stations across the country.
In 1952, an educational television network, National Educational Television
(NET), predecessor to PBS, was founded.
The 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s
The growth of FM (frequency modulated) radio in the 1970s changed the
habits of younger listeners. Many stations such as WNEW-FM in New York City
began to play whole sides of record albums, as opposed to the "Top 40"
model of two decades earlier.
AM (amplitude modulated) radio declined throughout the 1970s and 1980s,
due to various reasons including the lower cost of FM receivers, narrow AM
audio bandwidth, poor sound in the AM section of automobile receivers, and
increased radio noise in homes caused by fluorescent lighting and the
introduction of electronic devices. AM radio's decline flattened out in the mid-

1990s due to the introduction of niche formats and over-commercialization of


many FM stations.
The 2000s
The 2000s saw the introduction of digital radio and direct broadcasting by
satellite (DBS). Digital radios began to be sold in the United Kingdom in
1998.
Digital radio services, except in the United States, were allocated a new
frequency band in the range of 1,400 MHz. In the United States, this band
was deemed to be vital to national defense, so an alternate band in the
range of 2,300 MHz was introduced for satellite broadcasting. American
companies introduced DBS systems, which are funded by direct subscription,
like cable television. European and Australian stations also began digital
broadcasting (Digital Audio Broadcast).
1930s to 1940sEdit
KZRM, was a AM station in May 3, 1933 KZRH, was a AM station owned by
H.E. Heacocks Company also known as radio heacocks

1940s to 1950sEdit
in June 1, 1946 H.E. Heacock s Company was a relaunch as Manila
Broadcasting Company call letter from KZRH to DZRH and DZMB

DZPI, its a began on March 20, 1949 Philippine Broadcasting Corporation was
a AM stations in 40s

in June 4, 1948 - 630 KZAS an AM Radio Station of Far East Broadcasting


Company, Phils (FEBC Philippines) was inaugurated in Karuhatan Valenzuela.
Later on 630 KZAS was changed to 702 DZAS as it continues till today.

1950s to 1960sEdit
DZAQ, since October 19, 1953 owned by Alto Broadcasting System DZBB,
began broadcast on March 1, 1950 owned by Republic Broadcasting System
DZHF, was a AM stations in 1951 DZYL, began broadcast in 1956 DZXL,
began broadcast in 1956 DZFE, began broadcast in 1950 owned by Far East
Broadcasting Company

1960s to early 1970sEdit


DZBC AM Station Owned by Bolinao Electronics later ABS

DZEC AM Station owned by Eagle Broadcasting Corporation

DZEM AM Station owned by Christian Broadcasting Service

DZFE AM station owned by Far East Broadcasting Company (later transferred


to the FM band)

DZUP and DZLB operated by University of the Philippines

DZST am operated by University of Santo Tomas

DZTC am operated by National Teachers College

All School operated station were shut down during martial rule.

The Radio became AM and FM frequencies.

- DZFM and DZRM of The Philippine Broadcasting Service of the Philippine


Govt.

Managed by Francisco Trinidad

DZTR established in 1965 owned by Trans-Radio Broadcasting Corporation


DZBM of Mareco Broadcasting Network in 1963
DZTM manila times tagalog station ABC owned by Chino Roces
DZMT Manila Times Radio DZWS Womens Station Operated by ABC
DZYK of ABS-CBN Broadcasting Corporation
DZRJ of Rajah Broadcasting Network in 1963 AM and FM
DZRB Radio Bulletin Operated by Manila Daily Bulletin
DZHP Radio Mindanao Network
DZXL radio Chronicle Broadcating Network
1970s to early 1980sEdit
DWIZ of Philippine Broadcasting Corporation on September 24, 1972
DWBL of FBS Radio Network on February 1, 1972
DWFM of Nation Broadcasting Corporation frequency 92.3 in July 2, 1973

DZMB of Manila Broadcasting Company was a moved from AM to FM Band


frequency from 760 khz to 90.7 FM on February 14, 1975
DZTR was a launching as DWRT-FM frequency of 99.5 FM on September 3,
1976
DWLL of FBS Radio Network frequency 94.7 FM in 1973
DWLM of Mareco Broadcasting Network frequency 105.1 in 1972
DWKB was a launching as DZMZ owned by Intercontinental Broadcasting
Corporation
DWEI of Liberty Broadcasting Corporation on September 14, 1973
DWWA of Banahaw Broadcasting Corporation
DWAD of Crusaders Broadcasting System frequency 1080 kHz in 1972
1980s to 1990Edit
DWTM of Sarao Broadcasting Systems on February 14, 1986
DWCT-FM of Raven Broadcasting Corporation on May 27, 1988 Citylife 88.3
was a rename as Jam 88.3 callsign from DWCT to DWJM
DWKS of Makati Broadcasting Network in 1985
DWRX of Audiovisual Communicators, Inc. frequency 93.1 in August 23, 1983
DWBM-FM of Mareco Broadcasting Network in 1985

DZMM on ABS-CBN Broadcasting Corporation on July 22, 1986


DWKO on ABS-CBN Broadcasting Corporation on October 1986
DZAM on Nation Broadcasting Corporation on June 2, 1987 callsign from
DZAM to DZAR
1990s to 2000Edit
DWET-FM on Associated Broadcasting Company frequency 106.7 in February
21, 1992
DWCD-FM on Crusaders Broadcasting System on 1992
2010s to presentEdit
DZAY of Magallanes Broadcasting System. frequency on 531 kHz soon to air
on September 15 , 2015, was a launch as Radyo Padilla 531 kHz Manila
DWAD-FM of Crusaders Broadcasting System frequency 97.5 MHz
DZME-FM of Capitol Broadcasting Center frequency 105.3 in Soon to air on
August 2, 2015
DZKE on Ultrasonic Broadcasting System frequency of 1206 kHz
DZYX of Brigada Mass Media Corporation. frequency of 792 kHz on June 19,
2015
DZSB on Security Broadcasting Corporation on June 2015

DXIE Dipolog of Audiovisual Communicators, Inc. frequency of 101.5 on July


5, 2015
DYLG Iloilo of Audiovisual Communicators soon on September 2015
DYVX-FM Iloilo of Audiovisual Communicators soon on August 1, 2015
DZFC Santiago Isabela of Quest Broadcasting Inc. Frequency of 93.5 MHz on
July 9, 2015
DZUG Bayombong on Philippine Broadcasting Service on July 12, 2015
DZRX Santiago Isabela of Audiovisual Communicators Frequency of 93.1 MHz
on July 28, 2015
DZYN Sorsogon of Philippine Broadcasting Service Soon on September 2,
2015
DYIE Bacolod of Philippine Broadcasting Service soon
DZXP and DZYP-FM Bayombong, Nueva Vizcaya of Pacific Broadcasting
Systems soon on August 2015
DZPS of Audiovisual Communicators, Inc. and Metropolitan Manila
Development Authority frequency of 765 kHz soon on September 2, 2015
DZGC Bayombong of Mareco Broadcasting Network on September 14, 2015
DZKT Bayombong, Nueva Vizcaya of Quest Broadcasting Inc. soon on
October 2, 2015

DZJD-FM of Mareco Broadcasting Network frequency of 88.3 MHz soon


December 2, 2015
DYFI -FM Catbalogan of Audiovisual Communicators, Inc. frequency of 89.1
MHz Soon on January 2016
DZNA of Countryside Radio Group a affiliate of Audiovisual Communicators,
Inc. Soon on February 1, 2016

http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Broadcasting
http://www.britannica.com/biography/Reginald-Aubrey-Fessenden
http://www.interaksyon.com/entertainment/today-in-history-in-1915-thefather-of-philippine-radio-koko-trinidad-was-born/