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SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE, BUILDING & DESIGN Centre for Modern Architecture Studies in Southeast Asia Bachelor of Science (Honors) (Architecture) ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60203)

Project 2: Report

NATIONAL MOSQUE OF MALAYSIA

Tutor: Pn. Hayati

Members:

Mohd Anwar Bin Fauzi (0320313) Muhammad Ashroff B Abd Wahab (0325736) Shefereena Isreen Binti Mohamad Ishak (0325915) Siti Nur Fatahiah Bt Md Ezamudin (0320595) Tan Jee Khium (0324827)

SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE, BUILDING & DESIGN Centre for Modern Architecture Studies in Southeast Asia Bachelor of

CONTENTS

PAGE

1.0Introduction

2

  • 1.1 Building Facts

  • 1.2 History of the Building

  • 1.3 The Architects

2.0Site Context Analysis

 
  • 2.1

  • 2.2

By Tan Jee Khium (0324827)

3.0Architectural Layout of Building

 
  • 3.1 Plan to Section / Elevation Analysis

  • 3.2 Circulation to Use­Space

  • 3.3 Organization Analysis

By Shefereena Isreen Binti Mohamad Ishak (0325915)

4.0Architecture Style Analysis

 
  • 4.1 Traditional Malay

  • 4.2 Islamic

By Siti Nur Fatahiah Bt Md Ezamudin (0320595)

5.0Building Construction, Structure, and Materials Analysis

 
  • 5.1 Characteristics

  • 5.2 Building Materials

  • 5.3 Renovations

By Muhammad Ashroff B Abd Wahab (0325736)

6.0Architectural Elements / Components Analysis

 
  • 6.1 Prayer Hall

  • 6.2 Access

  • 6.3 Courtyard

 
  • 6.4 Landscape and Pool

  • 6.5 Verandah

  • 6.6 Minaret

  • 6.7 Mausoleum

  • 6.8 Meeting Hall

  • 6.9 Mihrab and Mimbar

By Mohd Anwar Bin Fauzi (0320313)

7.0Conclusion

 

8.0References

 

1.0

INTRODUCTION

Mosques are an important part of the Islamic society, as it indicates the Islamic growth and culture of a nation. Most mosques nowadays have their own unique architecture which became the basis of mosque architecture throughout the world. The diversity of mosque architecture has developed its understanding towards the function that the mosque should behold . As Islam developed, mosque architecture started to develop as well. The function of the mosque is to not only be the center of religion, but as well as to be the symbol and image of Islam, as it could represent the religion and the teachings that it brings.

  • 1.1 Building Facts

The National Mosque of Malaysia, that is located at Jalan Perdana, was officially opened in 1965 with a capacity of 8000 worshippers per session whereas now the capacity has been upgraded up to 15000 worshippers. It was built on a land area of 13 acres with a Minaret that height up to 73 metres and 16 folds in umbrella dome roof

1.0 ​ INTRODUCTION Mosques are an important part of the Islamic society, as it indicates the

Figure1.1shows the 13 acres land proposed to build Masjid Negara (Masjid Negara Publication Book p.9)

Masjid Negara was originally supposed to be named after the first Prime Minister of Malaysia, but he declined the honor and recommended the name ‘Masjid Negara’ (National Mosque) to reflect the importance of the Islam in Malaysia instead (Lim, Y. L, 2007) Though it was built 40 years ago, its modern approach to architecture is still relevant in the context of today’s social­cultural and modern environment in the country where its architecture emphasizes functional aspects as well as the spirit of time and place unlike the other mosques, it does not imitate the Middle Eastern and Indian mosques architecture, which was commonly practiced during the colonial period. It has been identified as an ‘International Style’ building explains that it does not convey any architectural references towards any ethnic or cultural values of any particular race; it reflects the effort and contribution of every level in a multi­religious and multi­racial Malaysia. The National Mosque embodies the spirit and inspiration of a nation and the universal values of Islam and is a proud symbol of Malaysia and its citizens.

  • 1.2 History of Building

30th July 1957, in the meeting of the Federal Executive Council, an idea to build a national mosque as a symbol of the country’s independence was mooted. Then, on 5th March 1958 in another meeting consists of Chief Ministers of the eleven states in the Federation of Malaya, a proposal was made to name the mosque Masjid Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra, in recognition of Yang Teramat Mulia Tunku Abdul Rahman Al­Haj’s efforts in guiding the country to gaining independence. (Lim, Y. L, 2007)However, Tunku refused this honour; on the contrary, he named it Masjid Negara in thanksgiving for the country’s peaceful independence without bloodshed.

The site was selected by Tunku Abdul Rahman for its beautiful natural setting with notable buildings around it. Tunku remarked that “in the days of colonial rule a few Government buildings grew up around this particular site, but nobody would touch the area for further development because of its deep ravines and hills which seemed impossible for use. When I first looked upon this empty site, I felt that as if God had ordained that it should be reserved for the building of this national mosque in independent Malaysia.” (Lim, Y. L, 2007) The National Mosque was successfully completed for its official opening on Friday, 27th August 1965 by His Majesty the Yang di­Pertuan Agong.

Figure1.2 ​ shows the construction of Masjid Negara in 1965 ​ (Masjid Negara Publication Book, p.15)

Figure1.2shows the construction of Masjid Negara in 1965 (Masjid Negara Publication Book, p.15)

Today, the mosque sits in the midst of activity within Kuala Lumpur city centre. It is surrounded by notable buildings; the existence of The National Mosque in the midst of the old and new buildings results in the building taking on the characteristic of an open museum that illustrates the evolution of Islamic architecture in the country.

1965 2016 1.3 ​ The Architects Initially, local and international design competitions were proposed to obtain
1965 2016 1.3 ​ The Architects Initially, local and international design competitions were proposed to obtain

1965

2016

  • 1.3 The Architects

Initially, local and international design competitions were proposed to obtain suitable designs for Malaysia’s National Mosque. However, the proposed competitions were not realized because it would increase the overall cost of the building, as well as fearing that the works of foreigners may not reflect the local context and national spirit. Consequently, the project was given to architects from the Design and Research Branch of the Federal Public Works Department. It was led by three architects, two of whom were local architects named Dato’ Ikmal Hisham Albakri and Dato’ Baharuddin Abu Kassim, as well as a British architect named Howard Ivor Ashley. Dato’ Ikmal Hisham Albakri became the first Malaysian to obtain an architectural diploma in the University of Sheffield in 1956, before furthering his studies in Tropical Architecture/Town Planning in the Architectural Association School of Architecture, London, in 1962. Dato’ Baharuddin studied in depth on the topic of mosque design during his time in the University of Manchester, and had even designed a mosque as his final­year thesis in 1958. A decision was made for Baharuddin Abu Kassim to lead the design team and carry on the work till the completion of the building. Prior to planning and designing, he

and other committee members had been sent to other countries, such as India, Pakistan, and Saudi Arabia to conduct a few case studies of famous mosques in those countries. Furthermore, he applied his knowledge on mosque design from his study during his university years. Based on his design thesis during his studies in Victoria University of Manchester on a mosque for the state of Selangor, he proposed the functions of the mosque not only a place of worship, but also as social activities centre for the community; he firmly believed a mosque should be a Muslim cultural centre.

2.0

SITE CONTEXT ANALYSIS

Building accessibility. Relationship of building to surroundings ­ compare the similarities or differences. Respond to climate.

  • 2.1 Site Location & Topography

2.0 ​ SITE CONTEXT ANALYSIS ● Building accessibility. ● Relationship of building to surroundings ­ compare

Figure 2.1 Location of Mosque and Places of Interest around the mosque. Note the LRT and train lines coloured on the map. The mosque is circled in red. (Google Maps)

The National Mosque is located south west of Central KL, close to where the first buildings of Kuala Lumpur was build in the 19th century, where the Klang and Gombak river met. The mosque is located at the oldest part of Kuala Lumpur, where Kuala Lumpur was first founded and colonial buildings can still be seen, majority of which

located on the east side of the Klang River. The mosque is located on the west side of the river within the Perdana Lake Park, as shown in Figure 2.1.

located on the east side of the Klang River. The mosque is located on the west

Figure 2.12 Topology map of the site. The mosque is circled in red.

The site is located at the bottom of the hill and the mosque sits on a sloped site as shown in Figure 2.12. The site was sparsely populated and surrounded by forest with an exception of a Venning Road Brethren Gospel Hall when the site was allocated by the government. Although the site is 13 acres big, the building itself only accounts to less than 3 acres.

2.2 Site Circulation

The parking lots are located at the north and south of the side and the main entrance of the mosque is located at the southeast. There are other entrances around the building and the lecture hall is located at the southwest, next to the car park.

2.2 ​ Site Circulation The parking lots are located at the north and south of the
2.2 ​ Site Circulation The parking lots are located at the north and south of the
2.2 ​ Site Circulation The parking lots are located at the north and south of the

Figure 2.2 Clockwise from top left: Man prayer entrance, Women prayer entrance, Non­Muslim Entrance.

2.2 ​ Site Circulation The parking lots are located at the north and south of the

Figure 2.3 Floor Plan of the mosque. The red arrows shows the direction of movement towards the main prayer hall. (Chan, C.Y., 2009)

Today, the main entrance is used as the women prayer entrance while the other two entrances are for male prayers and non­muslims as shown in Figure 2.2. The man prayer entrance is labelled C, the women prayer entrance is labelled B and the non­muslim entrance is labelled A as in Figure 2.3. The entrances are segregated due to religious reasons. All the paths from the entrance leads into the prayer hall (Labelled 1 in Figure 2.3) which is fully indoors and restricted to muslims only. The walkways are wide and covered to shelter the prayers from the weathers as they walked to the main prayer hall, shown in Figure 2.4. The warrior’s memorial contains the remains of the dignitaries and is located at the west of the mosque (Labelled 3 in Figure 2.3), surrounded by a circular moat and covered with a dome with Islamic star motifs.

Today, the main entrance is used as the women prayer entrance while the other two entrances

Figure 2.4 Covered Walkways to the main prayer hall

2.3 Accessibility

The mosque is connected via major roads such as Jalan Kinabalu and the always congested Jalan Damansara. The mosque is also accessible by public transport as it is only a 5 minutes walk to the Old Kuala Lumpur Railway Station served by the KTM Commuter. A link bridge was also built from the railway station towards the Pasar Seni LRT station served by the Kelana Jaya LRT Line and the upcoming MRT Line. The LRT

station also acts as a main bus hub for city buses. Figure 2.1 shows the proximity of the railway lines and the LRT lines to the mosque. The mosque isn’t crowded most of the time except during Friday's where it is mandatory for Muslims to pray in a mosque. Most of them opt to use public transport to get there rather than driving due to heavy traffic and lack of parking space around the site.

2.4 Surrounding Buildings

The mosque is surrounded by a mix of colonial and modern era buildings, each of them tells a timeline on how the city progresses since its founding back in the 19th century. Most of the buildings surrounding the site, especially on the west side of the river are build with Islamic motifs and styles especially buildings after the construction of the mosque. This is because the national mosque symbolises the status of Islam within the country after Independence, where Islam is the official religion as stated in the Federal Constitution. As such, buildings built around the mosque are designed with Islamic motifs and symbols as well as functionally Islamic related, such as the JAWI building across the mosque, as shown in Figure 2.13. The following are the list of buildings around the National Mosque in chronological order.

station also acts as a main bus hub for city buses. Figure 2.1 shows the proximity

Figure 2.13 JAWI Building in the distance across the mosque.

Old Kuala Lumpur Railway Station

Old Kuala Lumpur Railway Station Figure 2.5 The Old Kuala Lumpur Railway Station Built in 1906

Figure 2.5 The Old Kuala Lumpur Railway Station

Built in 1906 and completed 4 years later, this station is used as a main terminus for intercity trains. It was designed by Arthur Bennison Hubback, whom was the assistant to the director of Architecture Department of Public Works. The station contains four tracks when it was first build and has a hotel within the station itself, in which it has closed down in 2011.

The station adopted a Mughal architecture style, which is a common architectural style during the period, as shown in Figure 2.5. The bulbous dome sits on the slender minarets with cupolas which are located on each corner of the building. Arched and domed windows, commonly seen in Mughal architecture decorates the facade of the building. The Mughal facade hides the cast­iron and glass frame of the station itself, which can be clearly seen from the platforms as shown in Figure 2.6. The roof was designed to withstand about six feet of snow, which is a bit ironic considering

that Malaysia never experienced a single snowflake due to its location close to the Equator.

that Malaysia never experienced a single snowflake due to its location close to the Equator. Figure

Figure 2.6 The cast iron and glass roof within the platforms

The station experienced numerous renovation during its lifetime and the station has been expanded to the north to increase its capacity before the intercity services moved to KL Sentral in Brickfields. Today, the station is in a dilapidated state with most of its facilities decommissioned including the museum and the hotel. The station is still served by the KTM Komuter line using the central platform while the outer platforms are used by the new electric intercity line (ETS).

Railway Administration Building (KTMB Headquarters)

Designed to complement the railway station which has the same architectural style, the administration building has faced several delays during construction due to World War I and the bad economy and was only completed in 1917. Completed seven years after the completion of the railway station across it, it was built as an administration building for the railway company. It was designed by the same architect

that built the railway station and has the same Mughal architectural style, with the addition of a large bulbous dome at the middle of the building, visible from the front of the building.

that built the railway station and has the same Mughal architectural style, with the addition of

Figure 2.7 The Railway Administration Building

The building was closer to a Moorish architecture where the building reflects both the combination of Ottoman and Mughal styles with influences from Greek and Gothic architecture as shown in Figure 2.7. This hybrid Islamic architecture style was exported from India to British Malaya through British engineers and architects inspired by Indo­Saracenic styles from India. The high and wide verandas surrounding the building creates a cooling effect as tropical climate temperatures are often high all year long.

Today, it is used as the main headquarters for KTMB Malaysia, the railway company that manages a majority of rail lines in West Malaysia, still serving its main

purpose as a railway administration building to this day. An underground passageway connects the headquarters and the railway station together.

The Majestic Hotel Kuala Lumpur

purpose as a railway administration building to this day. An underground passageway connects the headquarters and

Figure 2.8 The Majestic Hotel. The original main entrance shown is now used as a cafe and lounge entrance.

Built in 1932 by Keyes and Dowdeswell, it was located next to the railway administration building on top of a hilltop, as shown in Figure 2.8. The site was used to be the German Consul’s residence and gardens before World War I. The building takes cues from neoclassical and art deco styles with a grand driveway and tall white classical Roman columns. It has 51 rooms when it was first built and most of its furnishings and furniture are imported from England. The hotel soon turned into one of the top hotels in Kuala Lumpur due to its location and grandeur, favoured by the elites and visitors. Parties, tea dance and weddings are often held in the hotel during its peak.

Throughout the years, the hotel has seen many important events in the nation’s history such as it was used as a meeting spot for the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) during its early days. Dato’ Onn Jaafar, the founder of UMNO,

resigned from the party at the Roof Garden of the hotel on the 25th August 1951. The hotel was used as an art gallery for 4 years after the hotel closed in 1983. The hotel was reopened in December 2012 after a major refurbishment project and now has an additional block for accommodation.

Dayabumi Complex

resigned from the party at the Roof Garden of the hotel on the 25th August 1951.

Figure 2.9 Dayabumi Complex with the tower and the general post office. The shopping complex has been demolished.

Completed in 1984 and designed by MAA & BEP Architect , it was commissioned by the Urban Development Authority (UDA) as part of its strategy to creating joint ventures with the government and the private sector as well as to restructure Bumiputra interest in urban areas. The entire complex consisted of a 35 storey­tower, a shopping complex and the general post office, as shown in Figure 2.9. The building is a prominent landmark as it overlooks colonial buildings surrounding the tower and was

built to reflect the commitment of the government to protect the rights of the Bumiputera.

The tower layout and external facade bears strong connection to Islamic architecture and a contrast to the colonial buildings surrounding the complex. The layout of the tower resembles a combination of overlapping polygons and the Rub el Hizb, a 8 point star commonly seen in Islamic geometry. Islamic symbols and geometric motifs are also represented within the metal sunshades surrounding the building and pointed arches at the lobby.

Today, the shopping complex has been demolished and the lobby has been renovated to include a new glass entrance near the existing general post office. It is connected to the LRT and the Old Kuala Lumpur railway station via walkways.

Islamic Arts Museum

built to reflect the commitment of the government to protect the rights of the Bumiputera. The

Figure 2.10 Islamic Arts Museum (BookingKayak, 2016)

Completed in 1998 and designed by Kumpulan Akitek Sdn Bhd, it is located within the Perdana Lake Gardens and opposite the National Mosque. It was built to house and display artefacts, artworks, crafts, manuscripts and collections from the Islamic world. The building also contains an auditorium and two libraries besides having 12 galleries.

Completed in 1998 and designed by Kumpulan Akitek Sdn Bhd, it is located within the Perdana

Figure 2.11 The decorated dome being lit.

The building was built in a post­modern style the fusion of steel and glass as well as Islamic motifs such as overlapping geometry and domes. The most prominent feature of the museum are the domes decorated with Islamic geometry and motifs, all of them brightly lit within with varying tones of colors, as shown in Figure 2.11. The museum interior is designed to allow light to flood in from the central courtyard towards the deepest parts of the museum, creating a sense of importance where God is the light of universe, according to the Islamic Arts Museum Malaysia Curatorial Affairs Department Head Dr Heba Nayel Barakat.

The museum is popular with tourists and often held special exhibitions throughout the year. The combination of the various interesting artefacts from the Islamic world and the attention to detail of the architecture of the museum has earned its place within the top 10 museums in Asia by TripAdvisor, a popular travel site.

3.0ARCHITECTURAL LAYOUT OF BUILDING

Spatial configuration is concerned with finding feasible locations and dimensions for a set of interrelated objects that meet all design requirements and maximize design quality in terms of design preferences (J.Michalek, 2002). Layout plan is an important foundation in designing a building where it will affect the users in terms of their circulation, space planning, how it ease the users and being as well planned as possible. In Architectural layout of building, there are three main components in understanding architecture which is, form, space and order. In architecture, space is central to understanding the essential qualities of architecture, just like sound in music, or words in poetry whereas ordering principles are seen as visual devices that allow the varied and diverse forms and spaces of a building to coexist perceptually and conceptually within an ordered, unified, and harmonious whole (Ching F.D.K , 2007) Examples of ordering principles are :­

Axis

Symmetry

Hierarchy

Repetition

Rhythm

Datum

Centralized

Linear

Radial

Clustered

  • 3.1 Plan to section / elevation analysis

    • 3.1.1 Layout plan of Masjid Negara The National Mosque was built up to two storeys, and available to accommodate a congregation of 15,000 people. Despite being majorly used as a

place of worship for all muslims, it also serves as an educational and social centre. Activities such as religious classes for children and adults, functions, seminars, festival celebrations, Islamic talks and many more are used to held in hall rooms build in the mosque complex. The layout design reflects our nation, Malaysia, and also the adaptation of islamic principles and religion values into it.

place of worship for all muslims, it also serves as an educational and social centre. Activities

Figure 3.1Layout plan of National Mosque

Overall, the mosque consists of 8 spaces as listed below:

Space

Function

  • 1. Grand prayer hall

Provided for Muslims to perform their prayers

Space Function 1. Grand prayer hall Provided for Muslims to perform their prayers 2. Women prayer
  • 2. Women prayer hall

Provided for women to perform their prayers

Space Function 1. Grand prayer hall Provided for Muslims to perform their prayers 2. Women prayer
  • 3. Heroes’ Mausoleum

Dedicated to seven distinguished statesmen of our

country

country

  • 4. Library

To store books related to Muslims and its religion Eg: Al­Quran, Kitab

  • 5. Offices

For workers and management purposes

  • 6. Open courtyard

 
To accommodate a bigger number of worshipers/ talks/ exhibition

To accommodate a bigger number of worshipers/ talks/ exhibition

  • 7. Rectangular pool

Creates cooling effect to the building

7. Rectangular pool Creates cooling effect to the building 8. Conference hall Seminars/ workshops or wedding
  • 8. Conference hall

Seminars/ workshops or wedding reception

7. Rectangular pool Creates cooling effect to the building 8. Conference hall Seminars/ workshops or wedding

Table 3.1 Spaces and function of Masjid Negara

  • 3.1.1.1 Seven principles of Islamic Architecture There are seven Principles of Islamic Architecture that aims to illustrate the intrinsic relationship between Muslims, their beliefs and how these manifest themselves in everyday architecture, (Anonymous,2009). The seven principles are as stated below, (Nisreen.M, 2008). These principles are mainly applied in Islamic architecture especially mosque in embracing the value of Islam as a religion.

    • 1. Architecture as Tawhid: Unity & Uniquity of Allah

    • 2. Architecture of Ihtiram: Respect

    • 3. Architecture with Ikhlas: Sincerity

    • 4. Architecture as Pursuit of Ilm: Knowledge

    • 5. Architecture for Iqtisad: Balance

    • 6. Architecture of Haya’: Modesty

    • 7. Architecture as Dikr: Remembrance

3.1.2

Elevation of Masjid Negara

3.1.2 Elevation of Masjid Negara Figure 3.2 Elevation view of National Mosque Based on figure 3.2,

Figure 3.2 Elevation view of National Mosque

Based on figure 3.2, the left side is the heroes’ Mausoleum. It is located at the rear, with a pool connected to the building as you walk pass through. Inside the mausoleum, they buried Tun Dr Ismail, Tun Abdul Razak, Tun Hussein Onn, Tun Ghafar Baba which is the hero or important people of our country. At the outside of the mausoleum, other known politicians of Malaysia were buried.

3.1.2 Elevation of Masjid Negara Figure 3.2 Elevation view of National Mosque Based on figure 3.2,

Figure 3.3 Application of Hierarchy of shape and size

Based on the elevation side of the building, the structure of the 18 pointed stars concrete main roof and the tall 73­metre­high minaret is to represent the supremacy of Islam as an official religion in Malaysia. The roof and minaret outstands the most, creating a huge contrast in size and shapes of the whole formation of the building design structure.

  • 3.2 Circulation to use­space.

    • 3.2.1 The application of principle of Haya’

This principle shows or applied the Islamic architecture principle of Haya’ (modesty) which states that an islamic building should be discreet and preserve the dignity of its owner or users (K.Yoong, 2016). This principle was applied by the architect in few aspects of the building which is as written below:­

  • (a) Entrances to building Based on our site visit, we analysed that the Masjid Negara space planning is zoned into two main categories which is public­private and men­women.

Figure 3.4 The division of accessibility of Men and Women (b) Zoning of prayer hall between

Figure 3.4 The division of accessibility of Men and Women

  • (b) Zoning of prayer hall between men and women

Figure 3.4 The division of accessibility of Men and Women (b) Zoning of prayer hall between

Figure 3.5

The division of prayer hall of Men and Women

Based on figure 3.4 and 3.5, The circulation of the spaces is designed to divide the flow of users in terms of man and woman in representing the intrinsic relationship between Muslims. Women’s prayer hall is separated to avoid the nature of attraction between a woman and a man that may disturbs the concentration of worshippers (Estes, n.d.). This separated space was designed to be located on a mezzanine floor above the grand prayer hall with separate accessibility. The accessibility is separated using different concrete staircases.

3.2.2

Public­private

Based on figure 3.4 and 3.5, The circulation of the spaces is designed to divide the

Figure 3.6

Zoning of public and private spaces

The arrangement of the space planning is also well designed in terms of dividing the space into private and public area to control the accessibility of worshippers and to differentiate and separate the functionality of each spaces. This is to avoid people from disturbing worshippers’ concentration when they’re performing their prayers.

3.2.3

The application of principle of Dikr (Remembrance)

  • (a) Accommodation of grave

Masjid Negara Masjid Nabawi
Masjid Negara
Masjid Nabawi

Figure 3.7 Similarity between Masjid Negara and Masjid Nabawi

Based on Figure 3.7, both of the mosques has a grave where states there important Muslims/ warrior. As for Masjid negara, it allocates the grave of politicians and prime ministers while for Masjid Nabawi , it allocates the grave of Prophet Muhammad. This is as a remembrance to Islam’s warrior or people who have brought changes to Islamic society or country.

3.3

Organization analysis

  • 3.3.1 The application of principle of Iqtisad (Symmetry and balance)

3.3 Organization analysis 3.3.1 The application of principle of Iqtisad (Symmetry and balance) Figure 3.8 The

Figure 3.8 The application of principle of Iqtisad (balance) in the layout form

The form of the layout of the building is proportion and symmetrical creating a good balance in spatial sequences. The application of principle of Iqtisad applied and can be seen in the composition of the building layout form. Based on Figure 3.8, the formation of the spaces are well organized in creating a balance(Iqtisad) of layout form where the structure is proportionally aligned in achieving the concept

3.3.2

Composition of geometrical shape

.

3.3.2 Composition of geometrical shape . Figure 3.9 Geometrical composition of Masjid Negara Geometry is the

Figure 3.9 Geometrical composition of Masjid Negara

Geometry is the language of symmetry in Islamic art (Henry.R, n.d.). Geometry is seen to be spiritual because circles have no end they are infinite and so they remind Muslims that Allah is Infinite, (G.Khurana, 2013). That explains why in Islamic architecture, there are a lot of application of geometrical shapes applied into forms, carvings and even decoration.

3.3.3

Open space planning

3.3.3 Open space planning Figure 4.0 Open spaces of Masjid Negara Based on Figure above, Masjid
3.3.3 Open space planning Figure 4.0 Open spaces of Masjid Negara Based on Figure above, Masjid
3.3.3 Open space planning Figure 4.0 Open spaces of Masjid Negara Based on Figure above, Masjid

Figure 4.0 Open spaces of Masjid Negara

Based on Figure above, Masjid Negara has a lot of open spaces or courtyard. This was adapted from Malay traditional building construction study where courtyard provides and enhance natural ventilation of a building creating a calm and relax ambience.

3.3.3 Open space planning Figure 4.0 Open spaces of Masjid Negara Based on Figure above, Masjid

Figure 4.1 Traditional Malay houses with courtyards or open spaces

As Masjid Negara is a mosque that reflects Malaysia, it uses a lot of Malay customary concepts especially in terms of its architecture.

4.0 ARCHITECTURAL STYLE ANALYSIS

An architectural style is characterized by the features that make up building or other notable structures or historically identifiable. A style may include such elements as form, method of construction, building materials, and regional character.

  • 4.1 Traditional Malay Architectural Style

4.1.1 Influences

The architect stresses his design intention to use local and modern languages of architecture in conveying his message. He used the form of the parasol to signify the unity of people in Malaysia that is comprised of people from different races and religions that form the Malaysian race. In addition, the parasol also symbolizes the sovereignty of the nation where the Yang Di Pertuan Agong is always accompanied by the royal parasol.

4.1.1 ​ Influences The architect stresses his design intention to use local and modern languages of

Figure 4.1 The dome and minaret inspired by the parasol

Its form also reflects the spirit of the place where it was designed to adapt the cultural context as well as the local climate. The unique fenestration formulated from the classical Islamic geometric style. Contemporary modern architecture was applied in almost every exterior wall of the mosque to allow maximum ventilation. Furthermore, the mosque contains many entry points, thus making it very accessible to everyone. This helps Masjid Negara to promote the idea that religion is not totalitarian; everyone has the right to gain knowledge and approach God through worship.

4.1.2Characteristics

4.1.2.1Kampung House Design of mosque reflects a modern interpretation of traditional Malay architecture in which the main prayer hall is located on the first floor, similar to the living hall of a Malay kampunghouse.

4.1.2 ​ Characteristics 4.1.2.1 ​ Kampung House Design of mosque reflects a modern interpretation of traditional
4.1.2 ​ Characteristics 4.1.2.1 ​ Kampung House Design of mosque reflects a modern interpretation of traditional

Figure 4.2 The layout of the mosque as compared to the traditional kampung house

4.1.2.1 Umbrella Dome

4.1.2 ​ Characteristics 4.1.2.1 ​ Kampung House Design of mosque reflects a modern interpretation of traditional
4.1.2 ​ Characteristics 4.1.2.1 ​ Kampung House Design of mosque reflects a modern interpretation of traditional
4.1.2 ​ Characteristics 4.1.2.1 ​ Kampung House Design of mosque reflects a modern interpretation of traditional

Figure 4.3 The inspiration and symbolism of the famous umbrella­shaped dome

The design of the semi­open umbrella shaped roof symbolizes the Malaysian culture of being a good host and providing shelter to others. It is as well as seen being under the protection of Allah(God). The Main Prayer Hall is roofed with an “open­parasol” as if sheltering and embracing the worshippers. Alternatively, the minaret is a “close­parasol” that points upwards. It signifies the strength and unity of the people. The use of this element also shows a more neutral or democratic approach from the point of architectural language because it does not convey any ethnic and religious preferences.

  • 4.2 Islamic Architectural Style

    • 4.2.1 Influences

As a mosque, it has heavy influences of Islamic Architectural Style. It has written verses from the Quran are placed all across the interior part of the door of the prayer hall as it measures 2ft high and woven with gold and blue shiny mosaic.

  • 4.2.2 Characteristics

Furthermore, the architecture was influenced by the seven unifying principles of Islamic architecture;

Tahwid(Unity and Uniquity of Allah) ­ Entrance of the mosque can be accessed from three different directions, uniting the prayers into one space Dikr(Remembrance) ­ Covered with Quranic inscriptions, surrounding the building. It acts as a remembrance and awareness of Allah.

Haya(Modesty) ­ Usage of geometrical screenings serves as a private screening, which symbolizes the perseverance and dignity of Muslims

● Tahwid ​ (Unity and Uniquity of Allah) ­ Entrance of the mosque can be accessed

Ikhlas(Sincerity) ­ Expressed through the union of sincerity and purity of design, where a space is constructed in the absence of human imaginary and idols of the arts of geometric ornamentation Iqtisad(Balance) ­ The structural plan of the mosque is designed in the terms of golden ratio, proportion, and spatial sequences. The mosque is symmetrical to each site of the plan and elevation.

● Tahwid ​ (Unity and Uniquity of Allah) ­ Entrance of the mosque can be accessed

Ilm(Knowledge) ­ Inscripted verses reveal the wisdom of the Quran; knowledge also known as ‘light of truth’. The architecture uses natural

light manipulation from screening walls and stained glass to illuminate the sun rays effects.

light manipulation from screening walls and stained glass to illuminate the sun rays effects. ● Ihtiram

Ihtiram(Respect) ­ In the religion of Islam, respect is in a sense showing good behaviors and manners towards God and its religion, and our fellow humankind. Symbolism and harmony of the geometric shape of the Ka’bah, found on the screen walls which is used for almost every wall of the mosque.

5.0

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION, STRUCTURE, AND MATERIALS ANALYSIS

The Masjid Negara took two years to build, from 1963 to 1965. The design of the mosque was selected in the early 1960s, reflecting to the surprise of many, the enlightenment of Malaysia’s new leadership, and the welcoming of a new and modern interpretation of mosque architectural design, presented by a team of architects from the Public Works Department. Headed by architects, Baharuddin Abu Kassim and Hisham al­Bakri, under the supervision of a British architect, Howard Ashley, the construction work was completed in 1965. The first stage of the building construction is the preparation of the site, which involved the demolition of old buildings that occupied the site and the levelling of the ground amongst other objectives. The process took two years to complete. On 29th September 1961, the setting of the Qibla’ direction was solemnized by the first Prime Minister, Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Al­Haj. The next stage was the main construction, which started on 27th February, 1963. The Yang di­pertuan Agong led the stone­laying ceremony of the National Mosque. The mosque consists of a main hall with a veranda surrounding three sides of the hall, a tower, a courtyard with two pools, a hall, a library, and a room for temporary use for the Yang di­pertuan Agong, King and the head Imam of the mosque.

5.1: Characteristics

The design of the Masjid Negara is a reflection of traditional Malay architecture with a modern twist, separating the structure from the architecture of buildings of its time, which is influenced by the Mughal architectural style. The traditional Malay architectural influence is seen through the main prayer hall, in which it is located on the first floor, resembling the living room of a typical conventional Malay kampong house. The style is also evident through the existence of verandas (Figure 5.1) along the sides of the main prayer hall, as verandas are common in the design and construction of kampong houses. Lattice curtains with Islamic patterns envelop the

verandas to provide a barrier of sorts between the exterior and interior. The curtains are made of aluminium due to the steel’s high resistance to corrosion and rust. The unique pattern gives off an interesting composition of light and shadow whenever light shines through them. The roof along the veranda was constructed using waffle slabs, and is cantilevered horizontally over the corridors and verandas. (Figure 5.2)

verandas to provide a barrier of sorts between the exterior and interior. The curtains are made

Figure 5.2:The cantilevered roof over the corridor. The roof is supported by concrete columns.

Figure 5.1: ​ One of the verandas overlooking the courtyard The most significant part of the

Figure 5.1: One of the verandas overlooking the courtyard

The most significant part of the National Mosque is the main prayer hall, covering 153 square feet of the area (Figure 5.3). It is mostly built using reinforced concrete, and covered with layers of marble. Along the three sides of the hall are 9 sliding doors made out of aluminium; this enabled easy accessibility for people to enter and exit the hall. Its famed umbrella­shaped roof structure consists of conoids and pleated shell structure that is finished with white glazed mosaic. Gaps between the roof and the wall are fitted with triangular glass panels and blue stained glass windows to allow natural lighting into the hall.

​ Figure 5.3: ​ The main prayer hall. The stained glass panels and windows fill in

Figure 5.3:The main prayer hall. The stained glass panels and windows fill in the gap between the folded plate roof and the walls.

5.2: Building Materials

Rasdi (2015) stated that the National Mosque was built in the modern era of reinforced concrete construction. Reinforced concrete is stronger than normal concrete, and is created by embedding steel bars into the cement to act as reinforcement. The spirit of the material, which was commonly used at the time, was articulated through its wide span of beams, the hyper roofs and the huge folded plate roof that envelops the prayer hall. The main prayer hall’s roof was designed as a parasol with 16 supportive columns, and the folded plate structure acts as a

method to increase stability for the wide span. It was made using concrete as the material required little maintenance, high fire resistance as well as thermal insulation for the hall it shelters. Concrete pillars are used as the support of the whole structure, their strength alluding to Muslims’ foundations of the 5 Islamic principles (Figure 5.4).

method to increase stability for the wide span. It was made using concrete as the material

Figure 5.4: Columns and pillars are the main foundations supporting the National Mosque.

Another type of material that is mainly used in the National Mosque is tile, which is prominent on the floors and its trademark umbrella dome. The tiles are used due to its low water absorption, and as a noise dampener to ensure the quietness of the main prayer hall. Another characteristic of tiles is their high reflectivity, which aids in brightening the walkways as well as attracting the attention of people with its glinting dome. Marble and terrazzo was also used in the construction of the National Mosque. Marble is used to decorate the concrete walls of the main prayer hall, whereas terrazzo is used for the columns

that support the main prayer hall umbrella dome (Figure 5.5). Terrazzo was also chosen to be used for flooring, replacing the initial choice of marble in order to reduce the cost to be within the budget.[1]

that support the main prayer hall umbrella dome (Figure 5.5). Terrazzo was also chosen to be

Figure 5.5: Terrazzo is paved along the floors and the pillars supporting the roof.

5.3: Renovations

The mosque underwent major renovation in 1987 due to weathering, which resulted in the change of roof tiles of the concrete dome from pink to a vibrant blue­and­green. Three years later, in 1990, the National Mosque underwent an extension in order to accommodate up to 15,000 worshippers at any one time. [2]Another renovation process was taken in 2003, headed by the Albukhary Foundation, and lasted for three years. The restoration focused on the rectification works on the dome, minaret, roof, and electrical and lighting systems, as well as the rehabilitation of the upper and lower gardens.

5.4: Conclusion

In conclusion, the building process of the Masjid Negara showed the farsightedness of the leaders as well as the determination of the country to advance forward, through its up­to­date construction methods and the usage of new materials. Although modifications had to be made to the design in order to reduce the construction cost, the alternatives were well­thought out by comparing the defining qualities of the materials with the original plan instead of merely choosing the cheapest materials. The incorporation of construction aspects that typically belong to traditional houses into the modernist National Mosque is a symbol of advancing without losing sight of our identity.

6.0

ARCHITECTURAL ELEMENTS / COMPONENTS ANALYSIS

Identify and explain the significant components such as roof, window, doors, fenestrations, shading, staircase, or other significant elements that can be found in the chosen building. Each building may have different components. Analyse the significant components and use photos or sketches as evidence.

6.1Prayer hall

The place is located at the center of the main building with the largest area covered in the masjid Negara itself.

6.0 ​ ARCHITECTURAL ELEMENTS / COMPONENTS ANALYSIS ● Identify and explain the significant components such as

Figure 6.1 shows the location of prayer hall

The prayer hall covered almost 153 square feet. It has around a peak height of 84 feet.

Figure 6.2 shows the height of the peak. They say that it is built that way

Figure 6.2 shows the height of the peak.

They say that it is built that way because to symbolize the unity of believers where they gather and stand as one to obey the almighty Allah. The shape of the dome is supported by 16 circular columns which measures each 3 feet in diameter.

Figure 6.2 shows the height of the peak. They say that it is built that way

Figure 6.3 shows the columns

The thickness of the folded plate is 2­1/2 inches at the top and 6 inches at the edge.The hall only can accommodate up to 3000 worshippers at one go. At the center of the parasol, there is an aluminum rosette with a quranic inscription in gold.

Figure 6.4 shows the quranic inscription in gold It has a strong resemblance to the dome

Figure 6.4 shows the quranic inscription in gold

It has a strong resemblance to the dome of the famous blue mosque in Istanbul. The exterior wall of the prayer hall is of reinforced concrete and finish with Italian marble in cream color. Its three sides are fitted with nine decorative sliding doors.

Figure 6.4 shows the quranic inscription in gold It has a strong resemblance to the dome

Figure 6.5 shows the location of the decorative sliding doors

The interior of the prayer hall is decorated beautifully and the hall is fitted 2 feet high blue mosaic strip with al­quran inscription in gold running along the four walls just above the doors.

Figure 6.6 shows the location of the gold Al­Quran inscription along the walls above the doors

Figure 6.6 shows the location of the gold Al­Quran inscription along the walls above the doors

6.2 Access

Figure 6.6 shows the location of the gold Al­Quran inscription along the walls above the doors

Figure 6.7 shows one of the entrances in the national mosque

The prayer hall is located on the upper level, there are 5 staircases that will lead the worshipers to the hall. Moreover, due to some changes in renovations, some staircases are replaced by other magnificent structures. An existing structure of an existing staircase located at the northeast side of the mosque was demolished due to building an extra prayer hall. It was replaced by two new staircases to cater the worshippers coming from the train station

6.3Courtyard

Beside the prayer hall, there is a small covered courtyard.

6.3 ​ Courtyard Beside the prayer hall, there is a small covered courtyard. Figure 6.8 shows
6.3 ​ Courtyard Beside the prayer hall, there is a small covered courtyard. Figure 6.8 shows
6.3 ​ Courtyard Beside the prayer hall, there is a small covered courtyard. Figure 6.8 shows

Figure 6.8 shows the small courtyard surround the prayer hall

It is measures in 84 feet in width and 120 feet long and has a flat roof supported by 48 parasol concrete slabs acting like columns. Gaps are done within the flat roofs which are covered by transparent sheet to allow natural light to pass into the courtyard. The courtyard accommodates bigger number of worshippers during Friday prayers and special prayer session like for example Eid prayers.

6.4Landscape and pool

6.3 ​ Courtyard Beside the prayer hall, there is a small covered courtyard. Figure 6.8 shows

Figure 6.9 shows the beautiful landscape within National Mosque

Integration of buildings with landscape is highly encouraged in Islamic architecture as it is the remembrance of God. Thus the planning of the mosque incorporates its principle with water feature and green gardens. There were five main pools in the mosque compound area which one of them is surrounding the main entrance, another one is located in the well­ventilated area where the minaret is located, one surrounding the mausoleum and the other two is located in the courtyard. The last two pools are now replaced by two staircases leading to the ground floor. To not surpass the surrounding the nature and landscape, the national mosque itself was built horizontally. This factors contributes as a reminder for the congregation about the value of humanity towards the world that god has created.​ ​The planning of the greenery of the national mosque is not only good for the ecosystem but it is also a reminder to the worshippers that god do exist.

6.5Verandah

Integration of buildings with landscape is highly encouraged in Islamic architecture as it is the remembrance
Integration of buildings with landscape is highly encouraged in Islamic architecture as it is the remembrance
Integration of buildings with landscape is highly encouraged in Islamic architecture as it is the remembrance
Integration of buildings with landscape is highly encouraged in Islamic architecture as it is the remembrance

Figure 6.1.0 shows the Verandahs in the National Mosque

Surrounding the prayer hall and courtyard area is the verandah.it functions as a walkway connecting all other spaces in the National Mosque. During peak prayer time, it complements the prayer hall. With a total area of 30,000 square feet, it can fit 6000 worshippers at one time, making masjid Negara one of the largest mosques in the region. The floor is made from pre­cast terrazzo slab and covered with flat concrete roof dotted with 73 small blue mosaic domes spaced out in a checker design. There are ponds and water fountains in between the verandah to cool the air so that there is no need for electrical fans

6.6Minaret

Surrounding the prayer hall and courtyard area is the verandah.it functions as a walkway connecting all

Figure 6.1.1 shows the Minaret of National Mosque

The minaret is placed within a water feature in the courtyard surrounded by the verandah. It has a height of 235 feet and measures 12 feet in width and length. It is equipped with a tailor­made lift to the height of 140 feet where a platform for the muezzin to call for prayers is located. The wall of the lift is made from glass to enable visitors to view the sceneries of the city.

Figure 6.1.2 shows the detail of the Minaret The wall of the minaret is decorated by

Figure 6.1.2 shows the detail of the Minaret

The wall of the minaret is decorated by fenestration composed of Islamic patterns. The top of the minaret is capped with a closed umbrella concrete roof and a star with a crescent at its peak. The minaret dominates the whole landscape of the area with its height, also serving as a reminder to the worshippers to answer the calling of Allah.

6.7Mausoleum

Figure 6.1.2 shows the detail of the Minaret The wall of the minaret is decorated by

Figure 6.1.3 shows the Mausoleum of National Mosque

The warrior mausoleum or “Makam pahlawan” is located at the west end of the mosque. It is dedicated to seven distinguished statesmen of the country. From the plan, the mausoleum looks like a lotus flower surrounded by circular ponds.

The warrior mausoleum or “Makam pahlawan” is located at the west end of the mosque. It

Figure 6.1.4 shows the location of Mausoleum

The roof structure is a parasol­shaped folded plate that the not only covers the mausoleum but also acts as the wall.

The warrior mausoleum or “Makam pahlawan” is located at the west end of the mosque. It
The warrior mausoleum or “Makam pahlawan” is located at the west end of the mosque. It

Figure 6.1.5 shows the details (walls) of Mausoleum

Triangular shaped openings in the roof allow ventilation to the mausoleum. Purity and solemnity can be easily felt inside the mausoleum form the pure white roof surfaces and marble floor. The surrounding pond also enhances the atmosphere of serenity for the

visitor. This mausoleum is one of the best examples of modern mausoleum architecture in the country.

6.8Meeting Hall

visitor. This mausoleum is one of the best examples of modern mausoleum architecture in the country.
visitor. This mausoleum is one of the best examples of modern mausoleum architecture in the country.

Figure 6.1.6 shows Dewan Syarahan Utama which is the meeting hall

There is a meeting hall adjacent to the main mosque building located on the first floor and connected to the prayer hall by a wide covered way or Anjung Khas. Anjung Khas act as a waiting area for the meeting hall, and at times is use as a “berzanji” competition venue during the prophet Muhammad’s birthday celebration. Both sides of the special verandah are decorated with landscaping. The meeting hall that can accommodate 500 people at a time is a venue for seminars, workshops and wedding receptions. Its roof structure consists of conoid and pleated shell concrete structure that is finished with white glazed mosaic. Walls of the hall are similar to that of the main mosque building and fenestrated with Islamic patterns terrazzo grillwork.

Figure 6.1.7 shows the gap between the roof and the walls Gaps between the roof and

Figure 6.1.7 shows the gap between the roof and the walls

Gaps between the roof and the wall are fitted with glass panels to allow natural lighting into the hall.

  • 6.9 Mihrab and Mimbar The Mihrab and Mimbar is located inside the prayer hall.

Figure 6.1.7 shows the gap between the roof and the walls Gaps between the roof and

Figure 6.1.8 shows the Mihrab location in the Prayer hall

The Mihrab is a niche indicating the direction of Mekkah where Kaabah is located and prayers are orientated to. The niche, located on the wall on the axis of the Kiblat direction, is framed with blue mosaic tiles are printed with sacred verses from the Al­Quran.

Figure 6.1.9 shows the close up of the Mihrab Today it is lavishly decorated with many

Figure 6.1.9 shows the close up of the Mihrab

Today it is lavishly decorated with many patterns reflecting an adaptation of Middle Eastern design. The Mimbar is the pulpit located to the right side of the Mihrab. It is cantilevered above the floor level to enable the imam to be seen and heard by the worshippers. Originally the whole structure of the Mimbar was finished with white marble. Later it was replaced with a timber finish.

Figure 6.1.9 shows the close up of the Mihrab Today it is lavishly decorated with many

Figure 6.2.0 shows the Mimbar

A RM30000 hand­made silver­clad chair for the Mimbar was presented by the government and people of India for the mosque’s official opening ceremony. The chair is design by Tunku Abdul Rahman has a crescent and star at the head with the Kalimah below it. At the side and the arms of the chair are carvings of Bunga Raya or hibiscus, Malaysia’s national flower. The back of the chair is engraved with the Malaysian coat­of­arms and words presenting the friendship between both countries.

7.0 CONCLUSION

The planning and concept of Masjid Negara shows an adaption of modern architecture philosophy that emphasises on the spirit of time and place. Masjid Negara outstandingly stands amongst other new mosques without exuding significant resemblance to Middle Eastern architecture that is foreign to Malaysian culture and context. It instead presents the language of architecture that depicts the spirit of nationalism through a modern architectural style. The National Mosque is a masterpiece of the era illustrating the “emancipation of dogmatic religious thinking and propaganda of totalitarian political power”; its design unambiguously shows Islam as a dynamic religion, capable of embracing progress in the stream of time while still maintaining its identity. Masjid Negara is revered as a symbol of inspiration of a national and multi­racial society that reveals the universal values of humanity, as well as personifying the hope of a young nation towards its goal of unity, strength, and humility before God.

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