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SPIRAL OF PROGRESS OF QUALITY (Spiral

of Quality)

Spiral of Progress of Quality


Joseph Juran.

was a concept given by

Through this concept, he tried to shift the quality thinking from just
Inspection and Testing to all those functions which affect quality.
According to Juran, if Quality is to be attained, a wide variety of
identifiable activities, called Quality Tasks/ Work Elements
have to be performed, e.g. studying the customers quality
needs, product design, product testing, complaint analysis etc.
If a firm is small, these different quality tasks or work elements can be
performed by a few persons. As the firm grows, each specific task
becomes so time consuming that specialized departments have to be
created to perform each task. This is when departments are
introduced viz. design, PPC, purchase, etc.

SPIRAL OF PROGRESS OF QUALITY


(Spiral of Quality)

These different work elements or quality tasks or activities


required to attain quality, follow a particular sequence of
events called, Spiral of Progress of Quality.
Work Elements/ Quality Tasks/ Activities shown in the Spiral include:
Market Research, PDD, Specifications, Purchasing, Production
Planning, Production and Process Control, Inspection and
Testing, Marketing, Customer Service, Feedback.
In addition to the activities shown in the Spiral, many other
administrative and support activities viz. finance, HR, data
processing, etc. are also required.
The different activities combined together can be called as Quality
Function. Quality Function can be defined as the entire

collection of activities required to attain Fitness for Use.

SPIRAL OF PROGRESS OF QUALITY (Spiral


of

Quality)

The network of activities under the Spiral of Quality or Quality Function when well defined and
coordinated become a unified system which carries out the intended quality objectives.

Changing Scope of Quality Activities


The scope of quality activities
has undergone a radical
change in the past few
decades.
Initially quality activities used
to focus on the quality of
physical products in the
manufacturing
industries
only (Little q) but now quality
activities include application
of quality concepts to all
products, all functional
activities, and all industries
(Big Q).
The traditional (Little q)
versus modern quality (Big Q)
activities are compared in the
table.

Area

Content of Little q

Content of Big Q

(Traditional Quality)

(Modern Quality)

Products

Only Products

All Products
Services

and

Processes

Only
those
processes which are
related
to
Manufacturing
of
the Product

All
Processes::
Processes
Manufacturing,,
Manufacturing
Support Functions
(Process Planning,
MPS, MRP, CP, IC),
Business
Functions
(Forecasting,
Customer
Billing,
etc..)
etc

Industries

Only Manufacturing

All
Types::
Types
Manufacturing,
Service,
Government, NGO
etc..
etc

Ishikawas Quality Tools/ The Seven Basic Quality


Tools

There are several tools and techniques which are used to detect, solve, and analyze
quality related problems (for troubleshooting issues related to quality).
Dr Karou Ishikawa put forward seven basic visual tools of quality so that even an average person
(with little formal training in statistics) could analyze and interpret data.
These tools are used world wide by companies, their managers and employees at all levels.

The SEVEN QUALITY TOOLS are

i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
vii.

Histograms
Pareto Charts
Cause and Effect Diagrams
Run Charts
Scatter Diagrams
Flow Diagrams
Control Charts

Dr. Karou Ishikawa

Ishikawas Quality Tools/ The Seven Basic Quality


Tools
1. HISTOGRAMS
Given by Karl Pearson.
Unorganized data can be meaningless. Histogram is a visual tool to organize data to
describe its characteristics.
Frequency distribution shows how often each value contained in a data set occurs.
Histogram is the most commonly used graph to show frequency distributions.
A histogram is, a representation of a frequency distribution by means of

rectangles whose width represents class intervals (bins) and whose heights are
proportional to the corresponding frequencies.

Ishikawas Quality Tools/


The Seven Basic Quality Tools
1. HISTOGRAM

Data Value

Frequency

HISTOGRAM

4.5
4
3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0

BAR GRAPH

Bar graph is generally drawn when frequencies have not been given for continuous data i.e.
frequencies are given for different categories of data e.g. population of different states being
compared through a bar graph.
Histogram is generally used when frequencies have been given for a particular category of data i.e.
data is continuous. In histograms, the horizontal scale is numerical, whereas in bar grapg, it is
categorical.

Ishikawas Quality Tools/


The Seven Basic Quality Tools:
HISTOGRAMS
Consider the data set {3,11,12,19, 22,23,24,27,29,35,36,37,45,49}
HISTOGRAM
7
6

CLASS INTERVAL

FREQUENCY
5

10-20

20-30

30-40

40-50

FREQUENCY

0-10

4
3

2
1

0-10

10-20

20-30

VALUES (CLASS INTERVALS)

30-40

40-50

Ishikawas Quality Tools/


The Seven Basic Quality Tools:
HISTOGRAMS
APPLICATIONS OF HISTOGRAMS
Histograms allow to analyse extremely large data sets by reducing them to a
single graph that can
1.
2.

Communicate the shape of data quickly to others e.g. symmetrical, skewed right,
skewed left, peaked, bimodal etc.
Show primary, secondary, and tertiary peaks in data as well as give a visual
representation of the statistical significance of those peaks (some idea about the
mean and how is data distributed about the mean etc.).

Ishikawas Quality Tools/ The Seven Basic Quality


Tools
2. PARETO CHARTS (Pareto Analysis)
Vilfredo Pareto (1848-1923), an Italian Economist, conducted extensive studies (initially in
Italy and then throughout Europe) to determine the distribution of wealth in population.
Through his studies he concluded that a few people had a lot of money and a lot of people
had little money. This unequal distribution of wealth became an integral part of economic
theories. To quantify this, Pareto stated that 20% of the population had 80% of the wealth.
The principle started being known as PARETO PRINCIPLE or 80/20 Rule.
Dr. Juran recognized this concept to be universal which could be applied to many fields
including QUALITY ENGINEERING. Juran, thus coined the term, VITAL FEW TRIVIAL MANY.
Juran stated that 20% of the quality problems cause 80% of the monitory loss. He further
stated that, 80% of the quality problems are created by approximately 20% of the causes.
Examples of VITAL FEW:
a) a few non-conformities account for majority of the customer complaints.
b) a few processes account for majority of the scrap/ rework
Pareto chart is a BAR GRAPH/ HISTOGRAM aided by the 80/20 rule. The height of the bars
represent the frequency. The bars are arranged with height bar on the left and shortest on
the right. It visually depicts, as to which situations are more significant (VITAL FEW).

PARETO ANALYSIS (continued)

A Pareto chart is usually used to identify the principle drivers to a problem


problem.. Pareto charts
are used to identify and prioritize problems to be solved
solved.. Pareto Charts are used when
products are suffering from different defects but the defects are occurring at a different
frequency,, or only a few account for most of the defects present, or different defects
frequency
incur different costs.
costs. The manufacturer could concentrate on reducing the defects which
make up a bigger percentage of all the defects or focus on eliminating the defects that
cause major monetary loss.
loss.
A check sheet is used to count how often a particular item occurs usually as a cause to a
problem.. The items are then charted by the percentage of the occurrences in decreasing
problem
order.. They are actually histograms aided by the 80
order
80//20 rule adapted by Joseph Juran
Juran.. The
resulting chart shows which items have the most influence on the problem
problem.. This goes
along with the 80
80--20 rule
rule..

1. Form a table, listing the various categories of causes and their respective frequency/
count of occurrence
occurrence.. Ass two more columns, one for percentage frequency of each
category and the other for cumulative percentage frequency.
frequency. For example
example::
Causes
Category

Frequency

Percentage
Frequency

Cumulative
Percentage
Frequency

Broken Link

35

37

37

Spelling Error

30

32

69

Missing
Image

25

26

95

Script Error

05

05

100

F = 95

PARETO ANALYSIS (continued)


2. Plot a graph with categories on the X-axis and Percentage Frequency on the

Y-axis.
axis. May be also, cumulative percentage frequency on the right side of Y-axis.
axis.

Percent from each cause

3. Put the percentage frequencies on the graph in descending order from left to right
right..
70

(64)

60
50
40
30
20
10

(13)

(10)

(6)

(3)

Causes of poor quality

(2)

(2)

PARETO ANALYSIS (continued)


4. Draw the cumulative line graph, moving from left to right.

5. Draw a horizontal line from 80% mark on Y-axis till it intersects a point on the line
graph. Then, drop a perpendicular on the X-axis from this point of intersection. This
point on the X-axis separates the vital few (on left) from the trivial many. Mark
these two labels on the X-axis.

3. RUN CHARTS (TIME SERIES PLOT)


Run charts examine the behavior of a variable over time (in a time sequence).
Time (independent variable) is taken on the X-axis and the parameter or variable
under investigation (dependent variable) is taken on the Y-axis.
Performance: Trend, Pattern
Example::
Example
Performance: Monitor Process, Compare,
An
organization
desires
that
its
Focus Attention, Track Information
product is delivered to
Data Collection, Create Graph: Y axis measurements,
the customer on time
time..
X-axis: Time
However,
it
has
noticed that it doesnt
take the same amount
of time on each day of
the week
week..
They
decided to monitor the
amount of time it
takes to deliver their
product over the next
few weeks
weeks..
Often, some measure of central tendency of data (say, average of data), or some
threshold limit is indicated by a horizontal dashed line, called the REFERENCE LINE.

RUN CHARTS (TIME SERIES PLOT)


Run charts are generally helpful in noting:
a. Shifts in the location of a production process e.g. statics/points moving
away from the reference line or moving to a new location as compared to
the preceding points.
b. upward and downward trends, cycles. Each of these situations indicate
either an increase in variability or shift in the location of the production
process.
Both (a) and (b) can be used as a basis to initiate investigations to find reasons
behind such behaviours.

4. SCATTER DIAGRAMS

Scatter Diagram is a graph which shows relationship between paired data (two
variables).

It is a graphical tool to determine whether a cause and effect relationship


exists between two variables (Scatter Diagram is used to study and identify the
possible relationship between the changes observed in two different sets of
variables).

The graph is drawn by taking the independent variable (cause variable) along
the X-axis and the dependent variable (effect variable) on the Y-axis.

Examples of paired data which have a cause and effect relationship:


a.
Cutting speed during machining and tool life.
b.
Equipment age and breakdown time
c.
Training hours and errors made

4. SCATTER DIAGRAMS (continued)

Constructing a Scatter Diagram


i.

Collect two pieces of data and tabulate the data as ordered pairs (x, y).

ii.

Plot these ordered pairs, taking cause variable (independent variable)


along the X-axis and effect variable (dependent variable) along the Y-axis.

iii.

Interpret the scatter diagram for direction and strength of relationship. The
different types of relationships between data pairs are as follows:
- Positive correlation
- Negative correlation
- No correlation

- Correlation by stratification (Stratified pattern represents different


causes for the same effect. For example, fuel mileage with vehicle moving in
the direction wind versus when moving at given speeds in a direction opposite
to the direction of wind)
- Curvilinear correlation: If a characteristic pattern is obtained on the scatter
diagram depicting a significant relationship/ correlation between the two
variables, some regression analysis/ mathematical interpretation can be
carried out. If nothing can be concluded from the scatter diagram

SCATTER DIAGRAMS

A cluster of points resembling a straight line indicates the strongest correlation between
the variables. In this graph, there is a strong positive correlation between Variable 1 and
Variable 2.

5. FLOW CHARTS / FLOW DIAGRAM


Flow Charts Defined
A flow chart is a pictorial representation showing all of the steps of a process. It
is a graphical description of how work is done.
Used to describe processes that are to be improved.
Creating a Flow Chart
First, familiarize the participants with the flow chart symbols.
Draw the process flow chart and fill it out in detail about each element.
Analyze the flow chart. Determine which steps add value and which dont in
the process of simplifying the work.

FLOWCHARTS / FLOW DIAGRAM

Activity

Decision

No

Yes

Start or Stop

FLOW CHARTS / FLOW DIAGRAM

FLOWCHART
An Example: Statistical Process Control Steps

Start

Produce Good
Provide Service
Take Sample

No
Assign.
Causes?
Yes

Inspect Sample

Stop Process

Create
Control Chart

Find Out Why

FLOWCHARTS / FLOW DIAGRAM

Passenger
Arrives

Ticket
For Flight

Yes

Check
Luggage

Yes

Excess
Carry-on
No
Issue
Boarding Pass

Passenger
Boards Airplane

No

Wait for
Appropriate
Flight

Process Chart Symbols

Operations
Inspection
Transportation
Delay
Storage

Unload apples from truck

Move to inspection station

Weigh, inspect, sort

Move to storage

Wait until needed

Move to peeler

Apples peeled and cored

15

Soak in water until needed

20

Place in conveyor

10

Move to mixing area

11

Weigh, inspect, sort

Distance
(feet)

Description
of
process

Time
(min)

Storage

Delay

Inspect

Process: Apple Sauce

Transport

Date: 03-09-08

Operation

Location: Kullu Mountain

Step

Process Chart

20
100 ft
30
50 ft
360
20 ft

20 ft
30
Total

480

190 ft

Control Charts
Control charts are used to determine whether a process will produce
a product or service with consistent measurable properties. It tells
whether the process is in control or going out of control.
Steps Used in Developing Process Control Charts
Identify critical operations in the process where inspection might be
needed.
Identify critical product characteristics.
Determine whether the critical product characteristic is a variable or an
attribute.
Select the appropriate process control chart.
Establish the control limits and use the chart to monitor and improve.
Update the limits.

Control Chart
27
24
UCL = 23.35

Number of defects

21

c = 12.67

18
15
12
9
6

LCL = 1.99

3
2

10

12

Sample number

14

16

Cause and Effect Diagram (Fishbone Diagram or


Ishikawa Diagram)

Cause and Effect diagrams were developed by Dr. Karou Ishikiwi in 1963.
These diagrams when made resemble the bones of a fish skeleton and so
are referred to as Fishbone diagrams.

Purpose and Definition:

Cause and Effect diagrams are used to find the possible causes of an
effect i.e. problem. If a company is facing quality relating problem, it can
use this quality tool to identify the various probable reasons or causes
creating that problem. Thus CAUSE AND EFFECT diagram gives the
relationship between the PROBLEM and its POSSIBLE CAUSES.

Dr. Ishikawa and Dr. W. Edwards Deming used this diagram extensively
as one of the first tools in Quality Management Process. Deming has
taught TQM in Japan since World War II and also gave the PDCA
concept.

Cause and Effect Diagram (Fishbone Diagram or


Ishikawa Diagram)
Definitions:
1.

It is a graphical representation of different factors (causes) that contribute


to an effect. The effect is usually a problem to be resolved.

2.

It is a problem analysis technique which attempts to identify the root


causes for a problem thereby allowing a group to work towards solving the
real problems and not just symptoms.

3.

This diagram represents the relationship between some effect and all the
possible causes. For every effect, there are likely to be several

major

causes.

under

These

major

causes

might

be

summarized

men, method, machine and material.


4.

A graphical method to record and classify a chain of causes and effects in


order to resolve a quality problem.

Cause and Effect Diagram (Fishbone


Diagram or Ishikawa Diagram)
Procedure to draw the Fishbone Diagram
1.

The problem to be solved is stated clearly. The problem statement


should be well defined and agreed upon by all group members.
The problem should have a narrow focus, otherwise the diagram
would become too large. If possible a numerical measurement
should be established for the problem against which subsequent
improvement can be measured.
A line is drawn in the middle of a sheet of paper to a box on the right
hand side. In this box, the problem statement is written. The line can
be called as the backbone of the fish and the box, the head of the fish.

STEPS TO CONSTRUCT C&E DIAGRAM

(Backbone or Spine)

Quality Problem
(Problem Statement)
(Fish Head)

STEPS TO CONSTRUCT C&E DIAGRAM


2.

In this step, a brainstorming session of the group members is held to


identify the broad areas of the problem i.e. the major categories of the
causes are identified. Generally these Broad Areas/ Major Categories
are:

For

Manufacturing:

MEN,

MACHINES,

METHODS

and

MATERIALS

For Services: MEN, MACHINES, PROCEDURES and POLICIES


These Broad Areas/ Major Categories are represented in boxes as the
main bones of the fish skeleton. They are joined to the backbone of the
fish skelton through lines sloping towards the left as shown in the
figure.

Major Cause/
Major Category/
Broad Area 1

Major Cause/
Major Category/
Broad Area 2

Main Bones

Problem
Statement
Backbone or Spine
Fish Head

Major Cause/
Major Category/
Broad Area 3

Major Cause/
Major Category/
Broad Area 4

MEN

MACHINERY

Problem
Statement related
to Manufacturing
Industry

METHOD

MATERIAL

MEN

MACHINERY

Problem
Statement related
to Service
Industry

PROCEDURES

POLICIES

STEPS TO CONSTRUCT C&E DIAGRAM


3.

In this step, again a brainstorming session of the group members is

held to identify the causes/ issues under each problem area/ major
categories of cause. For this, under each category, look for the things that
have changed, deviations from norms or patterns. For each problem area,
ask, why does it happen? List the responses as branches off the main
bones i.e. major causes. The causes identified for each main cause is called
Level 1 cause. Similarly Level 1 causes are found for each main cause.
In the next stage, for each level 1 cause, find the possible sub-causes which
would be called Level 2 causes. For each level 2 cause, find the possible
sub-causes which would be called Level 3 causes. One can go up to Level
4 or 5.
The resulting structure after completion looks like a tree or a fish skeleton
and hence the name Fishbone Diagram.

Major Cause 2

Major Cause 1

Level 2 Cause
Level 3
Level 1 Cause

Level 1 Cause
Supporting
Ideas

Major Cause 3

Why
students
earn poor
grades?

Major Cause 4

Measurement
Faulty testing equipment
Incorrect specifications
Improper methods

Inaccurate
temperature
control
Dust and
Dirt

Environment

Human

Machines
Out of adjustment

Poor supervision
Lack of concentration

Tooling problems
Old / worn

Inadequate training

Quality
Problem
Defective from vendor
Not to specifications
Materialhandling problems

Materials

Poor process
design
Ineffective quality
management
Deficiencies
in product
design

Process

Fishbone Chart:

Airline Customer Service

Cause-and-Effect Chart for Flight Departure Delay (Fishbone Chart)


Equipment

Personnel

Aircraft late to gate


Late arrival
Gate occupied

Other
Weather
Air traffic

Mechanical failures
Late pushback tug

Gate agents cannot process passengers quickly enough


Too few agents
Agents undertrained
Agents undermotivated
Agents arrive at gate late
Late cabin cleaners
Late or unavailable cabin crews
Late or unavailable cockpit crews

Poor announcement of departures


Weight an balance sheet late
Late baggage to aircraft
Late fuel
Late food service

Delayed checkin procedure


Confused seat selection
Passengers bypass checkin counter
Checking oversize baggage
Issuance of boarding pass
Acceptance of late passengers
Cutoff too close to departure time
Desire to protect late passengers
Desire to help companys income
Poor gate locations

Material

Procedure

Delayed
Flight
Departure

4.

In this step, the different causes are quantified i.e. data is collected
to show that the causes being shown on the diagram are real. The
quantification is represented with the help of Pareto or any other
tool, to fix the priority in which different causes would be
eliminated.

5.

Implement appropriate solutions to eliminate or reduce the causes


of problems. Measure the Improvement level.

Quality Circles (Quality Control Circles)


Quality Circles is a small group of workforce level employees in
the same work area who meet voluntarily for about half an hour
every week to address work related problems.
It is a volunteer group of workers or even a group of students
now-a-days who meet together to discuss workplace improvement
and make presentations to the management with their ideas.
Typical topics are improving the safety, product design and
manufacturing

processes.

This

not

only

improves

the

performance of the organization, but also motivates and


enriches the work life of the employees.

Quality Circles (Quality Control Circles)


Professor John Oakland, a leading authority on quality, defines
Quality Circles as a group of workers who do similar work and
who meet voluntarily, regularly, in normal working time, under
leadership of their supervisor to identify, analyze and solve work
related problems to recommend solutions to the management.

Underlying Principle
Quality Circle is based on participative philosophy woven about
quality control and problem solving techniques at the bottom
level. This concept enables the grass root level employees to
play a significant and meaningful role in their organization. The
main purpose of quality circles is to build the people and
produce quality people towards making quality products or
providing quality services.
The concept of Quality Circles is primarily based upon the
recognition of the value of the worker as a human being, as
someone who activises on his job, his wisdom, intelligence,
experience, attitude and feelings. It is based on Human
Resource Management considered as one of the key factors in
the improvement of product quality and productivity. Quality Circle
concept is based on the principle that employee participation in
decision making and problem solving improves the quality of work.
Quality Circle concept has three major attributes.
Quality Circle is a form of participation management.
It is a HRD technique.
It is a form of problem solving technique.

The Origin
The concept of Quality Circles was initiated in the U.S in 1950s but was
not successful.
Quality Circles, as we know today, were developed in Japan in 1963 by Dr.
Karou Ishikawa. He started this concept to tap the creative potential of the
bottom level employees.
The concept was re-exported to U.S in 1970s. 1980s saw the
development of TQM and reduction in the use Quality Circles.
But even today, Quality Circles are very useful in solving work related
problems. These have now evolved into Kaizen teams (but these are multifunctional). Quality Circles have been extremely successful in Japan but
only partially successful in U.S. In U.S, teams called Product Development
Teams have been more successful.

Example in a Company wide quality control

Objectives of Quality Circle


Customer satisfaction is the fundamental goal of any institutions.
It will ultimately be achieved by Quality Circle and the tactic implemented
is: to avert imperfections in services rather than verification and
elimination.
Prime Objectives:
It encourages employee participation as well as promotes teamwork.
To contribute towards the improvement and development of the
organization or a department.
To improve the quality of products and services.
To overcome the barriers that may exist within the prevailing
organizational structure so as to foster an open exchange of ideas.
To respect humanity, develop a positive attitude and feel a sense of
involvement in the decision making processes of the services
offered.
To display human cap abilities & improve competence, which is
one of the goals of all organizations.
To reduce cost in the long run.
And many more

Characteristic Features of Quality Circles


Strength of Group: The optimum number of members, in a Quality
Circle is 6 to 12. If the number of members is very small (say<6), the
circle becomes inactive and if the number of members is too large
(say>12), there is lack of active participation by some group
members.
Composition of the Group: The members of the Quality Circle are
workforce level employees. Their designations need not be same
but they should be engaged in common work i.e. should be from the
same department.
One of the members is made the leader who coordinates the
activities of the group. All members of the quality circle (whether
operator, supervisor, lineman etc.) have equal status in the group. The
members select their own projects, set own rules and priorities. All
decisions are made by consensus of the group members.
Voluntary Team: The members of the Quality Circle join it voluntarily.
There is no pressure on them to join. Also, no one can be barred
from joining a Quality Circle by virtue of his being a Union Leader or
due to lack of qualification etc.

Characteristic Features of Quality Circles


Place and Time: The Quality Circle meeting should be held away from the
work area so that the group members are free from distractions. The
members meet generally during working hours but can meet beyond the
normal working hours also.
The members of the Quality Circle can meet for one hour per week if the
group is relatively new. Normally they meet for half an hour per week.
Practically, the length and frequency of Q.C meetings will vary according to
quality problems to be solved. There should be minimum pressure on the
team members to solve problems within a set of time frame.
Nature of Problems Solved: Quality Circles address two type of problems: Those relating to well being of the workers.
Those relating to well being of the company.
The problem areas are generally improvement in safety features, product
design and improvement in manufacturing processes being used. It
should be remembered that Quality Circles deal with only work related
problems and not with grievances or demands.

Working of a Quality Circle


A Quality Circle comprising of 6-12 voluntary members belonging to one
functional department is formed.
The Quality Circle is given a name by the members and a leader is chosen
from amongst them.
The Q.C members decide the rules and regulations of the functioning of group
through consensus of its members. Quality Circle leader should make sure
that each meeting has a clear agenda and objectives.
The members of the Quality Circle identify various work related problems of
their area through a brainstorming session.
After problems have been identified, priorities are set to decide the order in
which the problems would be undertaken for solution.
Each problem is analyzed by the Q.C using simple problem solving
techniques like brainstorming etc and quality tools like Run charts, Ishikawa
diagram, Pareto charts etc. Care should be taken that each member has
received proper training on these techniques before Q.C starts working on
problems.

So with the help of different techniques, alternative solutions are obtained


to solve a problem.
The group members discuss and evaluate different solutions and select
one solution for the problem.
An action plan is prepared by the Q.C team and sent for managements
approval. On obtaining the approval, action plan is implemented to solve
the problem. The circle should not hesitate to avail outside/ expert help
whenever deemed necessary.

Identify
problems

Problem Identification

Problem Selection

Selection of the
problem to be
solved
after
setting priorities
for all identified
problems

Problem Analysis

Generate Alternative
Solutions

Select the most


Appropriate Solution

Prepare Plan of Action

number

of

Problem is analyzed
using simple problems
solving techniques viz.
Brain
Storming,
Quality tools etc.

Discussing and evaluating


different solutions to choose
the most effective one.
Implementation of the
Solution

Objectives/ Benefits of Quality Circles

The benefits of Quality Circles fall into three categories:


A)

INDIVIDUAL CHARACTERISTICS:
i. As said earlier, quality circle is a form of participative management.
It improves the capabilities of an individual because of group
participation. Group participation brings out the hidden potential
of employees.
ii. It also improves the personality characteristics of employees
e.g. Shyness etc. It increases the level of skill of employees
because of training received prior to becoming a member of Q.C.

B)
i.

i.
ii.

INDIVIDUAL RELATION WITH OTHERS:


It leads to the development of team spirit. The workers attitude
changes from,
I could not do to We can do.
It increases managements respect for workers.
It increases worker's respect for supervisor.

Objectives/ Benefits of Quality Circles


C) WORKERS ATTITUDE TOWARDS THEIR ORGANIZATION
i.

ii.
iii.

Quality Circles can change some workers negative attitude


from, I dont care to I do care. It leads to continuous
improvement in the quality of work life through humanization of
work.
It makes the workers understand the importance of product
quality.
It makes the workers appreciate why some problems cant be
solved quickly.

Quality circle will fail if:


Inadequate training
Unsure of purpose or lack of clear objectives
Unrealistic expectations for fast results
Not truly voluntary
Had been formed in isolation
Lack of management interest
Resistance by middle management
Not really empowered to take decision
Resentment by non participants
Failure to get solutions implemented