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GLOBAL STUDIES

FA R E A S T

H I S TO R I CA L C H A R AC T E R I S T I C S
Indias Independence Movement
In the 1601, Great Britain

came to India to set up trading


forts.
At first, they were only

looking to trade goods


(ivory, gold, silks, dyes) and
spices.
By 1760, Britain had gained

political and economic


power over India.

H I S TO R I CA L C H A R AC T E R I S T I C S

Indias Independence Movement


Indians began to resent being ruled by a foreign

government.
They were treated as second-class citizens.
Indians were also taxed heavily by the British.
As they became better organized, they began to

call for independence from Britain.

H I S TO R I CA L C H A R AC T E R I S T I C S
Indias Independence Movement
During WWI, millions of Indians joined with the

British army.
The British promised that after the war, Indians

would have more control of their government.


Many Indians were upset with the British false

promises.
In 1919, outside of the Temple of Amritsar, British

soldiers starting shooting a large group of Indians.


It was this awful massacre that spurred Mohandas

Gandhi into action for Indias independence.

H I S TO R I CA L C H A R AC T E R I S T I C S
Indias Independence Movement

1909

Ghandi
was born in India and studied law in

England.
spent time in South Africa during

Apartheid
encouraged his followers to practice

nonviolent protests against the British.


developed what he called a system of

civil disobedience and believed that it


would make the world recognize the
injustice in India.
1930S

Gandhis Handwriting
God is truth the way to truth lies through Ahimsa (non-violence). Sabarmati,
March 13 1927.
M K Gandhi

H I S TO R I CA L C H A R AC T E R I S T I C S
Indias Independence Movement
Gandhi
led his followers in boycotts,

hunger strikes, and nonviolent


protests.
led a march that was aimed at

closing a British salt factory, the


guards responded by clubbing and
beating the peaceful protestors.
News of this event spread

worldwide and people around


the world began to call for the
British to grant Indian
independence.

Day 2

Gandhi as Satyagrahi
Mohandas Gandhi spent much of his life fighting injustice, often through what he called satyagraha. In
Sanskrit, satya means truth and graha means to attain. Thus, satyagraha, often translated as
reaching for the truth, is civil disobedience characterized by non-violent non-cooperation. For Gandhi
this tactic was tied closely to the concept of ahimsa non-violence (more specifically for Gandhi, the love
that remains once all violence has ended within oneself).
As Gandhi explained, Satyagraha means holding to this truth in every situation, no matter how fierce
the storm. Because he wants nothing for himself, the true satyagrahi is not afraid of entering any conflict
for the sake of those around him, without hostility, without resentment, without resorting even to violent
words. Even in the face of the fiercest provocation, he never lets himself forget that he and the attacker
are one. This is ahimsa, which is more than just the absence of violence; it is intense love.
Document 1: A Bonfire of Certificates by M. K. Gandhi (1928)
In 1908, as a young lawyer in South Africa, Gandhi opposed the Asiatic Law Amendment Act, which
required the Indian community to register with the government and carry a certificate at all times on
penalty of imprisonment or deportation. Gandhi began a satyagraha campaign to protest this law (known
as the Black Act). On August 16, as an act of defiance, Gandhi held a bonfire to burn the certificates.
According to Gandhi, thirty thousand Indians attended. As he reported:
The Committee had already received upwards of 2,000 certificates to be burnt. These were all thrown
into a cauldron, saturated with paraffin and set ablaze by Mr. Essop Mian. The whole assembly rose to
their feet and made the place resound with the echoes of their continuous cheers during the burning
process. Some of those who had still withheld their certificates brought them in numbers to the platform,
and these too were consigned to the flames.
The satyagraha campaign continued until January 12, 1914, when Gandhi and the South African
government reached a compromise agreement ending some of the harshest provisions of the Black Act.
Document 2: The Great Trial by K.P.K. Menon (1922)
In India, Gandhi was arrested for writing seditious articles (sedition means likely to start a rebellion), a
charge to which he pled guilty. During the satyagraha campaign he had recently led, some Indian protestors
had engaged in violent acts, including the burning and hacking to death of twenty-three policemen in
the village of Chauri Chaura. When the British government blamed Gandhi for this, he replied,
Thinking over these [acts of violence] deeply and sleeping over them night after night, it is impossible
for me to dissociate myself from the diabolical crimes of Chauri Chaura. He [the British Advocate
General] is quite right when he says that as a man of responsibility, a man having had a fair share of
experience of this world, I should have known the consequences of every one of my acts. I knew that I
was playing with fire. I ran the risk, and if I was set free, I would still do the same.
I wanted to avoid violence. But I had to make my choice. I had either to submit to a system which I
considered had done an irreparable harm to my country, or incur the risk of the mad fury of my people
bursting forth, when they understood the truth from my lips. I know that my people have sometimes
gone mad. I am deeply sorry for it and I am therefore here to submit not to a light penalty but to the
highest penalty. I do not ask for mercy.

Indian Independence and the


Question of Pakistan

TRB-15

Choices for the 21st Century Education Program


Watson Institute for International Studies, Brown University

Gandhis
Impact

H I S TO R I CA L C H A R AC T E R I S T I C S
Indias Independence Movement
Despite Indias independence, things were not

peaceful in the country.


Hindus and Muslims could not reach a solution as

to how to rule an independent India.


Eventually, the country was split into India for the

Hindus and East & West Pakistan for the Muslims.


The partition of India led to genocide.
Hundreds of thousands of people were killed in

widespread violence.

H I S TO R I CA L C H A R AC T E R I S T I C S
Kashmir
Kashmir dispute dates back

to the Partition of India


Pakistan claims Kashmir

because of Muslim
majority population
India claims Kashmir as

part of multi-religious,
multi-ethnic nation

Kashmir: The origins of the dispute

By Victoria Schofield, author of Kashmir in Conflict


In August 1947 when the Indian subcontinent became
independent from Britain, all the rulers of the 565 princely states,
whose lands comprised two-fifths of India and a population 99
million, had to decide which of the two new dominions to join,
India or Pakistan.
The ruler of Jammu and Kashmir, whose state was situated
between the two new countries, could not decide which country
to join.
He was Hindu, his population was predominantly Muslim. He therefore did nothing.
Instead he signed a "standstill" agreement with Pakistan in order that services
such as trade, travel and communication would be uninterrupted.
India did not sign a similar agreement.
Law and order

The
Origins of
Dispute

In October 1947, Pashtun tribesmen from Pakistan's North-West Frontier Province


invaded Kashmir.
There had been persistent reports of communal violence against Muslims in the
state and, supported by the Pakistani Government, they were eager to precipitate its accession to Pakistan.
Troubled by the increasing deterioration in law and order and by earlier raids, culminating in the invasion
of the tribesmen, the ruler, Maharaja Hari Singh, requested armed assistance from India.
The then Governor-General, Lord Mountbatten, believed the developing situation would be less explosive
if the state were to accede to India, on the understanding that this would only be temporary prior to "a
referendum, plebiscite, election".
According to the terms of the Instrument of Accession, India's jurisdiction was to extend to external affairs,
defence and communications.
Troops airlifted
Exactly when Hari Singh signed the Instrument of Accession has been hotly debated for over 50 years.
Official Indian accounts state that in the early hours of the morning of 26 October, Hari Singh fled from
Srinagar, arriving in Jammu later in the day, where he was met by V P Menon, representative of Prime
Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, and signed the Instrument of Accession.
On the morning of 27 October, Indian troops were airlifted into Srinagar.
Recent research, from British sources, has indicated that Hari Singh did not reach Jammu until the evening
of 26 October and that, due to poor flying conditions, V P Menon was unable to get to Jammu until the
morning of 27 October , by which time Indian troops were already arriving in Srinagar.
In order to support the thesis that the Maharaja acceded before Indian troops landed, Indian sources have
now suggested that Hari Singh signed an Instrument of Accession before he left Srinagar but that it was not
made public until later.

H I S TO R I CA L C H A R AC T E R I S T I C S
Japan Post WWII
Japans success was based on producing goods for

export.
it was able to quickly build efficient, modern

factories and adapt the latest technology.


Japan benefited from an educated, highly skilled

work force.
Japan is heavily dependent on imported raw resources. It

must import about 50% of its food and most of its fuel.

H I S TO R I CA L C H A R AC T E R I S T I C S
China Post WWII
Mao Zedong
was a Chinese Communist revolutionary and the

founding father of the People's Republic of China.


after Chinas communist revolution, the overthrown

government fled to neighboring Taiwan and


established the Republic of China.
Today, Taiwan is not recognized as a country by

the United States, and is instead considered a


province of China.

H I S TO R I CA L C H A R AC T E R I S T I C S
China Post WWII
The U.S. refused to recognize

Communist China and tried to


isolate them.
Ping-pong diplomacy began an

exchange of table tennis players


between the U.S. and China.
The event paved the way to a

visit to Beijing by President


Nixon.
By 72, Nixon began to establish

diplomatic relations with China.

H I S TO R I CA L C H A R AC T E R I S T I C S
China Post WWII
After Mao died = corruption
1980s: people blamed Communism

& democratic protests soon followed.


In 1989, thousands of demonstrators

occupied Tiananmen Square.


politicians agreed to discuss changes

if students and protesters left.


the government sent in troops and

tanks to intimidate unarmed students.


Opened fire on the crowd, killing

over 200 protesters.

Whos this?

H I S TO R I CA L C H A R AC T E R I S T I C S
Modern China
Today, China does NOT have a

Communist economy
Opened the country to industry

and trade.
More freedom for consumers
They DO have a Communist

government
Censorship and no free speech.
Gov. doesnt want the media to fuel

opposition to the Communism


Firewall on the Internet
No Facebook or social media!

H I S TO R I CA L C H A R AC T E R I S T I C S
Koreas
After WWII, North Korea became

a communist ally of the Soviet


Union. The United States backed
noncommunist South Korea.
In 1950, North Korea attacked

South Korea. The war turned


into a stalemate.
In 53, both sides signed an

armistice, but no peace treaty


has ever been negotiated.
38th Parallel

HISTORIC CHARACTERISTICS
Vietnam
Beginning in the 50s, the communist government of N.

Vietnam attempted to force a communist government in S.


Vietnam.
the U.S. sent massive amounts of economic and military

aid to the S. Vietnamese government.


Nixon instituted a policy of Vietnamization.
the policy of building up S. Vietnamese forces while

gradually withdrawing American troops.


Ultimately, it failed, when S. Vietnamese troops

proved unable to resist the North.

KOREAN WAR & VIETNAM WAR


READING & QUESTIONS
Name____________________________________

Name__________________
Global Studies

Global Studies

The Vietnam War

The Cold War Heats Up KOREAN WAR


The Soviet Union and the United States divided Korea
following World War II, and established governments
favorable to their own particular economic, political,
and diplomatic interests: the Soviet related Democratic
Peoples Republic of Korea in the north, and the U.S.
allied Republic of Korea in the south.
The Korean Conflict, so-called because it never entailed
an official declaration of war by the United States
government, began in 1950 when North Korea invaded
South Korea. The war was one illustration of the
mounting tensions between Soviets and Americans
during the Cold War.
The Truman Doctrine, developed by Harry Truman
and his foreign policy advisors following World War
II, dedicated the United States military to preventing
the spread of communism throughout the world. When North Korea invaded South Korea with the clear
agenda of uniting the peninsula under a singular communist government, the United States reacted by
sending troops as part of a United Nations coalition to push North Korea back to the 38th parallel (a line
of latitude marking the border between North and South Korea).
The UN coalition forces suffered many early defeats that resulted in their retreat to the southernmost
corner of the Korean peninsula. However, the coalition troops soon rallied with the help of American Air
Force attacks on strategic North Korean locations and a bold assault at Inchon by General MacArthur.
Soon, the US-led forces had pushed the North Korean army back to the 38th parallel and then kept
going, pushing the northern army almost to the Chinese border. It appeared that Communism might be
defeated on the peninsula.
At this point,
however, China
decided to join the
war on the side of the
North Koreans, and
the entrance of
400,000 Chinese
soldiers created a
formidable opponent
to the US-led
coalition army. In no
time, American
troops were once
again forced below
the 38th Parallel.
General MacArthur

Part A: Read the passage below and answer the questions. Be sure to answer in complete sentences.
In 1954, the country of Vietnam was divided into the North and South. However,
fighting soon began in South Vietnam due to South Vietnam wanting to remain nonCommunist. North Vietnam fought to take over South Vietnam to create one
Communist nation.
The Ho Chi Minh Trail -named after the leader of North Vietnam- ran through
neighboring countries. The United States feared that Communism might spread
thought Southeast Asia and began sending money, supplies, and advisors to South
Vietnam. President Lyndon Johnson sent American soldiers to fight there. As the war
went on, many American soldiers were killed while fighting in Vietnam and the antiwar movement in the United States grew. People held marches, sang anti-war songs,
and wrote letters against the war to politicians.

Terms to
Know:
Communism:
a one party
government in
which the
state owns all
property.

In 1973, President Nixon finally withdrew the last of the U.S. troops from the area. The
North Vietnamese won the war and Vietnam became a country under Communist
rule. In 1982, the Vietnam Veterans Memorial was built in Washington D.C. to honor
American soldiers who fought in the war.
Questions:
1. Discuss the reasons the Vietnamese went to war.

2. Discuss the reasons why the United States became involved in Vietnam.

3. Why do you think that people (both U.S. and Vietnamese) saw the war as something bad?

Part B: Look at the pictures and answer the questions. Make sure to answer in complete sentences.
4. How do you think this picture shows
different opinions of Americans about the war?

Name: _______________________________________________________

Background: After World War II, the United States pursued a policy of containment against communism.
This policy included the development of alliances against Soviet and Chinese aggression and led to armed
conflicts in both Korea and Vietnam. Use your textbook and notes to complete this chart.

Korea

Vietnam
Dates of
Conflict
Geography:
Identify the
border
countries draw the
outline of
the country

Total
Conflict
Casualties
Pre-conflict:

What was the


situation in
this region
before the
conflict?

Cause How did the


conflict
start? Why
did it start?
Include US
involvement
in the
conflict

Key Players?
Name and
role of key
people or
countries
involved
UN
Involvement

H I S TO R I CA L C H A R AC T E R I S T I C S
North Korea
N. Koreas official name is the

Democratic Peoples Republic of


Korea
N. Korea is NOT a democracy.
Kim Jong-un elected as Supreme

Leader
N. Korea today continues an

isolationist policy.
They are very secretive. They do

not allow many people into


their country.

Name:______________________________________________

Conflict on the Korean Peninsula:


North Korea and the Nuclear Threat
Handouts

21

Option 1: Launch a Preemptive Military Strike

he security of the United States is in jeopardy as long as the current regime in North
Korea is in power. This belligerent regime has a history of taking aggressive action on
the Korean Peninsula and its nuclear initiatives pose a threat to the entire world. In order to
eliminate the nuclear threat posed by North Korea, the United States must act quickly and
decisively. A speedy, surgical attack on nuclear weapons sites will destroy North Koreas
existing arsenal and its ability to make nuclear bombs, initiate the downfall of Kim Jong Ils
regime, and send a clear message that the United States will not accept nuclear proliferation.
North Korea has already declared that it has several nuclear weapons and has claimed to have
tested two of them. Waiting will only give them time to develop more. North Korea could
use these weapons against its neighbors, if not against the United States. Weapons-grade
fissile material is also easy to transport, and North Korea could sell its nuclear materials to
whomever it wants. If we give the North Koreans time, they can make the weapons-grade
nuclear material that they need and hide it away from future international inspectors.
Therefore, we will never be able to remove North Korea from the list of countries possessing
nuclear weapons. This uncertainty could compel Japan or Taiwan to develop their own
nuclear weapons program as a deterrent. Nuclear proliferation in Asia could, in turn, set
off an arms race that could go worldwide. The United States must act now to prevent this
possibility. The only option for peace and security in the future is to take military action now.

Goals of Option 1
t Eliminate North Koreas nuclear capability by destroying its arsenal as well as the reactors and
processors that are producing weapons-grade plutonium and uranium.
t Communicate to other states that nuclear proliferation is unacceptable.

U.S. Policies to Achieve These Goals


t Use the U.S. military to destroy North Koreas nuclear weapons production facilities.
t Prepare to respond to any North Korean attacks or actions to transport weapons or materials.

Underlying Beliefs of Option 1


t North Korea wants to be a nuclear state and intends on using nuclear weapons or selling its
materials and technology to other countries or terrorists.
t The molasses-like speed with which the international community deals with problems such as
these will allow the problem to escalate.
t The policy of containing North Korea and its nuclear ambitions has failed.

Arguments Against Option 1


t A preemptive unilateral attack on North Korea would violate international law. Additionally,
the U.S. mission in Iraq has proved that using military force for regime change abroad can be
incredibly risky and costly.
t To bypass negotiation in favor of plans for military action will only increase North Koreas
determination to build a nuclear capability as quickly as possible as a deterrent.
t In response to a military strike North Korea could launch strikes of its own against Japan, China,
or South Korea, or U.S. bases in those countries. It might also retaliate with a nuclear attack.
t The radiation released from attacks against nuclear weapons facilities could kill thousands and be
deadly for years to come.
t U.S. allies in the region are opposed to military action against North Korea.

CHOICES FOR THE 21ST CENTURY EDUCATION PROGRAM

WATSON INSTITUTE FOR INTERNATIONAL STUDIES, BROWN UNIVERSITY

WWW.CHOICES.EDU

North
Korean
Conflict

ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS
Agriculture
Many countries in Asia have

arable land that is good for


farming.
Tropical crops are grown such

as: Tea, Sugar Cane, Coffee,


Rubber, & Cocoa
Rice is the most important food

crop in the region.

ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS
Methods of farming
In mountainous areas of Asia people practice

agricultural terracing.
In areas with tropical forests people use slash and

burn farming.
Many tropical cash crops are grown on large

plantations.
In most areas people still practice subsistence

farming.

Terraced Rice Farming

Slash and Burn Agriculture

ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS
The Green Revolution
The Green Revolution (1940s to the 1960s) - new strains

of rice and other crops were introduced to developing


parts of the world.
These new crops produced more food and allowed food

production to keep pace with population growth.

ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS
Environmental Effects
China is the largest producer of hydroelectric energy.
Three Gorges Dam
Fish and other wildlife have suffered
No governmental regulations for corporations.
Chemical waste and pollution from plants.
Runners in Beijing Olympics had to adjust to smog.
China is the largest consumer of coal producing 3x more

pollution than the US


Coal is one of the dirtiest energy sources

ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS
Economic Unions
ASEAN, union of 10 nations to help promote

economic, cultural, and social development


Develop regional peace and political stability

ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS
Asian Tigers
The term Asian tigers refers to Taiwan, Hong

Kong, Singapore, and South Korea.


All four are small Asian lands that became

newly industrialized countries by the 1980s.


They are known for their aggressive economic

growth.
All four had stable governments that invested in

education.

Singapore

ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS
Manufacturing
Nike is the largest producer of sports

apparel and shoes in the world.


5% of the USs GDP comes from Nike

alone
1995: Began to use sweatshops in

Vietnam for sneakers.


Created jobs, but low paying jobs ($40

a month) and national labor violations


Health hazards, Unsafe equipment,

& Under 18 workers


85% of the 10,000 employees are

women

Typical Nike Shoe


*Production Labor $2.75
*Materials $9.00
*Rent, equipment $3.00
*Suppliers operating profit $1.75
*Duties or taxes $3.00
*Shipping $0.50
Cost to Nike $20.00

W H AT D O E S T H I S C A R T O O N
REPRESENT?

C U LT U R A L C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S

Cities
Asia has some of the largest cities in the world.
there is an extreme contrast between urban areas and

rural areas.
rural areas are still living a traditional lifestyle and

practicing subsistence farming.


Many people are moving to cities to look for jobs.

Tokyo, Japan

Shanghai, China

Singapore

C U LT U R A L C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S
Population
China is the most populated country in the world and

India is the second most populated country.


China has instituted a one child policy in order to limit

population growth.

Opinion: One Child Law?


Name________________________
Global Studies

Story --- Chinas One Child Policy


From Deng Xiaopings speech at the CCPs 1980 Theoretical Conference:
If we want to make China achieve the Four Modernisations, there are at least two key characteristics that
must be seen. One relates to Chinas poor foundations The second is that China has a large population and little arable
land. China now has a population of over 900 million, of which 80% live in the rural area. There are both advantages
and disadvantages to having so many people. In a situation where production is not yet developed enough, food,
education and employment are all serious problems. We must strengthen our work on family planning, but even if
the population ceases to grow after so many years, the problem of the large population will continue to exist for a
certain period of time. This situation of little arable land and a large population, particularly a large rural population,
cannot easily be changed. This is a characteristic which Chinas modernisation and construction must take into
account.

From a speech given by Deng Xiaoping in 1986 upon meeting the Japanese prime minister:
Chinas implementation of strict population growth controls is in our own vital interests. It is a major
strategic policy of China. Some people outside the country want China not to implement family planning they want
China to remain in an impoverished state forever.

Citizens have the right to reproduction as well as


the obligation to practise family planning according
to law. Both husband and wife bear equal
responsibility for family planning.

Some of those opposed believe that the issue of


childbearing should be freely decided by the
family, and the government has no right to
interfere. Many foreign human rights organisations
have consistently criticised the Family Planning
Policy as a violation of human rights.
In addition, during the promotion of the
One Child Policy, many forcible abortions and
inhumane events have taken place.

Population and Family Planning Law of the People's


Republic of China, Article 18: The State maintains its
current policy for reproduction, encouraging late marriage
and childbearing and advocating one child per couple.
Where the requirements specified by laws and regulations
are met, plans for a second child, if requested, may be made.
Specific measures in this regard shall be formulated by the
people's congress or its standing committee of a province,
autonomous region, or municipality directly under the
Central Government. Family planning shall also be
introduced to the ethnic peoples. Specific measures in this
regard shall be formulated by the people's congress or its
standing committee of a province, autonomous region or
municipality directly under the Central Government.

People opposed to Family Planning in China believe:


The average per capita income of Chinas urban population is much higher than that of the rural population,
but they generally have only one child, while people in rural areas may have two children. This results in a situation
where there are insufficient resources to enable these rural children to receive good education and live in a good
social environment. At the same time, the only children of urban residents are always excessively pampered,
leading to an increasingly gap between rich and poor.
In addition, well educated people who are in a good financial situation generally have fewer children or even
no children, while those in a comparatively poor financial situation are often led by traditional ideas to disobey the
Family Planning Policy, and give birth to more children more frequently. In this way, the Family Planning Policy
causes a drop in the proportion of children who come from families with good financial circumstances.

C U LT U R A L C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S

Religions of Asia
Confucianism
Taoism
Shinto
Hinduism
Buddhism

C U LT U R A L C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S
Confucianism
Founded by Confucius (551479 BC), China
Atheistic (no God - or Holy Book)
5-6 million current followers
Social code based on morality rather than laws. Established social

order within Chinese Society


Believe the answer to social ills was self-cultivation, starting

with education
Emphasis on family loyalty and relationships
Needs of the group most important; how can you help?

Study the past if you are to


dene the future.
Do not dwell on mistakes and
thus make them crimes.
Those who do not study are just
cattle dressed in mens clothing

C U LT U R A L C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S
Taoism
Religious Leaders: Priests
Holy Book: Tao Te Ching
House of Worship: Temples/Monastaries
Live Tranquil rural life in union with nature
Nothing is permanent or absolute, but in a state of flux

between two opposites


Yin and Yang: represent opposites (good and evil/light

and dark)

C U LT U R A L C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S
Shinto
Japanese Religion
Atheistic (no God - or Holy Book)
Most things have a kami (spirit)
Prayer and Offerings are used
Practices include divination, spirit possession, and

shamanic healing.
Shinto led to the Japanese belief that as sole descendants

of the sun, they were uniquely gifted to rule the world.

Mount Fuji Holy Site for Shintoism

Name_________________________
Global Studies

Asias Religions Graphic Organizer


Islam
Type of Religion

Holy Book

Name of God

Country of
Origin

Founder

Beliefs

Hinduism

Buddhism

Shintoism

Confucianism