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Kyoto Protocol, an agreement to call for a joint effort of different countries globally to act

against Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. It was held in Kyoto, Japan on December 11,
1997 and the agreement is linked to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate
Change. Basically, the agreement asked the participating countries to reduce their GHG
emissions in a set of time periods. In order to achieve this greenhouse reduction target, green
technology is currently being developed rapidly all around the globe.
ORGANIC RANKINE CYCLE (ORC)
Organic Rankine cycle, is a technology developed to create electricity by using low-grade
heat with a relatively high efficiency. In a report by Uusitalo et al. (2016) that the technology
has been successfully adapted into various power production system. Primarily, the source of
low grade heat used is exhaust gas by burning the biogas engines. Organic Rankine Cycle
(ORC), used the organic working fluids, in this example water, that have a relatively low
boiling temperature, with a reasonable pressure. By selecting fluid that meets these criteria, it
enables the application of low-grade heat sources in order to produce the electricity, where in
reality, it is almost impossible to utilize this heat source for generation of electricity. Another
special feature of the technology, in principle is that it can work with any external heat source
(Colonna et al. (2015), making it in general, a versatile technology that can be applied in
different heat recovery applications all around the world.

ORC Process

ORC process is done by circulating of the organic working fluids in a close system. The
power production is determined by the phase change of the working fluids, from liquid to
vapour. An illustration of the process can be viewed in Appendix (Figure 1). The process are
generally divided in 6 stages. First process is to increase the pressure of working fluid in the
feed pump. Secondly, the working fluid goes through a preheating process in the recuperator.
Next is preheating, evaporating and lastly superheating the fluid in the evaporator. Fourth
step is to allow the fluid vapour expansion of the working fluid in the turbine from high
pressure to low pressure. Then, superheating removal in the recuperator and condenser is
done. Lastly, the low pressure vapour is allowed to condense into liquid form in the
condenser.

GHG Emissions Assessment

To assess the reduction of GHG emissions by using ORC process, Life Cycle Assessment
(LCA) is applied. Two cases is evaluated, Scenario 1 where only electricity from gas engine
is utilized, and Scenario 2 is where electricity and heat from a gas engine is utilized. In both
scenarios, four case is evaluated (shown in Figure 2). To summarize, in Scenario 1,
application of ORC gives a lower GHG emissions, up to 280-820 tCO2. Compared to biogas
production and biogas engine operation, ORC device and working fluid production cover
only 0.1 % of the total GHG produced (Uusitalo et al. (2016).
In conclusion, the major advantage of using Organic Rankine cycle process, from the GHG
emissions point of view, is that it depends on whether only electricity or heat is also
produced. Moreover, if the heat is already utilized, the rates of usage plays a determining
factor in considering GHG emission reduction with ORC. This technology did proved that
ORC technology used managed to reduce the GHG emissions and increase the renewable
electricity production from the waste heat of the biogas engine.

SOLAR AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS


One of the technology developed for combating the greenhouse gas emissions, the
application seems interesting as there is a direct relationship between the cooling demand and
peak incident of the solar radiation. Due to the technological advancements, it has become
more applicable in daily life. The technology early development was done by Tabor (1962).
Solar cooling utilize the use of hot water, produced by solar thermal collectors, which can
also come from the electricity generation via photovoltaic panels. In order to meet the
demands for cooling and at the same time environment friendly, medium temperature
application such as solar cooling and industrial process heat can be used in order achieved the
goal by using current solar technology. Compare to conventional cooling system, it is
environmental friendly, reducing GHG emissions, and conserving energy.

Solar Thermal Driven System

There are two most commonly used system right now, which is the single-effect absorption
chillers and double-effects absorption refrigeration system. In single-effect absorption, it
require temperature from 75-90 C to operates, while in double-effect absorption, require
temperature input range from 90-120 C. Referring to the prototype of domestic solar thermal
single-effect absorption system (Figure 3) as reported by Agyenim et al (2010), it use
numerous evacuated tubes to achieve the required cooling demand. Absorption chiller (4.5

kW) driven by 12 m2 vacuum tube solar collector, with a cold storage tank with a 6kW fan
coil. The performance of the system, including the individual components was evaluated
based on the physical measurements of the solar daily radiations, ambient temperature, mass
flow rates, and individual electrical consumption along with inlet outlet fluid temperatures. It
was reported that on the average, the solar coefficient of performance of the system was 0.58
on a hot sunny day, with the peak insolation marked at 800 W/m2.

Economic benefits and feasibility

Reported by many authors, solar cooling technologies is technically feasible and at the same
time, reducing the greenhouse gas emissions. On the economics side, it is important to look at
the investment cost, green incentives and payback period to keep the lead and promoting this
technology. In a report by Tsoutsos et al (2009) stated that 179 solar collectors spanning
about 500 m2 in surface area, can provides thermal energy required by the 70 kW H 2O/LiBr
absorption chiller, plus with complementary 50 kW compression chiller in case of insufficient
cooling conditions. Although this consider the highest effect for the environment, an auxiliary
fossil fuel pre-heater was added into account to ensure a secure operation. In total, investment
cost without funding subsidies, is estimated at 174.000 with a payback time of 11.5 years.
The investments cost is conclude to be tremendous, but that huge amount can be
compensated with the high environmental benefits, large total annual savings, incentives, and
low payback period. Looking at cost effectiveness, these systems should be developed to
work along with solar heating, water treatment, hospital equipment sterilization etc, to further
improve its effectiveness usage of solar resources, reducing the cost of system and risk of
infections.
The fact that roof always enough space for the solar collector installation, solar-power
integrated system is capable of supplying heating, cooling and hot water. Project that has
been done in various part of the world suggest that it is feasible using solar cooling as a
system but for the sake of all-weather operation, it is necessary to install auxiliary heat source
to act as supplement for the cooling system.
Conclusions
Various step has been taken in order to reduce the greenhouse gas which is mostly
produced by human activities. This is important to ensure the survival of the planet and
environment specifically. Kyoto Protocol has pioneered and gives the platform for actions to

be taken. The effort for green energy and energy reduction should be the main objectives
when developing or innovating new technologies. This is a responsibilities for all. Our
actions may determine if we become a casualty in the war for a habitable planet for
generations to come, quotes by Leonardo DiCaprio.

APPENDICES

Figure 1. Organic Rankin cycle major component and its process cycle, Uusitalo et al. (2016)

Figure 2a. ORC life cycle assessment, and itsFigure


cases 2. ORC life cycle assessment, and its
cases (Scenario 2)
(Scenario 1)

Uusitalo et al. (2016)

Uusitalo et al. (2016)

Figure 3. Solar absorption thermal conditioning system (prototype) Colonna et al. (2015)

REFERENCES

Colonna, P., Casati, E., Trapp, C., Mathijssen, T., Larjola, J., Turunen-Saaresti, T., and
Uusitalo, A. (2015). Organic Rankine Cycle Power Systems: From the Concept to
Current Technology, Applications, and an Outlook to the Future. Journal of

Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, 137(10), 100801.


Francis Agyenim, Ian Knight, Michael Rhodes, Design and experimental testing of
the performance of an outdoor LiBr/H2O solar thermal absorption cooling system
with a cold store, Solar Energy, Volume 84, Issue 5, May 2010, Pages 735-744, ISSN

0038-092X, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2010.01.013.
H. Tabor, Use of solar energy for cooling purposes, Solar Energy, Volume 6, Issue 4,
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1962,

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136-142,

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0038-092X(62)90124-X.
Nkwetta, D. N., & Sandercock, J. (2016). A state-of-the-art review of solar airconditioning systems. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 60, 1351-1366.

doi:10.1016/j.rser.2016.03.010
Tsoutsos T, Aloumpi E, Gkouskos Z, Karagiorgas M. Design of a solar absorption

cooling system in a Greek hospital. Energy Build 2010;42:26572


Uusitalo A, Uusitalo V, Grnman A, Luoranen M, Jaatinen-Vrri

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Greenhouse gas reduction potential by producing electricity from biogas engine waste
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