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J,anuary 1992


Defense Language Institute English Language Center Laekland Air Force Base, Texas





The Student Text for Book 29, Level V, has four lessons and one review lesson, daily evaluations and homework assignments, and various appendixes.

The homework and evaluation exercises are at the back of this text. The evaluation exercises are short quizzes and will be given after each lesson is completed. The daily homework assignments will require about two hours to complete.

The appendixes are after the fifth lesson. Appendix A, Part One, is an alphabetical list of the new vocabulary presented in this book. Next to the word is the number of the lesson where the word is introduced. Appendix A, Part Two, is a Glossary of the vocabulary presented in the book. It is divided into lessons. You are to use this Glossary in order to prepare for the lesson. Appendix B is a list of the grammar structures preaented in this book. Next to the structure is the number of the lesson where the structure is presented. The rest of the appendixes are reference materials.

The American Language Course focuses on four areas: 1. '* Func tlon

The functions communicate. show you how sentences in

$ Grammar The grammar structures in the lesson are the forms you need to speak and write correctly.

3. Skills l)

are the ways we use a language to

There are exercises in the lessons that and when to use certain words, phrases, and a particular situation.



There are exercises in the lessons to help you improve your skill or ability in listening, speaking, reading or writing.

4 • ~ Vocabulary

The words and expressions presented in the lesson are those you will need to do the functions and the grammar exercises.

The first page of each lesson is the Focus Page. It provides a summary of the material that will be presented in the lesson.


Tit1e Page

Lesson 1 We Take Inventory Once A Year. 1
Lesson 2 No, I Don't Like It. 35
Lesson 3 She Said He Was Competent. 69
Lesson 4 He's Traveling To Chicago By Train. 101
Lesson 5 Review Lesson 137
Appendix A Word List and Glossary A-1
Appendix B Structure List 8-1
Appendix C Patterns of Irregular Verbs C-1
Appendix D Four Important Spelling Rules D-1
Appendix E Punctuation and Capitalization E-1

Appendix F Conditional Sentences F-1
Homework HW-1
Evaluation EE-1 v


----------------------------fUNCTION---------------------------------- ing ABout and Expres 5 ing Frequency

--------------------------~RAMMAR -----------------------------------

Causatives Time Expressions

Verb Suffixes:-fy, -ify, -ize



Stress Change in R!!!lated Word Pairs A Reading Approach

---------~---------- VOCABULARY ---------------------------------




call in come/came/come

out glow away

reject take/took/taken in wreck



direct periodica.lly repeatedly

adult bundle catalog fla\,.T

goods inventory merchandise m.inor




one after anothsr since then

take leave

take inventory


Verb suffixes


VOCABULARY: taking inventory

3 7


S'T Page

VOCABULARY: t,aking le,ave

READING SKILL: caption/write answerg

GRAMMAR:: r,eviewof causati vas


GRAMMAR: time expressi.ons


FUNCTION: inquiring about anllj expressing 'frequency


SPEAKING SKILLS ': stress change ~n related word pairs


GRAMMAR: review of verh suffixes


READING SKILL: a lr'eading approach

31 33



~ Vocabulary


Taking inventory is a job that must be done periodically. Stores and other businesses have to count their stock of merchandise on a regular basis. Most businesses set aside time to count the goods on hand at the end or the beginning of the year. At that time, the store will be closed to the public, and employees may stay up late into the night until every item has been counted.

After the merchandise has been counted, a list, or catalog, of goods is usually printed so that the company managers will know exactly what they have on hand. It is important to have an accurate inventory of merchandise.


Read the text and then choose the correct answer.

1. Inventory must be taken

a. monthly

c. once in a while

b. periodically d. often


2. When a business takes inventory, the employees

a. produce goods c. sell goods

b. buy the merchandise d. count the merchandise

3. During inventory, a store is usually

a. open all night c. closed

b. open for business d. on vacation

4. A catalog is

a. a list of goods c. a timetable

b. waste material d. a ship's cargo

5. An inventory lists the

of merchandise.

a. sale

c. control

b. stock d. goods


Read these sentences containing new words.

1. When Bob's Shoe Store took its annual inventory this month, Bob had to call in extra help in order to finish in time for the back-to-school sale.

2. He hired some college students to help out for a week.


3. Kay, a college student, was assigned the job of writing down the stock numbers of all the merchandise. She had to climb a ladder to the top of the shelves in the store.

4. She climbed the ladder repeatedly and looked on every shelf.

5. She carefully wrote down the name and number of every item she found, one after another.

6. Afterward, she typed up new labels and stuck them on the shelves in the appropriate locations.

7. Kay learned quickly: she took in everything the supervisor told her. She didn't have to ask the supervisor to explain again.

8. Kay demonstrated her efficiency while helping with the inventory.

9. Since then, she has been working at Bob's on a part-time basis and earning a weekly salary.

10. She's saving several dollars of her salary every week to buy a car .

Answer these questions about Bob's Shoe Store.

1. What did Bob have to do in order to finish taking inventory?

2. Why did Kay have to climb a ladder?

3. How did she take inventory?

4. How often did she Climb the ladder?

5. How well did Kay learn her job?

6. What is Kay saving now? Why?

7. How long has Kay worked at Bob's Shoe Store?



Fill in the blank with an appropriate word from the box.

call in catalog goods

inventory periodically take inventory

stock salary

1. The store manager takes inventory regular intervals.

he does it at

2. The restaurant will holiday parties.

extra waiters for the

3. Many people prefer to do their shopping at home by using a that lists everything a company has in its


4. Damaged prices.

are sometimes sold at greatly reduced

5. The manager looked at the to see if the auto

part was available.

6. His starting was $2,000 a month.

7. The auto supply store keeps a of spare auto

parts on hand.

8. The supervisor announced that the company would at the beginning of the year.


~ ~ Vocabulary


Lance and Larry, two sergeants in the Marines, are looking forward to a vacation in Colorado soon. They plan to take leave in September so that they can be in the mountains when the leaves turn to red and gold. They have reservations on a direct flight to Denver; they'll rent a car there and drive into the mountains. They're taking fishing equipment with them because they plan to do some fishing while they're in Colorado.

Larry's wife, Marie, told him to be very careful while he's driving in the mountains. She's afraid he might miss a curve and wreck the car. Marie had an accident on a mountain road once. Since then, she's been scared of driving on mountain roads.

Now answer these questions.

1. What are Lance and Larry planning to do?

2. When will they take leave?

3. What kind of flight will they take?

4. What is Marie afraid of?



The word "trash" refers to anything we throwaway because we no longer want or need it. Garbage, on the other hand, will decompose (decay) when it is put into the ground, but some trash will not. Because of this, we are rapidly covering our planet with trash.



Trash means anything we throwaway.


Garbage is useful.


Some trash will not decompose.


Garbage is easier to get rid of than trash.


Our planet is being covered with trash.


Reading Skill C>


Read the caption below this photograph. Then, based on the information given in the caption, write answers to the questions which follow.

--_ ... , ¥ • 04C ---

~ . ,

The Costanza Housing Area, located north of the city of Catania, Italy, provides housing for U.S. Navy enlisted personnel and their families and consists of 403 units.

1. In what country is the housing area located?

2. Where is the housing area in relation to the city of Catania?

3. Who lives in the housing area?


4. How many housing units are found in the area?

~ Vocabulary


1. Jeff saves the old newspapers that have come out in the last month, ties them in bundles, and takes them to the recycling center. *

3. Because they weren't perfect, Neal was able to buy the dishes at a reduced price.

2. The storeowner rejected the dishes because they had flaws in them.

*recyc1ing center = a gathering place for items to be reused


5. The flames from the campfire glowed and lit the evening sky.

4. Can you think of some things that adults and children often argue about?

6. Ted Smith has been boss of the company since his dad passed away last year.


7. A minor cannot legally drive a car until he or she becomes an adult.


Read each sentence. Part of it will be underlined. Find a word in the box below that means the same or nearly the same as the underlined word or words. (You may have to change the form of the word.)

come out bundle reject flaw wreck

adult minor glow

pass away direct

take in take leave repeatedly call in



Fred's feet are very big.


Engineers are working on a remote control device for laser disc players with buttons that shine in the dark.


New leaves appear on the trees in the spring.


Movie tickets usually cost less for a child than for a grown-up.

They had to send for a specialist to perform the surgery.



The student understood everything the instructor said.


The tornado destroyed 25 buildings in the center of town.


7. His job application was ~

because it. was i.mproperly prepared ..

a. P,eopl e avo id saying th.E! word ":IJ1..a!' because

t.hey dcnit like to think about death.

9 . The packaqe "las very hard to carry.

10. There's a noostop flight to Dallas at


11. Yes, thsre ar9 one or two def~ct$ in it,

but it's a beautiful piece of work nonetheless.

12. Til_e st.udent s can't vote Ln th~ elect.ion

because they a,re be low the lega 1 age.

13. The instructor drilled the exercise

.Q:}!£lI: and over until the students had it memo r Lz ed ,

14. Jack wa.s on vacation in. August.


The verbs ~, ill.ak.a, and 9Jlt. are commonly used in causative constructions.

Mrs. Jones makes her Children c~ean t.heir rooms. The instructor made the students stay after class.

T;lhen you "make someone do something," it give 15 the idea that there are no choices; someone must do something.

The bare infinitive (simple form} is used after the verb.

2;. lUI. VE J HAll

We nave Mr. J'amespaint our house every four yeal's. He had his friend help him his homework.

When you " have someone do something ~ ~I you ask someone to do something 1 sometimes for pa~l". Like with make, the bare infinitive (simple form) is used after the ve::rb~


He 111 get the carpenter t:o bui.ld a. booKcase,. She got the mechanic to adjust the brakes.

"Get someone to do something" has the same meaning as "have someone do something .," You are asking someone to do something for you. Notice that the to-infinitive is used after 9'et 1n a causative construction. AlsQ, th.e getcausative is used frequently in conversation.


I had my f 1.1m developed,. (by someone) We ,got our car repaired~ (by someone)

The caus ati ve verbs h,a:ve and ge.t can al so be used in passive constructions. In this case, it means tha.t you have Or get something done by ,someone. The past participle of the verb £s used in the passive. In addition, the by-prepos.i tional phrase is often ami tteo ..

Re,ad these di.alogs with another st:ud!Emt. They contain 'both and passivl9 'causative constructions.


Bob: 8.111 :

:What did you get done ·at: t.he d'entist? I goit the children's teeth eleaned~




What di.d yOiu the dog do'?

I had the Clog bring me th,e :newspaper.


3. Art: What did you get the children to do last night?

Mary: I got them to help wrap the gifts.

4. Anne: What did you make Joey do? He's crying.

Joe: I made him put his toys away.

5. Linda:
6. Paul:
Pat: What did Christina get her brother to do? She got him to help clean her room.

Who did you have install your sign?

I had it installed by a sign company.


Listen to a question with make, get, or have in it and answer it by using the words in parentheses.

Example: What did Uncle Antonio make his sons do? (feed/cows)

Uncle Antonio made his sons feed the cows.

1. What does the professor have the students do? (turn in/homework)

2. What did Anna make her children do? (sit still for a picture)

3. What did Joe get his dad to do yesterday? (play baseball)

4. Who did you get to fix your suit? It looks great. (the tailor)

5. What did you have the Chinese restaurant do? (deliver/food)

6. What does the manager make the waiter clean? (all the tables)


7. What did the shot make the goalkeeper do? (dive to the right)

8. What will Sandra get her husband to build next week? (build a desk)


Read each sentence. Then change it from active to passive using have or get in your statement. The by-prepositional phrase is not necessary.

Example: John gets his friend to cut his hair.

John gets his hair cut. (by his friend)

1. I had my wife thicken the sauce.

2. The Captain got the company to change the rules.

3. The frightened woman had the cowboy shoot the snake.

4. The farmer has the workers milk the cows.

5. Thomas had his brother send the pictures overseas.

6. The authorities had the police arrest the thief.

7. The Thompsons got Mr. Antipest to spray their house.

8. The driver had the guide seat the boys at the front of the bus.



There are a few ways we can express time in sentences~ We can use adverbs~ prepositional phras;S:-noun phrases, or a combinat.:Lon of these. All of these time expressions answer the question n When? 'II "HOw I ong? I. or II How often?"


He lives 1.:n New York now. (adverb)

We went to the post office yesterday. (adverb) I someti.mes visit the library. (adverb}

Cl as s starts at 0730 ~ ( prepos.i t ional phrase)

They went to the bank: on Sunday~ (prepositional phrase)

She has 11.ved in China for two years. (prepositional phrase)

I received a letter from a friend 1ast week. (noun phrase) We're going downtown tomorrow night. (noun phrase)

He sees the dentist every six months. (noun phrase)

John left three hours ago.

(noun phrase + ago)

All of these words and phrases that answer the question "When?" .1 How long?" or "HOw 0 ften? .1 are call ad time adverbia19.

Time adverbials can be divided into three d1.fferent types acccrd1ng to their meaning: those that express a definite time§ a duration of time, or freguency.

1. T1me adverbials expressing a definite time

These adverbials are words and phrases wh~ch denote a definite point in time. They answer the quest.iQn"When?" Here are some examples:


then again just recently

yesterday tomorroW'

last: week Monday evening next year

i.n the morning on Saturday

at night

thr'ge weeks ago

the day after tomorrow


2. Time adverbial.s expressing duration

These adverlbials are words and phrases which denote a length of time in the past or a duration of time from th.e past to th.e present. They answer th.e quest:ioIll "Row long'?" Here are some eCiCample sentences:

He lived in Egypt for three years~ Bob felt sick all night.

Wefve been studying for two hours~* She's been a doctor since 1985~.

~Note that a perfect tense is used to talk about a duration of tLme from the past to the present.

3. Time adverbi.a.1s expreSSing frequency

These adverbials are words and phrases which answer the question '" How often?" They can express ei. tiler def ini te or inde,f' te :frequency ~ Here are some exam.ples:

Defin1te frequency

Indefini.te freguency



every da.y every weekend once a year t~ice a yealr'

a.lways sometimes frequ.ently often usually never


2. Thi S terr.i ble pain :in my neck has be,en both!ering me 8,1,]' day ]l'ong.

3 . The baby is usual.l.y very calm and quie't, but today he Lsn ' t being v,ery nic,e ~

4, ~ Mary goes shopping :fregue:ntJly. She I.'OIVes to sp,enc) money :she d09,s]]' ,t have ~

5 ~ I r,eal.l y enjoy getting up and, :n~!iad;ing the paper on Sunday mornings~


6. It was last week that I had my nose injured during the soccer game.

7. They speak to each other on the phone twice a month.

8. I still remember the day I arrived in the United States twenty-three years ago.

9. They've been investigating the case for five days.

10. She has been working on this project since the day before yesterday.


Read the sentences with time expressions. Then ask a question with either "When?" "How long?" or "How often?"

Examples: Thomas has been at that school for three years.

How long has Thomas been at that school?

I have to see the doctor next week. When do you have to see the doctor?

The nurse checks his pulse every half hour. How often does the nurse check his pulse?

1. John has lived in Egypt for three years.

2. Paul's friend recently bought a new car.

3. Most American families take a vacation once a year.

4. Our teacher assigns us homework daily.

5. The computers are frequently out of order.

6. David's grandparents came to this country thirty years ago.

7. Fred was involved in a car accident last week.

8. He sometimes writes to his friend in Japan.

9. That building has been under construction for two years.

10. The students have been studying English since August.




Listen to a question and use a time expression in the box in your answer. Answer the question with a complete sentence. More than one answer is possible.

two weeks for a week all night often
always sometimes frequently later today
every day yesterday recently at 12:30
twice a day after the game since 1980 at night
daily monthly one year Friday night 1. When can you come to see me?

2. When did they arrive in France?

3. How often does he have to be away from home?

4. How long have you had this problem?

5. How often do you complete all of your homework?

6. When is your book quiz?

7. When can the children stay up late?

8. How long did he spend in Portugal?

9. How long have you been studying English?

10. How long did you stay awake studying for the test?

*" Function


Read aloud these questions and answers about frequency.

1. How often do accidents occur at the intersection?

Accidents occur repeatedly at that intersection. A traffic light should be installed there without delay.


2. How often does the manager take inventory?

The manager takes inventory periodically; he does it at regular intervals.

3. How often does it rain here?

It rains here periodically during March and April.

4. How often does the temperature drop below freezing?

The temperature occasionally drops below freezing.

5. How often does the temperature go below zero?

The temperature hardly ever goes below zero.

6. How often does the committee meet?

The committee meets twice a month.

7. How often does it snow in Arizona?

It snows every winter in Arizona.

8. How often do the Bulldogs win their football games?

The Bulldogs always win their games.

9. How often do you exercise?

I know I should exercise regularly, but I seldom do.

10. How often do you have to remind him to brush his teeth?

I never have to remind him; he always remembers.



One student will read a statement. Another student will give an opposite response using "No, you're wrong," and a sentence with the cue in parentheses.

EXAMPLE: A: Ralph sometimes rides his bike to work. (never)

B: No, you're wrong. He never rides his bike to work.

1. A: It's often hot in Helsinki. (never)

B: No, you're wrong.

2. A:
3. A:
4. A:
B: The drill sergeant occasionally raises his voice. (always)

NO, you're wrong.

It scarcely ever snows in the Rocky Mountains. (every winter)

No, you're wrong.

The temperature is generally below freezing in Florida. (seldom)

No, you're wrong.

5. A: The teacher never gives tests.


B: No, you're wrong.

6. A: It rains every day in a desert.


B: No, you're wrong.

7. A: The troops sometimes practice firing their weapons. (regularly)

B: No, you're wrong.

8. A: Football players rarely get injured.


B: No, you're wrong.


Answer these questions about frequency. Use complete sentences.
EXAMPLE: What is something you do three times a day?
I eat a meal three times a day.
1. what is something you do every day?
2. What is something you do twice a month?
3. What is something you do once a week?
4. What is something you do yearly?
5. What is something you do very often?
6. What is something you do very seldom?
7. What is something you occasionally do?
8. What is something you hardly ever do? 23


student 1 will ask a question beginning with "How often," using one of the topics below.

student 2 will answer the question using one of the adverbs of
frequency listed below.
EXAMPLE: go to the library
Sl: How often do you go to the library?
S2: I go to the library once a week. HOW OFTEN?


go shopping write letters go dancing

brush your teeth go to the coast watch TV

go downtown

read the newspaper

go to the movies service your car

go to the theater visit a foreign country go to a football game go to the library

go to the dry cleaner wash the car

visit a museum

always seldom hardly ever sometimes usually rarely

(every) once in a while twice a day (week) every now and then regularly




scarcely ever



once a week

Speaking SklllC>


Generally, there are two kinds of vowels in words, full and reduced. Stressed syllables have full vowels. They are always clear. Unstressed syllables usually have reduced vowels; they are not always clear. When a suffix is added to a word, there is frequently a change in the stress pattern of the word.


For example, in the word active the first syllable is stressed:

ACtive. After the suffix -ity is added to the word, there is a change in stress: acTIVity.

Listen to your instructor and repeat these related word pairs. Notice the change in syllable stress after the suffix is added to the word.

1. ATom / aTOMic 2. CLASsify / classifiCAtion
3. hoRIzon / horiZONtal 4. AMplify / amplifiCAtion
5. iDENtify / identifiCAtion 6. HIStory / hisTORical
7. biOLogy / bioLOGical 8. techNOLogy / technoLOGical
9. CALibrate / caliBRAtion 10. SUpervise / superVIsory IDENTIFY / IDENTIFICATION

Listen to your instructor pronounce a word. word respond orally with the related form. will be a change in syllable stress.

After hearing the Remember that there

EXAMPLE: activate / activation
1. refer / reference 2. horizon / horizontal
3. fatal / fatality 4. imitate / imitation
5. classify / classification 6. editor / editorial
7. calculate / calculation 8. navigate / navigation
9. equal / equality 10. consider / consideration DIALOGS

Read these dialogs with your instructor. The dialogs contain words which change syllable stress from one word form to another.

1. A: How is merchandise classified in a catalog?

B: The classification of merchandise is done by numbers.


2. A: Do you understand the circulation of blood?

B: I know that blood circulates through veins and arteries.

3. A: The earth revolves around the sun.

B: Isn't this movement called a revolution?

4. A: Can you imitate any famous person?

B: Yeah, I can do a pretty good imitation of many famous people.

5. A: Did you prepare for the book quiz?

B: Not much. My preparation was brief because I know most of the material.


Read these dialogs with another student. The dialogs contain words which change syllable stress from one word form to another.

1. A: Does he gualify for the job?

B: Yes. He has excellent gualifications.

2. A: Why does my new sweater irritate my skin?

B: The irritation is caused by the wool in the material.

3. A: How many officers do you supervise in your country?

B: I have the responsibility for the supervision of thirty officers.

4. A: Did you read the information about today's soccer game on the bulletin board?

B: Yes, but my instructor informed the class that the date has been changed.



How was your family-transported to the language school?

'71 .' n, .'

B: 'ill'h!ey :flew here by plane ~ My co,romanding offic'er arranged t:r ansp orTA ti_,ont'o,r th.em. .


There are a number of suffixes that we can add to some nouns and adJectives to form verbs. These suffixes are -!:!,!!, -!:1., -if!",. and -i.he~

The sui f Lx -en can be ,added to some adj 8cti ves and nouns bJ' make verbs~ When it 1.8 added to adjectives it has the meaning of "to make or become ~ rt When added to nouns , it: has the meaning of .. to cause to have ~ f' Here are some ex:amples:

wide - widen deep - deepen,

(to make wide) (to make deep)

str,ength - str-sngthen (to make strons,er) length - length.en. (to. make longer)

The suflf.ix:es -!Ji and -if): can also be added to some adjectives and nouns to make verbs. They have the meaning of H to make , become r or cause to become ~ PI Thiere is often a spe~~ing change when the suffix is added. Here are some examp.le:s!

clear - clarify

(to make clear)

solid - sol~dify l~qu1.d ~ liquefy

(to become a solid) (to become a l.i.qui.d)


--- ---

Last of all. the suffix -i~e can be added to some adjectives and nouns to form v'arbs. The auf fix has the meaning II make into or like, become, or be subject to the treatmen1l: of.1l There is often a spelling change when the suffix is added. Here are some examples:

modern - modernize (to make modern) £',amil:iar- :familiarize (to make familiar)

hospi taJ.- hospi tal.ize (1::0 put: someone in, a haspi tal) i tern - i temi z'e (to make a 1 i,st: of i terns)


Read the following sentences. They cont:aln nouns and adj e,ot! ves wi th added ,suffi.xes to, f'o'r-m v,erbs:.

1,. Farmer:s are using a new! of grain to f,a:tten the cows.

2: ~ V:ict,or fami1.iarized himsel fwi th the 'book bel fore he tau9'ht it.

3. Most, c,1 'ti,es hav,eta pu.r-f:fy the,!r dri:nk,ing wate,r,.

4, ~ I don ~ it want to mak,e'l;hi.S lesfs,on too diff.icul t;. 111,1. try to s.implL1. £y it fO'ir you •.

5 '. Don I t :saddeID, me with your sadst:ory .•

7. Ask the bam:-ber to, flat,ban 'the "top a. 1 ittl.e bit: when. you get yo'u.r hai.rcut.


---- - -

- -- -


Use the verb form of these nouns and adjectives to complete the sentences. Add either -en, -!y, -ify, or -ize to the word to make a verb.

dark energy fa1se

tight solid simple

100se sharp soft


1. Make absolutely sure that you the room

completely before you try to develop the pictures.

2. Because of the extreme cold, the water will in a few minutes.

3. I just don't have a picture in my mind of what the project

will be like. I can't it at this time.

4. The young lady purposely signed the wrong name on the

document. She the document.

5. We asked the instructor to material.

the difficult

6. If you ask, the teacher will probably let you your pencil.


The screw was loose, so he had to



At the end of a long day, I can't wait to tie, get out of my suit, and just relax.



The butter is too hard to spread on the toast. it out for a while. It should

I'll leave by then.

10. Batteries are used to toys, cars, and other

things. Why hasn't someone invented a battery for people?



Select the best answer. Circle a, b, or c.

1. They were ready to complete the plans for the project. They

were ready to final the plans.

a. -ify

b. -en

c. -ize

2. I really didn't understand the instructor today. Tomorrow

I'm going to ask him to clar the material again.

a. -ify

b. -en

c. -ize

3. Joe wasn't afraid of the deep water. The deep part of the

pool didn't fright him.

a. -fy

b. -ize

c. -en

4. His pants are too short. Have the tailor length



a. -fy

b. -en

c. -ize

5. Right now, it's a solid. We need to raise the heat in order

to lique it.

a. -fy

b. -ize

c. -en

6. When Mary goes to college, her area of concentration will be

computer sCience. Mary will special in computer


a. -en

b. -ify

c. -ize


Reading Skill C>


Preview the reading: Look at the title, the first and last paragraphs, the topic sentence in each remaining paragraph, and the questions at the end. Then read the text and answer the questions.


In today's speciali=ed world, standardized tests have become valuable instruments in helping to determine a person's placement in school or in the work place. Standardized tests--those which have been used, revised, and used again until their results are uniform under controlled conditions--can measure a person's achievement in a particular area, his aptitude and interests, and even his ability to get along well with other people. These tests compare a person's performance with that of a large group of people in order to show whether that person is average, above average, or below average.

Achievement tests are used by educators to measure learning in a specific area. The content of these tests is taken from what a student has studied over a period of time and is designed to find out whether the student has learned what his teacher has tried to teach him. The results of these tests might be used to grade or promote students.

Aptitude and interest tests are special kinds of measurements used to measure a person's ability to learn certain skills and knowledge. Aptitude tests can measure a person's ability to move his fingers quickly in order to see if he would be a good typist. Other aptitude tests might measure a person's ability to hear tones. If the person can't hear well, for example, he shouldn't try to be a musician. Aptitude tests include tests for ability to acquire skills in art, clerical work, mathematics, music, reading, and speaking foreign languages.

Finally, by using standardized tests to measure learning ability, recall of information, accuracy in computation, or manual skill, educators are better able to predict how well a student will learn in school, and personnel specialists can estimate an employee's aptitude for certain kinds of jobs.



1. Which type of test measures how well a student has learned in the classroom?

2. Which test might predict that a person would be suitable as a foreign language interpreter?

3. Which standardized test indicates the area or field in which a person enjoys working?

4. Is an aptitude test given before job training begins or after training is complete?


+ Enrichment


Subject/Verb Agreement

A verb must agree in number (either singular or plural) with its subject.

correct: The coach was pleased with the team's performance.

Incorrect: The coach were pleased with the team's performance.

A noun or prepositional phrase coming between the subject and a verb does not affect the number of the verb.

Correct: The coach, along with his assistants, was pleased with the team's performance.

Incorrect: The coach, along with his assistants, were pleased with the team's performance.





"Up a creek without a paddle" means to be in a very difficult situation. The expression is often shortened to "up a creek."

Example Sentences

1. If I can't get my car repaired before Monday, I won't have a way to get to work. I'm going to be up a creek without a paddle.

2. If I don't find my driver's license, I'm going to be up a creek. I need to cash a check.

3. If the auto plant closes, I'll be up a creek. I'll lose my job, and I won't have enough money to continue college.



.f.\~ .~

,~ . ~W«"W

FUNC'F.lIO About: and Expressing· Like,se.nd. Dis.likes

Go ... Gerund

Adjective and Preposition Como,.inat.ions Suff~xes: -al. -~aI


Lirni ted. .i!xpo SU ("Ie to a Text stress Changle iuR'sl at'e,d Wm:'d Pairs Complete a Paragraph with Connectives





announce oomplicat'e distract: draw/drew/drawn get / got/ gotten on

with 'on preserve reside specif'y weld


in connection. with




hos"t neighborhood re:lati.on resi.d!ent rivet se.groen.t


tubing tur.Ule1 wildern.ess


alcohol balance booth cafe courage







ST Page

VOCABUL,ARY: 8. place to melet; flbring at dish"



VOCABULARY: a place for animals: ship building: a rare disease


GRAMMAR: adj,ect1ve and prepo,sition ,combin.stions


READING SKILL: :sele,ct the cOl[rect trans,! tion

46 47

GRAMMAR: 9:Q. 'it gerund

READING SKILL: limited exposure t,o a text/wri te ans,wers


FUNCTION: inquiring about and expressing likes and di,slikes

SPEAKING SKILLS: str:BSS change in reI ated wa,rd pairs


GRAMMAR: -al/-ial. adjectiv,e suffix

63 66 70

WRITING SKILL: wri tel a, descrip,tion


~ Vocabulary

1. Steel coated with tin is used to make safe food containers.

3. A torch is used to weld metal.



Rivets are found on common items, such as blue jeans pockets and kitchen utensils.* They are metal pins.

*utensil = a container or piece of equipment



5. Alcohol is used as a fuel in rocket engines.

4. Tubing is an important part of a stethoscope.


Building a tunnel is a dangerous job. Digging through a mountain takes a lot of courage.



Read these sentences about welding.

1. Man first learned to weld metal in order to make a larger piece of iron from several small pieces.

2. The earliest use of welding dates back to the first use of iron as a material.

3. A long time ago, armorers in Damascus produced welded blades for knives and swords*.

4. Forge** welding was the first technique used in welding.

5. In forge welding, the metal is heated and then hammered.

6. Welding techniques were rapidly developed during World War I.

7. Arc welding came into wide use during World War II.

8. Many things we use every day depend on welding for their construction.

*sword = a hand weapon; similar to a knife

**forge = a place where metal is heated and hammered


~ Vocabulary


Jessie's cafe is a popular meeting place for residents of the neighborhood to gather after work. In the late afternoon, the booths are filled with laughing, talking people. They come to the cafe not only to eat and drink but also to see their friends and relax for a few minutes at the end of the day. Everyone who resides on the west side of town knows Jessie's cafe.


A host is a person who entertains guests. He may invite them to his home for food or entertainment, or he may invite guests to a restaurant or theater and pay the bill.

A woman who entertains guests is usually called a hostess.

A popular way to entertain informplly is to have a covereddish supper. The host may ask one person to prepare and bring a vegetable, another person to bring a salad, another person to bring a dessert, and so on. Or the host may not specify what each person should bring, but take "potluck"--let each person bring whatever he or she wants. Then everyone shares the food that has been prepared.


Having a covered-dish supper is an easy way to entertain.

~ Vocabulary


Look at each sentence. Then look up and say the sentence.

1. Mark and Mary will announce their engagement to marry on Friday. Their wedding will be in June.

2. Part of the work was done this week; the balance of the job will be completed next week.

3. Most people believe world peace depends on a balance of power among the stronger nations.

4. Martin is teaching his daughter to fly. He wants to pass on his skill as a pilot.

5. Bad weather will complicate our travel plans.

6. A cow is not a wild animal, but a deer is.

7. There is a close relation between proper diet and good health.

8. If you want to draw everyone's attention, yell "Firet" in a crowded room.

9. Jack decided to quit his job and go back to college. He's ready to get on with his education.

10. Some vegetables have a better flavor when they are cooked, and some taste better raw.



Read each sentence. Part of it will be underlined. Find a word in the box below that means the same as the underlined word or words. (You may have to change the form of the word.)

announce tubing booth
ba1ance re1ation cafe
torch neighborhood tunne1
flavor get on with pass on
reside complicate alcohol EXAMPLE:


Fred's hands are very big.


My parents live in an apartment above a cafe:--

Mr. Rogers lives in my area. His apartment is near mine.


What is the connection between time and money?



Alan reads the news and plays music tapes on the radio.


The same organic chemical compound is used in both rocket fuel and perfume.


Narrow copper pipes make the safest carriers for water.


Public telephones are sometimes in a private, enclosed space.


They built a long passageway through the mountain for the highway.


This soup has a wonderfUl taste.


The restaurant in the hotel closes at 10:00 p.m.


A portable burner and a mask are necessary welding equipment.



I can't write a check because I'm not sure of the amount that remains in my checking account.


Once the rain stops, they can continue the ball game.


The major made the instructions more complex.


Please give the information to the other members of your team.

~ Vocabulary


Repeat the underlined words. Then read the paragraphs.

Many of the wild animals that live in the wilderness are in danger of disappearing because they must compete with people for a place to live. As the population of the earth multiplies, people are spreading into more and more areas that have never been occupied before. Many people are working to preserve the wilderness areas of the earth. They are trying to save what is left of our natural environment.


In the southwestern United States, a retired rancher has established a preserve for wild animals that are close relatives of the domestic horse. On 6,000 acres of private land, he raises zebras and similar wild animals from Africa and Mongolia. The animals are safe there. The ranch owner and his workers use modern technology to increase the size of the herd* of the wild animals in his preserve. Closed-circuit TV, computers, and biological techniques to increase the number of animals are an everyday part of the activities at the ranch.

*herd = a group of cattle, sheep, horses, etc.


Repeat the words after your instructor. Then read the sentences.

1. Modern ships are built in large segments. These large parts are later welded together.

2. For example, all of the parts in connection with the bow may be put together in subsections which are then welded together to form the bow.

3. This makes it possible for the workers to get on with the job under a roof, protected from the weather.


Repeat the words after your instructor. Then read the dialog.

A: Why is Jenny in the hospital?

B: The poor child has a rare disease. Dr. Stone said he'd only seen one or two other cases.

A: She must be very ill.

B: Yes, but she's been so brave. She never cries or complains.

A: Didn't she have the measles first?

B: Yes, the second infection was a complication of measles. Her brother has been reading to her every afternoon to distract her from thinking about how sick she feels.



Complete the sentences using words from the box.

rare welded tin distract

courage drawing preserve wilderness

segment host brave specify

1. Please computer.

which size table you need for your

2. The new movie at the Tivoli is

huge crowds.

3. The Park Service is fighting to the

environment of rare and endangered birds that live in our national parks.

4. The rockets used to launch space vehicles are together from pieces.

5. is used in many alloys, including brass and


6. Which products?

of this graph stands for agricultural

7. Who is the

at this party?

8. That's a

a few like it.

type of automobile. There are only

9. It takes

to face combat under enemy gunfire.

10. The students went for a walk in the lost for three days.

and got

11. It is hard to concentrating.

Bob from his work when he is

12. A strong person is

in the face of danger.


ReadIng Skill r>


Read the paragraph silently and then complete each blank with an appropriate connective listed in the box.

however besides

finally later

at first

Life for the Pilgrims* was very difficult when they arrived

in Cape Cod, Massachusetts in December 1620.


they were

they had many obstacles to overcome;


brave, courageous, and were determined to settle in the area.

building their own homes, they had to grow enough


food in order to survive.

, they were able to ----~4~--------

raise different types of crops with the help of the Indians.

______ ~------ __ , at the end of a year, they were happy that they 5

had friends, homes, and enough food. To celebrate this, they

had a big dinner: the first Thanksgiving.**

*Pilgrims - English colonists settling in Massachusetts in 1620.

They later named their colony Plymouth. **Thanksgiving - A United states holiday celebrated on the fourth Thursday in November.


The verb gQ is sometimes fOllowed by a gerund to

.form certain expressions . Illemember that a gerund i 5 a verb in funct~ons a noun. These ex.pre.ssions with go ... verb-ing one·s that describe activ.i ti es .

EXAMPLES: We went fishing last weekend.

What do you usually do in the summer? 1 like to go swimming at the lake.

My family and 1 haven't gome in years.

The following are some common expressions with go .. gerund:

go dancing go fishing go jogging go rtmr:I.;ing

go mO\.Ultain cl.imb!ng

9,0 shopping

go'ts·ee.i.:ng go swi.mming

'go walking

go w.i.ndow shoppi.rng




Read these dialogs. They contain examples of go + verb-ing.

Mary: How was your vacation?

Ruth: It was great! I spent a week at a horse farm in Kentucky.

I went riding every morning, in the afternoons I wou1d go wa1king in the woods, and at night I went dancing.

Mary: Sounds like you had a good time. Are you ready to go back to work?

Ruth: No, I need another week to rest!



Complete the sentences using words from the box.

rare welded tin distract

courage drawing preserve wilderness

segment host brave specify

1. Please computer.

which size table you need for your

2. The new movie at the Tivoli is

huge crowds.

3. The Park Service is fighting to the

environment of rare and endangered birds that live in our national parks.

4. The rockets used to launch space vehicles are together from pieces.

5. is used in many alloys, including brass and


6. Which products?

of this graph stands for agricultural

7. Who is the

at this party?

8. That's a

a few like it.

type of automobile. There are only

9. It takes

to face combat under enemy gunfire.

10. The students went for a walk in the lost for three days.

and got

11. It is hard to concentrating.

Bob from his work when he is

12. A strong person is

in the face of danger.


Reading Skill C>


Read the paragraph silently and then complete each blank with an appropriate connective listed in the box.

however besides

fina11y later

at first

Life for the Pilgrims* was very difficult when they arrived

in Cape Cod, Massachusetts in December 1620.


they were

they had many obstacles to overcome;


brave, courageous, and were determined to settle in the area.

building their own homes, they had to grow enough


food in order to survive.

, they were able to ----~4~--------

raise different types of crops with the help of the Indians.

, at the end of a year, they were happy that they


had friends, homes, and enough food. To celebrate this, they

had a big dinner: the first Thanksgiving.**

*Pilgrims - English colonists settling in Massachusetts in 1620.

They later named their colony Plymouth. **Thanksgiving - A United states holiday celebrated on the fourth Thursday in November.


Beth: What happened?

Sara: I had a little accident. I went jogging on a wet street and fell and broke my leg.

Beth: Next time, just go walkingl

George: Congratulations on your retirement. How will you spend your time?

Joe: I love the ocean, and I want to spend all my time going sailing.



Complete each sentence by using the correct form of gQ + verbing.

EXAMPLE: My parents enjoy being outdoors in the fresh air.


go walking

in the park every weekend.


1. Mary loves to buy clothes! She's planning to spend the day at the mall. She likes to


2. Chris and his friends are going to the lake to hunt ducks.



3. Suzanne is planning a trip to Paris. She wants to see the Eiffel Tower and the Seine. She


4. Mike wants adventure and excitement in the outdoors. He

dreams of in the Rockies.

mountain climb

5. Beth loves to buy clothes, but this month she's broke. She

can only until payday.

window shop

6. Sam is going to start an exercise program, but since he's not in good shape, he's going to start slowly by every day.


7. Bob and Sheila enjoy music and the latest dances. Almost every Saturday night, they


8. To prepare for the race next month, Ann every day.




Answer these questions about activities. Use expressions with ~ + verb-ing in your answers.

EXAMPLES: Sl: Mom and Dad bought new jogging shoes and plan to use them this weekend. What will they do?

S2: They'll go jogging.


Mom invited our neighbors for a barbecue backyard. She needed to buy groceries. did she do?

She went shopping.

in our What


1. Matt loves the feel of the wind on his face and the smell of the ocean air as he moves through the water. What do you think he likes to do?

2. John likes adventure and a sense of danger. Mt Everest is his goal. What does he want to do?

3. Bob and Sheila are planning a picnic. They need to buy hot dogs, potato chips, mustard, and paper plates before they can go. What do they have to do before they can go on the picnic?

4. While they were in New York, Paul and Kim saw the Empire State Building, the Statue of Liberty, Wall Street, and Times Square. What did they do while they were in New York?


5. Suzanne is a typical teenager. She loves to buy lots of clothes, jewelry, books, and tapes. What will she probably do on Saturday?

6. George wishes that he had been born in pioneer times. He would have eaten only what he could have caught or shot. What would he have done to get food?

ReadmgSkm C>

Read the title, first and last paragraphs, and the topic (first) sentence of each remaining paragraph. Your teacher will tell you when to begin and end. Then answer the questions.


One of the most popular U. S. wildlife parks is The Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge* located on Maryland's Eastern shore, less than two hours from the Washington-Baltimore area. Of the 340 wildlife refuge parks in the United states, this is one of the most visited. It offers relief from the city's atmosphere. Fields and woods replace the city's concrete and steel, and animal sounds replace the noise of city traffic.

At the visitor center, exhibits indicate the wildlife groups common to the refuge, and visitors often watch wildlife performances through large windows at the rear of the center. They can see geese** flying in the sky and gracefully landing upon the man-made lakes constructed for them .•

The refuge has an abundance of all types of birds year round. This is because many of them move from place to place several times a year.

From the center, visitors can take either a driving tour or a walking tour through the refuge. If visitors choose not to take the tours, they can view the whole refuge from an observation tower.

An enjoyable activity is a leisurely walk through sections of a mixed pine-hardwood forest where small animals, deer and birds happily work and play.

Upon leaving the refuge, people are thankful that areas like these are preserved for the enjoyment of people and for the protection of animals.

*refuge - a shelter, home, or some kind of protection **geese - waterfowls similar to swans and ducks


1. How many national wildlife refuges are there in the United states?

2. Based on the information, why do you think many people visit the refuge?

3. What tells the visitors what kind of animals may be seen at the refuge?

4. What types of tours are visitors able to take?



Some prepositions are found in combinations with cert· adjectives after the verb BE.

EXAMPLES: My son is afraid of lightning and thunder.

Don't be worried aoout the storm.

When he was in school, he was linterested in

science. ~

IS heahsent from school today,?

Some adjective - preposition combinations are fOllowed by a gerund (a verb in -ing that functions like a noun ) ,

EXAMPLES: All of us are excited about visiting San Franci.sco.

Bill is accustomed dinner late.

Mr~ Price is fond of reading at night~


The following is a list of oommon adject~ve and preposition combinat1ons:

incapable of innocent of interested in involved in

absent from aooustomed to afraid of

angry at/with appropriate for aware of

kind to known for

bad for bored with

l.oyal to

mad at married to

capable of clear to conscious of critical of ,crowded with

nice to

patient with polite to proud of prepared for

different from difficult for disappointed in/with doubtful about dedicated to

qualified for

enthusiastic about equal to

excited about exhausted from

ready for related to responsibl.e for

sa.tisfied with scared of similar to succes,sful in sure about

faithful. to familiar famous for fond of

friendly to/with frightened of full of

terrified of thirsty for tired from/of t,olerant of

glad about

good at grateful to/for guilty of

upset about

worried about

happy about hungry for



Read these sentences. They contain adjective - preposition combinations.

1. Let's go jogging. I'm bored with watching television.

2. Don't eat so much candy! It's bad for your teeth.

3. Does anyone know where Paul is? He's been absent from class all week.

4. During the holidays the stores are crowded with shoppers.

5. I need to take a nap. I'm exhausted from studying all morning.

6. The jury declared the man innocent of stealing the money.

7. Let me do it! I'm capable of changing a tire.

8. You should take some classes at the university this fall.

What subjects are you interested in?

9. Please change the channel. That program isn't appropriate for children.

10. Calm down! What are you so upset about?











Complete each sentence below by using the correct preposition after the adjective.

EXAMPLES: I'm not sleepy. I'm accustomed




staying up

After eating in the mess hall, I'm hungry for

my mother's cooking.

1. My grandmother always travels by car because she's afraid flying.

2. Robert tries very hard, but his boss is always critical his work.

3. She's such a good teacher, and she's so patient the students.

4. The children are exhausted playing outside

all morning. After lunch, they'll need a nap.

5. Sgt Allen's responsible at night.

locking the building

6. I'm so tired order a pizza.

eating chicken and rice. Let's

7. I'm really angry

pay attention in class today.

my students. They wOUldn't

8. It's so hot and dry! I'm thirsty glass of cold water.

a big

9. Thank you very much. I'm grateful help.


10. What a nice smile! What are you so happy



11. American football isn't similar




Complete the sentences using the correct preposition plus noun or gerund form after the adjective.

EXAMPLES: I'm so excited

about going

on my vacation 1


The airport was crowded

with travelers


1. The clerk was instructed to be polite


2. The instructions weren't clear


3. Suzanne hasn't packed her suitcases. She's not prepared


4. Don't give up! You're capable



5. I think I'm lost. I'm not familiar


6. The weather there is extremely hot. Coats, sweaters, and gloves are not appropriate


7. I'm afraid

seasick if I travel by ship.


8. The party is Friday, but I'm not sure


* Function


Read the dialogs. Notice the different ways we can ask about and express likes and dislikes.

1. Andy: What would you like for breakfast?

Bill: Nothing, thanks. I don't like to eat breakfast.


2. John: Do you like to walk?

Mary: Yes, I enjoy walking a lot, but I dislike being honked at by passing motorists.

John: Then let's walk together. No one will honk at me.

3. Art: Do you like to swim?

Fred: I've never learned to.

Art: I'd like to teach you how.

Fred: Thanks, I'd like that.

4. Alan: If there's one thing I hate, it's rude drivers on the highway. They just bring out the worst in me.

Burt: Something I dislike even more than that is people who talk during a movie.

5. Art: Do you like to travel?

Bob: Yes, I love to. I spend most of my extra cash going places.

6. Ann: Fred, come over here and tell me which dress to buy.

I can't decide which one I like.

Fred: I kind of like the blue striped one.

7. Ted: Would :lou like to go see a comedy today?
Sue: I don't care for comedies. I'd like to spend a quiet
afternoon at home.
8. Phil: What do ~ou like to do in your free time?
Mark: I like to go fishing with my family. 59


Look at the chart below. It lists the favorite foods, sports, and activities of people. Then complete the sentences with information from the chart.

Name Foods Sports Activities
Carol pizza* tennis go fishing
Julie tacos* golf go walking
Linda hamburgers swinuning go mountain
Peter hot dogs football go camping
David steak baseball go sailing
James chicken volleyball go hunting
*pizza = a popular Italian dish
*tacos = a popular Mexican dish
1. Carol likes She doesn't like 2. Julie likes to play

She doesn't like to play

3. Linda likes

She doesn't like

4. Peter likes

He doesn't like

5. James likes

He doesn't like



Look at the chart again. Ask another student a question with "What" about the people and their favorite foods, sports, and activities. The other student will anwer your question. Feel free to add information when you ask or answer the question.

EXAMPLE: Sl: What sport does James like the most?

S2: He likes volleyball the most.


Now ask and answer questions about what students in the class like. One student will ask a question and another student will answer it. Use one of the cues below in either your question or answer.

EXAMPLE: go hunting

Sl: What do you like to do in your spare time? S2: I like to go hunting.


Sl: What are your favorite TV programs? S2: I like to watch news shows.

1. do after class

2. eat for lunch/breakfast/dinner

3. go on vacation

4. sports

5. food

6. leisure activities

7. clothes

8. TV

9. read

10. restaurants

Speaking Skill (>


Read these dialogs with your instructor. The dialogs contain words which change syllable stress from one word form to another.

1. A: Bill thinks the food we ate at lunch was contaminated.

B: I think so, too. The contamination was probably caused by excessive heat.


2. A: Have you ever studied about amplifiers?

B: A little. I learned how different amplifiers affect amplification.

3. A: Did the sergeant calibrate the distance to the target?

B: Yes, the calibration had to be done over because the soldiers were missing the targets.

4. A: Did you read the editorial in yesterday's newspaper?

B: I sure did. The editor expressed his opposition to the election.

5. A: The mechanic calculated the cost of a new engine at onethousand dollars.

B: Gee, I think his calculation is extremely high.


Read these dialogs with another student. The dialogs contain words which change syllable stress from one word form to another.

1. A: I enjoy reading history books.

B: Me, too. I keep a record of historical events concerning my country.

2. A: Were the funds appropriated for the new buildings?

B: The appropriation was approved at the last meeting.

3. A: Can you identify different types of rare plants?

B: Yes, plant identification is quite easy for me.

4. A: How can we improve our environment without destroying our economy?

B: Environmentalists have new solutions for preventing water pollution.


5 ~ A: IS the,re,a l.imi t- on the a.mount of' goods that 'can be elxported?

B: I beli'i9v'e that ther,a is a limi'billtion se:tb,y the nat:ional go,va rrul1len t .


commerce - commercial environment- environmental.

The su f fixes -a.1 and -iaJl. can be added to some nouns to form adjectives. They have the meaning 110fT like, or suitable for. n

BXAMPLES: acc~dent - accidenta1 addition - additional

manager - manager~a1 residant - residential.

Read these sent,ences ~ They correaf.n adj ect! VEilS with the -al an.d -ial. suffixes~

1., Excuse m19. It wa,sn I t my inte.ntion to. be impolite. My mist,ake was no,t i.utenti,onall.

2. Dr. Thomas is participating in. a scient! fie 'e~per!ment + His laborai:Qry is plan.ning an 8K,perime:ntalL fa.rm in, the desert.

3~ B.ill Owens has been promoted to mana.ger of 'the downtown store. lie 'I s wnrked very hard to. gain a manag'eriall position,.

4 • T'ne, general has a.great deal o,f influence OV'9I" his troops.

He ! sav,ery 1'O£1L uen.'ti,al. leader.

5, • My :father' 9 j 'ob he ips prot.ect the enrv:irorunent. He ! s an eorv:ironm.ental. eng.ineer~

6. I' vebeen studying musi.c sin.ce 1 was B. ch.t Ld., but I still can. I t play an i.nstrument well. 1 have very l.i ttl,s mIIusi.calL abil.i ty.



Choose the correct word to complete the sentence. Underline the correct answer.

1. That artist never copies the work of other artists. All her paintings are (origin, original).

2. At this time, the new jet is not in production. It is an (experiment, experimental) model.

3. The behavior of that child is terrible. His mother and father have no (parent, parental) control.

4. The carpenter built an (addition, additional) room on the house.

5. A fisherman's job can be very dangerous. Drowning can be an (occupation, occupational) hazard.

6. It's foolish to make a (judgment, judgmental) before knowing all the facts.

7. We've reserved a private (compartment, compartmental) on the Orient Express for our vacation.

8. The students toured the Museum of Natural History in Washington, D.C. It was a good (education, educational) experience.

9. Dr. Doolittle is a world traveler. He has visited seven (continents, continental).

10. Can you keep a secret? This information lS very (confidence, confidential) .



Complete the sentences. Use the adjective form of the underlined noun by adding the suffix -a1 or -ial to the noun.

EXAMPLE: I just happened to see myoId school friend by

accident. It was an



1. The Martin family lives in a lovely residence in the Shady

Oaks neighborhood. It's a quiet,


2. Alice Miller is happy about her teaching assignment because

she hasn't had the chance to put her education into practice

before this time. Now, she'll get some

experience in teaching.

3. I'm sorry officer! I didn't realize that I was going the

wrong direction on a one-way street. There are no one-way


4. The senator tried to use his influence to get the new bill

passed. Apparently he was not as

as he

had thought, because the bill didn't pass.

5. I watch my diet carefully. I have an alcoholic drink only

on special occasions, and I eat only an

candy bar or piece of cake.

6. Each person in the battalion will be able to keep a few

private things. These

items must be kept in

the wall lockers.


7. Although the rent is expensive, we're going to reserve a

house at the beach for the summer.

8. The scientist has been conducting experiments for several

years, but the new drug is still in the


Writing Sklll(>


The instructor will assign an object, person, or a place for you to describe. Write a description of less than 100 words for homework. Include as many details in your description as you can. Remember to begin your paragraph with a topic sentence, which will tell the reader what the paragraph is about. You can use the space below to organize your ideas before you write.



+ Enrichment


Yet and Already

The use of already indicates that an action is complete; that something happened before the present time. It is used in affirmative statements and questions.

It's now 1900.

Has John already eaten dinner?

He ate dinner right after class. He has already eaten.

When an affirmative question with already is used, and the stress is on already, it may be that the speaker is surprised that the action is complete and didn't expect completion so early.

I just made the cake this morning.

Have you eaten the entire cake ALREADY?

It's only the fifth of the month. Have you spent your pay ALREADY?

The use of yet indicates that an action is not complete and has not happened before the present time, but may happen in the future. Yet is used in questions and negative statements. It usually occurs at the end of the sentence.

It's now 1900.

Has Mary eaten dinner yet?

She's going to eat in a half hour. She hasn't eaten dinner yet.

I made a cake this morning.

We'll eat some after dinner tonight. We haven't eaten any cake yet.





To "put all one's eggs in one basket" means to put all of your energy and resources in only one possible plan of action without leaving room for an alternative plan.

Example sentences

1. Don't put all your eggs in one basket, John. Get some training in computers along with your degree

in music so you will always be able to get a job.

2. I really don't want to invest all my money in one area. What if something goes wrong? I shOuldn't put all my eggs in one basket.

3. Bob was really expecting to be hired by the trucking company, and when he didn't get the position, he had to start allover looking for

a job. He shouldn't have put all his eggs in one basket.





-----~---------FU1NC'F.'ION'-' ---------------

Inquiring About and Reporting Nh,at Someone Else Has Said


Direct Obj ect + T' t~ve Indirect Speech



Stress/Consonant Change,s in Rei a:ted Word Pairs W'ri te .Appropri ate Connective,s in a Pa:ragraph






de.f'y distingUlsh encourage evaluate exhibit implement: incorporate ou.tfit: rela.te

,competent distin.ct prime trustworthy

f·aci:or f'ounclation iIl:teg.ri ty moral'9 natur,e outfit poten.t 1 a .. 1 styl'e trai.t values


course of action 'take act.ion

tak'e charge ( of ) t:ak:.e 1. t out on


VOCABULARY: character trai t,g



VOCABULARY; a plan for the futut"9:

75 79

VOCABULARY; prefix self-

READING SKILL: caption/write:

answer 80

REA~HNG SKI LL : wr~ te the correct

transition 81

GRAMMAR: review of indi.rect speech

82- 86

GRAMMA~:: review of verb ... obj €let + i:o-infini.tive

FUNCTION: inquiring about and reporting what someone else has said


SPEAKING SKILLS: stress/c.onson.a.rlrt change in re ls. ted word pa.irs

95 98



~ Vocabulary


Repeat the underlined words. Then read the dialog.

Capt North: Good morning, Capt Grant. Have you heard we're getting a new commandant for our school?

Capt Grant: Yes. Major Lewis told us about it briefly, but she didn't relate many details. She only mentioned that he'd take charge of the school soon.

Capt North: Yes, he'll take control around the first of October.

Capt Grant: Do you know much about him? Nobody's told us anything about his background.

Capt North: I've only heard some details about him through the grapevine*. His name's Col Truman. He's been

the prime candidate for this position for quite some time because of his qualifications. As far as his background is concerned, he has an excellent foundation in technical training. He's also worked in five different countries and can speak three languages.

*grapevine ~ an unofficial way of spreading news 71


Capt Grant: With all that experience and skill, he sounds very competent for the job. I'm sure he's very capable. How about his personality? Have you heard anything about his character?

Capt North: I've been told that he exhibits many traits that everyone admires and respects. Some of these characteristics he's shown are integrity and a generous nature: he's a very honest and helpful person. He's also trustworthy and has a high set of values. In other words, he's very reliable and has high standards for himself as well as the school he commands.

Capt Grant: He does, indeed, sound like an admirable man. I hope his style of leadership is similar to or better than the last commandant's. The morale of the school is pretty high right now. I hope Col Truman doesn't take action to change a lot of things unnecessarily, or else that will certainly lower the morale.

capt North: In two weeks, he'll speak to the school at a special meeting. At that time, he'll introduce himself to us, and I'm sure he'll tell us what goals he has for the future of the school.

Capt Grant: I'll certainly be there. I'm curious and eager to meet him.

Capt North: Me, too. I've heard so much about him that I want to see if he fits his description. I also want to know about his plans for us.

Answer these questions about the dialog. Use the words in parentheses in your answers.

1. What are the two captains talking about? (commandant)

2. What did Major Lewis relate about the new commandant? (take charge of)

3. Why is Col Truman the prime candidate for the position? (prime, qualifications)

4. What kind of background does he have? (foundation)

5. Will he be capable in the job? (competent)


6. What admirable character traits does Col Truman exhibit? (integrity, nature, trustworthy, values)

7. What does Capt Grant hope that Col Truman has? (style)

8. What does Capt Grant say about the morale of the school? (morale, take action)

9. What will happen in a couple of weeks? (speak to)

10. Will both of the captains go to the meeting? (eager, plans)


Use the correct form of the words in the box to complete the sentences.

foundation integrity morale


take action take charge (of)

trait values

1. We must

victim at once!

and give first aid to the accident

2. After the baseball team won the final game, the of the team was extremely high.

3. The of today's young people are different

from mine when I was the same age.

4. Ron's a man of I've never known him to

tell a lie about anything.

5. Of all the she has, I think her generous

nature is her best.

6. Since I have no in advanced mathematics, I

don't know if I can solve this problem.

7. Ken resigned, so Barbara assignments.

all his

8. Why are you so late? Didn't Kay

to you that we were starting an hour earlier?

the message



Match the words in Column A with their

1. prime
2. nature
3. competent
4. exhibit
5. admire
6. trustworthy
7. style 74

meanings in Co1umn B.
a. capable
b. respect
c. dependable
d. main
e. demonstrate, show
f. personality
g. manner ~ Vocabulary


Repeat the underlined words. Then read the paragraphs silently.

Good afternoon. For those of you who haven't met me yet, I'm Col Truman, your new commandant, and I'm very happy to be taking charge of this command. I've been in the military twentytwo years, worked in five different countries over the years, and now I'm glad to be back home in a new, challenging position.

I've heard many wonderful things about this outfit--this organization is very distinct and well-known in the military, both here and abroad.

I'd like to take this opportunity today to tell you my course of action for the next year. This school is doing a good job, but it has the potential to do even better. There are a lot of special skills and abilities among you, and I know we can use them to the maximum degree to help the school. I defy anyone to tell me this can't be done. I want to motivate you, to encourage all of you to call upon your own special abilities to help improve the school and our students' progress.


I have a list of some changes I hope to make in the next year.

As you know, we evaluate our program every year to make sure we are meeting the needs of our students. One of the factors we look at is how well our students do when they leave here. For the most part, we are successful. However, as I mentioned earlier, there's always room for improvement. with that in mind, I have selected a committee to review some new training materials which we will implement this fall.

I've also talked to a few of our students, and they related to me some changes they would like to see. One of their suggestions was more hands-on-training. So, in addition to the regular classroom lectures, I want to incorporate some direct, practical experience. You know, sometimes it's hard to distinguish between two kinds of engines just by looking at a diagram. But by using working models, our students would be able to see the differences. Also, remember that just as you have different teaching styles, students are distinct in the way they learn. So we need to use a variety of teaching strategies and learning activities.

Finally, I'd like to outfit a new workroom complete with new computers and other equipment. Our resources man, Mr. Oakes, has figured out that we have enough money to buy four computers. I know that's not very many, but don't take it out on him. It'S not a good idea to get angry with the money man! We'll start small, and as more money becomes available, we can purchase more equipment. Then we can open the room for the students to use.

In closing, I'd like to thank you for all your hard work. I look forward to making our training program the best in the military.

Answer these questions about the paragraphs. Use the words in parentheses in your answers.

1. What has Col Truman heard about the school? distinct)


2. What's he talking about at the meeting?

(course of action)

3. How is the school doing?


4. What does he say about using the instructors' special abilities to the maximum degree? (defy)

5. Does he want to motivate the instructors?


6. Why do they look carefully at the program each year? (evaluate)


7. What influences the evaluation? (factor)

8. When will they begin using the new materials?


9. What did the students tell the commandant?


10. What does the commandant want to include with the lectures? (incorporate)

11. What will make it easier for the students to tell the difference between two similar engines? (distinguish)

12. Who will equip the new teacher workroom?



Use the correct form of the words in the box to complete the sentences.

distinct encourage evaluate

factor implement outfit (n)


take it out on

1. The main in determining our vacation plans

will be how much money we have in the bank.

2. Mary failed her test and __

refused to help her study.

me because I

3. We will give students tests so we can _



4. The state voted on a new law which will be the first of January.

5. A good teacher students to do their best.

They need this kind of support.


6. During World War II, my dad was in the General Patton's command.


7. Since history and government classes are took both in the same semester.

, I


8. I have two assignments to finish--one from

my English class and another from my math class.


Read each sentence. Then find a word in the box that has the same meaning as the underlined word(s), and write it's letter in the blank next to the sentence.

a. distinct

b. style

c. course of action

d. potential

e. outfit (v)

f. defied

g. distinguish

h. incorporate

1. It's hard to tell the difference between the boys in that family because they look so much alike.

2. Rick has the ability to make high grades in his classes, but he doesn't study hard enough.

3. Because the operator's voice wasn't very clear, I had trouble making my overseas phone call.

4. Which plan will we follow, A or B?

5. Those two companies will unite because they're both having financial problems.

6. You'll need to equip yourself with the proper supplies and clothing if you're going mountain climbing.

7. What ~ of shoes do you prefer, jogging or tennis shoes?

8. The student opposed the rules too many times, so he was expelled from schaal.


, Vocabulary


Self- is a prefix which has the meaning

"of, by, in, to, or with oneself or itself."

Use the words in the box to complete the sentences.

self-adjusting self-control self-destructive

self-employed self-explanatory self-governed

self-educated self-propelled self-serve

1. Let's go to a restaurant. I'd rather get

the food myself than get waited on.

2. That student doesn't have any He

misbehaves in class every day.

3. Mark is

works for himself.

He doesn't work for anyone; he

4. Some air conditioning systems are If you

set their thermostats to automatic, they'll turn themselves on and off when the temperature isn't right.

5. A long time ago, many people were They

taught themselves at home because schools were not established yet, or they were located too far away.

6. Bicycles are

rather than an engine.

They move by "people energy"

7. His actions are If he continues to put

himself in dangerous situations, he'll harm himself.

8. At the library, there are many books that

give step-by-step instructions on how to build things from wood.

9. Most countries in the world are themselves without outside interference.

They rule


Reading Skill I)


Read the caption below this photograph. Then, based on the information given in the caption, write answers to the questions.

Shown after her arrival on Friday at Reese Air Force Base, Texas, an instructor pilot stands beside a T-38 aircraft which will be on display at the Air Show being held on Saturday and Sunday.

1. Where is the Air Show taking place?




"':'."' .. '"

''-l .

. ' ~

2. What day did the pilot arrive?

3. Will the visitors be able to see the T-38?

4. When will the Air Show take place?

Reading Skill c


Read the paragraph silently and then complete each blank with an appropriate connective. There may be more than one possible connective for each blank.

Paul liked working as a mechanic for the ItWrightlt service

station, but within two weeks he began to realize that his

employer, Mr. Wright, was not keeping his promises.

he had promised to hire two additional mechanics,


he didn't do that.

, he hadn't bought the tools


he had promised. Paul didn't know what to do. On the one hand,

he was happy he had a job. , he thought


Mr. Wright was not being fair. Mr. Wright still didn't hire the

additional mechanics. , Paul told Mr. Wright he


was going to look for another job.




certain verbs are commonly followed by a noun or pz'onoun and a to-infinit.ive~ In this construction, the direct object (a noun or pronoun) is the performer Of: tbe action of the allow ask cause convince expect forbid force hire instruct: invite

need order permit remind require teach te11. urge, want 'Warn


She advised him tOo bet:here at 0'900.

,John eRpectshi.s children to do well in school. I need you to 9j_ve me a hand.

'['he 1.nfinit~ve may be made negative by placing not before ,i t: ~


I tol d him not to buy the ,car.

P lease remind B1.ll not to le,ave early.

When the verbs ahove are used Ln the pass! ve, the infinitive directly follows the verb.

W'e were ordered to clean up the area. He waswsrned not to swim in the river.


Read the following sentences. The first sentence in each group contains a noun/pronoun used as a direct object fOllowed by a toinfinitive. The second sentence has a negative infinitive. The third sentence contains a passive construction. Many passive constructions do not require a by-prepositional phrase.

1. The teacher told the children to get on the bus.
2. The teacher told them not to spend their money.
3. The children were told to be on time.
4. Her friends persuaded her to go to college.
5. Her friends persuaded her not to marry him.
6. She was persuaded to continue her education. 7. Mr. White reminded the students to bring their books to class.

8. Mr. White reminded them not to waste time.
9. They were reminded to complete their homework.
10. The sergeant ordered his men to run the obstacle course.
11. The sergeant ordered his men not to fire their weapons.
12. The men were then ordered to mop the floors. 83


Complete the story by supplying the to-infinitive for the verb form in parentheses. Notice the main verb of the sentence that precedes the direct object.

Before I left my home, people advised me


many things. My mother urged me not ~~~-- __ --


out alone at

night in the city. My friends reminded me



them at least once a week. My brothers told me


presents home to them. My sister asked me



some jewelry. My teachers instructed me



hard. Finally, my father asked me not

my family


and my country. Everyone wants me

home safely.



Complete the following sentences by using a to-infinitive phrase.

2. The officer warned the criminals

EXAMPLE: The coach required us

The coach required us

to bring our clothes to class.

1. The doctor asked the nurse

3. The judge permitted the lawyer

4. The child wants his father


5. He always allows his students


6. The boss will hire new workers

7. They expect their friends

8. The driver required us


Change each sentence below to the passive voice. Remember that when the sentence is in the passive voice, the to-infinitive directly follows the verb. Do not include the by-prepositional phrase in the passive construction.

EXAMPLE: They forced us to leave our country.

We were forced to leave our country.

1. They persuaded us to drive into the city with them.

2. My friends asked me to test the car.

3. The police officer expected me to pullover when I saw the flashing red lights.

4. He advised me not to drive so fast.

5. The officer instructed me to pay the speeding ticket.

6. He taught me to obey the highway laws.

7. My friends urged me not to speed again.


lD.1rect speech. or quoted speech, refers to the original words of the speaker. Quotation marks are used.

Indirect speech. or re,ported speech,. refers to using a noun clause to report what someone ha.s said. 'Quotation marks are not used. Verbs and pronouns \<,l',ill change from direct to indirect speech~

D~rect Speech Ind1rect Speech

.John eaLd, Bill said,

r. I feel sick. II t1My car 1s new.1I

John said (that) he felt sick. B~ll sa1d (that) his car was new.


When the verb of the indirect speech. sentence is in th.e· pa,s,t tense (sAid~ &old~ asked) the verb Ln the noun clau,se wil.l. also be in a past form. This change to ill past form

is usually used when the !'.IJords oftha speaker are reported at a later time. not immed:iat:ely after ;it was sai_d~ Look at the examples of the sequence of tenses us:ecl .in changing an indirect speech noull. clause to a past forll[l~ Notice al so the change in pronouns • The conj unction 'I that" 18 opt~onal in the indirect speech noun cl.ause~


Direct SE,eech

Indirect Speech

1. He said, nI write a letter every day ~ II

He said (that) he wrote a letter every day.

2. He said, Ii I am writing a letter.1I

He said (that) he was writing a letter.

3. He said, Plr have written a letter~ f'

He said (that) he had, written a letter~

4. He said, " I wrote a letter. II

He said (that) he had written a letter~

5. He said, ~I will write a letter. n

He said (that) be w,ould write a letter.

6. He said, III a.m goina to write oR letter."

He said (that) he was go~n~ to write a letter.

7. He said, "1 can wr~te a l.etter.fI

He said (that) he cou.ld write a. letter.

s. He said, "I may write a 1 etter. ~~

He said (that) be might write a letter.

9. He said, III must write a letter."

He sai.d (that) he had to write a letter.

10. He said, III have to write a letter.~

He said (that) he had to write a letter.

11. He asked, liDo you, want to write a letter?-"---

He asked me if/whether* I wanted to write a letter~

12. He askea, "When do you usually write letters?"

He aSked me when** I usually wrote letters.

13. He asked, IIWhere is

the 1 etter? I, -

He asked where the letter was.

*Noti.ce that either if or whether can be used in a reported yes-or-no question and that the usual statement word order is used in the noun clause.

**Notice that the question-word begins a reported question-word question and that the usual statement word order is used in the noun clause.



Change the direct speech to indirect speech. Remember to change the verb in direct speech to a past form in indirect speech. There may also be other changes in pronouns and possessive adjectives. The conjunction "that" is optional in the noun clause.

EXAMPLES: Andrew said, III am going home soon."

Andrew said that he was going home soon.

Bill said, "They can speak both English and French. Bill said they could speak both English and French.

1. Tom said, III plan a trip every year. II

2. Fred said, "I listened to a new tape last night. II

3. Linda said, III may be absent from class tomorrow."

4. Daisy said, III am thinking about buying a new car."

5. Albert said, "I must cancel the lease on my apartment."

6. Harry said, III can quit school and find a job."

7. Dale said, "I've invited all my friends to a party. II

8. My mother said, "I'll order a pizza for dinner."



Complete each sentence by changing the direct speech to a noun clause for indirect speech. Remember to change the verb in direct speech to a past form in indirect speech and use either "if" or "whether" to introduce the noun clause. There may also be other changes in pronouns and possessive adjectives.

EXAMPLES: "Do you want to go downtown?"

Doug asked me if I wanted to go downtown.

"Do you understand the question?"

The instructor asked me whether I understood the question.

1. "Do you want mustard on your hamburger?"

The waitress asked me

2. "Must I go to class next Friday?"

Sue asked me

3. "Are you waiting for the plane to arrive?"

Bob wanted to know

4. "Can John write with his left hand?"

Grace asked me

5. "Is Bill going to see a movie tonight?1I She wanted to know

6. "Will Carol be home in time for dinner?"

Nancy wanted to know

7. "Did Jerry sell his car to his brother?1I Bob asked

8. "Is the post office near here?"

Dave wanted to know



Complete each sentence by changing the direct speech to a noun clause for indirect speech. Remember to change the verb in direct speech to a past form in indirect speech and use the question-word to introduce the noun clause. There may also be changes in pronouns and possessive adjectives.

EXAMPLE: "When do you arrive at work?"

He wanted to know when I arrived at work.

1. "What are you thinking about?tt He asked me

2. "Where do you want to eat dinner tonight?"

My husband asked me

3. "Who needs the travel information?"

The travel agent asked

4. ttWhen does your first class begin?"

He wanted to know

5. "Why are you wearing a suit and a tie?"

My friend asked

6. "Where do you usually travel during the summer?"

A friend wanted to know

7. "What did the instructor say?"

The student asked

8. "What is your address and phone number?"

The clerk wanted to know



Student A will ask Student B a question. Student B will respond to Student A's question with "He/She asked me •... " and will complete it with a noun clause. Use a past form of the verb when you report the question.

EXAMPLE: "Can you speak French'?"

Student A:

Student B:

"Can you speak French'?"

He/She asked me if I could speak French.

"How are you?"

Student A:

Student B:

"How are you,?··

He/She asked me how I was.

1. "Where did you go to college'?"

2. "Have you seen my new coat'?"

3. "What are you doing tonight'?"

4. "Are you waiting for someone'?"

5. "What type of movie do you enjoy watching'?"

6. ·'When do you take inventory of your equipment?"

7. "Why are you studying to be a doctor?"

8. "Did you listen to the tapes in lab'?"




Read the following dialogs. They contain examples of asking about and reporting what someone else has said.

1. Lt Jones: I don't want to attend the meeting today.


Sgt Park:

Sgt Kent:

What did Lt Jones say?

He said he didn't want to attend the meeting today.

2. Molly: Are they taking action on the problems in the lab?




Did she ask you something about the lab?

Yes, she asked me if they were taking action on the problems occurring there.

3. Mr. Flint: You have to implement the new rule immediately.
Mr. Green: Did Mr. Flint tell you anything about the new
Mr. Lopez: Yes, he told me I had to implement it at once. 4. Gina: Has your son ever defied any of his teachers?


Mark: What did Gina ask you?

Dave: She asked whether my son had ever defied any of his teachers.



Read the situations and answer the questions about what someone has said.

1. You're at a meeting where the commandant is speaking.

Commandant: "The new classroom policies will be implemented starting next week."

What did the commandant say about the new policies?

2. You're in a store when the following announcement is made:

Speaker: "Attention. There is a gas leak in the building, and everyone must leave immediately."

What did the speaker announce?

3. You're in a restaurant, and the waiter comes back to the table to ask something.


"Do you want French fries?"

What did the waiter ask you?

4. You're watching the news report on TV.

Reporter: "There was a three-car accident on Highway 5 this morning, and one person was killed."

What did the reporter say?

5. You're listening to the weather report on the radio.

Weatherman: "Due to the snowstorm, no one can travel across the Harris Street Bridge."

What did the weatherman say?

6. You receive a phone call from Lander's Department Store.

Caller: "I'm calling from Lander's Department Store. Did you order a sofa through our furniture department?"

What did the caller ask you?


7. You're at the dispensary to take an X-ray.

Technician: "You must fill out this form before you can take the x-ray."

What did the technician tell you?

8. You're on a plane, and the captain makes the following announcement:

Captain: "We will be reaching our destination in about 20 minutes."

What did the captain announce?


Now go back to page 75 at the beginning of this lesson and reread "The New commandant's Speaking Today." Then answer your instructor's questions.

EXAMPLE: How long did the Commandant say he's been in the military?

He said he had been in the military twenty-two years.


One student will make a statement to a second student about a topic from the list below. The second student will ask a third student what the first student said. The third student will then answer the question.

EXAMPLE: travel

Student 1:

I'll travel to my next base in January.

Student 2:

Student 3:

What did he say about his next base?

He said he would travel to his next base in January.

1. food

2. sports

3. transportation

4. money

5. goals

6. music


7. family

8. customs

9. home

10. school

11 . movies lTV

12. language

Speaking Skills Q


A consonant sound in some words may change when a suffix is added to the word. Look at the examples and notice the changes in consonant sounds from one form to another. Some words will also have a change in syllable stress.



Listen and repeat these pairs of words. Notice the consonant change when a suffix is added to the word.

l. DEviate I deviAtion 2. reSIGN I resi~NAtion
3. BOMB I bomBARD 4. disTORT / disTORtion
5. corRODE I corROsion 6. exTENT I exTENtion
7. SIGN / SIGnal 8. SIGN / SIGnature
9. MUScle / MUSCular 10. colLIDE / colLIsion EXPLODE I EXPLOSION

Listen to your instructor pronounce a base word. After hearing the word, respond by giving the related form. Remember that there will be a change in a consonant sound and sometimes a change in syllable stress.


interrupt / interruption

convert I conversion

1. equate / equation

2. fact I factual