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Tolerance: Tolerance is defined as the magnitude of permissible variation of dimension
from the specified value. They constitute an engineering legality for deviation from ideal
value. Primary purpose of tolerances is to permit variation in dimensions without
degradation of the performance beyond the limits established by the specification of the
The tolerance is specified because it is impossible to have actual dimensions due to:

Variations in the properties of the material being machined, introduce errors.

The production machines have some inherence problems and limitations.

Human effect, operator may do imperfect settings.

Tolerance may be unilateral or bilateral.

Unilateral: 25.000mm, 25.002mm (dia. of hole)
24.999mm, 24.997mm (dia of shaft)
25.000 + 0.002 0.000mm (dia. of hole)
25.000 0.001 0.003mm (dia. of shaft)
Bilateral 25.000 mm
Basic size: The basic size is the standard size for the part and is the same for both the
hole and its shaft. Ex. 50mm diameter hole and shaft.
Nominal size: the normal size of a dimension of part is the size by which it is referred
to as a matter of convenience (used for purposes of general identification). Often, basic
and nominal sizes of a part of dimensions are used wish the same sense.
Actual size: It is the measured size of part.
Zero line: It is the line, which represents the base size so that the deviation from the
basic size is zero.
Hole above basic size.
Hole of basic size.

Hole below basic


Limits: These are the maximum and minimum permissible size of the part.
Go Limit: It refers to upper limit of the shaft and upper limit of a hole. Corresponds to
minimum material condition.
No Go Limit: It refers to the lower limit of the shaft and upper limit of the hole.
Corresponds to min. material condition.
Tolerance: The difference between the maximum and minimum limit of size.
Grades of tolerance: It is indication of degree of accuracy of manufacture and is
designated by IT followed by a number.
Ex. IT01, IT0, IT1, IT16


Allowances: An intentional difference between the hole dimension and shaft dimension
for any type of fit is called allowance.
Deviation: Algebraic difference between a size and corresponding basic size.

Upper deviation: Maximum limit of size basic size. It is positive when maximum limit
of size > basic size and vice versa.
(ES for hole, es for shaft)
Lower deviation: Minimum limit size basic size positive when minimum limit of size >
basic size and vice versa (EI for hole ei for shaft)
Fundamental deviation: this is the deviation either the upper or the lower deviation,
which the nearest one to the zero line (for both hole or a shaft).
Fits: When two parts are to assemble, the relation resulting from the difference between
the size before assembling is called fit.
Basic size of a fit: It is that basic size which is common to the two parts of a fit.
Variation of a fit: This is arithmetical sum of tolerances of the two mating parts of fit.
Clearance: This is the difference between the size of the hole and shaft, before
assembly, when the difference is positive (i.e. shaft smaller than the hole).
Interference: This is the arithmetic difference between the sizes of the hole and the shaft
before assembly, when the difference is negative.
Type of fit:
Depending upon the actual limits of the hole or shaft, fits may be classified into the
following 3 categories.
Clearance fit

Interference fit
Transition fit

Fig.2. 4
Clearance fit: In this type of fit, the largest permitted shaft diameter is smaller than the
diameter of the smallest hole, so that the shaft can rotate or slide through the difference
degrees according to purpose of mating members Ex. Bearing and shaft.
Interference fit: In this type of fit, the minimum permitted diameter of the shaft is
larger than the maximum allowable diameter of the hole. In this case the shaft and the
hole members are intended to be attached permanent and used as a solid component
but according to the application of this combination, this type of fit can be varied. Ex.
Bearing bushes, which are in interference fit in their housing Ex. The small end of the
connecting rod in an engine.
Transition fit: In this type of fit, the diameter of the largest allowable hole is greater
than that of the smallest shaft, but the smallest hole is smaller than the largest shaft, so
that small positive or negative clearance between the shaft and hole members
employable. Location fits Ex. Spigot in mating holes, coupling rings and recesses are the
examples of transition fit.
Note: Minimum clearance: In the clearance fit it is the difference between the minimum
size of the hole and the maximum size of the shaft.
Maximum clearance: In a clearance or transition fit it is the difference between the
maximum size of hole of the minimum size of the shaft.
Minimum interference: It is the difference between maximum size of hole and the
minimum size of shaft in an interference fit prior to assembly.

Fig 2. 5
Maximum interference: In an interference fir or a transition fit it is the difference
between the minimum size of hole and the maximum size of shaft prior assembly.
Hole based system: This is one which the limits one the hole or kept constant and the
variations necessary to obtain the classes of fit are arranged by varying those on the
shaft (Pl. note: Hole is kept constant)
Ex. Assume a hole of dimensions
1. Shaft (S1) of 28 mm Clearance fit
2. Shaft (S2) of 28 mm Transition fit

fig.2. 6
Shaft (S3) of 28 mm Interference fit
Shaft based system: This is one which the limits on the shaft are kept constant and
the variation necessary to obtain the classes of fit are arranged by varying the limits on
the holes.

Note: (1) From manufacturing point of view it is preferable to use hole-based system.
Because holes are produced with standard tooling (reamers, drills) those size not
adjustable and shaft sizes are readily variable. Thus hole based system results in
considerable reduction in reamers and other previsions tools as compared to a shaft
based system.
(2) Basic shaft: A shaft whose upper deviations is zero.
(I.e. Max. lt. of size = Basic size)
(3) Basic hole: A hole whose lower deviation is zero.
(I.e. Min. lt. of size = Basic size)
Principles of inter-changeability: Today mass production techniques are adopted for
economic production. This approach led to breaking up of a complete process into
several smaller activities, which in term are specialized. As a result none of the
manufacturing activity is self reliant with respect to components. Various mating
components would undergo production on several machines. Hence it is absolutely
essential to have a precise control over the dimensions of portions, which have to match
with other part. "Any one component selected at random should assemble correctly with
any other mating component, that too selected at random." When a system of this kind
is ensured it is known as interchangeable system.
Advantages or characteristics
An operator can easily specialize since he is concerned with only a limited portion of
work. (Improves quality)

Interchangeability ensures increased output with reduced production cost.

Assembly time is reduced considerably.
Decentralized production depending on the resources available can be achieved. (i.e.
factories may be located suiting to availability of men, machine and materials).
by all

Interchangeability is followed only when certain standards are strictly followed.

universal interchangeability is desired, the common standards are to be followed
and all standards used by various manufacturing units should be traceable to
i.e. international standards.

Universal or full interchangeability: This indicates that any component will match
with other mating component without classifying manufactured components in sub group
or without carrying out any minor alterations for mating purpose. This type of
interchangeability is not a must for interchangeable production and many times not
feasible also as it requires machine capable of maintaining high process capability and
very high accuracy and also very close supervision on production from time to time ( 3
-> process capability is to be observed.)
For full interchangeability only such machine, whose process capability is equal to an or
less than the manufacturing tolerance allowed for that part should be selected.
2.2.18 Selective assembly: In this kind of production (assembly), the parts are
manufactured to rather wide tolerances and function as though they were slowly
manufactured in a precision laboratory to very close tolerance. In selective assembly the
components products by machined are classified into several groups according to size.
This is done both for hole and shaft and then the corresponding groups will match
properly. Ex. If some parts are to assembled are manufactured to nominal tolerances of
0.01mm an automatic gauge can segregate them into ten different groups with
0.001mm limit for selective assembly.
The parts obtained can be served with both high quality and low cost using selective
The two component parts to be assembled must be kept with in the normal distribution
i.e. mean value should be at desired calculated value and process capability of two
machines producing shafts and holes must be identical otherwise for some components
the mating components will not be available.
Best and cheapest method of assembly of widely used in industries. Ex. Aircraft,
automobile, ball bedding industries.
This concept overcomes the drawback of scraping the bad components after inspection,
thus reducing the loss.
Limit gauge: gauge are inspection tools of rigid design, without a scale, which serve to
check the dimension of manufactured parts, Gauges do not indicate the actual value of
the inspected dimension on the work. They can only be used for determining as to
whether the inspected parts are made with the specified limits.

Go No go gauges: These are two gauges having basic size corresponding to the two
limits of size for the component of used to check the dimensions of a component.
The go gauge checks the maximum metal condition.
The No-go gauge checks the minimum metal condition.
Note: In case of hole the maximum metal condition is when the hole is as small as
In case of shafts the maximum metal condition is when the shaft is on the high limit of
The difference between the basic sizes of the two gauges is equal to the tolerances on
the component. If the size of the component is within the prescribed limits, the gauge
made to the maximum metal limit will assemble with it, whereas the other will not. It for
this reason the gauge made to the maximum metal limit is called the Go gauge and
that made to the minimum metal limit is called the No Go gauge.

Note: closer attention must be paid to Go gauges than is necessary with No Go

gauges because a component might be accepted even though the No-Go gauge
assembles, under no circumstances should a component be accepted when the Go
gauge fails to assemble.
Taylors principle: Taylor postulated some rules for designing the form of gauges.
When gauging a plain cylindrical plug gauges, the diameter of one, the Go confirming to
the maximum metal limit of the hole and the diameter of the other the No-Go confirming
to the minimum metal limit. If the go gauge enters while the no go fails to enter the hole
is considered to be with in the specified limits.

Taylors principles may be stated as follows:

The Go gauge should be as far as possible be the geometrical equivalent of the mating
part and [(i.e. it should be able to check all the possible dimensions at a time
(roundness, size, location etc)]
Separate No-Go gauges should check the minimum metal condition of the dimensions of
the component. No-Go gauge should check only one element of the dimension at a time.
This is because a No-Go gauge designed to check more than one dimension would fail to
detect any dimension out side the minimum metal limit if one of the dimensions is being
checked within the minimum metal limit as illustrated below.

According to Taylor it is not adequate to use simple Go gauge on outer dimensions only
but the shape is an important factor i.e. Go gauge should be full form gauge and it
should be constructed with reference to the geometrical form of the part being checked

in addition to its size. In other words go gauge should check all the dimensions of a work
piece in the maximum metal condition.
As regarding no go gauges, Taylor stated that it need not be of full form and each
feature being dealt should be checked with a specific no go gauges. In other words no go
gauge shall check only one dimension of the piece at the time for the minimum metal
Thus according to it, a hole should completely assemble with a go cylindrical plug gauge
made to the length of engagement of the hole and shaft. In addition, the hole is
measured or gauged to check that its maximum diameter is not larger than the no go
The Taylor principle interprets the limit of size for gauging holes and shafts as follows:
For holes: The diameter of the largest perfect imaginary cylinder, which can be inscribed
within the hole so that it just contacts the highest points of the surface. The diameter of
the cylinder should not be less than the go limit of size further the maximum diameter at
any position in the hole should not exceed the no go limit.
For shaft: The diameter of the smallest perfect imaginary cylindrical which can be
circumscribed around the shaft so that it contacts the highest points of the surface. The
diameter of cylinder should not be larger than go limit of size. Further the minimum
At any position on the shaft should not be less than "No Go limit of size.
Note: According the Taylors principle the Go limit gauge should be a plug ring gauge
with exactly Go diameter and length equal to the engagement length of the fit to be
made and this gauge must perfectly assemble with the work piece inspected.
The No Go gauge should contact the work piece surface only at two diametrically
opposite points and have exactly No Go diameter at these two points. The gauge should
not be able to pass over in the work piece in any consecutive position in the various
diametric directions on the work piece length.
Variations from Taylors principle.
In many applications Taylors principle cannot be blindly followed. Some of the deviations
are allowed which basically do not deviate from the principles as such.
For Go limit: it is not advisable to use full form and full length gauges which are bulky
when the manufacturing process assures that the error of straightness will not affect the
character to fit.
Only segmental cylindrical bar could be used when gauge happens to be too heavy and
when manufacturing process assures that the error in roundness will not have any effect
on the character of fit.

For shafts (heavy) full form ring gauge need not be used. The manufacturing process
should take care of the error of roundness (especially lobbing) and error of straightness
in such cases only gap gauges could be sufficient.

For No Go limit: only two point contact should be there according to Taylor but it is not
feasible because these devices are subjected to rapid wear etc. Hence these can be
safely replaced by small planes / cylindrical surfaces / spherical surfaces. For
Gauging very small holes and in cases where work pieces may be deformed to an oral by
a two point mechanical contact device, the No Go gauge of full form, may have to be
Material for gauges: The material for gauges should fulfill most of the following
Hardness to resist wearing.
Stability to preserve size of form.
Corrosion resistance.
Merchantability for obtaining the required degree of accuracy
Low co-efficient of linear expansion to avoid temperature effect.
Ex. High carbon steel, case hardened mild steel, invar steel.

Wear Allowance: The measuring surfaces of Go gauges, which frequently assemble

with work, rubs constantly against the surfaces of the work. This result in wearing of the
surfaces of the gauges of a result this loses initial dimensions. Thus due to wear Go
plug gauges size is reduced. Hence a wear allowance is added to the Go gauge in a
direction opposite toe wear. Thus for a Go plug gauge the wear allowance will be added

while in a ring or gap gauge the allowance is subtracted.

Gauge tolerance or Gauge makers tolerance: Gauges like any other job, require a
manufacturing tolerance, to compensate for imperfections in workman ship. This is
known as gauge makers tolerance.
There are 3 methods giving tolerances on gauges
First system: (For workshop and inspection gauges) in this method, workshop and
inspection gauges one made separately and their tolerance zones are different.
According to this system the tolerances on the workshop gauge are arranged to fall
inside the work tolerances, while the inspection any tolerances fall outside the work
tolerances. In workshop gauges Go gauge should eat away 10% of work tolerance and
similarly No Go gauges tolerance is 1/10th of work tolerance. In respection gauges, the
gauges are kept beyond work tolerance by 10% of its value.


The components may be rejected by workshop gauges by inspection gauges may accept

The workshops of inspection gauges have to be made separately as their tolerances are
Second system: (revised gauge limits) Under this system reducing the tolerance zone of
inspection gauge reduces the disadvantages of inspection gauges and the workshop
gauge tolerance remains the same.
In this system 110 of the range of work tolerance is covered instead of 120 th as in the
first system for inspection gauges.

Fig.2. 13
Third system: (Present British System) In this system following principles are followed
along with Taylors principle.
Tolerance should be as wide as is consistent with satisfactory functioning economical
production and inspection.
No work should be accepted which lies outside the drawing specified limits.
This system gives same tolerance limits on workshop and inspection gauges and the
same gauge can be used for both purposes. The tolerance zone for the Go gauges should
be placed inside the work limits and the tolerance for the No Go gauges outside the work
limits. Provision for wear of Go gauges is made by the introduction of a margin between
the tolerance zone for the gauge and maximum metal limit of the work.


Types of limit gauges:

Limit gauges for internal diameters of holes

Full form cylindrical plug gauge: A small circumferential groove is cut near the leading
end of the gauge and the remaining part of the cylinder is slightly reduced in order to act
as a pilot.

Fig 2. 16
Full form spherical plug or disc gauge:
Segmental cylindrical bar gauge:

Gauges for tapers: A taper is tested by using taper plug a or ring gauge. The important
thing in testing a tapered job is to check the diameter at bigger end and the change of
diameter per unit length.