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www.elsevier.com/locate/ijpvp

using a local fracture criterion

Chang-Kyun Oha, Yun-Jae Kima,, Jong-Hyun Baekb, Young-Pyo Kimb, Woo-Sik Kimb

a

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea University, 5 Ka, Anam-dong, Sungbuk-Ku, Seoul 136 701, Republic of Korea

b

Korea Gas Corporation Research and Development Center, 638-1, Il-dong Ansan Kyonggi-do 425 150, Republic of Korea

Received 3 January 2006; received in revised form 5 March 2007; accepted 5 March 2007

Abstract

A local failure criterion for API X65 steel is applied to predict ductile failure of full-scale API X65 pipes with simulated corrosion and

gouge defects under internal pressure. The local failure criterion is the stress-modied fracture strain as a function of the stress triaxiality

(dened by the ratio of the hydrostatic stress to the effective stress). Based on detailed nite element (FE) analyses with the proposed

local failure criterion, burst pressures of defective pipes are estimated and compared with experimental data. For pipes with simulated

corrosion defects, FE analysis with the proposed local fracture criterion indicates that predicted failure takes place after the defective

pipes attain maximum loads for all cases, possibly due to the fact that the material has sufcient ductility. For pipes with simulated gouge

defects, on the other hand, it is found that predicted failure takes place before global instability, and the predicted burst pressures are in

good agreement with experimental data, providing condence in the present approach.

r 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: API X65 steel; Ductile fracture; Finite element (FE) analysis; Gouge; Local fracture strain criterion

1. Introduction

For tness-for-service analyses of underground gas

pipelines, engineering assessment methods against possible

defects need to be developed, such as corrosion and gouge

(see for example Refs. [13]). Noting that typical gas

pipelines are made of sufciently ductile materials, the netsection limit load approach can be used, where a damaged

pipe is assumed to fail at the load when the net section is in

the fully plastic state [4,5]. Although the net-section limit

load approach is simple for practical application, validation is rather expensive, requiring a large number of fullscale pipe test data. A more fundamental approach would

be based on local failure criteria for ductile fracture. It has

been shown that ductile fracture strongly depends on the

stress state and can be effectively predicted using strain

Corresponding author. Tel.: +82 2 3290 3372; fax: +82 31 290 5276.

the authors have proposed a stress-modied fracture strain

for API X65 steel as a function of stress triaxiality (dened

by the ratio of the hydrostatic stress to the effective stress)

[19]. To determine the stress-modied fracture strain,

smooth and notched tensile bars with ve different notch

radii were tested, from which true fracture strains were

determined as a function of the notch radius. Experimental

results were compared with the results from detailed

elastic-plastic, nite element (FE) analyses based on the

large geometry change option, which led to the local failure

criterion in terms of the fracture strain as a function of the

stress triaxiality.

In this paper, the local failure criterion for the API X65

steel, proposed by the authors in Ref. [19], is applied to

predict ductile failure of full-scale pipes with simulated

corrosion and gouge defects under internal pressure. Based

on detailed FE analyses with the proposed local failure

criterion, burst pressures of defective pipes are estimated

and compared with experimental data. Noting that

0308-0161/$ - see front matter r 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.ijpvp.2007.03.002

Please cite this article as: Oh C-K, et al. Ductile failure analysis of API X65 pipes with notch-type defects using a local fracture criterion. Int J Pressure

Vessels Piping (2007), doi:10.1016/j.ijpvp.2007.03.002

ARTICLE IN PRESS

C.-K. Oh et al. / International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping ] (]]]]) ]]]]]]

available, a parametric study is also performed.

The authors have recently proposed a local failure

criterion to predict ductile fracture of API X65 steel. The

criterion is in terms of true strain as a function of the stress

triaxiality, and has been determined from results of smooth

and notched round bar tests, combined with those from

detailed FE analyses. The procedures and resulting

criterion are briey summarized below. Detailed information can be found in Ref. [19].

To determine mechanical properties, tensile and Charpy

tests were performed using specimens extracted from a pipe

of outer diameter Do 762 mm and wall thickness

t 17.5 mm (in the longitudinal direction), made of the

American Petroleum Institute (API) 5L X65 steel [20],

popularly used for gas pipelines in Korea. Chemical

compositions and tensile properties of the present API

Table 1

Chemical composition of the API X65 steel, used in the present work

Element (wt %)

C

Mn

Si

Fe

Ceq

0.08

0.019

1.45

0.03

0.31

Balance

0.32

Table 2

Mechanical tensile properties at room temperature of the API X65 steel,

used in the present work

Youngs modulus

E (GPa)

Poissons ratio

n

Yield strength

sy (MPa)

Tensile strength

su (MPa)

210.7

0.3

464.5

563.8

True stressstrain data at room temperature and values of

the Charpy energy as a function of temperature are also

shown in Fig. 1. Even at 60 1C, the Charpy impact energy

was more than 250 J and all specimens failed by 100%

dimple fracture, indicating that the present material is

sufciently tough. One interesting point is that, as most of

the API X65 gas pipelines in Korea have been built within

the last 10 years, mechanical properties of API X65 gas

pipelines in Korea tend to have quite uniform properties.

To investigate the effect of triaxial stress states on ductility,

tensile tests were also performed using notched bars with

four different notch radii (see Fig. 1), extracted from the

same pipe (outer diameter Do 762 mm and wall thickness

t 17.5 mm). The test results showed that, as the notch

radius decreases, yield and tensile strengths increase, but

engineering strain to fracture decreases (see Fig. 2 for

selected results). Such a trend is due to the fact that the

triaxial stress increases with decreasing notch radius.

To simulate tensile tests of smooth and notched specimens, detailed elastic-plastic, axi-symmetric FE analyses

were performed using ABAQUS [21] with the large

geometry change option, and variations of the triaxial

stress and strain within the specimen were determined. To

avoid problems associated with incompressibility, the

reduced integration element within ABAQUS (2002)

(element type CAX8R) was used. For all cases except for

the case of the 0.2 mm notch radius, elements with a length

of 0.15 mm were uniformly spaced in the minimum section,

which was shown to be sufciently ne for the present

purpose. As the fully plastic state is of main interest, stress

and strain gradients ahead of the notch tip were not so

steep. For the case of the 0.2 mm notch radius, ner meshes

with the smallest element size of 0.05 mm were used in the

notch tip region. Materials were modeled as isotropic

elastic-plastic materials that obey the incremental plasticity

theory. True stressstrain experimental data from smooth

tensile bar tests were directly given in the FE analysis.

Fig. 1. (a) True stressstrain data at room temperature and (b) Charpy energy as a function of temperature for API X65 steel.

Please cite this article as: Oh C-K, et al. Ductile failure analysis of API X65 pipes with notch-type defects using a local fracture criterion. Int J Pressure

Vessels Piping (2007), doi:10.1016/j.ijpvp.2007.03.002

ARTICLE IN PRESS

C.-K. Oh et al. / International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping ] (]]]]) ]]]]]]

strain data from notched tensile bars with the FE results,

suggesting that the FE analysis can simulate tensile

deformation behavior even after necking but cannot

simulate failure of tensile test specimens. Fig. 4 shows the

radial variation of the stress triaxiality and equivalent

strain in the minimum (necked) section of smooth and

notched bars at the point of failure initiation (see Fig. 3 to

identify failure initiation points). The stress triaxiality is

dened by the ratio of the mean normal (hydrostatic)

stress, sm, to the equivalent stress, se

sm s1 s2 s3

,

se

3se

(1)

The equivalent stress, se, is expressed in terms of three

Fig. 2. Schematic illustrations: (a) smooth tensile bars; (b) and (c) notched

tensile bars (dimensions in mm).

principal stresses as

0:5

1

se p s1 s2 2 s1 s3 2 s3 s2 2 .

2

(2)

p

0:5

2

1 2 2 1 3 2 3 2 2 .

e

(3)

3

The distance (r) is normalized with respect to the radius of

the minimum section (a), and the values of r/a 0 and

r/a 1 mean the center and the free surface of the

specimen, respectively. Application of the damage indicator based on the Rice and Tracey formula [7] showed that,

for all cases except for the case of the 0.2 mm notch radius,

failure is expected to occur from the center of the specimen.

For the case of the 0.2 mm notch radius, the notch tip was

found to be the critical site for failure initiation. By

combining FE results with notched bar tensile test ones,

ductile failure criteria in terms of the equivalent strain to

failure as a function of the stress triaxiality were

established. Noting that point-wise information on stress

and strain is obtained from FE analyses, two different

approaches were taken in the previous work. One approach

was to develop a failure criterion based on stress and strain

at the location where failure is most likely to initiate. Such

a point should correspond to the location with the highest

stress triaxiality and strain, for instance. This approach was

termed the critical location criterion. The other approach was based on average stress and strain over the

minimum section, and was termed the section average

criterion. Fig. 5 shows the evolution of the stress

triaxiality in terms of the equivalent strain, measured in

the center of the minimum section of smooth and notched

tensile bars. For the case of the 0.2 mm notch radius,

failure initiation was estimated to occur at the notch tip,

and thus the data are excluded for the critical location

criterion. The results in Fig. 5 show that the stress

triaxiality in the center of the specimen depends strongly

Fig. 3. Comparison of experimental engineering stressstrain data for notched tensile bars with FE results: (a) notched bar with the 3 mm notch radius

and (b) notched bar with the 6 mm notch radius.

Please cite this article as: Oh C-K, et al. Ductile failure analysis of API X65 pipes with notch-type defects using a local fracture criterion. Int J Pressure

Vessels Piping (2007), doi:10.1016/j.ijpvp.2007.03.002

ARTICLE IN PRESS

4

C.-K. Oh et al. / International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping ] (]]]]) ]]]]]]

Fig. 4. (a) Stress triaxiality distributions and (b) equivalent strain distributions for smooth and notched tensile bars at the failure initiation point,

determined from the FE analyses.

Fig. 5. Variations of the stress triaxiality with the equivalent strain for smooth and notched bar specimens: (a) based on the critical location criterion and

(b) based on the section average criterion.

should include the history of stress and strain, average

stress triaxiality is introduced, dened by

Z

sm

1 ef sm

de ,

(4)

se ave ef 0 se

where eef denotes the equivalent strain to failure initiation.

Such a denition incorporates the history effect of stresses

and strains on ductile fracture. For a given notch radius,

the calculated average stress triaxiality is constant, and is

shown in Fig. 5. Fig. 6 summarizes the resulting equivalent

strain to failure initiation (true fracture strain, eef), as a

function of the stress triaxiality for the API X65 steel,

considered in the present work. For the critical location

criterion, fracture strain was expressed as

sm

ef 3:29 exp 1:54

0:10,

(5)

se

sm

0:22.

ef 3:41 exp 2:23

se

(6)

notched bars led to correct predictions of failure loads and

fracture strain for all cases considered, including the case of

the 0.2 mm notch radius.

To predict ductile failure of defective pipes made of API

X65 steels using the present approaches, the proposed

equation, Eq. (5) or (6), should be combined with detailed

elastic-plastic FE analyses from which local stresses and

strains are determined. For instance, from the FE analysis,

stress and strain information can be monitored as a

function of load. Over the loading history, the stress

triaxiality should be averaged according to Eq. (4), which

in turn gives fracture strain from Eq. (5) or (6). When the

(equivalent) strain from the FE analysis equals the fracture

Please cite this article as: Oh C-K, et al. Ductile failure analysis of API X65 pipes with notch-type defects using a local fracture criterion. Int J Pressure

Vessels Piping (2007), doi:10.1016/j.ijpvp.2007.03.002

ARTICLE IN PRESS

C.-K. Oh et al. / International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping ] (]]]]) ]]]]]]

stress triaxiality [19].

is assumed to initiate. One notable point is that the use of

Eq. (5) will in general give a different failure point from

that of Eq. (6). It will be shown, however, in this paper,

that both equations provide practically the same failure

loads.

The proposed ductile failure criteria are physically sound

and quite simple to use. To validate applicability of the

proposed ductile failure criteria, they are applied to predict

ductile failure of defective pipes made of the API X65 steel

and compared with experimental data from full-scale pipe

tests in the next section. Two kinds of defects are

considered; metal loss due to corrosion and gouge due to

third party damage, which are typical degradation mechanisms for underground gas pipes.

pipes

Development of assessment methods against corrosion

defects has been active in the last two decades. A number of

methods have been proposed, such as ASME B31G [22],

RSTRENG [23] and PCORRC [24]. Note that these

methods are in principle based on limit load analysis of

pipes with corrosion defects. When the pipe materials have

medium- to high-toughness, application of the limit load

approach is plausible and thus it has been popularly used in

practice due to its simplicity. In the present work, however,

pipes with simulated corrosion defects are assessed using

the proposed stress-modied strain criteria and the results

are compared with full-scale pipe test data.

from Korea Gas Corporation (KOGAS) (same as those

from which smooth and notched tensile bars were extracted

in Section 2). A pipeline of total length 12 m was cut into

pieces with 2.3 m length, and both ends were capped by

circumferential welding. The geometrical conguration of

the pipe tested is shown in Fig. 7, and dimensions of test

specimens are summarized in Table 3. The mechanical

defect to simulate corrosion was machined in a rectangular

shape as shown in Fig. 7. The defect was machined to keep

the same thickness at the bottom, and corner edges were

rounded to avoid excessive stress concentration. For

characterizing a corrosion defect, the depth d, the width c

and the length l are used, as depicted in Fig. 7.

The pipes were pressurized by water and burst pressures

were experimentally determined at the point when the

ligament failed. The burst testing equipment is shown in

Fig. 8a. All specimens showed bulging deformation around

the defect area, and nal failure occurred at the bottom of

the defect area with crack-like penetration in the longitudinal direction as shown in Fig. 8b. The defect area

shows a signicant amount of thickness reduction along

the penetration line, probably caused by local necking

prior to nal failure. The resulting burst pressures are

summarized in Table 3. This shows that burst pressures are

affected by the defect depth and length, but the effect of the

defect width is much less signicant.

3.2. FE analysis

Three-dimensional elastic-plastic FE analyses were

performed to simulate the pipe burst tests using ABAQUS

[21]. Fig. 9 depicts a typical FE mesh. A quarter of a full

pipe was modeled due to symmetry conditions. The

machined pit was modeled as a rectangular shape with

rounded corners in accordance with the test specimen, and

the model is designed with 20-node iso-parametric brick

Please cite this article as: Oh C-K, et al. Ductile failure analysis of API X65 pipes with notch-type defects using a local fracture criterion. Int J Pressure

Vessels Piping (2007), doi:10.1016/j.ijpvp.2007.03.002

C.-K. Oh et al. / International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping ] (]]]]) ]]]]]]

Table 3

Summary of full-scale tests of pipes with corrosion defect

Pipe no.

DA

DB

DC

LA

LC

CB

CC

Do (mm)

762

L (mm)

2300

t (mm)

l (mm)

c (mm)

d/t

Pexp (MPa)a

Ratio Pmax/Pexpb

Ratio PPCORRC/Pexpc

17.5

200

200

200

100

300

200

200

50

50

50

50

50

100

200

0.25

0.5

0.75

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

24.11

21.76

17.15

24.30

19.80

23.42

22.64

1.025

1.044

1.035

1.025

1.042

0.967

0.989

0.978

0.940

0.902

0.939

0.943

0.874

0.904

Pmax, predicted burst pressure from FE.

c

PPCORRC, burst pressure predicted from Eq. (7).

b

Fig. 8. (a) Test set-up of full-scale burst test for pipes, (b) defect, and (c) failure.

of elements and nodes are from 2376 elements/11,673

nodes to 6150 elements/29,688 nodes and through the

thickness, three elements were used in the corroded section.

applied to the inner surface of the model, together with

axial force to simulate closed cap conditions. True

stressstrain data, determined from uni-axial tension tests,

Please cite this article as: Oh C-K, et al. Ductile failure analysis of API X65 pipes with notch-type defects using a local fracture criterion. Int J Pressure

Vessels Piping (2007), doi:10.1016/j.ijpvp.2007.03.002

C.-K. Oh et al. / International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping ] (]]]]) ]]]]]]

Fig. 9. A FE mesh for the pipe with the simulated corrosion defect.

takes place. The pipe burst test, however, is load

controlled, and thus when the pressure takes its maximum

value, unstable burst takes place. Accordingly the maximum pressure is independent of the use of Eq. (5) or (6). In

fact, such behavior occurs for all cases considered in the

present work. Loaddisplacement records for all cases are

summarized in Fig. 12. This shows that failure occurs after

maximum load, except for two cases (d/t 0.25,

l 200 mm and c 50 mm; and d/t 0.5, l 100 mm

and c 50 mm) where calculations stopped at the maximum load point due to numerical difculties. Even when

calculations were ceased, strains did not reach critical

values. Thus the present approach suggests that failure of

the present API X65 pipes with simulated corrosion is

governed by global plastic instability (zero slope in

loaddisplacement curves), possibly due to sufciently high

ductility of the material considered in the present work (see

Fig. 2b).

Although the present approach suggests that failure is

governed by global plastic instability, and thus these

experimental data are not appropriate to validate the

present approach, at least the maximum loads predicted by

the FE analysis could be compared with experimental data.

Table 3 lists ratios of the maximum pressure (Pmax),

predicted from the FE analysis, to experimental ones

(Pexp). Overall the predicted values are in good agreement

with experimental ones, and differences are no more than

5% for all cases considered. For corroded pipes with

sufcient ductility, one solution to estimate the burst

pressure of pipes with local wall thinning is the so-called

PCORRC equation [24]

"

!!#

2t

d

l

Pf

1 exp 0:157 p

su 1

,

Do

t

Ro t d

(7)

simulated corrosion defects with failure points predicted from the present

approach.

Incremental plasticity with the large geometry change

option was invoked.

respectively; and su is the ultimate tensile strength. It is

known that Eq. (7) is based on limit load analysis for pipes

with constant depth thinning under internal pressure.

Table 3 lists ratios of the maximum pressure (PPCORRC),

predicted from Eq. (7), to experimental ones (Pexp). Overall

the predicted values are less than the experimental ones,

but generally by no more than 13%.

3.3. Comparisons

Fig. 10 shows a typical load vs. radial displacement

record, determined from the FE analysis. It also includes

failure points, predicted by the present approach, namely,

when the equivalent strain from the FE analysis equals the

fracture strain according to Eq. (5) or (6). This shows that

radial displacement increases initially with internal pressure, and then the pressure takes its maximum value and

decreases with increasing radial displacement. A typical

deformed shape in the defective region is shown in Fig. 11,

clearly showing local necking. Failure points, predicted by

gouges

The second type of defect considered in the present work

is a gouge due to third party damage. The proposed

method is applied to predict the maximum pressure of

pipes with gouges, and the results are compared with fullscale pipe test data. Having sufcient condence, further

parametric FE analyses are performed to provide an

engineering assessment equation for gouge defects.

Vessels Piping (2007), doi:10.1016/j.ijpvp.2007.03.002

ARTICLE IN PRESS

8

C.-K. Oh et al. / International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping ] (]]]]) ]]]]]]

Fig. 11. Deformed shape in the defective region for pipes with simulated corrosion defects.

Fig. 12. Effects of defect geometries on FE loadradial displacement records for pipes with simulated corrosion defects.

Please cite this article as: Oh C-K, et al. Ductile failure analysis of API X65 pipes with notch-type defects using a local fracture criterion. Int J Pressure

Vessels Piping (2007), doi:10.1016/j.ijpvp.2007.03.002

C.-K. Oh et al. / International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping ] (]]]]) ]]]]]]

4.1. Experiments

gouge, and some important dimensions are summarized in

Table 4. The geometry of the pipe is the same as that in

Section 3, having the diameter of Do 762 mm, the

thickness of t 17.5 mm, and the total length of

L 2300 mm. The gouge is characterized by a 451 V-notch

with a circular notch radius of 2 mm. In all tests, the depth

of the gouge is xed as d 8.75 mm which is 50% of the

the other hand, was systematically varied from 50 to

600 mm. The pipes were pressurized by water and burst

pressures were experimentally determined at the point when

the ligament failed. Fig. 14 depicts photos of the gouge

before and after the test. During the test, strain values were

monitored using strain gauges, as shown in Fig. 14a. Note

that two gauges, S1 and S2, were circumferentially located

24.9 and 54.9 mm, respectively, away from the center of the

gouge. The measured maximum pressures from full-scale

Fig. 15. A typical nite element mesh for pipes with gouge.

Table 4

Summary of full-scale tests of pipes with gouge defect

Pipe no.

MNA

MNB

MNC

MND

MNE

a

Do (mm)

762

L (mm)

2300

t (mm)

d/t

l (mm)

Pexp (MPa)a

17.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

100

200

300

400

600

24.68

22.48

17.70

18.14

16.57

0.979

0.960

1.103

1.003

1.020

0.983

0.973

1.117

1.011

1.021

Ppred, predicted burst pressure.

Fig. 14. (a) Initial gouge defect and strain measurement locations, and (b) gouge at failure.

Please cite this article as: Oh C-K, et al. Ductile failure analysis of API X65 pipes with notch-type defects using a local fracture criterion. Int J Pressure

Vessels Piping (2007), doi:10.1016/j.ijpvp.2007.03.002

C.-K. Oh et al. / International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping ] (]]]]) ]]]]]]

10

burst pressure decreases with increasing gouge length.

4.2. FE analysis

The pipes with gouges were modeled using FEs. A typical

FE mesh is shown in Fig. 15, with a detailed view of the

defective region. The number of elements and nodes in FE

meshes were from 7290 elements/33,838 nodes to 11,345

elements/52,145 nodes, depending on the gouge length. For

all cases, however, the smallest element size in the defective

area was xed at 0.32 mm 0.67 mm 1.19 mm. It is

believed that the present mesh size is appropriate for

engineering purposes, as meshing using smaller mesh sizes

with appropriate aspect ratios was quite difcult due to

increasing number of elements. Internal pressure was

applied to the inner surface of the pipe, together with end

forces to simulate the closed end condition.

4.3. Comparisons

Fig. 16 compares axial and hoop strains measured from

tests (S1 and S2) with FE results for selected cases. Note

that the results for the MNC test are the worst, and for all

other cases the FE results agree very well with experimental

values, as in the MNA case. From FE analyses, the

equivalent strain and stress triaxiality were monitored as a

function of internal pressure. Fig. 17 shows typical radial

variations of stress triaxiality and equivalent strain. In

these gures, the radial distance is normalized with respect

to the minimum ligament size, and the values of 0 and 1

denote the inner surface and the notch tip of the pipe,

respectively. These show that the equivalent strain takes

the maximum value at the notch tip, but the maximum

value of stress triaxiality occurs somewhere in between the

notch tip and the center. To apply the critical location

criterion, stress and strain information at all points in the

minimum ligament were monitored to nd out the failure

initiation location. For the present cases, failure initiation

is found to occur always at the tip of the notch, and thus

the failure criterion is checked using stress and strain

information extracted from the rst element at the notch

tip. For the criterion based on averaged information, stress

and strain were averaged over the minimum ligament from

the notch tip to the inner surface. Fig. 18 shows typical

variations of the stress triaxiality with equivalent strain for

Fig. 16. Comparison of strain variations measured from pipe tests with FE results: (a) MNA pipe test and (b) MNC pipe test.

Please cite this article as: Oh C-K, et al. Ductile failure analysis of API X65 pipes with notch-type defects using a local fracture criterion. Int J Pressure

Vessels Piping (2007), doi:10.1016/j.ijpvp.2007.03.002

C.-K. Oh et al. / International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping ] (]]]]) ]]]]]]

11

Fig. 17. Distributions of stress triaxiality and equivalent strain for pipes with gouge: (a) MNB pipe test and (b) MNE pipe test

Fig. 18. Variations of the stress triaxiality with the equivalent strain for pipes with gouge for the critical location criterion and the section average

criterion: (a) MNA pipe test and (b) MNE pipe test.

values averaged over the loading history according to

Eq. (4). Note that for other cases, trends are quite similar

to those in Fig. 18. It can be seen that the magnitude of the

stress triaxiality does not depend on the equivalent strain

and is almost constant, and accordingly is also close to the

average stress triaxiality, dened by Eq. (4). Another

notable point is that the values of the stress triaxiality are

quite low: for the critical location criterion, it is about 0.55,

and for the section average criterion, is about 0.85. Such

low values are typical for pipes under internal pressure.

Fig. 19 shows radial displacements, determined from FE

analysis, as a function of pressure. Note that the average

stress triaxiality for the critical location criterion is lower

than that for the section average criterion. However, the

magnitude of strain for the critical location criterion is

much higher than that for the section average criterion. As

a result, the criterion based on the critical location provides

a slightly lower burst pressure than that based on the

The results also show that failure predicted by the present

approach occurs before global plastic instability points

(characterized by zero slope in loaddisplacement curves).

This is in contrast to the cases of pipes with simulated

corrosion defects in Section 3, where failure is indeed

governed by global plastic instability. Estimated burst

pressures are compared with experimentally measured data

in Table 4 and in Fig. 20. Note that the pressure is

normalized with respect to the theoretical limit pressure of

a plain pipe

t

t sy su

Po

sf

,

(8)

Rm

Rm

2

where sf, sy and su denote the ow strength, yield strength

and ultimate tensile strength, respectively. As shown in

Table 4, the estimated burst pressures are in good

agreement with experimentally measured ones with differences less than 3%, except the MNC case where the

Vessels Piping (2007), doi:10.1016/j.ijpvp.2007.03.002

ARTICLE IN PRESS

12

C.-K. Oh et al. / International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping ] (]]]]) ]]]]]]

Noting that an engineering assessment equation for

gouge defects is not currently available, gouge defects

could be assessed using an expression of failure pressure of

axial surface cracked pipes under internal pressure,

assuming that the gouge is idealized as an axial crack.

One popular expression in [5] is given by

s

1 a=t

2

,

(9)

; M 1 1:61

Pf Po

1 a=t1=M

4Rm t

where a and denote the crack depth and length,

respectively. As the gouge is idealized as an axial crack,

Eq. (9) can be used to estimate failure pressure, simply by

replacing the crack depth a with the gouge depth d.

Resulting predictions are compared in Fig. 20, showing

that Eq. (9) gives conservative (lower) failure loads, as

expected.

4.4. Assessment equations against gouge defects

Fig. 19. Variations of pressure with radial displacement, determined from

the FE analyses, indicating predicted failure points.

develop an engineering assessment equation against

gouges, which is not only expensive but also time

consuming. Having sufcient condence in the use of the

proposed approach to assess gouge defects, systematic

parametric FE analyses are performed to provide an

engineering assessment equation for gouge defects. For

the parametric study, the dimensions of the pipe are xed

to those in the previous cases; the diameter of

Do 762 mm, the thickness of t 17.5 mm, and the total

Fig. 20. Comparison of experimental burst pressure for pipes with gouge

with the FE results and Eq. (9).

is still not signicant, it can be seen from Fig. 16 that the

experimental data for the MNC case are somewhat lower

than expected from the trend curve. Good agreement

shown in this example provides condence in application

Fig. 21. Comparison of burst pressure solutions with FE results for pipes

with gouge.

Vessels Piping (2007), doi:10.1016/j.ijpvp.2007.03.002

C.-K. Oh et al. / International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping ] (]]]]) ]]]]]]

() is systematically varied from 100 to 600 mm. The gouge

depth (d), on the other hand, is varied from 4.375 to

13.125 mm, leading to the relative gouge depth (d/t) from

0.25 to 0.75. A total of 25 FE calculations are performed.

The burst pressures, resulting from the present FE

analyses, are shown in Fig. 21. In Fig. 21, failure loads,

predicted using Eq. (9) assuming that the gouge is idealized

by the crack, are shown. Predictions using Eq. (9) are quite

conservative, and the trend of the gouge length effect is

somewhat different. Inspired by Eq. (9), the following

equation is proposed to estimate the burst pressure of API

X65 pipes with gouge defects based on the FE results

s

1 d=t

d 2

Pf Po

.

; M g 1 0:64

1 d=t1=M g

t 4Rm t

(10)

Resulting predictions are compared with the FE results in

Fig. 21. Eq. (10) agrees well with the FE results for larger d/

t, but tends to be slightly conservative for smaller d/t and

larger . It should be noted that the FE results are for

specic values of pipe geometry (Do 762 mm and

t 17.5 mm, giving Rm/t 21.3) and for the specic API

X65 steel considered in the present work, and thus the use

of Eq. (10) should be limited. In particular, Eq. (10) does

not include the term related to the materials toughness and

thus should only be used to assess gouges in gas pipes made

of the particular API X65 steel considered in the present

work. On the other hand, as noted, most of the API X65

gas pipelines in Korea have been built within the last 10

years, and mechanical properties of API X65 gas pipelines

in Korea tend to have quite uniform properties. Thus, Eq.

(10) would be useful to assess gouges in API X65 gas

pipelines in Korea.

5. Concluding remarks

In this paper, a local failure criterion for the API X65

steel is applied to predict ductile failure of full-scale pipes

with simulated corrosion and gouge defects under internal

pressure. The local failure criterion is the stress-modied

fracture strain for the API X65 steel as a function of the

stress triaxiality (dened by the ratio of the hydrostatic

stress to the effective stress). Based on detailed FE analyses

with the proposed local failure criteria, burst pressures of

defective pipes are estimated and compared with full-scale

pipe test data.

For pipes with simulated corrosion defects, FE analysis

with the proposed local fracture criterion indicates that

predicted failure takes place after the defective pipes attain

maximum loads for all cases, and thus the present

approach suggests that pipe failure is governed by global

instability. This is because the material considered in this

paper has sufcient ductility. Nevertheless the maximum

pressures, predicted from the present FE analysis, agree

well with experimental data. For pipes with simulated

13

failure takes place before global instability, and the

predicted burst pressures are in good agreement with

experimental data, providing condence in the present

approach. A parametric study is performed, from which a

simple equation is proposed to predict burst pressure for

gouge defects in gas pipes made of the particular API X65

steel considered in the present work.

The methodology of predicting ductile failure of

defective structures using a local fracture strain criteria is

not a new but an old concept. The signicance of the

present work, however, is validation of the methodology by

systematic comparison with full-scale pipe test data. The

results in this paper suggest that the local fracture strain

criteria could be successfully applied to predict ductile

failure of pipes with notch-type defects and could reduce

expensive and time-consuming full-scale tests. It should be

also noted that the developed fracture strain criteria should

be applied to the specic material (API X65 steel)

considered in the present work. As API X65 gas pipelines

in Korea tend to have quite uniform mechanical properties,

the developed fracture strain criterion is at least useful to

assess notch-type defects in gas pipelines within Korea. For

instance, one interesting application area is to assess

combined gouge and dent. Systematic full-scale experiments are quite difcult due to the many variables

involved, and the present approach could be used to

develop assessment equations with limited experimental

data. For another material, the same procedure can be

taken to develop the local fracture strain criteria specic to

that material.

In the present work, only notch-type defects, not cracklike defects, are considered. Although the present approach

can be applied to crack-like defect problems in principle,

micro-mechanical based damage models, such as the model

based on Gurson [10], are popularly used these days and

seem to be better suited. The authors have also developed a

micro-mechanical model of ductile fracture for the same

steel using the GursonTvergaardNeedleman (GTN)

model [25].

Acknowledgments

This research is performed under the program of Basic

Atomic Energy Research Institute (BAERI), is a part of the

Nuclear R&D Programs funded by the Ministry of Science

& Technology (MOST) of Korea, and under the program

of the Brain Korea 21 Project in 2006.

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