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Extended Program

with Abstracts

March 31 - April 1, 2011


Edinburgh, Scotland

Welcome to EDEM Conference 2011

Greetings!
We are pleased that you are able to join us at this, our third EDEM conference.
We have an excellent program lined up for you with speakers and posters detailing
EDEM successes in a wide variety of industry sectors and engineering disciplines.
Thank you to all who will be sharing their work with us over the next two days.
Despite all that we have achieved since developing the first version of EDEM software
in 2002, we have only just begun. We will continue to focus our software development
efforts on helping engineers to solve the real, everyday challenges faced in designing
bulk material handling, processing, and manufacturing operations and in researching
particle behavior in complex granular systems.
This is an exciting time for both DEM Solutions and our customers. I look forward to the
presentations, to speaking with you over the next few days, and to working with you in
the future.

Best regards,
John Favier
CEO DEM Solutions
March 31st 2011

Contents

Welcome to EDEM Conference 2011 .............................. 2


Technical Sessions ............................................................ 5
Session 1: EDEM Material Model Calibration................ 6
EDEM Material Model Calibration ............................................ 7
Device for Calibrating DEM Contact Model Parameters ........ 10
Calibration of DEM Models using Bulk Physical Tests ........... 14
The Effect of Electrical Charge and Gravity on Angle of
Repose Formation ................................................................. 20

Session 2: Mining & Mineral Processing .................... 26


EDEM Material Model Calibration Delivering Value for
Transfer Tower Simulation..................................................... 27
Getting Started with Discrete Element Modelling for Bulk
Solids Transfer ...................................................................... 28
EDEM-Based Design Investigations of Bulk Materials
Handling Equipment .............................................................. 29
Plow System in Underground Mining A Benchmark
Approach ............................................................................... 31
Discrete Element Modelling for the Simulation of Particle
Distribution to a Sensor-Based Sorter.................................... 32
DEM-PBM Coupling to Predict Breakage in Comminution
Processes ............................................................................. 39
Calibration of Angle of Repose of Glass Beads ..................... 45
Discrete Element Modeling of Fracture Toughness of
Rocks Using Semi-circular Bending Method .......................... 48
Virtual Soil Calibration for Wheel-Soil Interaction
Simulations Using the Discrete Element Method ................... 54

Session 3: Metals Manufacturing ................................. 62


Analysis of the Bell Less Top Charging System By the
Discrete Element Method ...................................................... 63
Optimization of Raw Material Transport using a Transfer
Chute .................................................................................... 64
Blast Furnace Charging Simulation using EDEM ................... 66
Coupled DEM-CFD Study of the Blast Furnace Cohesive
Zone ...................................................................................... 68

Session 4: Pharmaceutical Production ....................... 76


Using DEM to Predict Pharmaceutical Tablet Film Coating
Uniformity .............................................................................. 77
A Deeper Understanding of Tablet Coating Processes
Through Discrete Element Method Simulations ..................... 79
DEM Simulation of a Flowability Assessment Method
using Small Sample Quantity ................................................. 85

Session 5: General Industries ....................................... 92


Improving Asphalt Plant Design Using DEM Simulation ........ 93
Simulation of Cutting Process by Hybrid Granular and
Multibody Dynamics Software ............................................... 98
A Numerical Comparison of Mixing Efficiencies of Solids in
a Cylindrical Vessel Subject to a Range of Motions ............. 100
Lunar Dust Mitigation by Travelling Electrostatic Waves ...... 107
Particle Scale Modelling Of Frictional-Adhesive Granular
Materials .............................................................................. 112
Simulation of Pneumatic Conveying Flow Regimes by
Coupled EDEM-FLUENT ..................................................... 115
Bond Models in EDEM ........................................................ 119
Determination of Optimal Process Parameters and
Materials using DEM ........................................................... 121
DEM simulation of parameter effects in the shot peening
process................................................................................ 129
Failure Modes Observed in Geobag Revetment using
EDEM .................................................................................. 131
A DEM Application to Improve the Design of an Industrial
Prototype ............................................................................. 139
Use of DEM-Simulation in the Basic Research on Screw
Conveyors ........................................................................... 144

Technical Sessions

EDEM Material Model Calibration


Mining & Minerals Processing
Metals Manufacturing
Pharmaceutical Production
General Industries

Session 1: EDEM Material Model Calibration

EDEM Material Model Calibration


Richard LaRoche and David Curry
DEM Solutions
Peter Wypych and Andrew Grima
Bulk Materials Handling Australia, University of Wollongong

Richard LaRoche
Vice President of Engineering, General Manager of DEM Solutions (USA)
Greater Boston Area, Massachusetts, United Sates of America
DEM Solutions provides the world-leading DEM simulation technology and the
simulation know-how to address the needs of companies who handle and process bulk
materials ranging from coal, ores, and soil to pellets, tablets and powders. Our mission is
to support our customers in-house engineering expertise with our software and
applications know-how to generate substantial return-on-investment through reduced
prototyping and testing costs, lower risk of rework and equipment malfunction, improved
control over final product and process quality, and accelerated product innovation.

Peter Wypych
Founder and General Manager of Bulk Materials Engineering Australia;
Associate Professor, Faculty of Engineering, University of Wollongong
Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia
Bulk Materials Engineering Australia (BMEATM) is licensed consultancy of the
University of Wollongong and provides optimal designs and solutions for bulk materials
handling plants and processes in all sectors of industry in Australia and around the world
(e.g. mining, minerals processing, export infrastructure, bulk ports and terminals,
shipping, power generation, and so on). Over the past 20 years, we have completed over
1000 projects for industry, and more than 300 companies and organizations have made
use of our bulk materials handling expertise and facilities. Our operation now is a part of
the SMART Infrastructure Facility (focusing on Simulation, Modeling and Analysis for
Research and Teaching)

EDEM Material Model Calibration

Richard LaRoche and David Curry, DEM Solutions Ltd.


Peter Wypych and Andrew Grima, Bulk Materials Handling Australia & University of
Wollongong

Abstract
The reliable design and operation of bulk materials handling and processing plants can be
difficult when dealing with complex geometries and difficult-to-handle materials. Often a lack
of detailed analysis of bulk material flow and process boundary interactions can lead to
costly mistakes which can typically be identified easily once in operation. These problems
can occur due to inaccurate characterization during design, miscalculation of particle
trajectories and velocities, and a lack of engineering tools to thoroughly visualize and
analyze material flow through complex designs. This presentation describes the application
of EDEM simulation to bulk material plant design by identifying current issues and presenting
new methods of calibration and length-scale/dynamic validation. Examples and case studies
are presented to answer these key questions:

What is a calibrated EDEM Material Model?


What is the methodology to obtain a calibrated EDEM Material Model?
How much calibration is necessary and how can I access this methodology?

In this presentation, a partnership between Bulk Materials Handling Australia (BMEA) and
DEM Solutions will be introduced which will provide expert guidance and material calibration
services for EDEM customers worldwide.

Device for Calibrating DEM Contact Model Parameters


Johannes Quist
Chalmers University of Technology

Johannes Quist
Project Assistant, Chalmers Rock Processing Research (CRPR)
Gteborg, Sweden
Chalmers Rock Processing Research (CRPR) is a research group within the
Department of Product and Production Development focused on scientific and
industrial research on machines and systems for production of rock materials. The
objective is to produce rock material products in a cost-efficient and resourceeconomical way, thereby contributing to a sustainable society. The work of the
research group involves developing algorithms, operator interfaces, and simulation
and optimization techniques for optimal operation with an augmented degree of
usage
The Chalmers University of Technology Department of Product & Production
Development focuses on product design, product development and production
systems development and in the interplay between these disciplines. Research at the
Department focuses largely on shortening the lead-time from needs to finished
products while simultaneously achieving added value for the customer. Our largest
customers are in the vehicle and manufacturing industries.

Device for calibrating DEM contact model parameters

Johannes Quist, Research Engineer, Dep. Product & Production Development, Chalmers
University of Technology, Gteborg, Sweden
Introduction
The usage of CAE tools for simulation and modelling of machines and processes is
continuously increasing at engineering departments and in academia. However efforts
towards ensuring trustworthy results by performing calibration tests are often a scarcity. This
may lead to inaccurate or incorrect results, leading to poor decisions. This reliability issue is
vital when it comes to a potential increase in the use of DEM modelling in the industry. When
conducting DEM modelling efforts aimed towards simulating granular media flow behaviour
there are few methods available for calibrating contact model parameters. In this paper a
calibration device is presented as a solution to the problem of choosing correct contact
model parameters that correspond to the flow behaviour of real media.
Approach
The device has been designed with the intension to create three different flow behaviour
situations that can be studied in a sequence. An illustration of the device can be seen in
Figure 1. The flow through the device is filmed as a reference for later reproduction of the
flow in EDEM. The device can be configured in different ways in order to create several
different flow scenarios. By configuring contact model parameters towards different
scenarios the validity of the model will increased compared to a static configuration. Also,
the device is adoptable to different kind of media shape and size.

Figure 1 - CAD model of the calibration device. Red areas represent surfaces important for
the media-geometry interaction behaviour.

Results
In the top section two plates form a chute controlled by a trap-door mechanism. The aperture
length can be varied between four different positions. The angle for the top plates can be
varied continuous between two positions as well as independently of each other. When
releasing the trapdoor mechanism the material will flow through the chute and fall onto the
angled plane in the middle section of the device. The angle of the plane can be between
three discrete steps. Finally the media will reach the bottom of the device and form an
angled bed of material.

Figure 2 - Snapshots from DEM simulation of the flow through the device.

Calibration of DEM Models using Bulk Physical Tests


Mical W. Johnstone
Dunlop Oil and Marine
Jin Y. Ooi
University of Edinburgh

Mical W. Johnstone
Product Support Engineer, Fluid Technology
Grimsby, United Kingdom
The Fluid Technology unit focuses on technology for developing, producing and
dealing with hoses and hose assemblies. Products developed in this unit are used to
control media flow in cars, trucks and most industrial applications, including offshore
activities.
Dunlop Oil and Marine, a member of the ContiTech Group, a specialist in rubber
and plastics technology, is a world leader in the design, manufacture and supply of
hoses for the oil, gas, petrochemical and dredging industries, for both offshore and
onshore-based operations.

Calibration of DEM models using bulk physical tests


Mical W. Johnstone, Dunlop Oil and Marine, Grimsby, UK; Jin Y. Ooi, University of
Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
Introduction
Granular materials are present in many industries, ranging from agricultural to
pharmaceutical. The Discrete Element Method (DEM) is becoming an increasingly popular
numerical technique for simulating the behaviour of granular materials for a vast range of
scientific and industrial applications.
A close look into the DEM literature shows the need to validate what DEM can predict and to
develop calibration methodologies for DEM models to produce satisfactory predictions. This
paper describes a summary of a project to develop a methodology to calibrate DEM models
for granular material using bulk responses measured in physical tests. The methodology is a
systematic procedure aiming to optimise the DEM input parameters to predict accurate
numerical results. The procedure consists of four main steps which are described below.
Step 1: Define bulk parameters for calibration
Choosing the appropriate bulk measurements to calibrate the DEM models is of paramount
importance. Suitable measurements should produce sufficiently discriminating values from
variations in material properties so that the optimisation procedure is well posed to infer the
DEM model parameters from these measurements. The measurements should also be
highly repeatable and relatively easy to measure from simple laboratory tests. In this paper,
the number of responses was limited to two to simplify the description, however, the
proposed methodology can accommodate alternative or additional bulk parameters to be
added to the optimisation process to further improve the optimisation.
The two calibration devices and responses that were chosen to illustrate the methodology

Dynamic angle of repose in a rotating drum


Rotating drums have been extensively investigated in the past as they are an integral part to
many industrial processes [2]. This study attempts to use the rotating drum as one of the
bulk calibration devices. A diagram of the experimental setup can be seen in Figure 3 (a).
The drum has an internal diameter of 184mm and a thickness of 20mm. It was made from
acrylic, filled with test solid at 40% and was fixed at rotational speed of 7rpm.
Several flow regimes exist in a rotating drum and are commonly divided into 3 distinct
regimes; intermittent avalanching at low speed, steady inclination at intermediate speed and
S-shape avalanching at relatively high speed. Throughout the various regimes, the dynamic
s this produced a
easier to measure and less susceptible to fluctuation.

At
was determined manually based on the mid-section of the surface profile. Simple

produced less accurate results as stray particles along the surface would significantly affect
the angle determination.
Confined compression apparatus
A confined compression test is used to investigate the mechanical response of a granular
bulk material subject to vertical compression in a confined cylinder. The confined
compression tester used is a modification of the Masroor et al. (1987) [3] apparatus. The
vertical load applied to the bulk solid is applied by a top platen driven by an INSTRON [4]
machine at a constant rate of 1mm/min. The INSTRON records the applied load and the
vertical displacement. A diagram of the experimental setup is shown in Figure 3 (b). In this
experiment, the bottom edge of the cylinder is free to move, allowing compression from both
the bottom platen as well as the top platen. The sample goes through a loading and
unloading cycle (to 65kPa) to observe both the initial compression and the elastic unloading
response. The speed of loading and unloading is kept constant throughout the experiment.
As the compression stress increases, the sample strain increases and vice versa. The void
ratio of a granular solid e is the ratio of the volume of void to the volume of solid. As the
sample is compressed, the volume of void decreases and therefore e decreases; the sample
is essentially being consolidated. The change in e can be evaluated using the dimensions of
the sample and the platen heights.
Figure 3
logarithmic scale. The advantage of this is that the unloading-reloading curve for a granular
solid is often linear in the semi-logarithmic plot. The unloading trend (triangles in Figure 3c)
ften used in geotechnical
engineering and is a good representation of the bulk unloading response. This means that
equation e = D

depends on the point of unloading and

dependant parameter dependent on the stress history.

145

184

fr

Sample

380

Attached to
INSTRON
Top
plate

Strain gauges

250

Bottom
plate

140

Bottom
load cell

0.586
Sample void ratio, e

FT

Loading
Unloading

0.582

0.578

0.574

0.570
10

Average platen compression 100


stress, sv [kPa]

FB

(a) Rotating drum and the


dynamic angle of repose

(b) Confined compression


device

(c) Bulk unloading stiffness

Figure 3 : Bulk calibration devices and parameters (all dimensions in mm)


Step 2: Create a numerical dataset

The second step in the methodology is to create a numerical dataset that describes how the
DEM parameters influence the bulk responses when simulating the laboratory devices
numerically. The optimisation procedure described in this paper focuses on determining
DEM interparticle model parameters. The other parameters such as the DEM model
parameters for particle-boundary interactions are largely dependent on specific application
scenarios and should be determined separately. Previous parametric studies have been
carried out by studying the influence of a single parameter on the systems response [5,6],
however, this may not adequately capture the combined effects of the model parameters.
Increasing the number of independent model variables rapidly increases the total number of
simulations required to generate the numerical dataset. With 4 DEM parameters and 3
values per variable (e.g. for the shear modulus 1E6, 1E7 and 1E9 are used), running every
possible combination will require 34=81 runs. Design of experiment (DOE) methods were
used to reduce the number of simulations required to create the dataset using partial three
level factorial design [7].
The non-spherical particles in this study were represented using 2 equal overlapping
spheres. More accurate shape representation is possible but will require more spheres and
increase computational time. Some studies have suggested that accurate representation of
particle shape may not be necessary to produce satisfactory predictions, at least for densely
packed granular media under a variety of loading conditions [5,8]. Key DEM implementation
information is given in Table 1. The rotating drum was modelled to the full experimental
apparatus scale. The confined compression cylinder was scaled to 60% of experimental
scale as a previous parametric study revealed that scaling the system down to 60% only
produced a small effect on the unloading stiffness parameter (<10%) that will be factored
into the results.

Table 1 DEM implementation of particles, optimised parameters in bold (PP: Particle to


Particle, PB: Particle to Boundary interactions)
Density of solids [kg/m3]

1000

Poisson's ratio

0.3

Shear modulus [Pa]

1E6/1E7/1E9

Contact model

Hertz Mindlin (no


slip)

Coefficient of friction

PP

0.1/0.3/0.6

PB

0.3

PP

0.1/0.5/0.9

PB

0.5

PP

0.0/0.04/0.1

PB

0.0

Coefficient of restitution

Coefficient of rolling friction

Sphere radius [mm]

2.5

Particle aspect ratio

1.20

Step 3: Measure calibration data


Black eyed beans were chosen as the test material in this paper. The main physical
properties were measured including the average particle dimensions: x=9.19, y=6.54 and
z=5.41mm (n=70); the average particle weight 0.2107g (n=70) and the average solid density
5kg/m3. The experimental calibration data was measured using the chosen

compression tester of 1.50E-03 (n=3, COV=2.3%) where the initial void ratio was e0=0.46.
Step 4: Parametric optimisation using calibration data
The final step in the methodology determines optimised parameters by calibrating the
numerical results with the measured data. There are two main parts to the parametric
optimisation. First, a model is created using analysis of variances (ANOVA) based on the
numerical dataset and second, the model is calibrated using the experimental data by
response profiling [9] to determine a set of optimised parameters. The statistical analysis
package chosen to create the model in this paper was Statistica [10]. Using the dataset, a 3
level factorial ANOVA model is created based on the gravitas of the DEM parameters on the
bulk responses. The optimised parameters are determined using the response desirability
profiling algorithm in Statistica which is based on the simplex method of function optimisation
[11].

Methodology verification and validation


A verification and validation was conducted to determine the robustness of the methodology.
The verification was conducted by simulating the two calibration experiments using the
optimised parameters and comparing them with the experimental results. The optimised
parameters produced an accurate dynami
due to the lack of plastic deformation in the contact model used to simulate the experimental
devices. The validation of the optimised parameters in a large scale system was conducted
by predicting the response of a shallow footing penetration on a bed of black eyed beans.
DEM simulations predicted accurate vertical stresses on the footing at penetration depth
between 5 and 25mm and an acceptable degree of accuracy for industrial application up to
30mm where the loading resistance was underestimated by 10%.
References
1. Chung Y.C. and Ooi J.Y. (2008) Influence of discrete element model parameters on bulk
behaviour of a granular solid under confined compression, Particulate Science and
Technology, 26, 83-96.
2. A.T. McBride, I. Govender, M. Powell, and T. Cloete (2004), Contributions to the
experimental validation of the discrete element method applied to tumbling mills,
Engineering Computations, vol. 21, pp. 119-136.

3. S.A. Masroor, L.W. Zachary, and R.A. Lohnes (1987) A test apparatus for determining
elastic constants of bulk solids, SEM Spring Conference on Experimental Mechanics,
Houston, TX, USA.
4. Instron (2009) www.instron.com. Norwood, MA, US.
5. Y.C. Chung (2006) Discrete element modelling and experimental validation of a granular
solid subject to different loading conditions, University of Edinburgh.
6. J. Hrtl (2008) A study of granular solids in silos with and without an insert, The
University of Edinburgh.
7. G.E.P. Box and D.W. Behnken (1960) Some new three level designs for the study of
quantitative variables, Technometrics, vol. 2, p. 455475.
8. Hrtl J. and Ooi J.Y. (2008) Experiments and simulations of direct shear tests: porosity,
contact friction and bulk friction Granular Matter, 10, 263-271.
9. G. Derringer and R. Suich (1980) Simultaneous optimization of several response
variables, Journal of quality technology, vol. 12, p. 214219.
10. StatSoft (2009) Statistica.
11. R. ONeill (1971) Function minimization using a simplex procedure, Journal of the
Royal Statistical Society, Series C (Applied Statistics), vol. 20, pp. 338-345.

Acknowledgements
The authors would like to thank DEM Solutions Ltd and the University of Edinburgh for their
support and discussion.

The Effect of Electrical Charge and Gravity


on Angle of Repose Formation
Nima Gharib, Robin Briend, Nasim Kaveh-Moghaddam
Peter Radziszewski
McGill University

Nima Gharib
PhD Candidate, Neptec Rover Team (NRT),
Delft, The Netherlands
The Neptec Rover Team (NRT), which includes some of the industrys leading
technology experts, was brought together to investigate, conceptually design, and
test lunar mobility systems for the Canadian Space Agency. This highly experienced
team has been working together to develop technology for the new Lunar Exploration
Light Rover (LELR). The McGill University team focuses on the definition,
development and validation of a compliant wheel; on the effect of operating one or
more of the recommended mobility systems while in the presence of the fine,
abrasive dust on the lunar surface; and on the identification of strategies to mitigate
dust infiltration and component wear.
The Department of Mechanical Engineering at McGill University has a long
history of excellence in research and teaching. For more than a century, we have
been committed to train the next generation of innovators, industrial leaders and
academics.

The effect of electrical charge and gravity on Angle of Repose formation

Nima Gharib (PhD Candidate), Robin Briend (Graduate MSc Student), Nasim KavehMoghaddam
(Graduate MSc student), Peter Radziszewski (Associate Professor)
Department of Mechanical Engineering, McGill University, 3480 University St.,
Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3A 2A7

Introduction
Lunar mobility studies require a precise knowledge of the geotechnical properties of the
lunar soil in order to design efficient traction systems. Since the last Apollo missions, the
immense progress of computers on one hand, and the development of the discrete element
method on the other hand, provide ways to test traction system prototypes with simulation.
Before simulating vehicle displacements on the soil strictly speaking and measuring
terramechanics properties of the wheel-soil interactions, one needs to know exactly how to
model a given granular soil and make sure that its mechanical properties, for example its
dynamical response to loads or stresses, are accurately rendered. The angle of repose of a
soil is one of most basic soil property and can be helpful in the calibration of the contact
model and interaction parameters in DEM software. This study focuses on this characteristic
and tries to summarize the effects of different parameters on it, among them particle shape,
electrostatic charge, and gravity.

Simulation Setup
The main parameters used to model the soil are given in Table 1. In order to give accurate
3D extension of [2] results, we used the same values as they did for the simulation
parameters.

Table 1. Definition of the parameters used in the simulations.

Parameter

Definition

value

R0

Mean spherical particle radius

50 m

Aspect ratio of paired particles

Size distribution ratio

Number of particles

3000

Particle density

3000 kg/m3

Particle Poissons ratio

0.2

Particle shear modulus

5107 Pa

Particle-particle restitution
coefficient

0.5

Particle-particle static friction


coefficient

Particle-particle roling friction


coefficient

es

0.5

ss

Particle-steel static friction


coefficient

0.5

rs

Particle-steel rolling friction


coefficient

0.2

To calibrate the model first a simple model was created in EDEM. It consists of a horizontal
steel plate on which a 1.5 mm diameter steel tube rests vertically. 3,000 particles were
generated inside the tube at the beginning of the simulation. The tube is then lifted upward at
the speed of 5 mm/s. After the tube walls lose its contact with the particle pile and the
particles have reached a static state, the simulation was then run for another half a second
in order to make sure that the pile has reached its stationary state. Finally the results were
compared to experimental data obtained using same tube diameter filled with Ottawa sand
(Fig. 1).

After calibrating the software and finding the proper parameters for the soil, the same
approach were carried out to investigate the effect of gravity, particles electric charge, and
particles shape on the formation of Angle of Repose (AOR).

Single spherical particles and the mixture of paired particle created by overlapping two
particles with either same radius or different radius were used in the simulations (Fig. 2).
Each case was studied under moon and earth gravity. Also the effect of electrical charge on
AOR was investigated by having uniform charge distribution for the particles stack.

Results

The angle of repose were calculated at the end of each simulation using a MATLAB code
uses a least-squares fit of the surface particles to define the slopes of the two sides of the
pile at twelve different planes. The angle of repose for the pile is the average angle from the
total 24 slopes. As shown in Fig. 3 the angle of repose of single particles is much smaller
than that of paired particles. Increasing electrostatic charges decreases the angle of repose.
However a weak electrostatic charge has almost no effect on it. While when the electrostatic
charge increases a certain point the angle of repose drops sharply. The gravity in the other
hand doesnt have much effect on angle of repose.

It is worth to mention the above-mentioned results are from the cases where friction between
the wall of the tube and the particles and the particles themselves was 0.5. Changing
coefficient of friction might change the results.

Fig. 1 Comparison between experimental and discrete element modeling of Angle of Repose

Fig2. Particle shapes used during simulation

Fig 3. Angle of repose vs. electric charge for different particle shape
at earth and moon gravity
Discussion
In order to decrease the simulation time and have consistency between the results in was
decided to import the position of the grains from an External Factory. That would
dramatically reduce the simulation time specially when the particles were assigned with
electrical charge. The problem that one would face in EDEM it is not possible to import
charged particles. To overcome this problem first the position of whole particles in the stack
were imported without charge except a few particles which were created by a built-in factory
containing the charge of whole stack. The Hertz-Mindlin contact model was modified to
transfer the electrical charge from charged particle to their neighbors which is in contact with.
In This way after a few run times, the whole stack gets charged uniformly and then the
cylinder starts moving up.

To better model the situation on the moon it is recommended to bring in the tribocharging
feature during the simulation. In this way the particles charge will vary when they contact
each other and also the inner surface of the tube. And of course the charge distribution
wouldnt be uniform as it was in this study.

Acknowledgement
The authors would like to thank Neptec and CSA as well as NSERC CRD program for the
financial support of this project and also DEM Solutions. Ltd., Edinburgh, Scotland, UK, for
their help and their advices

References
[1] DEM Solutions, Ltd. (2010), EDEM 2.3 User Guide, Copyright 2010, Edinburgh,
Scotland, UK
[2] S. Ji and H. Shen. Two-dimensional simulation of the angle of repose for a particle
system with electrostatic charge under lunar and earth gravity. Journal of Aerospace
Engineering, 22:10_14, 2009.

[3] R.D. Mindlin. Compliance of elastic bodies in contact. Journal of Applied Mechanics,
16:259_268, 1949.
[4] T. Tanaka Y. Tsuji and T. Ishida. Lagrangian numerical simulation of plug flow of
cohesionless particles in a horizontal pipe. Powder Technology, 71:239-250, 1992.

Session 2: Mining & Mineral Processing

EDEM Material Model Calibration Delivering Value for


Transfer Tower Simulation
Carl Stensby
Anglo American
Michael Thorenson, ESTEQ Engineering
David Curry, DEM Solutions
Carl Stensby
Material Handling Engineer, Anglo Technical Services
Johannesburg, South Africa
Anglo American is one of the worlds largest mining companies, operating in Africa,
Europe, South and North America, Australia and Asia. We mine high-quality assets
such as platinum group metals and diamonds, and other natural resources, including
copper, iron ore, metallurgical coal, nickel and thermal coal.

David Curry
Senior Consulting Engineer
Edinburgh, Scotland
DEM Solutions provides the world-leading DEM simulation technology and the
simulation know-how to address the needs of companies who handle and process
bulk materials ranging from coal, ores, and soil to pellets, tablets and powders.

Michael Thorenson
ESTEQ Engineering is dedicated to helping companies develop products more
efficiently by enabling innovation through simulation and testing technology. This is
made possible through two separate and yet highly integrated disciplines, i.e.
Simulation and Testing.

Getting Started with Discrete Element Modelling


for Bulk Solids Transfer
ED Birch
DRA Mineral Projects

ED Birch
Manager, Bulk Materials Handling Department
Johannesburg, South Africa

In the Bulk Materials Handling Department Birch, who heads the


department, is involved in the design of bulk materials handling plants for coal
and hard rock applications, specialising in the design of conveyors and bulk
solids flow and storage facilities. He is also responsible for management of
the department and development of engineers in the materials handling field
through mentoring and lecturing in the design of conveyors and bulk materials
handling systems.
The DRA Group is a multi-disciplinary, multi-national organization that
specializes in project management in mining, infrastructure and mineral
process plant design and construction. At DRA Mineral Projects oour
business is mining, infrastructure, mineral processing projects and contact
operations. As a total solutions provider, we have the resources to engineer
mining projects to exact client requirements, delivered on time and within
budget anywhere in the world.

EDEM-Based Design Investigations


of Bulk Materials Handling Equipment
Brian Moore
Hatch

Brian Moore
Senior Consultant. Materials Handling
Wollongong, NSW, Australia

Moore has more than 30 years experience in bulk materials handling. His expertise
includes system design and life extension of materials handling systems for heavy
industry; mass flow bin design and stockpile reclaim systems and belt conveyor and
transfer chute design.

Hatch is a multi-discipline company that provides consulting, design engineering,


technology, environmental services, operational services and project and
construction management to the mining, metallurgy, energy and infrastructure
sectors from 65 offices around the world. Hatch has more than 8,000 personnel
worldwide engaged in delivering innovative engineering, carefully defined
procurement strategies, comprehensive safety programs, advanced and reliable cost
controls and astute management of construction, commissioning and start-up.

Plow System in Underground Mining


A Benchmark Approach
Martin Geissler and Tatjana Aust
Bucyrus
Dave Curry, DEM Solutions

Martin Geissler
Design Engineer, Engineering Plow Systems, Longwall Product Group
Grimsby, United Kingdom
Engineering Plow Systems from Bucyrus, with features offered only by Bucyrus,
the inventor of the plow, our plow systems offer our customers future-oriented
solutions for international hard-coal mining.
Bucyrus is the world leader in the design and manufacture of high productivity
mining equipment for surface & underground mining and the global market leader
and supplier of complete longwall systems. Our equipment and systems are meeting
the demands of underground mining under the most stringent conditions around the
globe. Adapted to the mining challenges faced by our customers today, Bucyrus
customized systems range from hydraulic roof supports, automated plow systems,
shearers, face conveyors and drives to automation and roof support carriers.

David Curry
Senior Consulting Engineer
Edinburgh, Scotland
DEM Solutions provides the world-leading DEM simulation technology and the
simulation know-how to address the needs of companies who handle and process
bulk materials ranging from coal, ores, and soil to pellets, tablets and powders.

Discrete Element Modelling for the Simulation of


Particle Distribution to a Sensor-Based Sorter
Dr. Robert Fitzpatrick, Richard D. Pascoe, Hylke J. Glass
Camborne School of Mines, University of Exeter

Robert Fitzpatrick
Experimental Officer for Mineral Processing
Cornwall, United Kingdom
As Experimental Officer for Mineral Processing, Fitzpatrick is responsible for
independent research into the field of Minerals Processing, teaching students and
undertaking contract research for external bodies. Current research areas include
investigations into the relationship between throughput and separation efficiency for
Sensor-Based Sorters, investigations into the use of unsupervised clustering and
related techniques as alternate methods of training and monitoring sensor-based
sorters to improve their flexibility and adaptability to minerals applications, and
Investigations into a multi-sensor approach to sensor based sorting, combining
optical, inductive and near infrared (NIR) sensor data to improve separation
efficiency.
Camborne School of Mines (CSM) at the University of Exeter is one of the
worlds most famous mining schools. Founded in 1888, CSM now has a unique
combination of scientific and engineering expertise in renewable energy, geology,
mining and minerals processing and applies this to world-leading research and
teaching. The research undertaken in the Minerals Processing Department is an
important aspect of this work.

Discrete Element Modelling for the Simulation of Particle Distribution to a


Sensor-Based Sorter
Robert S. Fitzpatrick, Camborne School of Mines, Uni. Of Exeter, Penryn, UK
Richard D. Pascoe, Camborne School of Mines, Uni. Of Exeter, Penryn, UK
Hylke J. Glass, Camborne School of Mines, Uni. Of Exeter, Penryn, UK

Introduction
The hand sorting of objects into groups of similar properties may be considered as one of
the earliest forms of technology. Sensor-based sorting is a technique which seeks to
replicate or improve on the hand sorting process by replacing the human eye and hand with
machine vision and automated ejectors. Specifically, sensor based sorting is an automated
separation technique which exploits measurable differences in the physical properties of
particles, either natural or induced, to produce a distinct response to an applied force
(1Manouchehri, 2003; 2Walsh, 1989). A schematic of a typical sensor-based sorter is shown
in figure 1.

Figure 1: Schematic of CommoDas sensor-based sorter

The sorter can be considered as four interlinked unit operations, shown diagrammatically in
figure 2.

Data Analysis

Input Feed

Feed
Preparation

Particle
Examination

Ejection System

Output Streams

Figure 2: Unit operations for a sensor-based sorter

The first operation is the preparation of the feed material which can consist of several stages
including, sizing, washing and/or wetting followed by feed rate control, particle alignment,
acceleration and stabilisation (1Manouchehri, 2003). This stage is essential to maximise the
likelihood of collecting sensor data which is representative of the true physical properties of
particles and to ensure that particles are examined singularly. The next operation is the
actual collection of data on individual particles. This is undertaken using one or more
sensors operated in series or parallel. The third operation is that of data analysis, where the
sensor data is utilised by a CPU to classify particles according to pre-determined rules and
thresholds. In the last operation the particles are physically separated into two or more
output streams based on the classification decision. A number of methods have been
employed to this end including air and water jets and mechanical paddles.

The focus of this paper is on the use of sensor-based sorting in the mining and minerals
industry. The primary aim of a mining operation is to completely separate valuable, sellable
minerals from waste rock as cheaply as possible. As such a sensor-based sorting process is
evaluated based on the degree to which it can separate mineral types, i.e. separation
efficiency, and its cost.

For sensor-based sorting the separation efficiency is a function of a machines ability to:
generate sensor data which is representative of physical properties; correctly classify
particles based on this sensor data and then to accurately and reliably actualise the
separation of particles. The cost of sorting is minimised by operating at a high throughput.
Unfortunately, each of the factors which determine separation efficiency is adversely
affected by an increase in throughput due to the increased probability of particles being
examined in close proximity (see figure 3).

Low Throughput

Particle Flow
Direction

High Throughput
Decreasing
Average

Particle
Proximity

Figure 3: Relationship between throughput and particle proximity

The decrease in separation efficiency is a result of the increased likelihood of co-deflection


for particles in close proximity during physical separation and the possibility of the
agglomeration of particles and/or the masking of physical characteristics. As a mining
company must have a thorough knowledge of the costs and separation efficiency of a sorter
it must be aware of the relationship between throughput and particle proximity. At present, to
achieve this test work must be physically undertaken to determine the relationship. This is
both time consuming and expensive due to the large mass of material required. For this
reason, it is desirable to be able to predict the relationship for a given sorting process.

Approach
To move towards a solution to this problem, it was decided to investigate the use of discrete
element modelling (DEM) to predict the relationship between throughput and separation
efficiency of a sensor-based sorter by replicating physical experimentation undertaken on a
CommoDas optical sorter and comparing the results. The aim was to compare the proximity
of particles at the end of the feed conveyor for both the simulation and actual tests. These
proximities can be directly related to the expected efficiency of the machine. To test the
models, they would then be used to predict the particle proximities and therefore efficiencies
at other throughputs. These would again be compared to actual test data.

To undertake the modelling, Autodesk AutoCAD 2008 was used to create a representation
of the feed mechanism for the optical sorter which was then imported into the EDEM 2.3
particle simulation software, provided by DEM Solutions. Ltd., Edinburgh, Scotland, UK.
Figure 4 on the next page contains an image of the CommoDas optical sorter and of the
CAD representation. It includes:

The feed hopper and vibrating feeder used to control the throughput to the sorter
The chute used to stabilise and disperse the particles
The conveyor used to accelerate and separate the particles

For the DEM simulations, particles were placed in the feed hopper and by the careful
manipulation of sinusoidal translation the throughputs were calibrated to match those used
during physical testing by matching the rate of particles arriving at the end of the conveyor.

The behaviour of particles at these set throughputs was then investigated and their velocity
and positioning tracked. This information was utilised to determine the particle proximity
using a methodology developed by the research team.

Feed Hopper

Conveyor

Chute

Figure 4: Simulation of CommoDas sorter feed mechanism

Particles were created to simulate three size and two shape fractions used during physical
testing. The material models for these and the feed mechanism were calibrated by
comparing the behaviour of the particles with video footage taken of the physical testing,
focussing on the change in the distribution of particles along the width of the conveyor over
time.

Results
The results of the physical separation of particles using the CommoDas optical sorter are
currently incomplete so comparisons with the simulations have not, as yet, been undertaken.
However, initial test work suggests that the DEM simulations provide an accurate
representation of the feed mechanism. For example, table 1 summarises the distribution of
particles along the width of the feed conveyor for both simulated and actual tests.

Table 1: Comparison of horizontal distribution of particles


Belt Position
Frequency
mm
%
Actual Simulated
+0-68.75mm
0-12.5
2%
2%
+68.75-137.5mm 12.5-25
5%
4%
+137.5-206.2mm 25-37.5 12%
11%
+206.2-275mm 37.5-50 25%
21%
+275-343.7mm 50-62.5 27%
27%
+343.7-412.5mm 62.5-75 18%
18%
+412.5-481.2mm 75-87.5
8%
10%
+481.2-550mm 87.5-100 4%
7%

The data shows a good correlation between the simulated and actual horizontal distribution
of particles on the feed conveyor. This suggests that the simulations are an accurate
representation of the physical properties and interactions of the feed mechanism and
particles.
Using particle data obtained from the DEM simulations it was possible to create a distribution
of particle proximity. When physical testing is complete this will be compared with data
collected from the optical sensor. An example proximity distribution is shown in figure 5.

Cumulative Distribution of Gaps between Particles for Flaky +1520mm Particles


100.0%

Cumulative Frequency

80.0%

60.0%

40.0%

20.0%

0.0%

10

100

1000

10000

Distance to Nearest Particle (mm)

Figure 5: Particle proximity distribution for DEM simulation

Discussion
The ability to quickly and accurately predict the relationship between throughput and
separation efficiency would drastically reduce the costs involved in implementing a sensorbased sorter within the mining and minerals industry. The experimentation undertaken is a
step towards this goal; by using DEM to simulate the feed mechanism of a sorter, the affect

of throughput on separation efficiency can be estimated as well as a number of variables


including: particle size and sorter dimensions.
The present work uses particle proximity to estimate sorter efficiency. On completion of this
work, the next stage in research will be to improve on this work by examining in detail the
affect of throughput on the physical ejection of particles. It is hoped that the use EDEM CFD
Coupling for FLUENT can be used to simulate the sir ejection manifold used by the
CommoDas sorter.

References
1. Manouchehri, H.R., 2003. Sorting in Mining, Mineral Processing and Waste Utilization:
(History, Innovations, Applications, Possibilities, Limitations, and Future) Swedish Mineral
Processing Research Organisation, Stockholm.
2. Walsh, D.E., 1989. What Sort of Ore Sorter?, Alaska Science Forum. Geophysical
Institute, Fairbanks, Alaska.

DEM-PBM Coupling to Predict Breakage in


Comminution Processes
Rodrigo Magalhes de Carvalho; Lus Marcelo Tavares,
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro

Rodrigo M. de Carvalho
Research Assistant, Laboratory of Mineral Processing, Department of
Metallurgical and Materials Engineering
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
The Laboratory of Mineral Processing is well reputed worldwide for its research in
comminution, ranging from the understanding of fundamentals of breakage to the
development and application of modeling and simulation tools to improving industrial
applications involving size reduction.
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) is the second largest university in
Brazil, and houses the graduate school of engineering (COPPE). Part of COPPE, the
Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering is recognized in Brazil as one
of the leaders in research and development in the various fields from mineral
processing to materials science.

DEM-PBM Coupling to predict breakage in comminution processes

Rodrigo Magalhes de Carvalho; Lus Marcelo Tavares


Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Universidade Federal do Rio de
Janeiro

Introduction
The discrete element method (DEM) has been used actively for the last 20 years or so to
describe what happens inside grinding mills [1] and, more recently, crushers [2]. Whereas
this technique found almost immediate application in aiding the operator in identifying and
preventing the mill speed and filling that would lead to ultraprojection of grinding media in
semi-autogenous or ball mills for a given mill liner configuration, the application of the
technique as a quantitative tool to predict media and liner wear and size reduction has not
yet reached the maturity required for industrial application [3].

One of the limitations identified in the past has been overcome by the rapid evolution of
computational power, making it possible to simulate, in 3D, the motion of particles both
grinding media and balls inside industrial-scale grinding mills and crushers. In the case of
predicting size reduction in comminution machines, the greater challenge remains in
coupling the information that DEM provides, regarding the mechanical environment and on
the flow of solids through the vessel, to material breakage properties that lead to the main
outcome of a comminution process, which is the size distribution of the product. In order to
tackle this problem, three different approaches can be used, which are described as follows.

In the first case, DEM simulates not only the mechanical environment, but also the entire
breakage processes. Particles are built from an aggregate of smaller particles united by a
cohesion force, and breakage occurs when the aggregate receives enough energy to break
the cohesion force among these smaller particles [4,5]. In this case, the outcome from each
breakage event, that is, the breakage of an aggregate, has to be simulated before simulation
starts, which makes it extremely computationally intensive. The second type of models is the
one in which, although particles are also present in the DEM simulations, the outcome from
each breakage event is not calculated by the method, being rather provided by an empirical
model calibrated using particle breakage tests. After each breakage event the broken
particle is replaced by an aggregate of smaller particles, the breakage product. This
approach, called fast breakage model has been applied successfully to prediction of cone
crushing [2]. Although more computationally efficient than the first approach, both groups of
models are very demanding of computer power, since new particles are almost continuously
being created in the system.

The third approach, which is the one proposed by the authors, is to use DEM solely to
simulate motion of media and to track the collisions among particles, leaving the population
balance model the task of coupling the collision energy information to the models describing

particle response to each stressing event in order to calculate the overall breakage product.
This approach is particularly well suited to media mills, such as ball, stirred and semiautogenous mills. By using this approach the computational power required to run DEM
simulation is significantly smaller than the one required by the first two types of models. This
is illustrated in Figure 1, which demonstrates that the differences in computing power
required by the different approaches become particularly significant when mills of large
diameters are simulated.

Figure 1: Comparison of computational power required in different approaches in


comminution simulation in tumbling mills

Approach
The model initially relies on detailed ore breakage properties which can be obtained by a
number of laboratory tests, describing the ore response to the different breakage
mechanisms (body and surface breakage), the breakage probability and the response to
unsuccessfully breakage events (particle damage) [6].

Once the material (ore) breakage properties are all characterized the mechanistic model
developed by the Authors can be used to simulate many different comminution processes, if
appropriate description of how the energy is transferred to particles are given. This
information can be obtained using DEM simulations.

Figure 2 shows the model framework, having on the left side what model inputs are
necessary to get predictions. As such, PBM requires information related to ore properties,
including breakage properties and feed size distribution. DEM simulations require contact
parameters from ore and the equipment and also equipment design and operational
parameters. Then DEM gives PBM information of the impact energy distribution. The PBM

calculations, which are the core of this model approach, then give predictions of product
particle size distribution, fracture energies (particle strength) and flowrates. This approach
can also be coupled with CFD simulations in order to get information of transport rates and
they can also affect DEM and PBM calculations.

One particular comminution machine of interest is the ball mill. In this device, the mechanical
environment is dominated by the grinding media (typically steel balls), so that nearly all
breakage results from collisions between balls. Particle breakage occurs when ball hits a
particle bed sat upon another steel ball. If particles within this bed have fracture energy
bellow the energy given by ball collision, it may fracture. For this device, no ore particles are
modeled inside DEM and the ore phase is considered as a continuous phase. This requires
an appropriate characterization of DEM contact parameters as the impact between two steel
balls is assumed to involve a virtual bed composed of ore particles. As particle size
distribution has almost no effect on impact energy spectrum given by DEM simulations it is
called one-way coupling, as is also illustrated in Figure 2 where arrows represents the
information flow between model blocks. Details of the model applied to batch ball mills may
be found elsewhere [7].

In contrast to that, two-way coupling must be used whenever particles contained in the ore
also act as grinding media. This is the case of the semi-autogenous mill, in which coarser
ore particles also act as grinding media. These particles have to be considered in order to
get appropriated description of the impact energy spectrum. However, since they change
their size during the process, DEM simulations have to be updated for every significantly
changes in the mill hold-up in an iterative process with PBM simulations. This is called twoway coupling and is illustrated in Figure 2 by the dashed arrows.

Model Inputs

Model Outputs

CFD

Particles
(ore)

Particle Size
Distribution

Material flow

Breakage
properties
Size
distribution
Contact
parameters

PBM

Operational

Fracture
energies
Flow rates

Particle Size
Distribution

Impact energy
distribution

Equipment
Design

Particle Size
Distribution

DEM

Figure 2: Model framework showing the coupling between PBM and DEM and also CFD

Results
In order to validate the model, batch grinding experiments were carried out using a
laboratory ball mill (30x30cm), rotating at 54 rpm. The mill is loaded with 467 steel balls of 25
mm diameter. A certain amount of ore particles were fed to the mill in order to get 100% of
voids between balls filled. DEM simulations of the ball load movement were made using
EDEM 2.2 particle simulation software provided by DEM Solutions. Ltd., Edinburgh,
Scotland, UK. The mill is shown on Figure 3 as well as its DEM simulation snapshot.

Figure 3: Real lab ball mill (left) and a snapshot of it running on EDEM (right).

Experimental particle size distributions after each grinding time were compared to that
predicted by the mechanistic model, Figure 4 shows the results for two different ores at
different initial conditions in terms of particle size distribution. An estimate of the time
required in the DEM simulations is about 15 minutes, whereas solution of the PBM equations
for the longer grinding times required between 2 and 4 hours of computation using a Xeon
Quadcore X3370 processor.

100

Copper Ore -1.68 mm

Cumulative passing (%)

Cumulative passing (%)

100

10

0.1
0.01

Initial
1 min.
4 min.
8 min.
15 min.
0.1

Particle size (mm)

Granulite -4.75 mm

10

Initial
1 min.
5 min.
10 min.
12 min.
1
0.01

10

(b)

0.1

Particle size (mm)

10

Figure 4: Experimental (dots) versus simulated (lines) batch grinding results for copper ore
(left) and granulite (right)

Discussion
The simulation results showed very good agreement to the experimental data, which
indicates that the approach proposed is a very powerful tool to predict grinding results. The
PBM calculations can benefit from DEM simulations that can predict how the energy is
transferred to ore particles as a function of design and operational equipment parameters,
without demanding high computational effort as is the case of other approaches that use
DEM.

References
1.
Mishra, B.K. and Rajamani, R.K. (1990), Motion analysis in tumbling mills, KONA
Powder and Particle, No. 8, pp. 92-98.
2.
Lichter, J., Lim K., Potapov, A., Kaja, D (2009), New developments in cone crusher
performance optimization, Minerals Engineering, Vol. 22, pp. 613-617.
3.
Powell, M.S. and Morrison, R.D. (2007), The future of comminution modelling,
International Journal of Mineral Processing, October, Vol. 84, , pp. 228-239.
4.
Herbst, J.A. and Potapov, A.V. (2004), Making a discrete grain breakage model
practical for comminution equipment performance simulation, Powder Technology, Vol. 143144, pp. 144-150.
5.
Herbst, J.A (2004), A microscale look at tumbling mill scale-up using high fidelity
simulation, International Journal of Mineral Processing, December, Vol. 74, pp. S299-S306.
6.
Tavares, L. M. (2007), Breakage of single particles: quasi-static, in Handbook of
Powder Technology, Vol. 12, pp. 3-68.
7.
Tavares, L. M. and Carvalho, R.M. (2009), Modeling breakage rates of coarse
particles in ball mills, Minerals Engineering, Vol. 22, pp. 650-659.

Acknowledgements

The authors thank AMIRA, Vale, CNPq and CAPES for sponsoring the investigation. The
authors would also like to thank DEM Solutions for providing the EDEM software through its
academic program.

Calibration of Angle of Repose of Glass Beads


Stef Lommen, Mahbubur Rahma, Dingena L. Schott,
Gabril Lodewijks
Delft University of Technology

Dingena L. Schott
Assistant Professor, Section of Transport Engineering and Logistics,
Delft, The Netherlands
Within the Section of Transport Engineering and Logistics Schott focuses on the
field of Dry Bulk Transport and Storage, including the logistics and environmental
impact involved. Her teams current DEM work is on equipment design and
calibration and validation with the use of EDEM.
The Delft University of Technology Department of Marine and Transport
Technology focuses on the development, design, building, and operation of marine,
dredging and transport systems and their equipment. This requires the further
development of the knowledge of the dynamics and the physical processes involved
in transport, dredging and marine systems, the logistics of the systems and the
interaction between the equipment and control systems.

Calibration of Angle of Repose of Glass Beads

Stef Lommen, Mahbubur Rahman, Dingena L. Schott, Gabril Lodewijks

Delft University of Technology, Department of Marine and Transport Technology,


Section of Transport Engineering and Logistics, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft, The
Netherlands

Abstract
This research investigates the possibilities of acquiring reliable parameters through
validation by means of experiments. In addition the focus is on validation and calibration of
simulations. Glass beads were used as test material. The advantage of glass beads is that a
spherical particle model is close to the real shape.

First, analyzing the sensitivity of the parameters used was done. Parameters analyzed are
the shear modulus, coefficient of restitution, static and rolling friction coefficients, Poissons
ratio and the particle density. Numerous simulations have been performed using different
combinations of parameters to study the influence of each parameter. Based on this
sensitivity analysis three sets of parameters are selected and used in validation simulations
using particles of different size.

Physical experiments using glass beads are used to verify the results of the validation
simulations. The angle of repose of glass beads is the bulk behavior characteristic measured
in the experiments and simulations of this study.

Discrete Element Modeling of Fracture Toughness


of Rocks Using Semi-circular Bending Method
Houshin Nejati and Faramarz Hassani
Department of Mining and Materials Engineering
Nima Gharib and Peter Radziszewski
Department of Mechanical Engineering
McGill University

Nima Gharib
PhD Candidate, Neptec Rover Team (NRT),
Delft, The Netherlands
The Neptec Rover Team (NRT), which includes some of the industrys leading
technology experts, was brought together to investigate, conceptually design, and
test lunar mobility systems for the Canadian Space Agency. This highly experienced
team has been working together to develop technology for the new Lunar Exploration
Light Rover (LELR). The McGill University team focuses on the definition,
development and validation of a compliant wheel; on the effect of operating one or
more of the recommended mobility systems while in the presence of the fine,
abrasive dust on the lunar surface; and on the identification of strategies to mitigate
dust infiltration and component wear.
The Department of Mechanical Engineering at McGill University has a long
history of excellence in research and teaching. For more than a century, we have
been committed to train the next generation of innovators, industrial leaders and
academics.

Discrete Element Modeling of Fracture toughness of Rocks Using


Semi-circular Bending Method

Houshin Nejati (PhD candidate) 1, Nima Gharib (PhD candidate)2, Peter Radziszewski
(Associate Professor)2, Faramarz Hassani (Full professor) 1
1 Department of Mining and Materials Engineering, McGill University, 3450 University,
Montreal, QC, Canada H3A 2A7,
2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, McGill University, 3480 University St., Montreal,
Quebec, Canada, H3A 2A7
Introduction
Considering the relation between rigid bodies, Cundall and Strack (1979) proposed the
Discrete Element Method (DEM), for modeling of geomaterials such as rocks and soils,
whose micromechanical behaviour are discontinuous. In this model, soils and rocks are
represented as spherical either rigid or deformable particles. Each particle is modeled by its
trajectory along the system due to the contact forces and external forces acting on each
particle, such as gravity.
DEM models provides better insight of engineering problems in these fields; for instance, the
effect of micro-structural rock characteristic such as existing micro-cracks on the overall
physical behaviour of rock sample (Fu, 2005). Moreover, some emergent properties of
macroscopic system automatically come from discrete model such as transition from brittle
to ductile behaviour, and nonlinear mechanism in deformation (Cundall, 2005). Fracture
toughness is one of the material properties, which defines the resistance of rocks to
deformation and crack propagation when rocks already fractured, hence; fracture toughness
is one of the essential parameters for designing mining structures and tunnelling in cracked
bodies. Moreover, there is an approximate linear relationship between fracture toughness
and other physical properties of rock such as hardness index, Uniaxial Compressive
Strength, and Youngs modulus in many rocks (Whittaker et al, 1992) and (Nasseri, 2005). In
addition, previous studies show the significant relationship between rock micro-structural
characteristics on fracture toughness, initiation and propagation cracks in rocks. (Nasseri et
al, 2005).
Three basic crack propagation modes in fracture process can be seen: Mode I (tension,
opening), mode II (shear, sliding), and mode III (tearing). As shown in Figure 1, a SemiCircular Bending (SCB) specimen is a semi-disc of radius R, placed on two roller support
with 2S span. A prefabricated crack with length a, which makes 90 degree angle with
respect to horizontal, is created in centre of the disc. Herein, EDEM (a DEM based software
developed by DEM Solutions. Ltd.) was employed to model the mode I fracture toughness,
crack propagation and the Crack Tip Opening Displacement (CTOD) of the (SCB) basalt
specimen.
In order to evaluate the accuracy and validity of DEM simulations, its results compared with
expected results from fracture mechanics and continuum modeling using ANSYS. For FEM
based model following assumptions are made: 1-Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics: LEFM
uses derived elasticity solutions to determine the stress intensity factor KI at a crack tip. 2-

Plane Strain Problem 3- Cracked tip region is meshed using eight- node quadrilateral
element (Barsoum, 1977), also KCALC command is used to calculate KI.

Figure 1: Semi-Circular Bending (SCB) fracture toughness Specimen


Approach
Discrete Element Method is used to simulate a pre-cracked SCB Basalt specimen under a
compression dynamic load in order to study the fracture toughness, fracture propagation and
CTOD. Simulation has been repeated for S/R equal to 0.4, and 0.5. The material property
and main parameters for DEM modeling are given in Table 1. Bonds between the particles
break when the interaction force between particles exceeds the tensile and compression
strength. Broken bonds are representing micro-cracks. The location of the crack is assumed
to be the contact point between two discrete elements, and the crack orientation is assumed
to be perpendicular to the line joining the particle centers (Hazzard and Young, 2004). And
macro-cracks will occur when some cracks join together. The fracture toughness mode I for
cubically packed can be calculated using following formula (Doneze et al, 2009):

K Ic s t R

s t f Rt

Where t is the tensile strength of the model, R is particle radius and n is tensile strength of
contact-bond. The initial tensile bonds for this simulation determined by using the calculated
value of Kic from ANSYS and the value of Basalt tensile strength measured in Brazilian
Tensile test from above relationships.
Table 1. Material properties and DEM parameters

SCB Radius

25 mm

Modulus of elasticity

41930 MPa

Poissons ratio

0.16

Density

3000 kg/m3

Maximum Compressive Strength (USC


result)

243.60 MPa

Crack angle with respect to vertical


direction

0 degree

Crack width

0.5 mm

Crack length

15 mm

a/R

0.6

Particle size

0.5 mm

Number of particles

14325

Results
CTOD of EDEM simulations are very similar to the one obtained ANSYS as shown in Figure
2. Approximately a 6.1 % is differential with ANSYS outcome.
In Figure3, the comparison of CTOD for the S/R 0.5 and 0.7 are presented. One of the
advantages of DEM simulations over FEM simulation is that crack propagation (broken
bonds) automatically comes from discrete model as shown Figure 3. It is worth to mention
that the micro-cracks creating by this model match with samples that are broken with tension
experimental tests.
Figure 4 demonstrates the stress intensity distribution of basalt sample with S/R equal to 0.5
modeled in ANSYS which can imply crack propagation and eventually breakage from the tip
of the crack. Ongoing fracture toughness experiments at McGgill University will bring light to
this discrepancy.

Discussion
At first, inbuilt factory was used to generate particles and afterward a plate was defined to
compress the particles, the process was extremely lengthy and the generated bonds
between particles were very poor so that it leads to breaking many bonds even before
applying the compressive load. In order to reduce the pre-processing time, using MATLAB,
the coordinates of the particle centres was generated then imported to EDEM by an external
factory
Authors believe that the using the DEM features such as possibility to simulate roughness of
rock simply with modifying the particle size as well as possibility to model different minerals
with different physical properties will lead to more advance model to study the crack growth
trajectories.

Figure 2. Comparison of the Crack Tip Opening Displacement of DEM and FEM modeling of
Mode I fracture toughness

Fig. 3: First broken bonds S/R values of 0.7, and 0.5

Fig. 4 ANSYS Stress Intensity distribution for S/R 0.5


Acknowledgement
The authors would like to thank DEM Solutions. Ltd., Edinburgh, Scotland, UK, for their help
and their advices

References
CUNDALL, PA., 2002 .Discontinuous future for numerical modeling in soil and rock. In
proceeding of third International Conference on Discrete Element Method- Geotechnical
Special publication, No. 117.
CUNDALL PA, and Strack ODL., 1979 .A discrete numerical model for granular assemblies,
Geotechnique, 29, pp. 47-65.

CUNDALL PA., 2005 .Discontinuous Future for Numerical Modeling in Soil and Rock. In
proceeding of third International Conference on Discrete Element Method- Geotechnical
Special publication, No. 117.
AYATOLLAHI, M.R., ALIHA, MRM., and HASSANI, MM., 2006 .Mixed mode brittle fracture
in PMMAan experimental study using SCB specimens. Materials Science and Engineering
A 417, pp.348356.
BARSOUM, R., 1977 .Triangular quarter-point elements as elastic and perfectly-plastic crack
tip element. International Journal for Numerical Engineering. Vol. 11, pp.85-98.
DONEZE, F., RICHEFEU. V., and MAGNIER, SA, 2009.Advances in Discrete Element
Method applied to soil, rock and concrete Mechanics. in: State of the art of geotechnical
engineering, Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, p. 44,
EDEM 2.1.1, 2009 .User Guide. DEM Solutions.
HAZZARD, JF. and YOUNG, RP., 2004Dynamic modeling of induced seismicity,
International
NASSERI, MHB, MOHANTYA, B., and Robin, PY F, 2005 .Characterization of
microstructures and fracture toughness in five granitic rocks, International Journal of Rock
Mechanics & Mining Sciences 42 , PP. 450460.
NASSERI, MHB., SCHUBNEL, A., YOUNG, RP., 2007.Coupled evolutions of fracture
toughness and elastic wave velocities at high crack density in thermally treated Westerly
granite. International Journal of Rock Mechanics & Mining Sciences 44, 601616.
SINGH,RN, and GEXIN, S.1990 .A numerical and experimental investigation for determining
fracture toughness of Welsh limestone. Mining science and technology, 10, 61-70.
WANG, Y., and MORA, P., 2008 .Modeling wing crack extension: implications for the
ingredients of Discrete Element Model. Pure appl. geophys. 165, 609620
WHITTAKER BN, SINGH RN., and SUN G., 1992. Rock fracture mechanics principal,
design and applications. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Virtual Soil Calibration for Wheel-Soil Interaction


Simulations Using the Discrete Element Method
Robin Briend, Peter Radziszewski, Damiano Pasini
McGill University

Nima Gharib
PhD Candidate, Neptec Rover Team (NRT),
Delft, The Netherlands
The Neptec Rover Team (NRT), which includes some of the industrys leading
technology experts, was brought together to investigate, conceptually design, and
test lunar mobility systems for the Canadian Space Agency. This highly experienced
team has been working together to develop technology for the new Lunar Exploration
Light Rover (LELR). The McGill University team focuses on the definition,
development and validation of a compliant wheel; on the effect of operating one or
more of the recommended mobility systems while in the presence of the fine,
abrasive dust on the lunar surface; and on the identification of strategies to mitigate
dust infiltration and component wear.
The Department of Mechanical Engineering at McGill University has a long
history of excellence in research and teaching. For more than a century, we have
been committed to train the next generation of innovators, industrial leaders and
academics.

VIRTUAL SOIL CALIBRATION FOR WHEEL-SOIL INTERACTION SIMULATIONS


USING THE DISCRETE ELEMENT METHOD

Robin Briend (Graduate MSc Student),, ), Peter Radziszewski (Associate Professor),


Damiano Pasini (Associate Professor)

Department of Mechanical Engineering, McGill University, 3480 University St.,


Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3A 2A7

Introduction
Lunar mobility studies require a precise knowledge of the geotechnical properties of the
lunar soil when it comes to design adapted and efficient traction systems. Since the Apollo
missions, the remarkable progress of computers allows direct testing of new design
prototypes performances through soil-structure interaction simulations based on the discrete
element method (DEM).
Before simulating traction system displacements on the soil, the virtual soil parameters need
to be calibrated. This study presents a systematic method for the calibration of a granular
soil through four steps: (1) measure of some of the real material properties through a few
experiments, (2) determination of the design variables defining the virtual soil, (3)
construction of surrogate models for the virtual material properties as a function of the
design variables via simulated experiments, and (4) optimization of the design variables
values to fit the virtual soil properties to the real ones.
Two different experiments, the direct shear test and the angle of repose measure, are used
to determine the following material properties: cohesion, internal angle of friction, and angle
of repose. Optimum DEM parameters are computed to characterize two types of soil: silica
sand, based on experimental direct shear test and angle of
repose measures, and lunar regolith, based on data from the
literature.

Approach
To characterize the real soil that needed to be modeled, it was
decided to choose experiments that would give soil properties
relevant to our study the displacement of a traction system on
a deformable soil while being simple to model with our DEM
software to build the virtual soils response surface.
The direct shear test meets these criteria as its experimental setup consists of only three
parts and as it allows both determination of the soils cohesion c and the internal angle of
friction , which are crucial in terramechanics. Indeed, the Mohr-Coulomb law shows that the
maximum shear stress max of a soil depends on c and :

max c p tan

(1)
Figure 4. The direct shear test

with p being the pressure in the soil [1]. The maximum shear
experimental setup (image
stress is important as it determines the maximum thrust of a
from
British
Standards
wheel or a track on the soil. The setup of the direct shear test is Institution BS 1377-1:1990).
made of a three-part box filled with the studied granular material (cf. Fig. 1). A constant load
is applied on the top part so that the soil specimen is subjected to a constant pressure p.
The bottom frame of the box remains stationary while an increasing longitudinal force F
applied on the upper frame makes it glide on the bottom one. The longitudinal force F and
the displacement of the upper frame relatively to the bottom one are recorded. As the
contact between the two frames is frictionless, F equals to the shear stress over the box
cross-section area S: F = S. F ultimately reaches a threshold, which corresponds to the
shear failure of the soil on the plane between the two frames: max = Fmax/S. This
experiment is run under various pressures p by applying different normal loads on the top
part of the box, and the linear regression of the maximum shear stresses max plotted with
respect to p gives the soil cohesion c and internal angle of friction according to the MohrCoulomb law (Eq. 1).

The second experiment used for our calibration study is the angle of repose experiment. The
low cohesion and the high deformability of granular soils induce an important phenomenon
on the wheel-soil interaction. Indeed, as a wheel rolling on a granular soil tends to sink, the
resistance to motion of the soil on the wheel depends on how the soil will be moved by the
front of the wheel and recover the side faces. This avalanching process occurring in a
sloping soil can be illustrated by the angle of repose experiment. The angle of repose A of a
granular material is one of its most distinct properties: it imposes the shape of a heap of
gravel or a sand dune, for instance. However, it is not an intrinsic property of the material
and can depend on the experimental conditions. Different experimental setups can be used
to measure it, the most common being the slow lifting of a vertical straw filled with material
and initially laying on a plate, or the lifting of one side of a filled box. In our case, we chose
the straw setup, as it was used by S. Ji and H. Shen in their 2D DEM angle of repose
simulations [2]. We extended their study to 3D simulations to build the surrogate model of
the virtual soil's angle of repose.

To conclude, the three material properties used in this virtual soil calibration process are:
cohesion and internal angle of friction (determined with the direct shear test), and angle of
repose. Table 1 gives the values of these properties for a silica Barco sand (measured by N.
Kaveh-Moghaddam) and lunar regolith (from literature [3]).

Table 1. Lunar regolith and silica Barco sand


properties: cohesion, internal angle of friction
and angle of repose.
Lunar regolith

Silica Barco sand

0.1 to 1 kPa

0.024 kPa

30 to 50

26.6

65

30

The discrete element method software EDEM models granular soils from pre-defined particle
prototypes and particle creation rules, called factories. It computes the interactions between
the granular material and rigid geometries, built from simple polygons through EDEMs
graphical user interface or imported from CAD models. A particle prototype consists of a
sphere or a union of spheres, each one characterized by its radius r and center position.
Consequently, a granular material made of non-spherical particles (corn seeds for example)
can be modeled by a particle prototype including several spheres. The particle creation
rules, or factories, define how the particle should be created. The main parameters
characterizing a factory are: number of particles to create, time and place of creation,
particle prototype, size distribution. Each particle prototype or other geometry element used
in a simulation is associated to a material, with density , Poisson's ratio and shear
modulus G. The contact model used to compute the interaction forces between two
contacting spheres belonging to two different particles is detailed in EDEMs User Guide [4]
and is based on Hertz-Mindlin model [5], [6]. It characterizes the interactions with three
coefficients: restitution e, static friction s and rolling friction r. The
coefficient of rolling friction, specific to EDEM, models the effect of
surface roughness on non-spherical shaped particles. Indeed, as the
virtual particles are made of spheres, they can roll on each other
without friction. To avoid this artificial feature, the rolling friction
coefficient introduces an artificial torque in the contact model
opposed to this rolling motion.

In this study, we decided to model the soil from a unique spherical


particle prototype. As explained in the previous section, this particle
prototype is characterized by the following parameters: r, , , G, s,
r, e. Creating the response surface of our virtual soil as a function of
these 7 parameters would be too long and complex, that is why a
screening experiment will be conducted in order to identify which
ones have a strong impact on the virtual soils properties and which
ones can be neglected. The screening experiment chosen was the angle of repose
experiment. The experimental setup was a 3D extension of S. Ji and H. Shen 2D DEM angle
of repose simulations [2]: a 1.5mm diameter steel tube containing 3,000 particles initially
rests vertically on a plate and is then lifted upward at a speed of 5mm/s (cf. Fig. 2). When
the particle pile reaches a static state, which occurs around t=0.7s, the particle positions are
stored in a table and the angle of repose of the pile is computed with a MATLAB function.

We first analysed 5 simulations with an initial set of parameters [r=50m, =3000kg/m,


=0.2, G=5107Pa, s=0.3, r=0.1, e=0.5], which gave an average
Figure 5. The angle of
repose simulation: the tube
angle of repose of 27.47 (standard deviation: 0.52). Then, we
is lifted (top) until the
successively changed one parameter while keeping the other 6 at
virtual
soil
remains
their initial values, and computed the average angle (cf. Tab. 2).
motionless on the plate
Table 2 shows that the angle of repose depends mostly on the static (bottom).
and rolling friction coefficients, and on the mean particle radius to a lesser extent. As a
consequence, the three parameters (r, s, r) are considered as our virtual soils design
variables, and the response surface for the soil properties are built as their function.
Table 2. Angle of repose measure after the modification of one parameter in the initial set.
Value of the
modified
parameter

A
(average
of 3 sim.)

Standard
deviation

Value of the
modified
parameter

A
(average
of 3 sim.)

Standard
deviation

r=100m

26.37

0.53

s=0.5

31.48

0.64

=4000kg/m

27.67

0.34

r=0.2

36.57

0.76

=0.4

27.95

0.28

e=0.3

27.63

0.61

G=7107Pa

27.06

0.44

Initial set:

27.47

0.52

Surrogate models describing the


response surface of the virtual soil are
built as a function of its design
variables (r, s, r) for each of the
following properties cohesion,
internal angle of friction and angle of
repose by simulating the direct shear
test and the angle of repose
experiment for different sets of design
variables.

Figure 3. The direct shear test box before and after


translation of the lower frame.

Figure 4. Fx with respect to time under various pressure, for


(r=50m, s=0.3, r=0).

Figure 5. Angle of repose of the virtual soil for various


friction coefficients, with r=r0=50m.

The angle of repose simulation has been described in Section 3.2. Let us describe briefly the
direct shear test simulation. To simulate this experiment within an acceptable time, we
modeled only a slice of the box used in the experimental setup (cf. Fig. 1), setting periodic
boundaries on both sides of the slice to simulate an infinitely wide box. The slide width was
set to four times the mean particle radius to make sure that a particle had no chance to
interact with itself because of the periodic boundaries. In our simulations, the upper frame
remained stationary while a translation of constant velocity was imposed to the lower frame
(cf. Fig. 3). A plane macro-particle subject to a constant vertical force applied the desired
pressure on the soil. The horizontal component Fx of the total force of the soil on the lower
frame was recorded. Fig. 4 shows the force Fx plotted with respect to time for different
pressures. Fx reaches a plateau after approximately 0.2s, which allows us to compute the
maximum shear stress max = Fmax/S. Cohesion and internal angle of friction were then
computed with the linear regression of max with respect to the pressure p (cf. Eq. 1).
Second-order fit
Each surrogate model of the soils properties c, and A was then built as a product of two
independent functions: f(r= r0, s, r) describing the response surface for r= r0=50m, and a
dimensionless function of r: g(r). f was computed as the second-order fit of the data points
because this fitting technique is simple and adapted to curved response [7].

Results
For the silica Barco sand, the algorithm gave a satisfactory result. With equal weighting
factors and a convergence criterion of = 0.001, it converged after 81 iterations to the
solution x=(r, s, r)=(70.85m, 0.609, 0.0811). The virtual soil estimated properties were
then: c=23.9Pa, =29.5, A=27.8, whereas the real soil measured values are c=24Pa,
=26.6, A=30 (cf. Tab. 1).
On the other hand, the algorithm did not converge in the regolith case (objective properties:
c=0.3k, =40, A=65, property of the virtual soil: c=0.621k, =31.2, A=36.7 with the
solution x=(r, s, r)=(66.21m, 1.44, 0.150) ). One reason for that could be the very high
angle of repose of the regolith. As our simulations never showed an angle of repose higher
than 50 (cf. Fig 5), the response surface of the virtual soil never reaches A=65 in the
explored region of the design space. Decreasing the weighting factor of the objective
function 1 (responsible for the angle of repose fit) to one tenth of the other ones gave a
better approximation: c=0.359k, =38.7, A=32.9 with x=(r, s, r)=(172.7m, 1.21, 0.136).

Discussion
This study presents a methodology for the DEM parameter calibration of a virtual soil,
involving geotechnical experiments on the real material and their simulations with a DEM
software. The example given in this paper shows how a virtual granular material can be
calibrated to replicate the behaviour of a silica sand. However, the lunar regolith behaviour
could not be modeled accurately, probably because of a mediocre angle of repose surrogate
model combined with a lacking design space exploration.
This methodology could be greatly improved by a better surrogate model management.
Indeed, an automated exploration of the design space in potentially optimum zones during
the optimization process, which would allow an automated update of the response surfaces,
would ensure high-fidelity surrogate models. Such an automated process was not doable
with our DEM software release, but can definitely be explored in future work.

Acknowledgments
The authors are grateful to Neptec, the Canadian Space Agency, and the NSERC CRD
program for the financial support of this project, and also DEM Solutions. Ltd., Edinburgh,
Scotland, UK, for their help and their advices

References
[1] M.G. Bekker. Theory of Land Locomotion. The University of Michigan Press, 2008.
[2] S. Ji and H. Shen. Two-dimensional simulation of the angle of repose for a particle
system with electrostatic charge under lunar and earth gravity. Journal of Aerospace
Engineering, 22:10-14, 2009.
[3] G. Heiken. Lunar sourcebook : a user's guide to the moon. Cambridge University Press,
1991.
[4] EDEM 2.1.1 User Guide. DEM Solutions, 2009.
[5] R.D. Mindlin. Compliance of elastic bodies in contact. Journal of Applied Mechanics,
16:259 {268, 1949.
[6] T. Tanaka Y. Tsuji and T. Ishida. Lagrangian numerical simulation of plug ow of
cohesionless particles in a horizontal pipe. Powder Technology, 71:239{250, 1992.
[7] Raymond H. Myers and Douglas C. Montgomery. Response Surface Methodology,
second edi-tion. Wiley, 2002.
[8] Jorge Angeles. MECH 577 Optimum Design, Lecture notes. McGill University, 2008.

Session 3: Metals Manufacturing

Analysis of the Bell Less Top Charging System


By the Discrete Element Method
K. Mutschler, G. Thillen, E. Lonardi, S. Khler, L. Hausemer,
Paul Wurth

Klaus Mutschler
Design & Welding Engineer, Mechanical Engineering, Components R&D
Luxembourg, Luxembourg

Lionel Hausemer
Project Engineer, Mechanical Engineering, Components R&D
The Paul Wurth Group is one of the world leaders in the design and supply of the
full-range of technological solutions for the iron making industry. The Group also
provides tailor-made equipment and systems for the steel making industry and
affiliated sectors.

Optimization of Raw Material Transport


using a Transfer Chute
Magno Antonio Calil Resende Silveira,
Gustavo Lucas Rocha de Oliveira, Brulio Viegas da Silva
USIMINAS
Daniel Schiochet Nasato, ESSS

Magno A. Calil Resende Silveira


Development and Research Center
Ipatinga, Minas Gerais, Brazil
Development and Research Center specializes in scientific and technological
knowledge pertaining to the identification, evaluation and exploration of new
technologies in steel production. The focus has included characterization and
evaluation of raw material, inputs, waste and different materials related to the
process of steel production; the improvement and development of processes and
products; cost reduction; characterization and product application engineering; and,
in particular, Calil Resende Silveira works with modeling and simulation-- currently
focusing on the pig iron manufacturing process, using process modeling and
simulation

Andrs Gonzalez Cornejo and Daniel Schiochet Nasato


ESSS gathers the engineering and computer science knowledge necessary to deliver
a complete range of mathematical modeling and numerical simulation solutions to a
wide spectrum of industries. A highly skilled team of engineers and software
developers is always ready to offer the worlds most comprehensive CAE software
and a full portfolio of services focused on in-house development, consulting,
customization, technical support and training.

Optimization of raw material transport using a transfer chute

Abstract:
Raw material transport using conveyor transfer and chutes may become critical due to
details not covered in the design phase or the low maintenance frequency in the process.
Problems such as material spillage, belt misalignment, breakage and premature wear of
peripherals associated with the system can cause damage to the process. Currently, part of
the raw material is lost in transportation in the Ipatinga ironmaking plant (Usiminas). Aiming
to reduce this loss, a study was done on particular system of pellets transport, which
comprises two conveyor belts and a set of transfer chute, using the EDEM. Experiments
were conducted to obtain some pellet, belt and metal properties needed in the simulation.
Analyzing the simulation results for current conditions it was possible to identify problems
that have occurred in the process. Changes in the model geometry and new simulations
were made and a new geometry that solved the problem of material spillage in the system
was obtained.

Key words: EDEM; Particle simulation; Pellet; Transfer chute.


Author: Magno Antonio Calil Resende Silveira - USIMINAS
Co-Author: Gustavo Lucas Rocha de Oliveira - USIMINAS
Brulio Viegas da Silva - USIMINAS
Daniel Schiochet Nasato - ESSS

Blast Furnace Charging Simulation using EDEM


Guilherme Defendi; Paulo de Freitas Nogueira;
Anderson Willian de Souza Baltazar
Vale
Andrs Gonzalez Cornejo, ESSS Chile
Daniel Schiochet Nasato, ESSS Brazil

Guilherme Defendi
Ferrous Technology Center
Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais
The Ferrous Technology Center brings together laboratories and pilot plants along
with equipment devoted to iron ore application studies. Through R&D projects, the
center develops products and technical solutions with an integrated view of the
mining and steelmaking chains.
Vale explores for, produces and sells iron ore and pellets, nickel, copper, coal,
bauxite, alumina, aluminum, potassium, kaolin, manganese, ferro-alloys, cobalt,
platinum-group metals and precious metals. Vale also operates in the logistics,
energy and steelmaking sectors with the mission of transforming mineral resources
into prosperity and sustainable development.

Andrs Gonzalez Cornejo and Daniel Schiochet Nasato


ESSS gathers the engineering and computer science knowledge necessary to deliver
a complete range of mathematical modeling and numerical simulation solutions to a
wide spectrum of industries. A highly skilled team of engineers and software
developers is always ready to offer the worlds most comprehensive CAE software
and a full portfolio of services focused on in-house development, consulting,
customization, technical support and training.

Blast Furnace Charging Simulation using EDEM


Guilherme Defendi Vale FTC (Ferrous Technology Center)

Abstract:
For steelmaking, coke and sinter and/or lump and/or pellet must be feed in a blast furnace
so that reduction happens and after melting of metallic charge and pig iron formation. Steel
formation happens in forward stages of refine. Material distribution during blast furnace
charging is very important for a better control on blast furnace operational performance.
Segregation of different materials can happen in a non uniform way in the furnace center
and walls, leading to a higher difficult to reach desired goals. This work present a Discrete
Element Method (DEM) simulation performed in a blast furnace. Material data was firstly
calibrated and the EDEM software was used to analyze material flow during blast furnace
charging to help predict material segregation. Also voidage condition was mapped in
different regions of the furnace, in order to check how segregation will affect voidage and by
consequence gas flow. EDEM was also used to predict compressive forces to understand
how blast furnace charging operation can cause particle breakage in different regions.

Co-Author: Paulo de Freitas Nogueira Vale FTC (Ferrous Technology Center)


Anderson Willian de Souza Baltazar Vale FTC (Ferrous Technology Center)
Andrs Gonzalez Cornejo ESSS Chile
Daniel Schiochet Nasato ESSS Brazil

Coupled DEM-CFD Study of the Blast Furnace


Cohesive Zone
Yuko Enqvist1; Allert Adema1; Vilas Tathavadkar1;
Yongxiang Yang2; Rob Boom1,2
1

Materials innovation institute (M2i)


2
Delft University of Technology

Yongxiang Yang

Group Leader, Metals Production, Refining and Recycling (MPRR),


Materials Science and Engineering Department (MSE)
Delft, The Netherlands
The Materials Science and Engineering Department (MSE) of TU Delft
focuses on research and education in various aspects of materials science, in
particular for the production of metals, alloys, their processing and structural
control for properties, and recycling. The MPRR group focuses more on the
sustainable development for the metals extraction and recycling technologies,
which is an important component to close the metals cycle.
The Materials innovation institute (M2i), a public-private partnership between the
Dutch government, industry and academia, is the world-class institute for
fundamental and applied research in the fields of structural and functional materials.
The business of materials production focuses on advanced materials coatings and
production technologies. Steel based materials and composite materials are the two
main categories in this sector Working closely together with top-level academic and
industrial partners, we deliver new materials to promote economic growth in our
industrial sector and help bring about a more sustainable society.

Coupled DEM CFD Study of the Blast Furnace Cohesive Zone

Yuko Enqvist, Materials innovation institute (M2i), Delft, The Netherlands; Allert Adema,
Materials innovation institute (M2i), Delft, The Netherlands; Vilas Tathavadkar, Materials
innovation institute (M2i), Delft, The Netherlands; Yongxiang Yang, Delft University of
Technology, Delft, The Netherlands; Rob Boom, Materials innovation institute (M2i), Delft,
The Netherlands, and Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands.

Introduction
The cohesive zone in the blast furnace, where iron ores soften and melt, greatly increases
the resistance to the ascending gas flow since the permeability of the ore layers becomes
varied and restricted, accordingly the gas can predominantly flow through intermediate coke
layers. The cohesive zone acts as a gas distributor that has a remarkable impact on the
performance and stability of blast furnace operation. The softening and melting process in
the cohesive zone (Fig. 1) is generally distinguished into three stages, softening, exudation
and melting-down, which depend on ore properties (such as the degree of reduction and
carburisation, the porosity, the slag former composition, and the distribution of the phases)
as well as global furnace operating conditions (temperature, solid packing structure, load,
bed porosity, PCO/PCO2, and so on). Considering the complex operating conditions and a
number of reactions taking place in the blast furnace, the mathematical modeling, coupled
with physical modeling could be a powerful tool for understanding the effect of the
microscopic ore properties and the macroscopic furnace flow conditions on the formation of
the cohesive zone.
The aim of this work is to develop a comprehensive model for predicting the cohesive zone
properties, such as its shape, location, structure, permeability and mineralogical changes, in
conjunction with upper and lower zones to the cohesive zone. The model should allow
predicting the changes of status in the cohesive zone in response to the changes in the
operating conditions.

Modeling Approach
In this work the Discrete Element Method (DEM) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)
coupling approach is applied to model the solid gas flow in the blast furnace cohesive
zone. The commercial DEM particle simulation software package EDEM2.3 (DEM
solutions Ltd., UK) and CFD software package ANSYS FLUENT 12.0 (Ansys Inc., USA) are
used together with EDEM CFD coupling module for FLUENT (DEM solutions Ltd., UK).
The lower half of an experimental blast furnace (EBF) [1], excluding the hearth is employed
as the basic geometry of the model (Fig. 2). The hot air is introduced to the furnace at
tuyeres, located close to the bottom of the geometry, flows upward through the descending
packed burden bed, and exits at the top of the furnace. Ore and coke burdens are
alternatively charged on the top of the bed. Ore is charged relatively close to the furnace wall

compared to coke. The burden charging conditions used in this study are listed in Table 1.
As solid burden descends, ore heats up to its melting temperature, and is disappeared, while
coke is removed when entering the raceway. The burden descent velocity is primarily
determined by the coke removal rate at the raceway as well as ore melting. In this study the
burden descent velocity is approximately set to 40 mm/s. It should be noted that the descent
velocity applied is much higher than one in the EBF (0.5 mm/s) in order to generate burden
layer distribution with acceptable CPU time. The motion of the descending solid burden is
determined by the DEM, while the flow of continuum gas is obtained by the CFD over
computational grids. The drag force, and conductive and radiative heat transfer are
calculated by DEM CFD coupling. The input parameters used in the CFD and DEM
simulations are summarised in Table 2.
The simple softening and melting model is integrated in EDEM in order to predict the
formation of the cohesive zone. The softening is defined when iron ore deforms 50%. In the
model iron ore deforms 50% at 1200C and completely melts (disappears) at 1400C as preset criteria. The deformed particle shape is described by a rubber elasticity model. The
softening and melting model as well as the burden charging and coke removal model are
implemented in EDEM simulation using the EDEM application programming interface (API),
namely Particle Body Force API and Particle Factory API.
As for advanced softening and melting models, the thermodynamic equilibrium of iron ore is
modeled by using the thermochemical software package FactSage (GTT Technology,
Germany), and the FactSage thermodynamic model is linked to FLUENT by the commercial
thermodynamic programming library ChemApp (GTT Technology, Germany) in order to
perform the thermodynamic equilibrium computation in each FLUENT cell. Furthermore the
custom EDEM FLUENT coupling module is implemented in the coupled EDEM FLUENT
model that can allow the custom burden particle properties to be transferred between EDEM
and FLUENT. The effect of burden charging conditions on burden layer distribution, the
formation of the cohesive zone, and heat transfer are investigated with high burden descent
velocity and artificial burden thermal properties. The present study does not include chemical
reactions and advanced softening and melting model.

Figure 1: Softening and melting process of iron ore pellets in the blast furnace cohesive
zone.

I. Front

II. Side

2.3

Raceway

Gas inlet
H=0.1
1.2

0.25
Unit [m]

(a)

(b)

Figure 2: The model geometry used in the DEM and CFD simulations (a) and computational
grid for CFD simulation (b) (28365 cells). For simulation with Case III, the height is
extended by 0.4 m (=8 cells).

Table 1: Burden charging conditions.


Case I
coke & ore

Case II
coke

Case III
ore

coke

ore

Particle size [m]

0.03

0.03

0.02

0.0315

0.02

Density [kg/m3]

2000

1000

4000

1000

4000

1700

1700

5730

1700

5730

No. particle per charge


Ore charging

close to wall

close to wall

very close to wall

Table 2: Input parameters used in the CFD and DEM simulations.

Gas inlet
Blast velocity/ total volumetric flow rate

45 [m/s]/ 225 [Nm3/h]

Blast pressure

2.4 [bar]

Blast and Raceway temperature

2200 [
C]

Burden
Types

Coke and ore

Shape

Spherical

Size distributions

Uniform

Contact model (Hertz Mindlin)


Youngs modulus

1107 [Pa]

Poissons ratio

0.25 [-]

Coefficient of restitution

Particle-particle: 0.2, particle-wall: 0.5

Coefficient of static friction

Particle-particle: 0.5, particle-wall: 0.5

Coefficient of rolling friction

0.05

Charging temperature

900 [
C]

Total number of particles in the domain

(2 5)104

Time step

110-4 [s] (DEM); 110-3 [s] (CFD)

Simulation Results
The time evolution of solid burden and gas flow fields are investigated at different charging
conditions. The burden heat capacity and thermal conductivity used are 10 J/kg K and 1000
W/m K, respectively, which are artificially adjusted due to the high burden descent velocity.
The bed is initially packed with coke, having a pre-defined temperature distribution. Ore
charging commences when simulation starts. The burden temperature field is generally
stabilised around simulation time of 20 s.
Figure 3 shows the effect of charging conditions on burden layer distribution (A) and on gas
temperature field (B) at simulation time of 30 s. It can be seen that charging conditions
considerably affect the burden layer distribution and gas temperature field. Consequently the
formation of the cohesive zone is varied with charging conditions. When applying more
realistic burden properties, for case II and III, the bed porosity in ore layers is much lower
than in coke layers, thus, gas tends to flow through coke layers, which generates large
temperature variations along the height. It can be also observed that ore charging condition
slightly alters the gas temperature field (Fig. 3 (b) and (c)). The cohesive zone considerably
increases the gas flow resistance, accordingly, coke slit type flow is realized in the
simulations. It might be difficult for the current model to reproduce the temperature field (i.e.
cohesive zone) obtained in the EBF due to the unrealistic burden descent velocity as well as
burden thermal properties used in the simulations.

(A)
(c) Case III

(a) Case I

(a) Case I

(b) Case II

(b) Case II

Dark red ore, grey coke, and orange fused ore

(B)
(c) Case III

Figure 3: The effect of charging conditions on burden layer distribution (A) and on gas
temperature field [K] (B) at simulation time of 30 s.

Discussion
The present results demonstrate that the coupled DEM CFD approach can provide a good
way to model anisotropic burden descent behaviour and heat transfer between solid burden
and gas. However, it should be pointed out that the obtained results are based on unrealistic
conditions (i.e. high burden descent velocity and artificial burden thermal properties) in order
to reduce computational time, and therefore, is not able to reproduce the key phenomena
observed in the EBF. It is necessary to use actual EBF conditions once implementing
chemical reactions into the coupled EDEM FLUENT model. Due to the current
computational restriction for EDEM FLUENT coupling, it is not possible to simulate the
formation of the cohesive zone over a long physical time. The couple EDEM FLUENT
model can predict the changes of the status in the cohesive zone within a very short physical

time using well-defined initial conditions such as distribution of burden, temperature,


PCO/PCO2, degree of reduction, etc.
References
. J. Sterneland, M.A.T. Andersson, and P.G. Jnsson (2003), Iron ore reduction in
experimental blast furnace and laboratory scale simulation, Ironmaking Steelmaking, 30, pp.
313-327.
Acknowledgements
The authors would like to acknowledge Mr. Jan van der Stel and Mr. Mark Hattink from Tata
Steel, Research, Development & Technology, the Netherlands for their continuous support.
We are also grateful to Mr. Christoph Kloss, Johannes Kepler University Lintz, Austria for
development of custom EDEM FLUENT coupling module. This research was carried out
under project number MC5.06255 in the framework of the Research Program of the
Materials innovation institute M2i (www.m2i.nl), the former Netherlands Institute for Metals
Research.

Session 4: Pharmaceutical Production

Using DEM to Predict Pharmaceutical Tablet


Film Coating Uniformity
William R. Ketterhagen
Pfizer

William R. Ketterhagen
Senior Scientist, Process Modeling and Engineering Technology Group,
Pfizer Worldwide Research and Development
Groton, CT, USA
Within the Process Modeling and Engineering Technology Group, Ketterhagen
works to develop models and engineering solutions in support of drug product
development and technology transfer. Modeling efforts range from fit-for-purpose
engineering models to discrete element method (DEM) models for detailed powder
(or tablet) flow predictions. These models are applied in several areas, including
powder characterization, storage, and handling; granulation, and film coating
processes.
At Pfizer, we apply science and our global resources to improve health and wellbeing at every stage of life. We strive to set the standard for quality, safety and value
in the discovery, development and manufacturing of medicines for people and
animals. Our diversified global health care portfolio includes human and animal
biologic and small molecule medicines and vaccines, as well as nutritional products
and many of the world's best-known consumer products. For more than 150 years,
Pfizer has worked to make a difference for all who rely on us.

Using DEM to Predict Pharmaceutical Tablet Film Coating Uniformity


William R. Ketterhagen, Pfizer Worldwide Research and Development, Pfizer Inc., Groton,
CT, USA

Film coating of pharmaceutical tablets is an important process that is conducted to help


improve the tablet appearance, the stability of the active drug, taste masking, or, in the case
of controlled release tablets, modify the release profile of the active drug substance.
Regardless of the rationale for applying the coating, the uniformity of the coating is an
important attribute. For immediate release coatings where coatings may be applied primarily
for aesthetic purposes, poor uniformity leads to reduced process efficiency and increases
run times to ensure tablets with the least coating meet quality criteria while other tablets are
over-coated. More serious consequences occur for functional membrane coatings that
control the release of the active drug. In this case, variable coating uniformity may lead to
large variability in the drug release rates. Finally, in instances in which the coating contains
the active drug, any variability in coating can cause dosage form content uniformity issues.
In this work, the discrete element method (DEM) is used to computationally model the
dynamics of tablet motion in a film coating pan. The number and duration of tablet
appearances in a fictitious spray zone are used to predict the coating uniformity. A key
variable explored in this work is the shape of the tablets, where different tablet shapes are
approximated using the glued spheres technique. The results show that tablet shape
significantly affects the typical tablet orientation in the spray zone, and thus, the intra-tablet
coating uniformity but had little effect on inter-tablet coating uniformity. The operating
conditions such as pan rotation speed and pan loading are shown to have a significant effect
on inter-tablet coating uniformity, but a relatively small effect on intra-tablet coating
uniformity. These results demonstrate the usefulness of modeling in guiding drug product
development decisions such as shape selection and process operating conditions.

A Deeper Understanding of Tablet Coating Processes


Through Discrete Element Method Simulations
Gregor Toschkoff, Daniele Suzzi, Daniel Machold,
Johannes G Khinast,
RCPE, Graz University of Technology

Gregor Toschkoff
Researcher, Research Center Pharmaceutical Engineering (RCPE
GmbH)
Graz, Austria
The Research Center Pharmaceutical Engineering (RCPE GmbH) is an
interdisciplinary research institute in the area of pharmaceutical process and product
development. A central goal of the RCPE is to transform pharmaceutical product
development and process development from empirical approaches to a rational
science-based endeavor, in accordance with ICHs Quality-by-Design framework. To
fulfill this mission as an innovation company we cooperate with various partners
from science and industry, ranging from small and medium enterprises to global
players from different sectors of the pharmaceutical industry.
Graz University of Technology pursues top teaching and research in the fields of
the engineering sciences and the technical-natural sciences.

A deeper understanding of tablet coating processes through Discrete Element


Method simulations
Gregor Toschkoff, Research Center Pharmaceutical Engineering GmbH, Graz, Austria;
Daniele Suzzi, Research Center Pharmaceutical Engineering GmbH, Graz, Austria; Daniel
Machold, Research Center Pharmaceutical Engineering GmbH, Graz, Austria; Johannes G
Khinast, Institute for Process and Particle Engineering, Graz University of Technology, Graz,
Austria.
Introduction
Drum coating technology is widely used in the pharmaceutical industry to produce tablet
films fulfilling functional and non-functional purposes. In this process, a rotating drum
accounts for the necessary mixing of the tablets, and a coating solution is injected from
above by means of an atomizing nozzle. To enhance the evaporation of the solvent content
of the coating liquid and thus the film formation, an air flow through the system is
established. The applied coating layer(s) fulfill different functions, e.g. taste masking and
coloring, control of the release of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) from the core of
a tablet, application of an additional API, or protection of the tablet core from environmental
influences.
For all aspects of the coating mentioned above, the uniformity of coating is of uttermost
importance and represent critical issues in the production of this solid oral dosage forms.
This includes both, inter-tablet uniformity (variation of coating mass from one tablet to the
other) and intra-tablet uniformity (variation of the coating thickness and quality on the surface
of a single tablet) [5]. In fact, inhomogeneity in the coating thickness can lead to significant
variations in APIs delivery rate, as well as compromise the functional attributes of the tablet
film. In many cases, regulations dictate that a single tablet that fails testing will lead to the
rejection of the whole batch.
Although drum coating is a widespread technology in the pharmaceutical industry, numerical
simulation of the process has been scarce so far, and process design is more often than not
based on trial-and-error practices and operator experience. Even if numerical approaches
are more and more supporting the analysis of this complex problem, the uniformity of coating
thickness is nowadays difficult to predict without expensive experimental work [6]. For this
reasons, detailed investigation of the coating process and especially the uniformity of the
coating using DEM simulations is of great interest for the pharmaceutical industry [1].

Figure 1: Geometries of the two tablet coating machines that were used in this work. Left:
Driam Driaconti continuous coater, right: Bohle BFC5 lab-scale coater. The pictures
generated using the EDEM 2.3 particle simulation software. For details please refer to the
section Approach below.

Approach
The performance of modern coaters strongly depends on the nature of the spray zone where
particles are effectively coated and the transport between the coating zone and the zone
where particles are not seen by the spray. Beside experimental work [2,4], numerical
simulations of particle motion using the Discrete Elements Method (DEM) have become an
extremely important tool in particle technology problems and are frequently used for coater
simulations [8].
The aim of this work is to analyze and understand the effects of parameters like tablet form,
fill volume or pan rotation speed on the intra-tablet coating variability [3] in different coating
devices. To this end, Discrete Element Method (DEM) using the EDEM 2.3 particle
simulation software (DEM Solutions. Ltd., Edinburgh, Scotland, UK) is used to numerically
reproduce the tablet motion inside different coating machines, in this case the geometries of
a Driam Driaconti continuous coater(DRIAM Anlagenbau GmbH, Eriskirch, Germany) and a
Bohle BFC5 lab-scale coater (L.B. BOHLE Maschinen + Verfahren GmbH, Ennigerloh,
Germany) are used, see Fig. 1.
The special material attributes of the tablets are known from experiments. For each
geometry different tablet shapes, namely bi-convex, oval and/or round, are modeled by the
glued spheres approach available in EDEM. Further parameter variations include different
fill volumes or different rotational speeds. For each case, important process attributes (e.g.,
residence time of the tablets under the coating spray, intra-tablet coating variability, tablets
velocities pattern) are investigated
Results and Discussion
For the detailed analysis of the tablets flow inside the bed in terms of mean velocities and
granular temperatures, a MATLAB-based program processing the data exported from EDEM
was used. A main target of the MATLAB post-processing is to evaluate the particle-based
variables on a static grid. In this way, important parameters like particle velocity or rotational
velocity can be averaged over time, and detailed investigation of e.g. local velocity variations
is possible.
DRIAM Driaconti continuous coater
An important quality attribute for tablet coating is the residence time distribution of the tablets
in the spray zone. While this quantity is fastidious to extract by experimentation, it is readily
available from the DEM simulations data. Figure 1 shows the distribution for the DRIAM
continuous coater (see above) for a simulation time of 60 seconds. It can be seen that both
tablet shape and fill level have an influence on the time that a single tablet spends exposed
to the spray. From this information, an expected coating variability and in the end coating
process time can be estimated.

Figure 2: Residence Time Distribution in the spray zone after 60s of simulation, for spherical
tablets (left) and oblong tablets (right)
Every 0.5 seconds, a set of data was exported using the EDEM software export dialog.
Based on these data sets, a mean velocity of the tablets was calculated by interpolating
each particle onto a grid. The result is a normalized average velocity on a static grid,
allowing precise comparison of different process parameters. Figure 2 shows a matrix of
results, for different fill levels and different tablet shapes. For example, it showed that round
tablets develop a qualitatively different flow profile, with pronounced disorder in the upper
region.

Figure 3: Normalized time-averaged tablet velocity on the grid for round, oval and bi-convex
tablets at the different coater fill ratios for a vertical slice in the middle of the coating
apparatus.
Bohle BFC5
Another concern that is connected with a spray coating process is the mixing of tablets [7]. In
the simulation setup, the cylindrical coating drum of a BFC5 lab coater was filled with two
sorts of particles, one sort in the front and one in the back region. Figure 4 shows the relative
standard deviation of the binary mixture for round and biconvex shaped particles and two
different rorational speeds. The RSD is calculated by using bins of appropriate size including
all tablets. A high value means high separation, a low value good mixing. On the abscissa,
the number of revolutions is drawn. As can be seen, the mixing per revolution is nearly

constant, but one has to keep in mind that with a higher rotational speed, the same amount
of revolutions and therefore mixing is achieved in shorter time.

Figure 4: Decrease of the Relative Standard Deviation of binary mixture with the number of
revolutions. In both cases, 50s are simulated, therefore the red curve (10 rpm) ends earlier.
As described above for the Driaconti, a time-averaging of particle velocities was done on a
locally stationary grid for the BFC5 as well. The result is shown in Fig. 5. Although the two
coater geometries are quite different, the qualitative difference of the movement pattern
between round and biconvex tablets is the same, with the round tablets showing disorder
near the top of the tablet bed. In the Bohle BFC5, two ribbons lead to the good axial mixing
properties of the apparatus along the wall. In Fig. 5, this can be seen as circle-shaped
regions of increased velocity near the coater wall.

Figure 5: Normalized time-averaged tablet velocity on the grid for round and bi-convex
tablets at different coater rotation rates for a vertical slice in the middle of the coating
apparatus.

Conclusion
The DEM simulation has proven to be a valuable tool to gain understanding the dynamical
behavior of the tablets under the spray gun. The gathered information is essential to obtain a
satisfactory intra-tablet coating homogeneity, which in turn is necessary to minimize the
number of tablet batches that have to be rejected. The outcomes of this work aims at
demonstrating the utility of numerical simulation in the development and the design of
pharmaceutical tablet coating processes.

References
Adam, S., Suzzi, D., Radeke, C., Khinast, J.G., 2010. An integrated Quality by Design (QbD)
approach towards design space definition of a blending unit operation by Discrete Element
Method (DEM) simulation. European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, In Press.
Alexander, A., Shinbrot, T., Muzzio, F.J., 2002. Scaling surface velocities in rotating
cylinders as a function of vessel radius, rotation rate, and particle size. Powder Technology
126, 174-190.
Freireich, B., Wassgren, C., 2010. Intra-particle coating variability: Analysis and Monte-Carlo
simulations, Chem. Eng. Sci. 65, 11171124.
Ho, L., Mller, R., Rmer, M., Gordon, K.C., Heinmki, J., Kleinebudde, P., Pepper, M.,
Rades, T., Shen, Y.C., Strachan, C.J., Taday, P.F., Zeitler, J.A., 2007. Analysis of sustainedrelease tablet film coats using terahertz pulsed imaging. Journal of Controlled Release 119,
253-261.
Kalbag, A., Wassgren, C., Penumetcha, S.S., Perez-Ramos, J.D., 2008. Inter-tablet coating
variability: Residence times in a horizontal pan coater. Chem. Eng. Sci. 63, 2881-2894.
Suzzi, D., Radl, S., Khinast, J.G., 2010. Local analysis of the tablet coating process: Impact
of operation conditions on film quality. Chemical Engineering Science, Volume 65, Issue 21,
Pages 5699-5715.
Tobiska, S., Kleinebudde, P., 2003. Coating uniformity and coating efficiency in a Bohle LabCoater using oval tablets. European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics 56, 39.
Ketterhagen, W. R.; am Ende, M. T. & Hancock, B. C., 2009, Process modeling in the
pharmaceutical industry using the discrete element method, Journal of Pharmaceutical
Sciences, , 98, 442-470

DEM Simulation of a Flowability Assessment Method


using Small Sample Quantity
Massih Pasha, Colin Hare, Ali Hassanpour, Mojtaba Ghadiri,
University of Leeds

Massih Pasha
PhD Candidate, Institute of Particle Science and Engineering
Leeds, UK
The Institute of Particle Science & Engineering (IPSE) is one of three institutes
within the School of Process Environmental and Materials Engineering (SPEME) of
University of Leeds. The research at IPSE focuses on the engineering science of
advanced particulate systems applied to a range of sectors including, healthcare,
which includes foods and pharmaceuticals; personal and household products, which
includes polymers, biomaterials, and fine chemicals; and minerals and fuels, e.g.
nuclear. In all of these areas IPSE focuses its strength and expertise in
measurement, modeling and manufacture.
The University of Leeds is one of the UK's top research universities, with more than
61% of our research rated as 'world leading' or 'internationally excellent.' Our
academics and their cutting-edge research are in high demand throughout the world,
and we regularly share our expertise with businesses to help them grow.

DEM Simulation of a Flowability Assessment Method using Small Sample


Quantity

Massih Pasha, Institute of Particle Science and Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK
Colin Hare, Institute of Particle Science and Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK
Ali Hassanpour, Institute of Particle Science and Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds,
UK
Mojtaba Ghadiri, Institute of Particle Science and Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds,
UK

Introduction

Industrial processes involving powder blending, transfer, storage, feeding, compaction and
fluidisation all require reliable powder flow [1]. There are a number of processes which deal
with small amounts of loosely compacted powders. These include filling and dosing of small
quantities of powders in capsules and dispersion for dry powder inhalers and dry particle
sizing. In other cases, the availability of powders for flowability testing is an issue. For
instance in nuclear and pharmaceutical industries, the amount of testing powder is limited
due to ionising radiation for the former and toxicity and cost of drugs for the latter [2].

There exist a number of test methods for evaluation of flow behaviour of powders such as
uniaxial compression test, shear test, raining bed and the Sevilla powder tester [3]. Most of
these test methods require a relatively large amount of powder and measuring the flow
behaviour at relatively high compaction stresses. Hassanpour and Ghadiri [2] introduced a
testing method by ball indentation which can be performed on small amounts of loosely
compacted powders. In the present paper an attempt is made to evaluate the flowability
measurement of cohesive powders using the ball indentation method. The indentation
process and unconfined compression test are simulated using the Distinct Element Method
(DEM) for particles consolidated to different stresses. The correlation between indentation
characteristics and flow behaviour of powders (unconfined yield stress) are investigated by
comparing indentation results with those of unconfined compression.

Approach

In the indentation process, different samples of powders are consolidated into a cylindrical
die at a pressure that forms weak tablets. The die must be made of low friction materials in
order to reduce the effects of wall friction. The weakly formed tablets are then indented using
a spherical indenter and the depth/load cycle is recorded from which the hardness of the

bulk powder can be calculated. During loading, the load is increased at a specified rate until
a desired maximum load is reached. Then the load is decreased to zero at the same rate.
During unloading, the elastic deformation of the sample will recover. Hardness, H, is given
as the ratio of maximum indentation load, Fmax, to projected area of the impression, A,
(Equation 1).

Fmax
A

(1)

The projected area can be calculated as follow,

A dh h2

(2)

where d is the diameter of the indent, and h is the depth of impression [2].

In indentation test, during formation of the local plasticity zones around the indenter, the
volume of the powder bed present in a yield condition is surrounded by an elastically
deformable region. This leads to an increase in the local yield strength (i.e. hardness) [5]. A
linear relationship between the hardness and yield stress is usually considered:

H C .Y

(3)

where H is the hardness, Y is the yield stress and the proportionality factor C is known as
constraint factor. It is important to relate hardness to yield stress, since the flow behaviour is
defined based on the yield strength. Wang et al. [4] has concluded that indentation hardness
and unconfined yield stress have a linear relationship with pre-consolidation pressure for a
number of materials. This corroborates the linear relationship between yield stress and
hardness. The constraint factor for a number of testing powders was also determined, and it
was concluded that it is independent of the pre-consolidation pressure but is material
dependant. For particle assemblies, the constraint factor would depend on single particle
properties which needs to be analysed by the Distinct Element Method (DEM) simulations
[4].

DEM simulations and analysis of the ball indentation technique were conducted using
EDEM software provided by DEM Solutions. Ltd., Edinburgh, Scotland, UK. The HertzMindlin elastic contact model alongside a linear cohesion model are used. The cohesion
force between particles is calculated as follow:

F kA

(4)

where A is the contact area and k is a cohesion energy density with units Jm-3. The value k
is chosen so that the work of cohesion of the model equates to that of JKR model. The
material properties used in the simulations are summarised in Table 1.

Property

Particles

Die (Geometry)

Diameter (mm)

1 (1,0.14)

39

Density (kg.m-3)

2500

7800

Poissons Ratio

0.25

0.3

Youngs Modulus (GPa)

55

182

Interface Energy (J.m-2)

0.2-1.0

Table 1: Material properties used in the simulations

16,000 particles are generated to form a bed height of ~ 15 mm. The indenter diameter is 13
times greater than that of the particles. Figure 1 shows the indentation simulation inside the
EDEM environment.

Figure 1: DEM Simulation of ball indentation

In order to investigate the correlation between yield stress and hardness, the unconfined
compression test is also simulated.

The speed at which the piston and indenter are moved is controlled to provide a strain rate
of 1. This shows that the processes are carried out within quasi-static regime, where the
effects of dynamics of the geometries on stresses are minimised [6].

Results

Figure 2 shows the hardness values calculated for a range of maximum indentation load for
three different cohesion levels when the powder bed is consolidated to 10 kPa.

12
=1.0
10

=0.5

Hardness (kPa)

=0.2

0
0.09

0.1

0.11

0.12
0.13
Indentation Load (N)

0.14

0.15

0.16

Figure 2: Hardness vs. indentation load for three interface energy values

It can be seen that hardness does not change significantly with indentation load. This shows
that the powder bed is not consolidated during indentation process. If the bed is
consolidated, the hardness value will increase and it will not be representative of the preconsolidation of interest.

Figure 3 shows the hardness and unconfined yield stress results obtained from the
simulations for a range of pre-consolidation pressure. The interface energy between the
particles is 1 Jm-2 and the hardness values are obtained with a maximum indentation load of
0.12 N.

Hardness (kPa)

12

10

10

8
Hardness

Unconfined
Yield Stress

Unconfined Yield Stress (KPa)

12

5
10
15
Pre-consolidation Stress (kPa)

20

Figure 3: Hardness vs. unconfined yield stress for a range of pre-consolidation pressure

It is clear that there exist a correlation between the hardness and unconfined yield stress.
The constraint factor for the simulated powder with a surface energy of 1 Jm-2 is ~5.

Discussion

The dimensions of the simulated bed and indenter were sufficient to prevent further
consolidation of the bed by indentation in the range tested. These simulations of ball
indentation were coupled with simulations of unconfined compression and showed the
correlation between hardness and unconfined yield stress. For this material the constraint
factor was found to be approximately 5.

The influence of single particle properties such as surface energy, friction, shape and
stiffness on the constraint factor will be analysed in the future simulations. Development of a
relationship between single particle properties and the constraint factor will allow the yield
stress to be inferred from ball indentation experiments alone. Consequently a ball
indentation device could be developed to measure the flowability of powders in-situ, even
when only a small powder quantity is present.

References

1. Prescott J.K., and R.A. Barnum. Pharmaceutical Technology, 2000. 24(10): p. 60.
2. Hassanpour A., and M. Ghadiri, Particle & Particle Systems Characterization, 2007. 24(2):
p. 117.
3. Castellanos A., J.M. Valverde, M.A.S. Quintanilla, Kona, 2004, 22: p. 66.

4. Wang C., A. Hassanpour, and M. Ghadiri, Particuology, 2008. 6(4): p. 282.


5. Kozlov G.V., V.D. Serdyuk, and V.A. Beloshenko, Mechanics of Composite Materials,
1995. 30(5): p. 506.
6. Tardos, G. I., S. McNamara, I. Talu, Powder Technology, 2003, 131: p. 23-39.

Session 5: General Industries

Improving Asphalt Plant Design Using DEM


Simulation
Andrew Hobbs
Astec

Andrew Hobbs
Research Engineer
Sheffield, UK
As a Research Engineer with Astec Inc., Hobbs performs CFD and DEM analyses
for product development and optimization. Astec has been using EDEM in their
research since the pre-1.0 beta release, and it has become a vital part of their design
process.
Astec Inc., based in Chattanooga, Tennessee, is a global leader in the hot mix
asphalt and road construction industries. Astec was founded in 1972 with the vision
to apply creative thinking and state-of-the-art technology to traditionally low-tech
industries.

Improving Asphalt Plant Design Using DEM Simulation

Andrew Hobbs, Astec, Inc.

Introduction
Astec, Inc. is a global leader in the production of hot mix asphalt equipment. Hot mix asphalt
(HMA) is the most common road surface in the US, comprising approximately 94% of all
roads. HMA is comprised of sand and various sizes of crushed rock, called aggregate,
which is mixed together with liquid asphalt cement binder at temperatures above 180o C.
Designing equipment to produce high quality HMA presents many engineering challenges.
The physics involved HMA production are quite complex and include multiphase heat
transfer, combustion, dense and dilute particle transport, and pollutant formation to name a
few. The harsh environment in many of the internals of the equipment mean direct
observation is very difficult. Simulation methods including Discrete Element Method (DEM)
provide Astec engineers with valuable insight and help them design better, more efficient
asphalt plants. This paper will present several recent case studies.

Approach
Simulations were undertaken using EDEM 2.3 from DEM Solutions Ltd., Edinburgh,
Scotland, UK. After importing CAD geometry, established particle parameters were input
and the simulations were run. In some cases use of the API was made to add in custom
features to expedite runtimes. These custom features include the motion of slat conveyors,
recorded factory inputs, and wall conduction heat transfer. Ensight 9.2 was used for data
visualization in some of the cases.

Results

Case 1: Size segregation


Size segregation is an undesirable phenomena where in particles group according to size. It
can occur anytime aggregate is moved but most commonly occurs at transfer points. It is
difficult to visually identify in the field so simulation is very helpful in minimizing the potential
for segregation. Figures 1 and 2 show the results of segregation studies of the drag
conveyor and silo batchers.

Figure 1. Size segregation in the silo batcher

Figure 2. Size segregation in the drag conveyor

Case 2: Aggregate veiling in the drum


Much previous work has been done to establish the connection between veiling (the
showering of particles inside the drum dryer) and convective heat transfer using the EDEM
CFD Coupling for FLUENT. To reduce the calculation time uncoupled DEM simulations
were run to investigate the veiling performance of a new novel flight design. Simulations of a
single row as well as a full flight layout were run. Bin groups were used to quantify veil
density. Representative results from the full dryer are shown in Figure 3.

Figure 3. Aggregate veiling in the dryer


Case 3: Conductive heat transfer in biomass dryer
DEM was used in the early stages of the design of a biomass dryer used to dry wood chips.
The API was used to write a custom contact model to track the conductive heat transfer from
the heated tubes to the wood particles. The particle thermal properties and conductive heat
transfer coefficients were calibrated using experimental data. These values were then used
with the custom contact model to investigate various designs for the heat exchanger tube
layout.

Figure 4. Wood chip drying in the biomass dryer

Discussion
The use of DEM simulations provides Astec engineers with a tool to both visualize material
behavior inside existing equipment and virtual test new designs before fabrication resulting
in better designs and quicker times to market. In addition the expanded capabilities provided
by the API have permitted simulations that would not have been possible without
customization.

Simulation of Cutting Process by Hybrid Granular and


Multibody Dynamics Software
Mahbubur Rahman, Dingena L. Schott, Sape A. Miedema,
Gabril Lodewijks
Delft University of Technology

Dingena L. Schott
Assistant Professor, Section of Transport Engineering and Logistics,
Delft, The Netherlands
Within the Section of Transport Engineering and Logistics Schott focuses on the
field of Dry Bulk Transport and Storage, including the logistics and environmental
impact involved. Her teams current DEM work is on equipment design and
calibration and validation with the use of EDEM.
The Delft University of Technology Department of Marine and Transport
Technology focuses on the development, design, building, and operation of marine,
dredging and transport systems and their equipment. This requires the further
development of the knowledge of the dynamics and the physical processes involved
in transport, dredging and marine systems, the logistics of the systems and the
interaction between the equipment and control systems.

Simulation of cutting process by hybrid granular and multibody dynamics


software

Mahbubur Rahman, Dingena L. Schott, Sape A. Miedema, Gabril Lodewijks

Delft University of Technology, Department of Marine and Transport Technology,


Section of Transport Engineering and Logistics, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft, The
Netherlands

Abstract
Cutting processes are common for many geotechnical, mining, dredging and bulk materials
handling cases. Understanding the interactive phenomena between granular materials and
cutting tools is very important for designing or evaluating cutting process. Currently few
researchers are conducting research to analyze bulk materials and cutting machine
mechanical interaction.

Simple dry sand cutting is analyzed with computational experiments in this paper to
supplement the knowledge in this field. Granular dynamics software (EDEMTM) and
Multibody dynamics software (MSC.ADAMSTM) are used to simulate sand and cutting tools
operation respectively. This computational experiment represents the complete cutting
process including initial and steady state.

Previously cutting methods were simulated by discrete element methods without proper
loading effects from blade on bulk materials. It has been overcome in this work by using
MBD software and the output is then compared with sand cutting analytical model of
Miedema (2009).

A Numerical Comparison of Mixing Efficiencies of


Solids in a Cylindrical Vessel Subject to a Range of
Motions
M. Marigo; D. L. Cairns; M. Davies; E. H. Stitt
Johnson Matthey Catalyst
A. Ingram
Birmingham University
Michele Marigo
Research Scientist, Particle Engineering
Birmingham, United Kingdom
As a Research Scientist with Johnson Matthey, Marigo conducts research and
development in the field of particle engineering, including application of DEM and
particle mechanical characterizations.
Johnson Matthey is a speciality chemicals company with core skills in catalysis,
precious metals, fine chemicals and process technology. Principal activities include
the manufacture of autocatalysts, heavy duty diesel catalysts and pollution control
systems; catalysts and components for fuel cells; catalysts and technologies for
chemical processes; fine chemicals; chemical catalysts and active pharmaceutical
ingredients; and the marketing, refining, and fabrication of precious metals. Johnson
Matthey products are sold across the world to a wide range of advanced technology
industries.

A numerical comparison of mixing efficiencies of solids in a cylindrical vessel


subject to a range of motions

M. Marigo, D. L. Cairns, M. Davies and E. H. Stitt, Johnson Matthey Catalyst, Billingham,


UK;
A. Ingram, Birmingham University, Birmingham, UK

Introduction
The mixing of solids is a fundamentally important unit operation in the pharmaceutical, food
and agricultural industries, as well as many others. Controlling the mixing mechanisms is key
to achieving the desired characteristics for a final product; this is difficult to design from first
principles since, in spite of considerable research, fundamental understanding remains
incomplete.

The mixing mechanisms will depend on the mixing action of the mixer (a wide range of
possible designs) and the flow behaviour of the particles. Rotating cylinders for example are
widely used as mixers. In batch mode they usually they consist of a horizontal cylinder
rotating around the central axis [1,2,3,4,5].The motion of the granular bed is predominantly
rotation about the cylinder axis with a cascading free surface: mixing occurs predominantly
in the cross-section with some axial dispersion [6].

Y. L. Ding, R. N. Forster, J. P. K. Seville, D. J. Parker, Scaling relationships for rotating


drums, Chemical Engineering Science 56 (2001), pp. 3737-3750

Y. L. Ding, R. Forster, J. P. K. Seville, D. J. Parker Granular motion in rotating drums: bed


turnover time and slumpingrolling transition, Powder Technology 124 (2002), pp. 18-27

Matthew T. Hardin, Tony Howes, David A. Mitchell Mass transfer correlations for rotating
drum bioreactors, Journal of Biotechnology 97 (2002), pp. 89-101

A.C. Santomaso, Y.L. Ding, J.R. Lickiss, D.W. York, Investigation of the Granular Behaviour
in a Rotating Drum Operated over a Wide Range of Rotational Speed, Chemical Engineering
Research and Design 81 (2003), pp. 936-945

Abdel-Zaher M. Abouzeid, Douglas W. Fuerstenau, Mixingdemixing of particulate solids in


rotating drums, International Journal of Mineral Processing 95 (2010), pp. 40-46

Powder mixing: some practical rules applied to agitated systems M.Poux, J. Bertrand 1990

Slow axial mixing, can be enhanced by incorporating a rocking motion of controlled


amplitude and frequency, this added perturbation accelerates the mixing process [7]. Other
types of motion can therefore be applied to try to enhance mixing in the axial direction: the
hoop mixer and Turbula mixer are typical examples. In both of these examples the material
to be mixed is placed inside a cylindrical mixing vessel which is then subjected to complex,
yet regular, motion. In the hoop mixer the longitudinal axis of the cylindrical container is
inclined at an angle to a horizontal axis of rotation. Under this condition the granular bed is
subjected to radial and axial movement as a result of the gravitational forces which are
acting periodically in the axial direction due to the inclination and the revolving movement of
the cylinder [8]. The movement of the cylindrical container located within the Turbula mixer
chamber comprises two rotations and a horizontal translation. The material within the vessel
is therefore subjected to intensive, periodically pulsating movements as result of the sharp
reversal in direction of translation and the rapid change in orientation of the vessel [9,10].

The purpose of the work reported here is to evaluate the power of DEM to help understand
flow processes and explain mixing mechanisms in different mixing equipments: horizontal
rotating drum, the hoop mixer and the Turbula mixer.

Approach
The commercial three-dimensional DEM code (EDEM 2.3) has been used in this work.

The three different motions (rotating drum, hoop mixer, Turbula mixer) have been applied to
a cylindrical container, 45 mm in diameter and 80 mm in length, as shown in Fig.1. The
granular system comprises two differently coloured and initially segregated fractions of
otherwise identical monosized spherical particles (3 mm, 9000 particles, 50% fill level) and

Carolyn Wightman, Fernando J. Muzzio, Mixing of granular material in a drum mixer


undergoing rotational and rocking motions I. Uniform particles, Powder Technology 98 (1998),
pp. 113-124

M. Aoun-Habbache, M. Aoun, H. Berthiaux, V. Mizonov, An experimental method and a


Markov chain model to describe axial and radial mixing in a hoop mixer, Powder Technology
128 (2002), pp. 159-167

N. Sommier, P. Porion, P. Evesque, B. Leclerc, P. Tchoreloff, G. Couarraze, Magnetic


resonance imaging investigation of the mixing-segregation process in a pharmaceutical
blender, International Journal of Pharmaceutics 222 (2001), pp. 243-258

10

M. Marigo, D.L. Cairns, M. Davies, M. Cook, A. Ingram, E.H. Stitt, Developing Mechanistic
Understanding of Granular Behaviour in Complex Moving Geometry using the Discrete

two different initial filling conditions have been considered, transverse and axial filling
patterns.

Figure 1: Representation patterns used in the simulation for the three mixers. (a) Transverse
filling (b) Axial filling.

The rate and extent of mixing, quantified using a segregation index based on contacts
between two discretely labelled but otherwise identical fractions, was shown to depend on
equipment motion, operating speed and the initial distribution of the fractions.

Results
As shown in Fig.2 the effect of rotational speed is investigated in case of rotating drum filled
for both the filling patterns and the well known characteristics of the horizontal drum
operating in rolling mode were demonstrated: excellent transverse mixing and poor axial
mixing; both improving with speed as the depth of the active layer is shown to increase:
transverse and axial loading. As expected it can be noticed that in case of axial filling the
mixing is very slow as result of only purely dispersive mechanism in axial direction. In cases
of transverse filling the rate of mixing rate is fast since for a rotating drum the radial mixing is
very effective and higher rotation speed leads enhance mixing performance.

Figure 2: Comparison of the segregation index in case of a rotating drum at different speeds.

The hoop mixer incorporates off-axis rotation, causing periodic tilting of the cylinder axis.
The angle of inclination creates a rocking effect, which forces material movement along the
longitudinal axes of the container as highlighted by the black arrows in Fig.3.

Figure 3: Magnitude of velocity in case of hoop mixer.

A comparison between the different types of mixers for the characteristic number of rotation
Nmix (reciprocal rate of mixing) is shown in Fig.4. Interestingly, at low speeds the hoop
mixer and simple rotating drum exhibit similar transverse mixing but increasing speed has
the opposite effect: improving transverse mixing in the drum while worsening it in the hoop.
Axial mixing in the hoop mixer, on the other hand improves with speed. The Turbula displays
a very interesting relationship with speed. At low speeds, its transverse mixing performance
is the same as the horizontal drum and hoop but decreases significantly with increasing
speed, going through a minimum at medium speed before recovering completely at high
speed.

Figure 4: Comparison of rate of mixing for the three mixers.

Conclusions
The present work is an elementary comparison of the effect of axis of rotation and loading
pattern on the mixing performances for a cylindrical vessel moving according different
motions: rotating drum, hoop mixer and Turbula mixer for a drum filled with spherical
particles.

An exponential law was used to describe the mixing behaviour in terms of a characteristic
number of rotations to achieve mixing. It was observed as expected for the rotating drum
operating in rolling mode the axial mixing is purely a dispersive mechanism and the radial
mixing is dominant.

With the hoop mixer it was observed that the rocking motion causes mixing in axial direction
and that the overall mixing efficiency depends on the operating speed. The axial mixing in
case of a hoop mixer improves with the speed whereas the radial mixing slightly degrades
as the speed increases. In the case of the Turbula mixer, we observe a decrease in mixing
efficiency from 23 to 46 rpm and a subsequent increase as speed increases from 46 to 69
rpm for both axial and radial mixing. This appears to be indicative of a transition in the bed
behaviour and mixing mechanism; further experimental investigations are necessary to
properly validate the DEM model and these observations. Further experimental work has
been carried out and it will be reported by comparing DEM simulations and Positron
Emission Particle Tracking mixing experiments on similar conditions for the Turbula mixer.

Acknowledgement: MM would like to acknowledge the EU for financial support through the
Framework 6 Marie Curie Action "NEWGROWTH", contract number MEST-CT-2005020724, Johnson Matthey Plc for funding and supporting this research.

References
1
Y. L. Ding, R. N. Forster, J. P. K. Seville, D. J. Parker, Scaling relationships for
rotating drums, Chemical Engineering Science 56 (2001), pp. 3737-3750
1
Y. L. Ding, R. Forster, J. P. K. Seville, D. J. Parker Granular motion in rotating drums:
bed turnover time and slumpingrolling transition, Powder Technology 124 (2002), pp. 18-27
1
Matthew T. Hardin, Tony Howes, David A. Mitchell Mass transfer correlations for
rotating drum bioreactors, Journal of Biotechnology 97 (2002), pp. 89-101
1
A.C. Santomaso, Y.L. Ding, J.R. Lickiss, D.W. York, Investigation of the Granular
Behaviour in a Rotating Drum Operated over a Wide Range of Rotational Speed, Chemical
Engineering Research and Design 81 (2003), pp. 936-945
1
Abdel-Zaher M. Abouzeid, Douglas W. Fuerstenau, Mixingdemixing of particulate
solids in rotating drums, International Journal of Mineral Processing 95 (2010), pp. 40-46
1
1990

Powder mixing: some practical rules applied to agitated systems M.Poux, J. Bertrand

1
Carolyn Wightman, Fernando J. Muzzio, Mixing of granular material in a drum mixer
undergoing rotational and rocking motions I. Uniform particles, Powder Technology 98
(1998), pp. 113-124
1
M. Aoun-Habbache, M. Aoun, H. Berthiaux, V. Mizonov, An experimental method
and a Markov chain model to describe axial and radial mixing in a hoop mixer, Powder
Technology 128 (2002), pp. 159-167
1
N. Sommier, P. Porion, P. Evesque, B. Leclerc, P. Tchoreloff, G. Couarraze,
Magnetic resonance imaging investigation of the mixing-segregation process in a
pharmaceutical blender, International Journal of Pharmaceutics 222 (2001), pp. 243-258
1
M. Marigo, D.L. Cairns, M. Davies, M. Cook, A. Ingram, E.H. Stitt, Developing
Mechanistic Understanding of Granular Behaviour in Complex Moving Geometry using the
Discrete Element Method. Part A: Measurement and Reconstruction of Turbula Mixer
Motion using Positron Emission Particle Tracking, Computer Modeling in Engineering and
Sciences 1591 (2010), pp.1-22

Lunar Dust Mitigation by Travelling Electrostatic


Waves
Nima Gharib; Peter Radziszewski
McGill University

Nima Gharib
PhD Candidate, Neptec Rover Team (NRT),
Delft, The Netherlands
The Neptec Rover Team (NRT), which includes some of the industrys leading
technology experts, was brought together to investigate, conceptually design, and
test lunar mobility systems for the Canadian Space Agency. This highly experienced
team has been working together to develop technology for the new Lunar Exploration
Light Rover (LELR). The McGill University team focuses on the definition,
development and validation of a compliant wheel; on the effect of operating one or
more of the recommended mobility systems while in the presence of the fine,
abrasive dust on the lunar surface; and on the identification of strategies to mitigate
dust infiltration and component wear.
The Department of Mechanical Engineering at McGill University has a long
history of excellence in research and teaching. For more than a century, we have
been committed to train the next generation of innovators, industrial leaders and
academics.

Lunar Dust Mitigation by Travelling Electrostatic Waves


Nima Gharib (PhD Candidate), Peter Radziszewski (Associate Professor)

Department of Mechanical Engineering, McGill University, 3480 University St.,


Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3A 2A7

Introduction
Lunar dust is expected to be electrostatically charged due to solar UV irradiation and its
exposure to the solar wind and cosmic rays. The charged dust particles hover above the
surface of the moon and cover everything that they come into contact with. The dust
particles are so fine and also very abrasive. From mission documents of the six Apollo
missions that landed on the surface of the moon, dust related problems is categorized into
nine main groups; vision obscuration, false instrument reading, lost of foot traction, dust
coating and contamination, seal failures, clogging of mechanisms, abrasion of materials,
thermal control problems, and inhalation and irritation risk. Thereby keeping dust away from
electrical, mechanical and visual devices is a way to increase life expediency of the parts
and be able to have longer mission duration [1].

Lack of atmosphere, high temperature fluctuation and limitation on material quantity that can
be carried to the moon, restrict us to apply terrestrial approaches for sweeping dust away
from surfaces. In this work the possibility of generating traveling electro-magnetic waves by
electric curtain and using electrostatic and dielectrophoretic forces for dust removal is
investigated. Electric curtain is a device consists of parallel electrodes connected to single or
multi AC power source(s). It generates travelling electromagnetic waves so that particles
within the generated field would move based on their polarity along or against the direction
of the field [2, 4, 6]. The electro-magnetic field can acts as a contactless conveyor which
reduces the potential of damaging delicate surfaces.

Approach
Planar, circular, and tubular configurations have been selected bearing in mind the potential
application they might be used. In the case of tubular configuration both inside and outside
of the tube is studied. Each device is connected to a 3-phase AC power source with the
frequency of 50 Hz. There is a phase lag of /3 between each phase which provides
continuous moving waves that will act as an electro-magnetic conveyor.

In the first step the electric fields generated by each configuration need to be determined.
ElecNet software developed by Infolytica Corporation utilize with Finite Element Method to
determine the electric fields around each geometry. The resulting electric field is shown in
Figure 1.

In the second step the calculated electric field is divided into seven time steps and then
imported to EDEM 2.3 particle simulation software with the additional field manager
module. Material properties used during the simulations are listed in Table 1.

Table 1. Material properties


0.25
Poissons ratio
1e08 Pa
Shear modulus
1000 kg/m3
Density
0.4 eV
Work function
0.5
Coefficient of restitution
0.5
Coefficient of static friction
Coefficient of rolling friction 0.01
The particles created by particle factory for all cases are simple spherical particles and
have electric charge of 10-15C. The effect of electric field on uncharged particles with sharp
edges only studied for planar configuration. In this case two types of particles are created
one simple spherical particles and second paired spherical particles made by two
overlapping spheres in order to better model the shape of lunar dust. For the last case
particles do not have initial electric charge instead for the particles and the surface where
they come into contact with work function for is defined. In the other word the particles get
charged by contacting each other and also the surface. That was introduced to the model by
implementing Tribocharging feature of EDEM.

(a)

(b)

(c)
Fig. 1. Moving electric field generated by (a) planar (b) tubular (c) configuration while
connected
3 phase AC power source

Results
After the particle created and deposited on the surfaces the modified External Force is
added to the model and the simulations were run for another few more time steps. The API
was modified so that it reads seven data series from field manager to calculate the forces
on the particles. As shown in the Fig. 2 after the device is turned on, the particles experience
the electric field and move along or against it based on their polarity.

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Fig. 2 Dust removal by electrostatic forces in (a) planar (b) tubular-outside (c) tubular-inside
(d) circular configurations
Discussion
The efficiency of this method is depends on the particle size, the activation frequency,
voltage profile, distance between electrodes, electrode diameters, and the medium the

device is working in. Therefore to obtain a smooth movement of dust particles above
mentioned variables need to be optimized.

We plan to do some experiments in very low temperature and vacuum condition to simulate
the working condition on the moon and show the potential use of electric curtain for future
space missions.

Acknowledgement
The authors would like to thank Neptec and CSA as well as NSERC CRD program for the
financial support of this project and also DEM Solutions. Ltd., Edinburgh, Scotland, UK, for
their help and their advices

References
[1] J. R. Gaier (2005) NASA, GRC. NASA/TM, Abstract #2005-213610.
[2] A. S. Biris, D. Saini et. al. (2004) IEEE, 2, 12831287.
[3] S. Masuda, et al. (1988) IEEE, 24, 217-222.
[4] M. K. Mazumder, R. Sharma, et al, (2007), Particulate Science and Technology, 25, 5-20.
[5] S. Masuda, T. Kamimura (1975) Journal of Electrostaics,1, 351-370.
[6] F. M. Moenser (1995) IEEE, Abstact # 0-7803-2503-6.
[7] DEM Solutions, Ltd. (2010), EDEM 2.3 User Guide, Copyright 2010, Edinburgh,
Scotland, UK.

Particle Scale Modelling Of Frictional-Adhesive


Granular Materials
John P. Morrissey; Jin Sun; Jian-Fei Chen; Jin Y. Ooi;
University of Edinburgh

John P. Morrissey
PhD Candidate, Silos and Granular Solids Research Group, Institute for
Infrastructure & Environment, School of Engineering
Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom
The Silos and Granular Solids Research Group has conducted research and
consultancy in the areas of shell structures, particulate solids mechanics and bulk
handling in support of innovative engineering solutions for over 20 years. The Group
have worked on a wide spectrum of topics including computational modelling of
solids and structures, functional and structural design of silo structures, including
their codification in design standards, material characterization and experimentation,
including solids flow and silo pressures. The focus of recent research is to transform
DEM numerical technique from a largely scientific tool into a quantitative predictive
tool.
The Institute for Infrastructure & Environment (IEE), one of five research
institutes of the School of Engineering at the University of Edinburgh, is one of
Scotland's foremost centres for research in our Built and Natural Environment. The
IEEs academic and research staff and postgraduate students together form four
Research Groups covering an extensive range of topics related to the field of Civil &
Environmental Engineering.

Particle Scale Modelling Of Frictional-Adhesive Granular Materials

John P. Morrissey*, Jin Sun*, Jian-Fei Chen*, Jin Y. Ooi*


*
Institute for Infrastructure & Environment (IIE), University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh,
Scotland.

E-mail: J.Morrissey@ed.ac.uk

AbSTRACT
The cohesive strength of a sticky industrial bulk solid is generally recognised to be
dependent on the prior consolidation stress exerted on the bulk solid. As a result of this
characteristic, the previous stress states of a bulk solid leading up to a handling scenario
need to be considered when evaluating the handling behaviour of bulk materials. Many of
the currently implemented DEM contact models that attempt to account for the adhesion that
develops within a granular material, such as the JKR model [1] or capillary force models
[2,3], fail to capture this stress history dependent behaviour and as such may not be
representative of a bulk solid in many handling and processing operations.

This paper describes the development of a new contact model in EDEM that accounts for
this stress history dependent frictional-adhesive behaviour. It is assumed that the adhesive
forces arising within the granular solid from the consolidation stress are responsible for the
handling problems related to bulk materials during production and storage, where high levels
of adhesion developing during material storage can lead to blockages near outlets during
discharge.

In this study a meso-scale approach is adopted here where the aim is to reproduce the
observed stress history dependent bulk behaviour. As a first attempt, a relatively simple bilinear spring model giving rise to plastic permanent deformation [4-10] was chosen for the
contact model. A single adhesive force parameter is defined as a function of the maximum
contact overlap for each contact which is tracked continuously throughout the simulation.

The DEM simulations were conducted using EDEM v2.3 particle simulation software, with
the contact model implemented through the use of the API feature [11,12]. Custom contact
properties were used to record the stress history for the simulation. The initial results show
that the contact model can capture the stress history dependent cohesive behaviour of bulk
materials.

REFERENCES
[1]
K.L. Johnson, K. Kendall, and A. Roberts, Surface energy and the contact of elastic
solids, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical
Sciences, vol. 324, 1971, p. 301313.
[2]
G. Lian and C. Thornton, A theoretical study of the liquid bridge forces between two
rigid spherical bodies, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 161, 1993, pp. 138-147.
[3]
T. Groger, U. T z n, and D.M. Heyes, Modelling and measuring of cohesion in wet
granular materials, Powder Technology, vol. 133, 2003, pp. 203-215.
[4]
S. Luding, R. Tykhoniuk, and J. Tomas, Anisotropic Material Behavior in Dense,
Cohesive-Frictional Powders, Chemical Engineering & Technology, vol. 26, Dec. 2003, pp.
1229-1232.
[5]
S. Luding, Anisotropy in cohesive, frictional granular media, Journal of Physics:
Condensed Matter, vol. 17, Jun. 2005, p. S2623-S2640.
[6]
S. Luding, Shear flow modeling of cohesive and frictional fine powder, Powder
Technology, vol. 158, 2005, pp. 45-50.
[7]
S. Luding, K. Manetsberger, and J. Mullers, A discrete model for long time sintering,
Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, vol. 53, Feb. 2005, pp. 455-491.
[8]
S. Luding, Cohesive, frictional powders: contact models for tension, Granular
Matter, vol. 10, 2008, pp. 235-246.
[9]
J. Tomas, Fundamentals of cohesive powder consolidation and flow, Gran. Matt.,
vol. 6, 2004, pp. 75-86.
[10]
J. Tomas, Micromechanics of ultrafine particle adhesioncontact models, AIP
Conference Proceedings, American Institute of Physics, 2 Huntington Quadrangle, Suite 1
NO 1, Melville, NY, 11747-4502, USA,, 2009, p. 781.
[11]

DEM Solutions Ltd., EDEM 2.3 User Guide, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK. 2010.

[12]

DEM Solutions Ltd., EDEM 2.3 Programming Guide, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK. 2010.

Simulation of Pneumatic Conveying Flow Regimes by


Coupled EDEM-FLUENT
Mohammadreza Ebrahimi, Martin Crapper
The University of Edinburgh

Mohammadreza Ebrahimi
PhD Student, PARDEM, Institute of Infrastructure and Environment,
School of Engineering
Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom

The PARDEM project (PARticle Systems: Training on DEM Simulation


for Industrial and Scientific Applications) brings together industrial and
academic partners to develop the Discrete Element Method (DEM) of modelling and
to predict the behaviour of granular solids such as pellets, grains, sand and biomass
for industrial applications.
The Institute for Infrastructure & Environment (IEE), one of five research
institutes of the School of Engineering at the University of Edinburgh, is one of
Scotland's foremost centres for research in our Built and Natural Environment. The
IEEs academic and research staff and postgraduate students together form four
Research Groups covering an extensive range of topics related to the field of Civil &
Environmental Engineering.

Simulation of pneumatic conveying flow regimes by coupled EDEM-FLUENT

Mohammadreza Ebrahimi and Martin Crapper


Institute of Infrastructure and Environment, School of Engineering, The University of
Edinburgh, The Kings Buildings, Edinburgh, EH9 3JL, UK
To whom correspondence should be addressed: m.ebrahimi@ed.ac.uk

Abstract:
Pneumatic conveying is widely used in various industries for solid handling and
transportation. Generally, depending on particle properties, gas velocity and system
geometry various flow regimes may take place in pneumatic lines. In this study diverse flow
patterns in vertical and horizontal pneumatic conveying are simulated by using coupled
EDEM-FLUENT software. The fluid phase is simulated by using FLUENT to solve timeaveraged Navier-Stokes equation and solid phase is modelled as discrete elements by using
DEM software, EDEM. Two-way coupling through the full momentum exchange between gas
and solid phases is applied in simulation and Eulerian-Lagrangian method is selected to
have better insight to the particle level phenomena.

All operating conditions and particle properties have been extracted from Lim et al.(Lim,
Wang, & Yu, 2006) study to re-simulate their results. For horizontal pneumatic conveying
plug flow, stratified flow, moving dunes and homogeneous flow, and for vertical conveying
dispersed and plug flow are simulated to show the ability of commercial software to resimulate DEM-CFD code results. For vertical and horizontal pneumatic conveying effect of
gas velocity on the radial solid concentration profile is also investigated.

0.5 s

2s

8s

10 s

Fig1. Dispersed flow regime in vertical pneumatic conveying (gas velocity 24 m/s, 500
particles)
The results illustrate that coupled EDEM-FLUENT software can simulate the gas-solid phase
systems modelled by CFD-DEM code accurately and this software may open a promising
way for further development in two-phase modelling.
Reference:
Lim, E. W. C., Wang, C. H., & Yu, A. B. (2006). Discrete element simulation for pneumatic
conveying of granular material. Aiche Journal, 52(2), 496-509

Bond Models in EDEM


N. Brown; J.F. Chen; J.Y. Ooi;
University of Edinburgh,
S. Cole and M. Cook, DEM Solutions
Nick Brown
Ph.D Candidate, Silos and Granular Solids Research Group, Institute of
Infrastructure and Environment, School of Engineering
Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom
The Silos and Granular Solids Research Group has conducted research and
consultancy in the areas of shell structures, particulate solids mechanics and bulk
handling in support of innovative engineering solutions for over 20 years. The Group
have worked on a wide spectrum of topics including computational modelling of
solids and structures, functional and structural design of silo structures, including
their codification in design standards, material characterization and experimentation,
including solids flow and silo pressures. The focus of recent research is to transform
DEM numerical technique from a largely scientific tool into a quantitative predictive
tool.
The Institute for Infrastructure & Environment (IEE), one of five research
institutes of the School of Engineering at the University of Edinburgh, is one of
Scotland's foremost centres for research in our Built and Natural Environment. The
IEEs academic and research staff and postgraduate students together form four
Research Groups covering an extensive range of topics related to the field of Civil &
Environmental Engineering.

Stephen Cole and Mark Cook


Senior Consulting Engineers
DEM Solutions provides the world-leading DEM simulation technology and the
simulation know-how to address the needs of companies who handle and process
bulk materials ranging from coal, ores, and soil to pellets, tablets and powders.

Determination of Optimal Process Parameters


and Materials using DEM
lvaro Guerra Snchez de la Nieta, Jess Las Heras Casas,
Andrs Garca Pascual, Fernando Alba Elas
Universidad de La Rioja

lvaro Guerra Snchez de la Nieta


Industrial Engineer; PhD Student, Product Innovation and Industrial
Processes, Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Industrial
Engineering
Logroo, La Rioja, Spain
In Product Innovation and Industrial Processes, engineers focus on the
development of technical capability to design products and processes and efficiently
manage both, from a technological and economic standpoint.
The School of Industrial Engineering at the Universidad del La Rioja offers
degrees in Electrical Engineering, Industrial Electronics Engineering, Mechanical
Engineering, and Industrial Engineering.

Determination of optimal process parameters and materials using DEM


Guerra Snchez de la Nieta, lvaro, (Universidad de La Rioja, Logroo, La Rioja, Espaa);
Las Heras Casas, Jess, (Universidad de La Rioja, Logroo, La Rioja, Espaa); Garca
Pascual, Andrs, (Universidad de La Rioja, Logroo, La Rioja, Espaa); Alba Elas,
Fernando, (Universidad de La Rioja, Logroo, La Rioja, Espaa).

Introduction
At present, the following methods that are used for dosing additives in preserved foods are
liquid dosing (additives dissolved in the canning liquid) and dry dosing (additives in
powdered or tablet-form). Dry dosing methods are more hygienic and precise than liquid
dosing, imbuing the end foodstuffs with greater quality and safety. However, dry dosing is
used less frequently than liquid dosing because of high labor costs and low productivity.

Thus, an automatic dosing device was designed to provide the use of food additives in the
solid phase, specifically in the form of tablets, avoiding the discharge of wastewater. As a
direct result, the water used in the process is free of any corrosive agent. This extends the
useful life of the canning line machinery. Also, this dosing method improve both productivity
and the safety-quality of the end product, compared with the other dry dosing methods.

This research aims to optimize the devices serializer mechanism that we have patented
(Device for supplying / packaged tablets dosing for the food industry; EP1595795). In this
mechanism, a driving force acting on a pair of blades that rotate in the opposite direction,
and determining each unit step to the tablets (Figure 1).

Figure 1: Serialization mechanism: (left) sequence of operation, (right) mechanism operating


in laboratory prototype

Primarily, we tried several geometries of the blades for the tablets (Figure 2).

Figure 2: Some blade designs for the serialization mechanism

Approach
The dosing system is shown below. The purpose is to find the angle and speed of blade
optimal.

Figure 3: (left) Prototype in industrial process, (middle) Catia Dossing prototype model,
(right) Test Dossing prototype

Material

Poissons
Ratio

Shear Modulus

Density

Salt

0,2500

1,e+04

2165,0000

Aluminium

0,3500

3,e+10

2700,0000

Polycarbonate

0,3700

8,e+08

1200,0000

Interaction

Coef.
Restitution

Static Friction

Rolling Friction

Salt-Salt

0,5000

0,4500

0,0500

Salt-Aluminium 0,5000

0,3000

0,0100

Salt-Polycarb.

0,5000

0,3300

0,0100

Table 1: Materials characteristics and interactions

Figure 4: (left) Catia tablet model, (center and right) Several particle models created with
different radius and number of surfaces. The tablet model, as particle, is designed to use it
as template to conform with different numbers of surfaces and find a compromise between
simulation time and his approach to real model.

Figure 5: (left) Blade configuration parameters, (right) Geometry model of dossing device in
EDEM

Figure 6: Factory designed to emulate the tablet fallen into the prototypes hooper

Figure 7: Simulation parameter configuration

Results

Figure 8: Dossing velocity

Figure 9: (left) Particles compressive, (right) Particles total force

Discussion
This automatic dossing device provides advantages in the food industry: improving
productivity, cost efficiency. According to achieved results in modelling and process
simulation using EDEM, related to real behaviour, this tool is appropriate for this process.
EDEM is an efficient and fast tool to optimize device parameters, like the hoopers angle or
blades shape.

In a future work, we hope using EDEM Results data to integrate with data mining
techniques. The objective will be take the best data to feedback it into the model (frictions,
blades velocity or angle) to minimize contacts forces between the tablets, which produce
mass loss in each. Another important task is the calibration of a vibration system to avoid
tablet jams. Moreover, it will let fix a non excessive angle and must respect the tablets mass.

Acknowledgements
This work is made possible thanks to support from the Regional Research Plan of the
Autonomous Community of La Rioja (Spain) through the project FOMENTA 2010/02, and
from the University of La Rioja through the project API10/15.

References
DEM Solutions, Ltd. (2010), EDEM 2.2 User Guide, Copyright 2009, Edinburgh,
Scotland, UK.

Alba, Fernando, Ordieres, Joaquin, Vergara, Eliseo, Martnez de Pisn, Francisco Javier
and Castejn Manuel (2005), European patent, EP 1 595 795 A1, Device for
supplying/dosing packaged tablets for the food industry.

Alba, Fernando, Ordieres, Joaquin, Vergara, Eliseo, Martnez de Pisn, FranciscoJavier,


Perna, Alpha Vernica, Castejn, Manuel and Gonzlez, Ana (2005), Utility model, ES 1
059 831, Comprimido de producto aditivo para su dosificacin automtica a envases en la
industria alimentaria.

Alba, Fernando, Ordieres, Joaquin, Vergara, Eliseo, Martnez de Pisn, Francisco Javier
and Castejn, Manuel (2007), Previous test patent, ES 2 277 503, Mejoras introducidas en
la patente de invencin n P200202907 por: Suministrador-dosificador de comprimidos a
envases para la industria alimentaria.

DEM simulation of parameter effects


in the shot peening process
Kov Murugaratnam, Department of Engineering Science.
University of Oxford

Kovthaman Murugaratnam
DPhil Student, Discrete Element Research Group, Department of
Engineering Science
Oxford, United Kingdom
Murugaratnams research In the Discrete Element Research Group focuses on the
Shot peening optimization using DEM and is funded by the Engineering and Physical
Sciences Research Council (EPSRC), DEM Solutions, and Rolls Royce.
The Department of Engineering Science at Oxford is the only unified department in
the UK which offers accredited courses in all the major branches of engineering. A
broad view of engineering, based on a scientific approach to the fundamentals, is
part of the tradition that started with our foundation in 1908 - one hundred years of
educating great engineers, and researching at the cutting edge

DEM simulation of Parameter effects in the Shot Peening Process


By Kov Murugaratnam, Department of Engineering Science
University of Oxford, Room 11, Jenkin Building, Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PJ
mob: +44 (0) 7837975376

Abstract
Compressive residual stresses are beneficial in enhancing the fatigue life of metal
components. Shot peening (SP) is an industrial cold working process that is applied to
induce a field of compressive residual stresses and modify the mechanical properties of the
metal component. The SP process involves impacting a surface with tiny shots with forces
sufficient to create plastic deformation. The process is governed by a number of important
parameters, such as the shot size, angle of attack, and impact velocity and mass flow rate.
But the relation among the desired peening effect, particularly the residual stress distribution
of the treated surface and the peening parameters is still unknown and need to be
investigated. Modelling the process is very complex as it involves the interaction of a metallic
surface with large number of shots of very small diameter. Shot peening parameters are
customarily chosen on the basis of either empirical laws or past practice.
The objective of this work is to develop a discrete element model that can suitably simulate
the shot peening process so that parameters may be chosen on the basis of mechanical
considerations. A discrete element model with numerous randomly distributed steel shots
bombarding a steel component at various velocities is developed as an example. With this
model, the shot peening shot-shot interaction and shot-target interaction and particularly the
surface coverage, angle of impingement, shot size, impact velocity and the overall shot flow
can be studied in detail and with limited computational effort. A new technique to dynamically
change the coefficient of restitution for repeated impacts of shots in the same spot was
implemented.

Failure Modes Observed in Geobag


Revetment using EDEM
Aysha Akter, Gareth Pender, Grant Wright
School of Built Environment, Heriot Watt University
Martin Crapper, The University of Edinburgh
WaiSam Wong DEM Solutions Ltd
Aysha Aktera
PhD Student , Water Management Research Group, School of Built
Environment,
Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom
Sustainable Water Management Research Group has a strong reputation in
delivering advanced research in all aspects of water management. This group
combines a vast range of expertise following a multi-disciplinary approach against
the new challenges set by the Water Framework Directive, the Intergovernmental
Panel on Climate Change and also the UK Government's Foresight Programme on
Flooding. Research focuses on development and numerical model application for
predicting both flow and transport problems. This research is also supported by
experimental studies in the extensive hydraulics laboratory.
School of the Built Environment at Heriot-Watt is one of the UKs leading institutions for
multidisciplinary research and teaching in the built environment and provides a collaborative
research and teaching environment for the core built environment disciplines

Failure modes observed in geobag revetment using EDEM


Aysha Aktera*, Martin Crapperb, Gareth Pendera, Grant Wrighta and WaiSam Wongc

aSchool of Built Environment , Heriot Watt University, Edinburgh, UK.


bSchool of Engineering and Electronics, The University of Edinburgh, The King's Buildings,
Edinburgh, UK.
cDEM Solutions Ltd., Edinburgh, UK.

Introduction
In recent years, sand filled geotextile bags (geobags) have been used as a means of long
term riverbank revetment stabilization. However, despite their deployment in a significant
number of locations, the failure modes of such structures are not well understood. Three
interactions influence the geobag performance, i.e., geobaggeobag, geobagwater flow
and geobagwater flowriver bank. The aim of the research reported here is to develop a
detailed understanding of the failure mechanisms in a geobag revetment using a DEM
model.

Approach
To enhance the fundamental knowledge of the performance of geobags in a revetment, work
has been carried out using 1:10 scale models of geobags, in a laboratory flume. In such
circumstances three interactions influence the geobag performance, i.e., geobaggeobag,
geobagwater flow and geobagwater flowriver bank. In the following EDEM has been
applied to simulate these interactions and replicate the laboratory observations using the 3D
discrete element method (DEM).

Firstly, for geobaggeobag interaction, the frictional resistance up to the point of geobag
sliding were unknown. To evaluate this, a dry frictional resistance test was carried out on a
wooden test rig consisting of two parts, i.e., a fixed part and the mobile part. The mobile part
of the test rig can move up to 0.10 m downward, and provides a simple representation of
riverbank toe scouring. EDEM has been applied to represent this behaviour and thus a
coefficient of friction has been obtained for the geobags.

Secondly, geobagwater flow interaction was studied using 600 model geobags in a
laboratory open channel. Different failure modes were observed at different water levels
through several experiment runs. The active hydrodynamic forces were unknown for these
failure modes. So, to mimic the laboratory observation, a one way coupling of the measured
water velocity field and geobags was run using EDEM. Thus the coefficient of drag and the

lift force applied by the flowing water to the geobags were obtained from the DEM
simulations.

Finally, the geobagwater flowriver bed interaction was studied through repetition of the
previous experiment on 0.10 m sand bed underneath the model geobag revetment. In
addition to the hydrodynamic forces, toe scouring was added as an additional parameter.
The measurements of bed changes were recorded from the laboratory and used in the
EDEM model as a moving support boundary. The same oneway coupled model as
previously applied was then used here. The findings provided clarification of geobag
movement due to combined application of the hydrodynamic forces and toe scouring.

Velocity (m/s)

Mobile

-Laboratory revetment setup


of 120 geobags on wooden
test rig showed some
movements with a 0.01 m
downward motion of the
mobile part.

Fixed
Velocity (m/s)

-EDEM geobag revetment


replicates the movement
well.

-EDEM geobag revetment


replicates the observed
failure due to frictional force
in laboratory setup well.

Figure 1: Dry condition: EDEM prediction compared with laboratory observation


(for determination of the coefficient of static friction)

Results
Given variations in bag size used in the experiment, tolerance limits in their initial placement,
ignorance of the bag permeability and its state of wetness, the hypothesis is that the initial
response of any layer geobags in the DEM model would indicate the critical location for bag
instability in the revetment.

Figure 1 represents the geobaggeobag interactions; the static coefficient of friction was
obtained for the desired setup as 0.55. The coefficient of drag and lift forces were acquired
for geobagwater flow interaction, these being 0.5 and 0.8 respectively (Figure 2). The same

coefficients could reproduce the laboratory observations for the geobagwater flow
interaction on a mobile sediment bed (Figure 3).

Discussions
In this study a coefficient of friction of 0.55 was found to give the best comparisons; this is
close to the published dry geotextilesand interaction, which gives a coefficient of friction of
0.57 to 0.70 [1, 2] and to the finding by Recio and Oumeraci [3], for geobag geobag
interaction under waves, which was 0.53.

A coefficient of drag of 0.5 and coefficient of lift of 0.8 show good agreement with laboratory
observations in higher water level conditions. In the first experiment, the movement of bags
started in the bottommost layer due to void flow; the DEM model did not predict this,
although it did reproduce the bag movement in the surface level layer and the one below
this.

For more practical interactions (i.e., the geobagwater flow interaction on mobile sediment
bed), the DEM model gave good representation of revetment failure modes in all of the
selected water level conditions, and provides a useful tool for characterizing incipient
revetment failure.

References
1.Garcin P., Faure Y.H., Gourc J.P. and Purwanto E. (1995), Behaviour of Geosynthetic
Clay Liner (GCL): Laboratory Tests, Proceedings 5th International Symposium on Landfill.
Calgary, 1, pp. 347-358.
2.NAUE GmbH &Co. KG. (2006), Advantages of Needle-punched Secutex and Terrafix
Nonwoven Geotextiles, NAUE GmbH &Co. KG, Germany.
3.Recio, J. & Oumeraci, H. (2009), Processes affecting the hydraulic stability of coastal
revetments made of geotextile sand containers, Coastal Engineering 56, 260284.

Acknowledgement
This study is being carried out under the Joint Research Institute (JRI) collaboration in Civil
and Environmental Engineering. Funding for this work from Heriot Watt University through a
James Watt Scholarship and additional support from DEM Solutions Limited and NAUE
GmbH & Co, are gratefully acknowledged.

A1.Laboratory

revetment height.

A2.DEM model

water level equal to 85% to 100% of the


revetment height.

water level up to 49% of the

FLOW

Void flow initiated in the


bottom-most layer of bags and
propagated to the next layer
as this became less
supported.

FLOW

The surface water level layer


and the next layer showed
outward movement of the
upstream outer corner. Thus
the bottom-most layers
became exposed to water.
B1.Laboratory

FLOW

Outward movement of
upstream outer corner
adjacent to water surface.

B2.DEM model
Outward movement of
upstream outer corner
adjacent to water surface.
FLOW

Figure 2(A1 to B2): Visual validation of the DEM simulation against laboratory observations

A2

A1

Flow

A3

Flow
Velocity (m/s)

A4

Velocity (m/s)

A5

water level equal to 85% to 100% of the revetment height. water level up to 49% of the revetment height.

Flow

Flow

Laboratory
A1: Void flow and sliding in the bottom layer;
A2:Detail of failure mode; and
A3: End of the experiment showing ripple bed formation along with a few bags
displaced in the bottommost layer.
DEM Model
A4: Bottommost layer showing displacement;
A5: Details of bag displacement showing outward movement of the upstream outer
corner of the bag, similar to A1 and reversed from A2. By comparing with A3, DEM
can be seen to represent failure initiation.
B1

B2

Flow

B3

Flow

Velocity (m/s)

Velocity (m/s)

B5

B4

Flow
Flow

Laboratory
B1: Void flow causes uplifting in the bottom-most layer and at the same time sliding
due to overtopping is observed in the next to the surface water level layer.

B2: Detail of bag movement direction; and


B3: End of the experiment.
DEM Model
B4 and B5: good representation of bag displacement initiation in the bottommost
layer and the next to the surface water level layer. Bag movement directions are
opposite in these two cases. The second category displacement is similar to the
rigid bed overtopping case, and the displacement direction not only satisfies the B2
observation but also confirms that water drag is the significant force. Thus the
reverse direction movement for the first category is due to bed erosion

Figure 3 (A1 to B5): Visual validation of the DEM simulation against laboratory observations

A DEM Application to Improve the Design


of an Industrial Prototype
lvaro Guerra Snchez de la Nieta, Andrs Garca Pascual,
Jess Las Heras Casas, Fernando Alba Elas,
Universidad de La Rioja

lvaro Guerra Snchez de la Nieta


Industrial Engineer; PhD Student, Product Innovation and Industrial
Processes, Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Industrial
Engineering
Logroo, La Rioja, Spain
In Product Innovation and Industrial Processes engineers focus on the
development of technical capability to design products and processes and efficiently
manage both, from a technological and economic standpoint.
The School of Industrial Engineering at the Universidad del La Rioja offers
degrees in Electrical Engineering, Industrial Electronics Engineering, Mechanical
Engineering, and Industrial Engineering.

A DEM application to improve the design of an industrial prototype


Guerra Snchez de la Nieta, lvaro, (Universidad de La Rioja, Logroo, La Rioja, Espaa);
Garca Pascual, Andrs, (Universidad de La Rioja, Logroo, La Rioja, Espaa); Las Heras
Casas, Jess, (Universidad de La Rioja, Logroo, La Rioja, Espaa); Alba Elas, Fernando,
(Universidad de La Rioja, Logroo, La Rioja, Espaa).

Introduction
This work presents how EDEM [1] can be used to improve the design of a new mixer for the
food and pharmaceutical industries. Although the existing mixing industrial prototype (figure
1) already provides adequate times and proportions suitable for further processing
(according to the tests carried out with different granulated materials), it is possible to further
improve its performance by means of numerical simulations. Due to the characteristics of the
materials to be mixed, EDEM is suitable to improve the design of the prototype by modifying,
for instance, the geometry and angle of the blades, the speed of rotation, etc. Thus, a more
efficient design can be obtained in an economical way. At this moment, the optimal
parameters of the simulations in order to achieve the real mixing process results have been
accomplished.

Figure 1. Mixing Industrial Prototype

Approach
The first step was to get a virtual model with EDEM to reproduce the mixing process (figure
2).

Figure 2. Virtual simulation of industrial mixing prototype with EDEM.

Different types of simulations with different particle sizes, densities, friction coefficients, etc.
were analysed in order to find out the optimal parameters which replicate what actually
happens with the industrial mixing prototype (figures 3 and 4).

Thanks to the study conducted by Hassanpour et al [2], it can be considered that larger
particles with a density equivalent to the bulk density of powders are moving with the same
momentum than packets of fine particles. According to this, it was possible to reduce the
computing time by using larger particles, as Table 1 illustrates.

Diameter of particle Simulation time


5

1061 hours (estimated)

10

453 hours (estimated)

15

169 hours (real)

20

72 hours (real)

Table 1. Simulation time of EDEM as a function of the particle size.

Figure 3. Performance testing and sampling at different times and zones.

Results

Figure 4. Different periods of time during the mixing process (experimental and virtual with
EDEM).

COMPARATIVA DE LOS PROCESOS DE MEZCLA (MTODO EXPERIMENTAL Y SIMULACIN; 25-75%).


PRUEBAS N1, N3 Y SIMULACIN 1. MUESTRA/TRAMO 1

COMPARATIVA DE LOS PROCESOS DE MEZCLA (MTODO EXPERIMENTAL Y SIMULACIN; 25-75%).


PRUEBAS N1, N3 Y SIMULACIN 1. MUESTRA/TRAMO 2

35%

35%

30%

30%

25%

25%

20%

20%

15%

15%

10%

10%

5%

5%

0%
0

60

120

180

240

Prueba experimental n 1

300

360

420

Prueba experimental n 3

480

540

600

660

720

780

840

900

960

1020

1080

1140

1200

1260

1320

0%
1380 0 1440

Tiempo de mezcla (s)

Simulacin virtual n 1

601500

1201560

1620
180

Prueba experimental n 1

1680
240

1740
300

1800
360

420

Prueba experimental n 3

COMPARATIVA DE LOS PROCESOS DE MEZCLA (MTODO EXPERIMENTAL Y SIMULACIN; 25-75%).


PRUEBAS N1, N3 Y SIMULACIN 1. MUESTRA/TRAMO 4

480

540

600

660

720

780

840

900

960

1020

1080

1140

1200

1260

1320

1380

1440

1500

1560

1620

1380

1440

1500

1560

1620

Tiempo de mezcla (s)

Simulacin virtual n 1

COMPARATIVA DE LOS PROCESOS DE MEZCLA (MTODO EXPERIMENTAL Y SIMULACIN; 25-75%).


PRUEBAS N1, N3 Y SIMULACIN 1. MUESTRA/TRAMO 5

60%

70%

55%

65%
60%

50%

55%
45%

50%
40%

45%
35%

40%
30%

35%

25%

30%

20%

25%
20%

15%
0

60

120

180

Prueba experimental n 1

240

300

360

420

Prueba experimental n 3

480

540

600

Simulacin virtual n 1

660

720

780

840

900

960

Tiempo de mezcla (s)

1020

1080

1140

1200

1260

1320

1380

0 1440 60 1500 1201560 1801620 2401680 3001740 3601800 420


Prueba experimental n 1

Prueba experimental n 3

480

540

600

Simulacin virtual n 1

660

720

780

840

900

960

1020

1080

1140

1200

1260

1320

Tiempo de mezcla (s)

Figure 5. Comparison between experimental method (industrial mixing prototype) and virtual
simulation (EDEM): mixing factor against mixing time at different zones in the mixing
chamber.

Discussion

The achieved results (figure 5) show that it is possible to obtain the appropriate simulation
parameters to model the behaviour of the real industrial mixer prototype [3,4]. EDEM is an
efficient and fast tool to optimize device parameters, and future prototypes.

The future research is focused on improve the performance of the industrial prototype based
on this EDEM model. The geometry and angle of the blades, the speed of rotation, the
chamber geometry, etc. will be modified to analyse their effect on the mixing factor and
mixing time.

Acknowledgements

This work is made possible thanks to support from the Regional Research Plan of the
Autonomous Community of La Rioja (Spain) through the project FOMENTA 2010/02, and
from the University of La Rioja through the project API10/15.

References

DEM Solutions, Ltd. (2010), EDEM 2.3 User Guide, Copyright 2010, Edinburgh,
Scotland, UK.
Hassanpour, Ali; Tan, Hongsing; Bayly, Andrew; Gopalkrishnan, Prasad; Ng, Boonho and
Ghadiri, Mojtaba (2010). Analysis of particle motion in a paddle mixer using Discrete
Element Method (DEM). Powder Technology, available online 20 August 2010.
Garca, Andrs (2008). Sistema Industrial para el acondicionamiento de aditivo alimentario.
Industrial Engineering Final Project. La Rioja University.
Garca, Andrs (2010). Anlisis del proceso de mezcla de prototipo industrial. Mtodo
experimental y simulacin virtual. Diploma of Advanced Studies. PhD courses in Project
Management. La Rioja University.

Use of DEM-Simulation in the Basic Research


on Screw Conveyors
W. A. Guenthner, S. Rakitsch
Technische Universitat Munchen

Stefan Rakitsch
Research Associate, Institute for Materials Handling Material Flow
Logistics, Mechanical Engineering
Munich, Germany
The Institute for Materials Handling Material Flow Logistics of the Technische
Universitt Mnchen is one of Germanys leading institutes in materials handling with
an experience of over 30 years in scientific research on screw conveyors.
The Technische Universitt Mnchen is one of the most research-focused
universities in Germany and Europe. The Faculty of Mechanical Engineering offers
degrees in mechanical engineering, Energy and Process Engineering, Product
Development and Design, Automotive and Combustion Engine Technology,
Aerospace Engineering, Mechanical Engineering and Management, Mechatronics
and Information Technology, Medical Technology and Nuclear Technology.

Use of DEM-Simulation in the Basic Research on Screw Conveyors

Stefan Rakitsch, Institute for Materials Handling Material Flow Logistics, Technische
Universitt Mnchen, Garching b. Mnchen, Germany;
W. A. Gnthner, Institute for Materials Handling Material Flow Logistics, Technische
Universitt Mnchen, Garching b. Mnchen, Germany;
Introduction
The research project aims at the analysis of inclined screw conveyors. Determining element
of the project is the forecast of the conveying character inside the Screw Conveyor and
therewith the designation of the achievable Volume Flows and the needed Drive Power as
functions of the geometry, operating and bulk material parameters. In order to achieve this
data for numerousness different parameter combinations are gained and statistically
evaluated. The project is funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG).

The advantages, such as the simple and robust assembly, low equipment and maintenance
costs, low susceptance to failure, and in particular the dust-proof design, often lead to the
use of screw conveyors for example in the field of bulk handling. They are used for the
vertical transport of bulk material from the hold as well as for the inclined transport on the
boom there. Other applications for inclined screw conveyors are found in the silo discharge
in cement plants. But the requirements for reliability, performance and economy but also in
terms of energy efficiency and environmental protection for conveyors for bulk materials
have risen significantly in recent years. The key parameters that need to be determined in
the sizing of screw conveyors are the achievable volume flow respectively the required
geometry and operating conditions to achieve the required flow rate and the necessary
power requirement. These targets must be determinable for the user as simple and practical,
yet safe and reliable, as possible. As there are no calculation rules existing, the project aims
in finding calculation methods for strongly inclined screw conveyors by the use of regression
analyses. A test rig is used to get the required data to develop the calculation methods. But
for e.g. geometry parameters it is not or only with considerable financial effort possible to
vary them. For this reason the decision was made to use DEM-Simulation in the project. This
paper deals with the question how a simulation model for the screw conveyors can be
prepared.

Simulation Model
Of course the screw conveyor is to be of fundamental importance in the simulation. In a first
step of abstraction, therefore, the geometry of the screw conveyor is reduced to the
necessary geometric and functional components [1]. In the case of the investigated screw
conveyor the interaction of the bulk material with the screw and the inner wall of the tube is
primarily of interest. To reduce the number of particles, therefore the function of periodic
boundaries of the simulation program is used. That means that only a short section of the
conveyor is really simulated (in this case 4 pitches). If a particle reaches the end of the
conveyor it is removed and relocated at the beginning of the conveyor with the same
characteristics (position in the cross section, speed, stresses, ...) again. In this way a quasiinfinitely long conveyor is built.

Figure 1:

Tube with Intermediate Bearing and Screw

The dimensions of the conveyor are chosen similar to the existing test rig for the first
simulations and validations. This allows the simulation model to be verified with data from
the test rig. The CAD models of the tube (here with intermediate bearing) and the associated
screw are shown in Figure 1. All geometry models were loaded into the simulation model
over the CAD data interface.

Finally the operating parameters of the screw conveyor, which are simulated, have to be
defined. The rotation speed n, the inclination , the screw diameter D and the filling level
are to be varied. The different rotation speeds can thereby directly be defined as dynamic
properties of the screw. To set the different inclinations of the screw conveyor the vector of
gravity is varied accordingly. This has the advantage that the rest of the simulation model
can be maintained unchanged. To set the respective filling level, first the theoretical filling
level of the conveyor with static screw is calculated. After filling the conveyor with much
more particles as needed and let the particles come to rest, the particles above the
calculated level are cut away. The simulated values of the described operating parameters
are listed in Table 1.

Table 1:

Simulated Values of the Parameters of Screw


Values of
Parameters

Rotating
Speed n
Inclination
Filling Level
Screw
Diameter D

[1/
s]
[]
[-]
[m]

30
0.2

45
0.4

60
0.6

0,20

0.26

0.40

Simulated Particles
The simulations are performed with PET-Pellets as bulk material. These pellets are also
used in the real test rig of the institute and are thus known in the properties and behaviour.

The particles are cylindrical with an elliptical basic shape and a volume of about 25 mm.
The CAD-Model and the model of the particle used in the simulation are shown in Figure 2.
The simulation model of the particle consists of the shell of the CAD imported template, on
those properties such as volume, weight, inertia, etc. are based, and nine spheres, which
represent the boundary of the particle in contacts.

Figure 2:

CAD-Model and Simulated Model of the Particle

As the mass of the particle is proportional to the numerical time step, the simulation time
would not be practical if using full-scale particles. The second step in the abstraction of the
simulation is therefore to increase the particles so that the realism of the simulation is not
significantly reduced. Therefore the particle properties of the simulation model must however
be adjusted so that the behaviour of particles is still consistent on the real bulk behaviour.
For materials handling problems the inner and outer friction are of particular importance
here [2] and are therefore calibrated together with the bulk density. In preliminary simulations
a particle model with a similar geometry, whose volume is increased by a factor of 20,
carried out to acceptable computing times. To calibrate the particles tests to determine bulk
properties are reproduced in the simulation. The simulated parameters are modified
iteratively as long as the behaviour of the simulation model is equivalent to the real bulk
behaviour with sufficient accuracy. As tests the determination of the bulk density, angle of
repose and wall friction are performed. The experimental setup and the simulation models
for the calibration are based on the recommendations given in FEM 2481 [3]. The results of
these tests of the real PET-Pellets are shown in Table 2. The simulation models to realise
the calibration are shown in Figure 3. In each case, the simulations with the final results are
shown. These are also listed in Table 2.

Table 2:

Bulk Materials Parameters of PET-Pellets and in the Simulation

Bulk Density
Angle of
Repose
Angle of Slip

PET-Pellets

Simulation

[kg/m
]

790

793

[]

35,8

35,7

[]

21,0

20,9

Figure 3:
Simulation Models for Calibration: Bulk Density, Angle of Slip, Angle of
Repose (left to right)

Data Evaluation
As targets, the average axial velocity of the bulk material vax and the torque M measured on
the screw are evaluated. The evaluation is done with the evaluation algorithms of the
simulation program. The axial velocity of the bulk material is exported as the average
velocity of all particles in the section Screw Conveyor, which represents the complete
conveyor, in axial direction per timestep. From the axial velocity of the bulk material the
coefficient of velocity can be calculated as a function of the pitch S and the rotation
speed n as shown below. The coefficient of velocity is a dimensionless coefficient, which
represents the influence of the geometrical and operational conditions on the achievable
volume flow and is used to compare the performance of different screw conveyors.

vax
S n

(1)

For the torque the axial component of the total torque of the screw per timestep is red-out. It
is the basis for calculating the coefficient of power . This is again a dimensionless
coefficient for the required power of the screw conveyor and is as a function of the filling
level , the screw diameter D, the shaft diameter d, the bulk density , the conveying
length L, the pitch S, the inclination and the coefficient of velocity .

8 M
S sin

2
D d g L
D
2

Validation of Simulation

(2)

To validate the whole simulation model the simulated conveyor is compared to results of
tests from the test rig. The screw diameter of the test rig amounts to 0.260 m, shaft diameter
to 0.076 m and the pitch to 0.230 m. For the validation the parameters shown in Table 3 are
chosen. The results of the comparison for the coefficient of velocity and coefficient of power
are also shown there. It can be seen that the simulation represents the conveyance in
inclined screw conveyors sufficiently accurate as the deviation is absolutely always smaller
than 5%.

Table 3:

Used Parameter Combinations of the Validation and Results

Sim

Test

[]

[-]

[1/s]

[-]

30

0,6
0,2

45

0,2

60
60

0,4

7
9
5

Sim

Test

[-]

Deviat
ion
[%]

[-]

[-]

1,010
0,703

1,015
0,730

-0,5
-3,8

0,691

0,713

-3,0

0,635

0,617

3,0

3,791
13,06
1
22,41
9
6,085

3,880
12,69
1
22,83
6
6,256

Deviat
ion
[%]
-2,3
2,9
-1,8
-2,7

Summary
In the course of the project DEM-Simulation is used to simulate screw conveyors with
parameters, which are not possible to set at a test rig for example different screw diameters.
Therefore it is necessary to abstract and calibrate the real model to get a suitable DEM
model. On the one hand the geometry has to be simplified as much as possible. In this case
only the screw helix and the tube are depicted in the simulation. On the other hand the
simulated particles, which are blown up to shorten the simulation time, have to be adjusted
to get realistic results. This calibration is done by simulating three tests, which are commonly
used to get the bulk properties. In an iterating process the particle parameters in the
simulation are adjusted till the simulated properties are sufficient identical to the real
properties. After having the geometry and the particles the kind of data evaluation must be
defined. Therefore two parameters are selected which are also analysable in the test rig. In
having comparable results the last step in preparing the simulation is now to validate the
simulation model with results of the test rig. This was also done successfully so that a
validated simulation model of the screw conveyor is existing now.

Table of Symbols
Symb
ol
D

Unit
[m]

Name
Screw Diameter

Symb
ol
vax

Unit
[m/s]

IV

[m/s]

Volume Flow

[]

Name
Axial velocity of
Material
Inclination

[m]

Conveying Length

[-]

Coefficient of Velocity

[Nm]

Torque

Coefficient of Power

[m]

Pitch

[m]

Shaft diameter

[-]
[kg/m
]
[-]

Bulk Density
Filling Level

[1/s]

Rotation Speed of
Screw

References
[1]
Katterfeld, A.; Krause, F.: Funktionsanalyse eines Rohrkettenfrderers mit Hilfe der
Diskrete Elemente Methode (DEM); In: Tagungsband Fachtagung Schttgutfrdertechnik
2004, Technische Universitt Mnchen, Garching bei Mnchen, 2004.
[2]
Grger, T.; Katterfeld, A.: Kalibrierung von DEM-Simulationsmodellen fr die
Schttgutfrdertechnik; In: Tagungsband Fachtagung Schttgutfrdertechnik 2005, Ottovon-Guericke-Universitt Magdeburg, Magdeburg, 2005.
[3]
FEM 2.481:1997-07: Specific characteristics of bulk products as applicable to
pneumatic conveyors, Fdration Europenne de la Manutention.