Anda di halaman 1dari 13

Mathematical Notes, vol. 72, no. 5, 2002, pp. 692704.

Translated from Matematicheskie Zametki, vol. 72, no. 5, 2002, pp. 750764.
c
Original Russian Text Copyright 2002
by A. K. Ramazanov.

On the Structure of Spaces


of Polyanalytic Functions
A. K. Ramazanov
Received February 13, 2001; in final form, October 16, 2001

AbstractSuppose that Am Lp (D, ) is the space of all m -analytic functions on the disk
D = {z : |z| < 1} which are pth power integrable over area with the weight (1 |z|2 ) ,
> 1 . In the paper, we introduce subspaces Ak L0p (D, ) , k = 1, 2, . . . , m , of the space
Am Lp (D, ) and prove that Am Lp (D, ) is the direct sum of these subspaces. These results
are used to obtain growth estimates of derivatives of polyanalytic functions near the boundary
of arbitrary domains.
Key words: polyanalytic function, space of polyanalytic functions, growth estimates of deriva-

tives, holomorphic component, Euler gamma-function, Bergman kernel.

A function f (z) that has continuous partial derivatives with respect to x and y up to order
m 1 on the domain G is called a polyanalytic function of order m on the domain G if on this
domain it satises the generalized CauchyRiemann equation
mf
= 0.
zm
In what follows, we shall denote the class of such functions by Am (G) .
It is well known that any polyanalytic function of order m on the domain G can be uniquely
expressed as (see [1])
(1)
f (z) = 0 (z) + z1 (z) + + zm1 m1 (z),
where the k are holomorphic on G . For the case in which G = D := {z : |z| < 1} , the
representation (1) can be transformed to the form (see [2, 3])
f (z) = P (z , z) + g0 (z) + (1 |z|2 )g1 (z) + + (1 |z|2 )m1 gm1 (z),

(2)

where the gk are holomorphic on D , P (z , z) = P0 + zP1 (z) + + zm1 Pm1 (z) , P0 = const ,
and Pk (z) for k 1 is a polynomial in z of degree at most k 1 .
In what follows, the functions k and gk are called the holomorphic components of the polyanalytic function f (z) .
The papers [27] are concerned with problems of the boundary behavior of polyanalytic functions, of their formal derivatives, and of their holomorphic components in integral metrics with
the use of dierent expressions for polyanalytic functions. In this paper, we explore these topics
further.
Let us introduce the notation used below: Lp (D, ) denotes the space of functions f for which
the norm
 
1/p
2
p
(1 |z| ) |f (z)| dx dy
,
1 p , > 1,
(3)
f (p,D ,) =
D

692

0001-4346/2002/7256-0692$27.00

c
2002
Plenum Publishing Corporation

ON THE STRUCTURE OF SPACES OF POLYANALYTIC FUNCTIONS

693

is nite; Ak (D) is the set of all k -analytic functions on D ,


k = 1, 2, . . . , A(D) = A1 (D) ; Ak Lp (D, ) = Ak (D) Lp (D, ) , ALp (D, ) = A1 Lp (D, ) ;
and

k1
0
Ak Lp (D, ) = f (z) = (1 |z|2 ) k1 ((1 z
z )k1+ F (z)) ;
z

(4)
F A(D), f Ak Lp (D, ) .
Obviously, A1 Lp (D, ) = ALp (D, ) = A01 Lp (D, ) . For p = , we assume that everywhere
0 . For the plane Lebesgue measure dx dy , we shall also use the notation d(z) .
In what follows, ( ) is the Euler gamma-function.
The quantities Cj (m, p, . . . ) , j = 1, 2, . . . , take, generally speaking, dierent values in dierent
expressions depending only on the parameters in parentheses.
We use the standard
 coecients:
  notation for binomial
n!
n
n
,
=0
for k > n and for k < 0 .
=
k
k
k!(n k)!
1. THE UNIVERSAL DECOMPOSITION OF THE SPACE
OF POLYANALYTIC FUNCTIONS FROM Lp (D, )
ON D INTO A DIRECT SUM OF SUBSPACES
Theorem 1. Suppose that 1 p , > 1 for p < , and 0 for p = . The function
k1
z )k1+ F (z))
f (z) = (1 |z|2 ) k1 ((1 z
z
belongs to the space Ak Lp (D, ) if and only if F belongs to ALp (D, ) . We also have
(2k 1 + )
F (p, D ,) .
(5)
f (p, D ,) 22k3+2/p
(k + )
Remark 1. Expression (4) denes the linear operator mapping the space of analytic functions
ALp (D, ) into the space A0k Lp (D, ) . Inequality (5) yields an estimate of the norm of this
operator, while from Corollary 2.2 we obtain an estimate of the norm of its inverse operator.
To state the following theorem, let us introduce some additional notation:
( + 1) (r 2 |z|2 ) (r 2 ||2 )
1
(k 1)! (k + )
r 2(k1)


2
2

2(k1)
2
k1+ 2
k1+ (k 1)(r z ) + r ( + 1)

k1 k1 (r z
z)
(r )
,
+2
z

(r 2 z )
m

0,

(z
,

,
r)
=
R0,
R0,
R
R
m
m (z , , 1) = Rm (z , ),
k (z , , r),
k (z , , 1) = Rk (z , ),
R0,
k (z , , r) =

k=1

z , D(0, r),

D(t, r) = {z : |z t| < r},

D(0, 1) = D.

0,
0,
Obviously, R0,
k (z , ) = Rk ( , z) , and for a xed D the function Rk (z , ) belongs to the
space A0k Lp (D, ) .
Let us introduce the integral operator

(1 |z|2 ) f (z)R0,
Pk0, (f )() =
k (z , ) dx dy ,
(6)
D
D,
z = x + iy D.
f Lp (D, ),
0,
The operator obtained from formulas (6) by substituting the kernel R
m (z , ) for Rk (z , ) is

m
0,

. Obviously, Pm
= k=1 Pk .
denoted by Pm

MATHEMATICAL NOTES

Vol. 72

No. 5

2002

694

A. K. RAMAZANOV

Theorem 2. 1. The operator Pk0, ( Pm


) is the projection operator of the space Lp (D, ) onto
0
its subspace Ak Lp (D, ) (respectively, onto Am Lp (D, ) ) for 1 < p < and for all > 1 .
2. For p = 2 , these operators are orthogonal projections onto the corresponding subspaces.
3. If f A0k Lp (D, ) ( f Am Lp (D, ) ), then Pk0, (f )(z) = f (z) , z D (respectively,

(f )(z) = f (z) , z D ), for all 1 p .


Pm

Corollary 2.1. Let f Am Lp (D, ) , and let j (z) be the holomorphic components of the function f in the representation (1). Then
j ALp (D, + p(m 1))

for 1 p < and > 1,

j ALp (D, + (m 1))

for p = and 0,

where j = 0, 1, . . . , m 1 .
Corollary 2.2. If the polyanalytic function
k1
((1 z
z )k1+ F (z))
z k1
belongs to the space A0k Lp (D, ) , 1 < p < , then
f (z) = (1 |z|2 )

C1 (k, p, )F (p, D ,) f (p, D ,) C2 (k, p, )F (p, D ,) .


Theorem 3. The space Am Lp (D, ) is the direct sum of the subspaces A0k Lp (D, ) with k =
1, 2, . . . , m for 1 p :
Am Lp (D, ) = A1 Lp (D, ) A02 Lp (D, ) A0m Lp (D, ).
Remark 2. For p = 2 , Theorems 1, 2, and 3 were obtained in [5, 6].
Remark 3. It is readily seen that for m = 1 the kernel R
m (z , ) coincides with the well-known
Bergman kernel for the disk D . Integral operators of the form (6) with Bergman kernel were
studied in [811]. Operators of the form (6) for polyanalytic functions in the metric of the space
Lp (D) for 1 p < were also studied in [11].
Another expression for the kernel R
m (z , ) in the case = 0 , namely,



m1

m
m
m+j
j
2(m1j) |z |2j
(1)
(7)
|1 z |
Rm (z , ) =
2m
j+1
m
(1 z )
j=0
was given (without proof) in [11].
Theorems 13 can be used for obtaining growth estimates of polyanalytic functions as the point z
approaches the boundary of the domain as well as for studying polyrational approximations in the
metric (3) (see [6, 13]). The second part of this paper is devoted to this questions.
To prove the theorems stated above, we require auxiliary assertions.
Definition. A bounded simply connected domain G with smooth Jordan boundary G is said to
be Lyapunov (in the extended sense) if the modulus of continuity () of the angle of inclination
of the tangent to G regarded as a function of the arc length s satises the Dini condition

(t)
dt < .
t
0
For an arbitrary domain G , the spaces Lp (G, ) are dened by replacing the weight (1 |z|2 )
in relation (3) by the weight function ((z)) , where (z) = (z , G) . Just as above, we shall
have Am Lp (G, ) = Am (G) Lp (G, ) .
If f Am (G) , then
s f (z) :=

s f (z)
,
zn z sn

n = 0, 1, . . . , s,

n < m,

s = 0, 1, . . . .

MATHEMATICAL NOTES

Vol. 72

No. 5

2002

ON THE STRUCTURE OF SPACES OF POLYANALYTIC FUNCTIONS

695

Lemma 1 [4]. Let G be a Lyapunov domain (in the extended sense). Then for any function
holomorphic on the domain G , we have
ALp (G, ) (s) ALp (G, + ps)
ALp (G, ) (s) ALp (G, + s)

for 1 p < and > 1,


for p = and 0.

Lemma 2 [4]. Let G be an arbitrary domain. Then for any function f Am (G) , we have
f Am Lp (G, ) s f Am Lp (G, + sp)
s

f Am Lp (G, ) f Am Lp (G, + s)

for 1 p < and > 1,


for p = and 0.

Lemmas 1 and 2 are consequences of more general results from [4] (see Theorem 5 and Corollary T5 therein as well as the intermediate inequality given on p. 23). Lemma 1 in the given form
is a generalization of the results of Hardy and Littlewood and Zabulenis for the disk (see [14, p. 81]
and [15]) to domains with Lyapunov boundary (in the extended sense), while Lemma 2 carries
these results over to polyanalytic functions. Also note that for Lyapunov domains (in the extended
sense), the converse of the implication of Lemma 2 was proved in [4].
Lemma 3. For all positive integers k , n and any real number > 1 , the following relation is
valid:
k1
k 1n
(n + k + )
(k + )
=
.
j!
j
j
(j + 1 + )
(n + 1 + )
j=0
Proof. For t 0 , consider the function tn tk1+ . Using the Leibniz rule, we nd its derivative
n k1+ (k1)

(t t

k1

j=0

k1
j

 
(k + ) n+
n
t
.
j!
j
(j + 1 + )

(8)

Calculating the derivative on the right-hand side of relation (8) as a derivative of the power-law
function tn+k1+ , we obtain the required result. 
Lemma 4. Suppose that > 1 and z , D . Then

D

(1 |z|2 )
dxdy
|1 z|2++

C1 (, )(1 ||2 )
C2 (, )

if > 0,
if < 0.

For the proof of Lemma 4, see [16, Chap. 1, p. 26].


Lemma 5. For all z , D , the following inequalities are valid:
1.
2.

C1 (, k)
2+ ,
|1 z |
C2 (, m)
|R
m (z , )|
2+ ,
|1 z |

|R0,
k (z , )|

k = 1, 2, . . . , m,

z, D ;

z , D.

Remark 4. This estimate for the kernel R


m (z , ) was obtained in [11]. The proof given below
is essentially simpler, since it uses the explicit form of the kernel R
m (z , ) .
MATHEMATICAL NOTES

Vol. 72

No. 5

2002

696

A. K. RAMAZANOV

Proof of Lemma 5. By simple manipulations, it is easy to obtain the following estimate for the
kernel R0,
k (z , ):
|R0,
k (z , )|
It is easy to note that

k

C(, k)
(1 |z|2 )m (1 ||2 )n
.
2+
m+n
|1 z |
|1 z |
m,n=0

(9)

2 = (1 |z|2 )(1 ||2 ) + |z |2 .


|1 z |

(10)

Further, any two points z , D satisfy one of the following conditions:


1)

|z | (1 ||2 ),
4
1

|z | (1 |z|2 ) ;
4
2) at least one of the inequalities in condition 1) is replaced by the inverse inequality. If for
points z , D condition 1) is satised, then, taking relation (10) into account, we obtain
4m+n |z |m+n
(1 |z|2 )m (1 ||2 )n

4m+n .
m+n
|z |m+n
|1 z |

(11)

Now suppose that condition 2) is satised and assume that |z | < 1/4(1 |z|2 ) . Then
(1 |z|2 ) and (1 ||2 ) are weakly equivalent. Indeed,


1
5
1
2
2
2
2
(1 |z| ) < (1 || ) < 2(|z | + (1 |z|)) < 2 (1 |z| ) + (1 |z| ) = (1 |z|2 ).
4
4
2
2 (1 |z|2 )(1 ||2 ) 1 (1 |z|2 )2 . Therefore,
Then it follows from relation (10) that |1 z |
4
in this case
|1 |z|2 )m (5/2)n (1 |z|2 )n
(1 |z|2 )m (1 ||2 )n

2m 5n .
(12)
m+n
(1/2)m+n (1 |z|2 )m+n
|1 z |
From inequalities (9), (11), and (12) we obtain the required result. 
Proof of Theorem 1. Let us express the function f as
f (z) =

k1


k1j

(1)

j=0

k1
j

(k + )
(1 |z|2 )j F (j) (z)
z k1j .
( + j + 1)

(13)

Then
k1
  k 1  (k + )
k1 f (z)
k1
F (j) (z)z j
= (1)
(k)
j
zk1
(
+
j
+
1)
j=0

= (k)(1)k1 z (z k1+ F (z))(k1) .


Lemma 2 implies that the function k1 f / zk1 belongs to the space Ak Lp (D, + (k 1)p) .
Since k1 f / zk1 is analytic on D , using Lemma 1, we easily nd that F ALp (D, ) .
Let us now prove the converse of this assertion. Suppose that F ALp (D, ) . Then it
follows from Lemma 1 that F (j) ALp (D, + jp) . Further, using relation (13), we see that
f Am Lp (D, ) .
MATHEMATICAL NOTES

Vol. 72

No. 5

2002

ON THE STRUCTURE OF SPACES OF POLYANALYTIC FUNCTIONS

697

It remains to prove inequality (5). Let z be an arbitrary point of the disk D . Consider the
circle C of radius centered at the point z , so that C D . Then by the Cauchy integral
formula, we have

j!
F ()
(j)
F (z) =
d.
2i C ( z)j+1
Setting z = (1 |z|2 )ei /4 , we obtain
2 j

(1 |z| ) F

(j)

j!4j
(z) =
2

F ()eij d.

(14)

In view of expression (13) for the function f , from relation (14) it readily follows that



k1
(k + ) k1j 2j1 2
1
k1
k1j
z
(1)
j!2
F ()eij d.
f (z) =
j
j=0
( + j + 1)
0
Since j! (k 1)!/((k 1 j)!) , using Lemma 3 for n = k 1 , from the last relation we obtain
|f (z)|

22k3 (2k 1 + )

(k + )

2
0

|F ()| d.

(15)

Obviously, for |z | (1|z|2 )/4 , z D , the following inequality holds: 1|z|2 4(1||2 ) .
Therefore, by integrating inequality (15) over the disk D and using the generalized Minkowski
inequality, we obtain
f (p,D ,) 22k3+2/p

(2k 1 + )
(k + )

 
D

(1 |z|2 ) |F (z)|p dx dy

1/p
. 

Proof of Theorem 2. For p = 2 , the theorem was proved in [5, 6]. It is readily seen that the
operator Pk0, is dened for any function f Lp (D, ) , 1 p , and
Pk0, (f )(z) = (1 |z|2 )

k1
((1 z
z )k1+ F (z)),
z k1

where F A(D) .

Let us prove that this operator is bounded for 1 < p < . Suppose that
1

pq
=

+1
pq

if 0,
if 1 < < 0,

where 1/p + 1/q = 1 . Then, just as in [16, p. 131], consider the function h(z) = (1 |z|2 ) ; using
Lemmas 4 and 5, we prove that the operator Pk0, is bounded in the space Lp (D, ) , 1 < p < .
Further, let f A0k Lp (D, ) A0k L2 (D, ) , 1 p . Then, by item 2 of the theorem to be
proved, we have
z D.
(16)
Pk0, (f )(z) = f (z),
Since the set A0k Lp (D, )A0k L2 (D, ) is everywhere dense in the space A0k Lp (D, ) , 1 p ,
it follows that relation (16) is valid for any function f A0k Lp (D, ) , 1 p .

is treated likewise. 
The operator Pm
The proof of Corollary 2.1 is similar to that of Corollary 2 from [6].
MATHEMATICAL NOTES

Vol. 72

No. 5

2002

698

A. K. RAMAZANOV

Proof of Corollary 2.2. The inequality


f (p, D ,) C2 (k, p, )F (p, D ,)
with the constant C2 (k, p, ) = 22k3+2/p (2k 1 + )/(k + ) was proved in Theorem 1 for
all p satisfying the inequality 1 p . Let us prove the left inequality.
By Theorem 2, we have
Pk0, (f )(z) = f (z)

for all functions f A0k Lp (D, ) .

Then, using the integral representation (6), we obtain (see also [6] for = 0)

(1 |z|2 ) f (z)Tk0, (z , ) dx dy ,
F () =
D

where
Tk0, (z ,




1 ( + 1)(1 |z|2 ) k1
k1+ (k 1)(1 z ) + + 1
(1 z
z)
.
) =
+2

(k)(k + )
z k1
(1 z )

Just as in the proof of Lemma 5, we can establish that


|Tk0, (z , )|

C(k, )
+2 ,
|1 z |

z , D.

Applying the method used in the proof of Theorem 2 with the same function h(z) = (1 |z|2 ) ,
we conclude the proof of Corollary 2.2. 
Proof of Theorem 3. For 1 < p < , the assertion of Theorem 3 can be obtained from

, we obtain
Theorem 2. Indeed, if f Am Lp (D, ) , 1 < p < , then, using the operator Pm

(f )(z) =
f (z) = Pm

m

k=1

Pk0, (f )(z),

where Pk0, (f ) A0k Lp (D, ) , k = 1, 2, . . . , m .


But if p = , then for any function f Am Lp (D, ) we have

(f )(z) =
f (z) = Pm

m

k=1

Pk0, (f )(z) = (1 |z|2 )

m

k1
((1 z
z )k1+ Fk (z)),
z k1
k=1

where Fk A(D) . Let us prove that Fk AL (D, ) , k = 1, 2, . . . , m . Then it follows from


Theorem 1 that Pk0, (f ) A0k L (D, ) , 0 , for k = 1, 2, . . . , m .
Just as in the proof Theorem 1, we obtain
m1 f (z)
= (m)(1)m1 z (z m1+ F (z))(m1) .
zm1
By Lemma 2, the function m1 f / zm1 belongs to the space Am L (D, + m 1) . Since
m1 f / zm1 is an analytic function on D , using Lemma 1, we nd that Fm AL (D, ) .
0,
(f ) A0m L (D, ) .
Thus we have Pm
Let us use the induction method. Suppose that we have proved that Pj0, (f ) A0j L (D, )
for j = m, m 1, . . . , k + 1 .
MATHEMATICAL NOTES

Vol. 72

No. 5

2002

ON THE STRUCTURE OF SPACES OF POLYANALYTIC FUNCTIONS

699

Consider the function


g(z) = f (z)

m


Pj0, (f )(z) =

j=k+1

k

j=1

Pj0, (f )(z)

belonging to the space Ak L (D, ) . Just as above, by calculating the derivative k1 g/ zk1 ,
we prove that Fk AL (D, ) . Then, by Theorem 1, we have Pk0, (f ) A0k L (D, ) , which
proves the assertion.
Now let p = 1 . Then it follows from Theorem 2 that for any function f Am L1 (D, )

f (z) = Pm
(f )(z) =

m


Pk0, (f )(z) = (1 |z|2 )

k=1

m

k1
((1 z
z )k1+ Fk (z)),
z k1
k=1

where Fk A(D) . Just as in the case p = , we prove rst that Fk AL1 (D, ) , k =
1, 2, . . . , m , and then, using Theorem 1, we conclude the proof of Theorem 3 also for p = 1 . 
2. ESTIMATES OF THE DERIVATIVES OF POLYANALYTIC FUNCTIONS
Given an arbitrary domain G from C , for the weight function we take the following function:
((z)) = ((z , G)) ,

> 1,

where (z) = (z , G) is the distance from z G to the boundary G .


Let Lp (G, ) , > 1 , 1 p , be the space of complex-valued functions f with norm
 
f (p, G,) =

1/p

((z)) |f (z)| dx dy

< .

(17)

Obviously, for D = G the norms dened by relations (3) and (17) are equivalent. Therefore,
we adhere to our old notation also for an arbitrary domain G . In particular, Lp (G, 0) = Lp (G)
and Am Lp (G, ) = Am (G) Lp (G, ) .
In what follows, p and q are conjugate numbers, i.e., 1 p , 1 q , and 1/p +
1/q = 1 .
Let us introduce some additional notation:

A1 (k, s, p, ) =

(1 t) |t

(1 t)

(t

k1+s

k1+ (k1) q

(1 t)

s/2

(1 t) |t

(1 t)

(t

k1s

k1+ (k1) q

(1 t)

1/q

| dt

for 1 < p and s = 0, 1, . . . ,


A2 (k, s, p, ) =

s/2

1/q

| dt

for 1 < p and s = 0, 1, . . . , k 1,


A3 (k, s, ) = max {|ts/2 (1 t) (tk1+s (1 t)k1+ )(k1) |}
0t1

A4 (k, s, ) = max {|ts/2 (1 t) (tk1s (1 t)k1+ )(k1) |}


0t1

The following theorem is valid.


MATHEMATICAL NOTES

Vol. 72

No. 5

2002

for s = 0, 1, . . . ,
for s = 0, 1, . . . , k 1.

700

A. K. RAMAZANOV

Theorem 4. Let f Am Lp (G, ) , 1 p , where G is an arbitrary domain on C . Then



s
f (z)
(2+2+sp)/p


f (p, D(z ,),) ,
s = 0, 1, . . . ,
1)
z s C1 (m, s, p, )
s

f (z)
(2+2+sp)/p


f (p, D(z ,),) ,
s = 0, 1, . . . , m 1,
2)
zs C2 (m, s, p, )
where
C1 (m, s, p, ) =
C2 (m, s, p, ) =

m
1  (k + s + )(2k 1 + s + )
A1 (k, s, p, ),
(k)(k + )
1/p

1
1/p

k=1
m


k=s+1

(2k 1 s + )
A2 (k, s, p, ).
(k s)

Theorem 4 for = 0 and p > 2 with other constants was obtained in [4].
Corollary 4.1. Suppose that f ALp (G, ) , 1 p . Then
|f (s) (z)| C1 (s, p, )(2+2+sp)/p f (p, D(z ,),) ,
where

1/q
(s + + 2)(( sq
2 + 1))
sq
1/p (( + 1))1/p (( 2 + + 2))1/q
C1 (s, p, ) =

1 (s + + 2)
( + 1)

s = 0, 1, . . . ,

for 1 < p ,
for p = 1.

Corollary 4.2. Let f Am Lp (G, ) , 1 p . Then for the component m1 of the


function f in the representation (1), we have
|m1 (z)| C2 (m, p, )(2+2+(m1)p)/p f (p, D(z ,),) ,
where


1/q
(m + + 1) (m1)q
+1

1
2

1/q

1/p
(m)(( + 1))1/p (m1)q
++2
2
C2 (m, p, ) =
1 (m + + 1)

( + 1)

for 1 < p ,
for p = 1.

Similar estimates can also be obtained for the other components of the function f .
Remark 5. In Theorem 4 and Corollaries 4.1 and 4.2 for p = we assume that = 0 . For
p = 1 , A1 (k, s, p, ) and A2 (k, s, p, ) in the expressions for C1 (m, s, p, ) and C2 (m, s, p, )
from Theorem 4 must be replaced by A3 (k, s, ) and A4 (k, s, ) , respectively.
For f Lp (G) , put
(G, p, f , ) = sup{f ( ) f (z)(p, D(z ,r)) : 0 < r , D(z , r) G}
and (G, p, f , 0) := 0 .
Definition. We shall say that f Lip( , p, G) , > 0 , if (G, p, f , ) = O( ) as 0 .
The following theorem is a generalization of the HardyLittlewood theorem obtained for p =
and G = D .
MATHEMATICAL NOTES

Vol. 72

No. 5

2002

ON THE STRUCTURE OF SPACES OF POLYANALYTIC FUNCTIONS

701

Theorem 5. Suppose that 1 p , f An (G) , and 1/p < 1 + 2/p . Then





f (z) f (z)


= O(12/p )

+
f Lip( , p, G)
z z

as = (z , G) 0 .

For 2 < p and 1/(2p) < 1 + 2/p , = 1/p, 2/p , for bounded simply connected
domains G with doubly smooth boundary, Theorem 5 was obtained in [4].
To prove the theorems stated above, we require auxiliary assertions.
Set


s
s 0,
(s)
(s)

.
1 (z) = s R0,
(z
,

,
R)
,

(z)
=
R
(z
,

,
R)
2
k
k
=0
=0

s
Lemma 6. Suppose that 1 p and > 1 . Then we have:
1) for 1 q < ,
(s)

1 (q , D(0, R),) =

1 (k + s + )(2k 1 + s + ) (2(+1)+ps)/p
R
A1 (k, s, p, ),
(k)(k + )
1/p
s = 0, 1, . . . ,

(s)

2 (q , D(0, R),) =

1 (2k 1 s + ) (2(+1)+ps)/p
R
A2 (k, s, p, ),
(k s)
s = 0, 1, . . . , k 1 ;

1/p

2) for q = ,
(s)

1 (, D(0, R),0) =

(s)

2 (, D(0, R),0) =

1 (k + s + )(2k 1 + s + ) (2(+1)+s)
R
A3 (k, s, ),

(k)(k + )
s = 0, 1, . . . ,
1 (2k 1 s + ) (2(+1)+s)
R
A4 (k, s, ),

(k s)
s = 0, 1, . . . , k 1.

Proof. Let us modify the kernel R0,


k (z , , R) by using its Fourier series expansion in the system
of polynomials

1
ek ,n (z) =

(n + + 1)(k + n + ) (k+n+) 2
k1
R
(R |z|2 ) k1 {(R2 z
z )k1+ z n },
(k)(k + )(n + 1)
z

where n = 0, 1, . . . (see [5, 6]).


We have
R0,
k (z , , R) =
=

ek ,n (z)ek ,n ()

n=0

k1
1 2(k+)  (n + + 1)(k + n + ) 2n 2
R
R
(R |z|2 ) k1 {(R2 z
z )k1+ z n }

(k)(k
+
)(n
+
1)
z
n=0

 
k1

(k + ) nj k1j 2
k1
n
k1j

(1)

(R ||2 )j .
j!

j
j
(
+
j
+
1)
j=0

MATHEMATICAL NOTES

Vol. 72

No. 5

2002

702

A. K. RAMAZANOV

Denoting the sum over j by I , let us transform it:


 k1

k1

k 1nj 
(k + )
k1 2
j!
n k1 .
(1)
R
I=
j
j

( + j + 1)
=0

j=

Substituting j = m and using the relation




 


k1
+m
k1
k1
=
,
+m

m
we obtain
I=

k1


k1

(1)

=0

k1

  k1
 
m=0

k1
m



n
+m

(k + )
n k1
( + + m + 1)

    k1
k1

 k 1  n 
k1
n
=
(1)k1 R2
!

m
nm
=0
m=0

(k + )
n k1 .
m!
( + + m + 1)
( + m)!

Just as in the proof of Lemma 3, consider the function (tn tk1+ )(k1) ; it is easy to establish
the relation
k1
 k 1  n 
(n + k + )
(k + )
=
.
m!
m
nm
( + + m + 1)
(n + + 1)
m=0

Then for the sum I we nally obtain



 
k1

(n + k + ) n k1
k1
n

(1)k1 R2

.
!
I=

(n + + 1)
=0

Thus
R0,
k (z ,

1 2(k+)  (n + + 1)(k + n + ) 2n 2
R
, R) = R
(R |z|2 )

(k)(k
+
)(n
+
1)
n=0

k1
{(R2 z
z )k1+ z n }
z k1

 
k1

(n + k + ) n k1
k1
n
k1 2

(1)
R

.
!

(n + + 1)

=0

Hence we obtain
(s)

1 (z) =

1 2(k+s+) (k + s + )(2k 1 + s + ) 2
R
(R |z|2 )

(k)(k + )

k1
{(R2 z
z )k1+ zk1+s },
s = 0, 1, . . . ,
zk1
1
2k 1 s + 2
(s)
(R |z|2 )
2 (z) = R2(k+)

(k s)
k1
k1 {(R2 z
z )k1+ zk1s },
s = 0, 1, . . . , k 1.
z

MATHEMATICAL NOTES

Vol. 72

No. 5

2002

ON THE STRUCTURE OF SPACES OF POLYANALYTIC FUNCTIONS


(s)

Let us now nd the norms of the functions 1


polar coordinates, for 1 q < we obtain
(s)

1 (q , D(0, R),) =




R2

1
1/p

R2(k+s+)

(R r) |r

s/2

(s)

(s)

and 2 . For the function 1 , passing to

(k + s + )(2k 1 + s + )
(k)(k + )

(R r)

703

k1+ k1+s (k1) q

((R r)

1/q

| dr

Substituting t = r/R2 , we obtain the rst relation of Lemma 6. The second relation can be
(s)
obtained in the same way by calculating the norm of the function 2 . The case q = is treated
likewise. 
Proof of Theorem 4. Let R
m ( z , t z , ) be the reproducing kernel for the disk D(z , ) .
Then, using Theorem 2, we obtain

s f (z)
=
(2 | z|2 ) f () (s) ( z) d(),
z s
D(z ,)
where (for t = z)
(s) ( z) =

 s 0,
s
R
(

z
,
t

z
,
)
=
R ( z , t z , ).
ts m
ts k
k=1

Hence, using the H


olderMinkowski inequality and Lemma 6 next, we obtain the rst inequality.
The second inequality is proved in a similar way. 
Proof of Theorem 5. Suppose that f Lip( , p, G) , z G . Then it follows from Theorem 2
that


f (z)
(1)
=
f () ( z) d(),
0=
f (z) (1) ( z) d().
z
D(z ,)
D(z ,)
This yields


f (z)


|f () f (z)| | (1) ( z)| d()
z
D(z ,)
1/p   
 
p
|f () f (z)| d()

D(z ,)

 

D(z ,)

(1)

1/q
( z)| d()
.

D(z ,)

(1)

1/q
( z)| d()
q

It remains to apply Lemma 6 for = 0 .


The estimate for |f / z| we obtain in a similar way.
Let us now prove the converse assertion. Let



f (z) f (z)
12/p
+


)
as = (z , G) 0 .
z z = O(

(18)

If D(z , R) , R < , then by integrating over the closed interval with endpoints z and ,
we obtain

 1
f
f
( z) +
( z) d ,
(19)
f () f (z) =
z
z
0
MATHEMATICAL NOTES

Vol. 72

No. 5

2002

704

A. K. RAMAZANOV

where f /z and f / z are calculated at the point t = z + ( z) , 0 1 .


Using the generalized Minkowski inequality and changing variables, from relation (19), we obtain
p

1/p
 
 1

f
2
f
p
1

d , (20)
f ( ) f (z)(p, D(z ,R))
(t z) + z (t z) d(t)
0
D(z ,R) z
where f /z and f / z are calculated at the point t D(z , R) , 0 1 . Let t denote the
distance from the point t D(z , R) to G . Obviously, t (z , G) |t z| = |t z| .
Then, taking relation (18) into account and passing to polar coordinates, from (20) we obtain
 1+ p1  1
  R
1/p

1
p
R
(1)p2

(1 r)
dr
d.
f ( ) f (z)(p, D(z ,R)) C

0
0
Since > 1/p , the last inequality yields the required result. 
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This research was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research under grant no. 9901-00119.
REFERENCES
1. M. B. Balk, Polyanalytic Functions, Akad. Verlag, Berlin, 1991.
2. E. P. Dolzhenko, On the boundary behavior of the components of polyanalytic functions, Dokl. Ross.
Akad. Nauk [Russian Acad. Sci. Dokl. Math.], 338 (1994), no. 5, 585588.
3. E. P. Dolzhenko, On the boundary behavior of the components of polyanalytic functions, Mat.
Zametki [Math. Notes], 63 (1998), no. 6, 821834.
4. E. P. Dolzhenko and V. I. Danchenko, On the boundary behavior of the solutions of the generalized
CauchyRiemann equation, Vestnik Moskov. Univ. Ser. I Mat. Mekh. [Moscow Univ. Math. Bull.]
(1998), no. 3, 1625.
5. A. K. Ramazanov, On orthogonal projections in spaces of polyanalytic functions, Izv. Tulsk Gos.
Univ. Ser. Mat. Mekh. Inform., 4 (1998), no. 1, 117122.
6. A. K. Ramazanov, Representation of a space of polyanalytic functions as a direct sum of orthogonal
subspaces. Application to rational approximations, Mat. Zametki [Math. Notes], 66 (1999), no. 5,
741759.
7. E. P. Dolzhenko and V. I. Danchenko, On the boundary behavior of the derivatives of polyanalytic functions, in: Current Problems in the Theory of Functions [in Russian], 9th Saratov Winter
Workshop, Abstracts of Papers, Saratov, 1997, p. 54.
8. V. P. Zakharyuta and V. I. Yudovich, The general form of the linear functional in Hp , Uspekhi Mat.
Nauk [Russian Math. Surveys], 19 (1964), no. 2, 139142.
9. J. Burbea, The Bergman projection over plane regions, Ark. Mat., 18 (1980), no. 2, 207221.
10. A. A. Solovev, Estimates in Lp of integral operators related to spaces of analytic and harmonic
functions Sibirsk. Mat. Zh. [Siberian Math. J.], 26 (1985), no. 3, 168191.
11. A. V. Vasin, Projections onto Lp -spaces of polyanalytic functions, Zap. Nauchn. Sem. LOMI, 190
(1991), 1533.
12. A. D. Koshelev, On the kernel function for the Hilbert space of polyanalytic functions on the disk,
Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR [Soviet Math. Dokl.], 232 (1977), no. 2, 277279.
13. N. S. Vyacheslavov and A. K. Ramazanov, Interpolation properties of rational functions of best
approximation in mean square on the circle and on the disk, Mat. Zametki [Math. Notes], 57 (1995),
no. 2, 228239.
14. P. L. Duren, Theory of H p Spaces, Academic Press, New York, 1970.
15. A. Zabulenis, On the dierential operator in spaces of analytic functions, Litovsk. Mat. Zh. [Lithuanian Math. J.], 24 (1984), no. 1, 5358.
16. U. Rudin, The Theory of Functions in the Unit Ball of C n [in Russian], Moscow, 1984.
Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Kaluga Branch
N. E.
MATHEMATICAL NOTES

Vol. 72

No. 5

2002