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Threading is the process of creating a screw

thread. More screw threads are produced each

year than any other machine element. There
.are many methods of generating threads

Primary functions of a thread:

To form a mechanical coupling.
To transmit motion by converting a rotational
movement into a linear movement, and vice
To obtain a mechanical advantage, by using
a small force to create a larger force.
Threads are also classified into various profiles
or forms. The selection of these forms will be
influenced by many other secondary, but still
vital, functions.

Threading terms and definitions

Thread forms & Application:

The thread profile defines the geometry
of a thread and includes component
(major, pitch and minor), the thread
profile angle, pitch and helix angle. The
most common
thread forms or profiles produced today
.are shown below

Thread designations
International standardsTo ensure that the two
(internal and external) halves of a threaded
joint fi t together properly to produce a
connection capable of bearing
a specified load, threads must maintain certain
International standards for thread forms:
Have therefore been established for all
common thread types.
Below are examples of Metric, UN and
Whitworth thread designations.
ISO metric thread designations
The complete thread designation is made up of
values for the thread form and the tolerance.
The tolerance is indicated by a number for the
tolerance grade, and letters
for the tolerance position.
M16 - 6h
Thread designation and nominal dimension

ISO inch threads (UNC, UNF, UNEF, UN)

The UN system has three tolerance
classes, ranging from 1 (course) to 3
(fine). A typical UN thread is designated
as follows:

Types of UN thread:

UNC thread diameter with course

UNF thread diameter with fine pitch
UNEF thread diameter with extrafine pitch
UN thread diameter with constant pitch *

The pitch value is indicated in t.p.i.

(threads per inch).
To convert to metric, this should be
divided by 25.4 using the following

Threading methods

Various methods and applications exist

for generating screw threads. The choice
of application will be based on the time
to produce the thread and the level of
.thread precision required

Different ways of making threads

Within the metal cutting area, thread

turning, thread milling and thread
tapping are common threading
techniques using cemented
carbide cutting tools. The design of
component and machine tool are the
main factors when deciding which
technique to use, and
there are a number of important
considerations to be made in order to
maximize success.
Metal cutting threading methods

:Type Threading in the Bolt