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Out-of-Plane Design of Masonry Walls

Strength Design Procedure

Summary of Recent Changes

Richard Bennett, PhD, PE

The University of Tennessee
Chair, Flexural, Axial, and Shear Subcommittee, 2011 MSJC Committee
Vice-Chair, 2013 MSJC Committee
Chair, 2016 TMS 402/602 Code Committee

Outline
2008 Code
Estimate reinforcement
Direct solution
2011 Code
Correction of nominal moment strength
Equations for cracked moment of inertia
2013 Code
Change in unit strength tables; increase in fm
Increase in modulus of rupture
Moment magnification method
2

48 psf

D = 500 lb/ft
Lr = 400 lb/ft
W = -360 lb/ft

2.5 ft

Given:

18 ft

32 psf

Lateral wind 32 psf, 48 psf on parapet

Wind uplift of 360 lb/ft
Roof forces act at eccentricity of 2.81 inch.

3

Example - OOP: Estimate Steel

Try an 8 inch wall; = 1500 psi

a = d d2

2[Pu (d t / 2) + M u ]
(0.8 f m b )

0.8 f m ba Pu /
As =
fy

Example - OOP: Estimate Steel

Use 0.9D+1.0W without second-order effects, parapet, and wall weight
Puf = 0.9(500lb / ft ) + 1.0( 360lb / ft ) = 90lb / ft

M u ,app

wu h 2
eu 1.0(32 psf )(18 ft )2 12in
2.81in

+ 90lb / ft
=
+ Puf
=
= 15.7 k in / ft
8
2
8
ft
2

a = d d2
= 3.81in

As =

2[Pu (d t / 2 ) + M u ]
(0.8 f m b )

(3.81in )2 2[0.09k / ft (3.81 7.62 / 2)in + 15.7k in / ft ] = 0.332in

0.9(0.8(1.5ksi )(12in / ft ))

=
= 0.078in 2 / ft
fy
60ksi

5

Walls: Slenderness Effects

1. Complementary Moment Design
a. Second-order moment directly added by P-
b. Usually requires iteration
c. Difficult for hand calculations for other than simple cases
d. Basis for second-order analysis in computer programs
e. Historical method used for masonry design
2. Moment Magnification
a. Added in 2013 TMS 402 Code
b. Very general, but a bit conservative.

Complementary Moment
Assumes simple support conditions.
Assumes maximum moment is near midheight
Valid only for the following conditions:
Pu
0.05 f m No height limit
An

wu h 2
eu
Mu =
+ Puf
+ Pu u
8
2

Pu
0.20 f m
Ag

h/t 30

Pu = Puw + Puf
5M cr h 2 5(M u M cr )h 2
u =
+
48Em I n
48Em I cr

M u > M cr
7

Walls: Design
Solving Simultaneous Linear Equations for Mu

wu h 2
1
e 5M cr Pu h 2 1

+ Puf +
8
2
48 Em I n I cr
Mu =
5 Pu h 2
1
48 Em I cr

wu h 2
e
+ Puf
2
Mu = 8
5 Pu h 2
1
48 Em I n

M u > M cr

M u < M cr

Walls: Design
Solving Simultaneous Linear Equations for u

u =

5h 2
48E m I cr

u =

wu h 2
I cr

eu
+ Puf
+ M cr
1

2
8
In

5 Pu h 2
1
48 E m I cr
wu h 2
eu
+ Puf

2
8
5 Pu h 2
1
48E m I n

5h 2
48E m I n

M u > M cr

M u < M cr

MWFRS (ASCE 7-10 27.4.5, 28.4.2): Used for
Components and Cladding (ASCE 7 30.7.1.2, 30.9):
Used for designing parapet
Used for designing wall-to-diaphragm connection
Parapet pressure to use for designing wall?
Parapet wind load reduces midheight wall
moment
Very conservative: parapet load is 0
Aggressive: full parapet C&C pressure
Moderate: extend wall pressure to parapet

??

10

In first mode, wall and parapet loads are in opposite
directions
Design forces for shear walls and wall-to-diaphragm
connections
Suggest using wall and parapet loads in same
direction
Seismic parapet force to use for designing wall
Conservative: parapet load in opposite direction of
wall
Aggressive: wall and parapet load in same direction

11

Combination

Mu
(kipin/ft)

Mn
(kipin/ft)

Mu/
Mn

Second Order M
/ First Order M

0.9D+1.0W

16.6

16.8

0.99

1.12

1.2D+1.6Lr+0.5W

10.4

20.1

0.52

1.12

1.2D+1.0W+0.5Lr

18.1

18.3

0.99

1.06

12

2011 TMS 402 Code

Correction of nominal
moment strength
Equations for cracked
moment of inertia

13

Interaction Diagram Below Balanced

Pn
If we could only know one
point on the interaction
diagram, we would want to
know the point
corresponding to Pn = Pu

Mu, Pu
Mn

Pn = 0.80 f m ba As f y

a=

As f y + Pn
0.80 f m b

For centered bars:

M n = Pn + As f y d = Pu / + As f y
2

As f y + Pu /
0.80 f m b

) d a2

14

Nominal Strength

Mn, (kip-in/ft)
2008

2011

0.9D+1.0W

16.8

17.0

1.2D+1.6Lr+0.5W

20.1

20.7

1.2D+1.0W+0.5Lr

18.3

18.6

15

3

t
P
bc
sp
(d c )2 +
I cr = n As + u

f
2
d
3
y

c=

As f y + Pu
0.64 f 'm b

For centered bars:

3

P
bc
2
I cr = n As + u (d c ) +

f
3
y

16

Change in unit strength

tables; increase in fm
Increase in modulus of
rupture
Moment magnification
method

17

Unit Strength Table for CMU

Net area
compressive
strength of concrete
masonry, psi

Type M or S Mortar

Type N Mortar

1,700

---

1,900

1,900

1,900

2,350

2,000

2,000

2,650

2,250

2,600

3,400

2,500

3,250

4,350

2,750

3,900

----

Net area compressive strength of ASTM

C90 concrete masonry units, psi

18

Nominal Strength

Mn, (kip-in/ft)
= 1500 psi

= 2000 psi

0.9D+1.0W

17.0

17.2

1.2D+1.6Lr+0.5W

20.7

21.0

1.2D+1.0W+0.5Lr

18.6

18.9

19

Flexural Stiffness, EIcr

EIcr, (kip-in2/ft)
= 1500 psi

= 2000 psi

0.9D+1.0W

28600

30300

1.2D+1.6Lr+0.5W

33100

35400

1.2D+1.0W+0.5Lr

30600

32600

20

Modulus of Rupture
Masonry Type

Mortar Type
Portland cement/lime or
mortar cement

Normal to Bed Joints

Solid Units
Hollow Units*
Ungrouted
Fully Grouted
Parallel to bed joints in running bond
Solid Units
Hollow Units
Ungrouted and partially grouted
Fully grouted
Parallel to bed joints not laid in running bond
Continuous grout section parallel to
bed joints
Other

Masonry Cement

M or S

M or S

133

100

80

51

84
163

64
158

51
153

31
145

267

200

160

100

167
267

127
200

100
160

64
100

335

335

335

335

0
21

Factored Moment

Mu, (kip-in/ft)
fr = 57.2 psi

fr = 68 psi

0.9D+1.0W

16.5

16.4

1.2D+1.6Lr+0.5W

10.3

10.0

1.2D+1.0W+0.5Lr

17.9

17.8

fr values determined by interpolation:

2011: 38, 153 psi
2013: 51, 153 psi
22

Example Summary
Mu/
Mn

2008

2013

0.9D+1.0W

0.99

0.96

1.2D+1.6Lr+0.5W

0.52

0.48

1.2D+1.0W+0.5Lr

0.99

0.94

23

Deflections
, (inch)

fr = 57.2 psi

fr = 68 psi

D+0.6W

0.703

0.548

0.6D+0.6W

0.654

0.499

D+0.75(0.6W)+0.75Lr

0.378

0.222

Deflection Limit = 0.007h = 1.51 inch

24

Moment Magnification
M u = M u , 0
1
=
Pu
1
Pe
Pe =

Mu < Mcr: Ieff = 0.75In

Mu Mcr: Ieff = Icr

2 Em I eff
h2

A good approximation for most simply supported walls is that maximum

moment occurs at midheight. The maximum moment can be calculated as:

Puf e (Puf e )
wu h
=
+
+
8
2
2 wu h 2
2

M u ,0

Mu occurs at a
distance x from the top
of the wall. If x<0 or
x>h, Mu=Pufe

h Puf e
x=
2 wu h
25

Moment Magnification vs.

Complementary Moment
Negative
wu h 2
1
e 5M cr Pu h 2 1

+ Puf +
8
2
48Em I n I cr
Mu =
5Pu h 2
1
48 Em I cr

5/48 = 0.104
1/2 = 0.101
26

Example: 0.9D+1.0W
(Puf = 0.090 k/ft; Pu = 0.483 k/ft)

Find Icr, cracked moment of inertia.

0.0775in 2 / ft (60ksi ) + 0.483k / ft
c=
=
= 0.334in
0.64 f 'm b
0.64(2.0ksi )12in / ft
As f y + Pu

t
P
bc
sp
2
(d c ) +
I cr = n As + u

f y 2d
3

0.483k / ft
12in / ft (0.334in )

2
= 16.1 0.0775in 2 / ft +
(3.812in 0.334in ) +
60ksi
3

= 16.8in 4 / ft

27

Example Moment Magnification

Solving
for

Pe =

2 Em I eff
h

M u ,0

2 (1800ksi ) 16.8in 4 / ft

(216in )2

) = 6.40k / ft

1
1
=
= 1.081
P
0.483k / ft
1 u 1
6.40k / ft
Pe

Puf eu
wu h 2 Puf eu
=
+
+
8
2
2wu h 2

(0.090k / ft (2.81in ))
0.032ksf (216in ) (1 ft / 12in ) (0.090k / ft )(2.81in )
=
+
+
2
8
2
2(0.032ksf )(216in ) (1 ft / 12in )
2

= (15.55 + 0.13 + 0.0003)k in / ft = 15.67k in / ft

M u = M u , 0 = 1.081(15.67 k in / ft ) = 16.96kip in / ft
28

Example Moment Magnification

Combination

Mu,0
(kipin/ft)

Mu
Mn
(kip-in/ft) (kip-in/ft)

Mu/
Mn

0.9D+1.0W

15.7

1.081

17.0

17.2

0.99

1.2D+1.6Lr+0.5W

9.3

1.268

11.7

21.0

0.56

1.2D+1.0W+0.5Lr

16.2

1.162

18.8

18.9

0.99

29

Moment Magnification - Deflections

First-order deflection
(simply supported wall):

Pf eh 2

5wh
+
0 =
384 Em I e 16 Em I e

Rewriting TMS 402 OOP equations:

Same as proposed by Bischoff, P. (2005). Reevaluation of Deflection Prediction
for Concrete Beams Reinforced with Steel and Fiber Reinforced Polymer
Bars. J. Struct. Eng., 131(5), 752767.

I cr
Ie =
M cr I cr
1
1
M
In

30

Example Moment Magnification

Pf = 500lb/ft 0.6(360lb/ft) = 284lb/ft
P = 284lb/ft + 38psf(9ft+2.5ft) = 721lb/ft
w = 0.6(32psf) = 19.2psf

0.0775in 2 / ft (60ksi ) + 0.721k / ft

c=
=
= 0.350in
0.64 f 'm b
0.64(2.0ksi )12in / ft
As f y + P

t sp
P
bc
2
u
(d c ) +
I cr = n As +

3
f y 2d

0.721k / ft
12in / ft (0.350in )

2
2
= 16.1 0.0775in / ft +
(3.812in 0.350in ) +
60ksi
3

= 17.5in 4 / ft

31

Icr Chase a rabbit

c or kd or something else??
TMS 402 code uses c:
simplicity (same as for strength)
c used in the original development of provisions.

(n )eff
k=

0.0775in 2 / ft
nP
16.1(0.721kip / ft )
+
= n +
= 16.1
= 0.0352
Fs bd
12in / ft (3.8125in.) 32ksi (12in / ft )(3.815in.)

(n )eff2

(0.0352 )2 + 2(0.0352 ) (0.0352 ) = 0.232

P t sp
b(kd )
2
(d kd ) +
I cr = n As +
= 16.6in 4 / ft
Fs 2d
3

And both are wrong: Need to find neutral axis that corresponds to P, M combination.
This would require iteration, and would be quite complicated.
32

Example Moment Magnification

Solving for

Pe =

2 Em I eff
h

2 (1800ksi )(17.5in 4 / ft )

(216in )

= 6.65k / ft

1
1
=
= 1.122
Pu
0.721k / ft
1
1
Pe
6.65k / ft

wh 2 Pf e
M0 =
+
8
2
0.0192ksf (216in ) (1 ft / 12in ) (0.284k / ft )(2.81in )
=
+
= 9.73k in / ft
8
2
2

M = M 0 = 1.122(9.73k in / ft ) = 10.92kip in / ft

33

Example Moment Magnification

I cr
Ie =
M cr I cr
1
1
M
In

17.5in 4 / ft
4
=
=
44
.
2
in
/ ft
4

6.96k in / ft
17.5in / ft
1
1

4
10.92k in / ft 332.0in / ft

Pf eh 2
5wh 4
0 =
+
384 Em I e 16 Em I e
5(0.0192ksf )(216in ) (1 ft / 12in.) 0.284k / ft (2.81in.)(216in )
=
+
= 0.599in.
384(1800ksi ) 44.2in 4 / ft
16(1800ksi ) 44.2in 4 / ft
4

= 0 = 1.122(0.599in.) = 0.672in.
Deflection Limit

34

Example Moment Magnification

0 (in)

(in)

D+0.6W

0.599

1.122

0.672

D+0.75(0.6W)+0.75Lr

0.351

1.181

0.415

0.6D+0.6W

0.528

1.058

0.559

Deflection Limit = 1.51 inch

35

Maximum Reinforcement

fm = 1500 psi

fully grouted,

fm = 2000 psi

Spacing (inches)

P/(bd)
(psi)

As (in2
per ft)

#4

#5

#6

0.326

16

16

100

0.250

16

16

24

200

0.174

16

24

32

300

0.098

24

40

56

400

0.022

112

176

248

P/(bdfm)

As (in2
per ft)

#4

#5

#6

0.435

16

100

0.359

16

16

200

0.283

16

24

300

0.207

16

24

32

400

0.130

24

32

40

Spacing (inches)

36

Thank You

37