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Overview 1

Overview

2 Adams/View Commands

Using the Command Window


The command window provides text-based way to enter Adams/View commands. It assumes that you
understand the Adams/View command language underlying the Adams/View interface.

About Adams/View Commands


The commands that you enter in the command window or select from the Command Navigator are made
up of keywords, parameters for the keywords, and parameter values as shown below:
{keywords} {parameters=values}
In a command:
Keywords correspond to menu selections.
Parameters correspond to dialog box choices.
Parameter values correspond to values you enter or select in the dialog boxes.

For example, the following command contains the keyword constraint followed by other keywords, then
by parameters, such as the name of the joint. In the example, the ! indicates a comment and the & at the
end of a line indicates that the command continues onto the next line.
constraint create joint revolute & !{keywords}
joint_name=.model_1.JOINT_1 & !{parameter=value}
i_marker_name=.model_1.PART_1.MAR_3 & !& for continuation
j_marker_name=.model_1.ground.MAR_1 &
friction_enabled = no

Syntax Rules for Entering Commands


The commands that you enter in the command window are made up of keywords, parameters for the
keywords, and parameter values as shown below:
{keywords} {parameters=values}
There are several rules that you must follow when you enter commands in the command window. For
example, the commands must be entered in the order shown below. Because commands are case
insensitive, you can type upper or lowercase letters or a mix of both.

Overview 3

To help you enter commands correctly, Adams/View checks for syntax errors whenever you enter a
space, comma, or equal sign (except in a string or expression) in the command window. If Adams/View
detects an error, it displays a message above the command information area. You cannot proceed until
you correct the error.

Syntax Rules for Entering Values


The values that you can enter in commands are data that have a particular type. There are four data types
that Adams/View commands support: integer, real, string, and database object references. The following
table lists the data types and their use.

Data type:

Use:

Integer

Whole numbers in the range -maxint ... +maxint, where maxint is machine dependent
(usually around two billion)

Real

Most numeric values, truncated to +/- 1E25

String

Character strings of varying length

Object

Database objects

The rules for entering values are that they:


Can contain letters, numbers, and underscore characters.
Must begin with a letter or underscore character.
Can contain any characters that are enclosed by double quotation marks.
Have separators (blank space or tab) between keywords and parameters. Placing separators

between parameters and their values is optional.


For strings, you must use a backslash (\) in front of special characters to ensure that Adams/View does
not try to interpret the characters. These characters include quotation marks (") and backslashes. For
example, to be sure to include the quotation marks in the string: This is a "string", you would enter:

4 Adams/View Commands

"This is a \"string\"."
To get a single backslash into the string, you, therefore, enter double backslashes. For example, to specify
This ia a \string\, you would enter:
"This is a \\string\\"
Note also for path names on Windows, you can use backslashes as the separators, but you are not required
to do so. You can write portable path names by using the forward slash so Adams/View interprets the
following as the same path:
"d:/users/efhl/some.file"
"d:\users\efhl\some.file"
If the file name is to be stored in a string variable, the backslashes would need to be doubled to preserve
the file path:
"d:\\users\\efhl\\some.file"
Note that the forward slash is much preferred over the backslash.

Miscellaneous Command Information


Continuing Commands
You can continue an Adams/View command you enter in the command window for as many lines as
necessary. To continue a command, place an ampersand (&) at the end of a line and then continue the
command on the next line. Note that a command must be entered all at once.
Keywords, strings, and expressions cannot be broken across lines.
Mixing Comments and Commands
If you want to mix comments and commands (so that your comments appear in the log file), use one of
the formats below:

To create:

Enter:

A comment alone on one line

!comment <CR>

A command followed by a comment on one line command

!comment<CR>

A command followed by a comment on one line, with the command continuing


on the next line command

&!comment<CR>
continue command

A command followed by a comment on one line, with the comment continuing


on the next line, and the command continuing on the following line command

&!comment<CR>
&!comment<CR>
continue command

Overview 5

Entering Abbreviations
You can enter abbreviations for commands and parameters when you are entering commands directly in
the command window. You should always use full keywords for macros and command files to avoid any
future compatibility problems. Also note that if you use abbreviations, Adams/View takes longer to
execute your commands because it must substitute an abbreviation with its full command.
Verifying Command Input
Adams/View verifies command input whenever you enter a space, comma, or equal sign (except in a
string or expression) in the command window. If Adams/View detects an error, it displays a message
above the command information area. You cannot proceed until you correct the error.
Reviewing Commands
You can use the scroll bar at the side of the command information area to view the last 50 commands that
were entered.
Recalling Commands
Use the arrow keys to recall and edit commands. After entering a command, in the command entry area,
press the up arrow to display it in the command entry area again. Use the left and right arrows to edit it,
and then press Enter.

Getting Help Completing Command Parameters


In the command window, you can get help with keywords and parameter name completion. In addition,
you can get help with possible parameter values for modeling objects and files. For example, you can get
a list of possible marker names in your model or you can display the File Browser to help you find a file.
To get assistance with keywords:
1. Enter the beginning of a keyword. For example, enter f.
2. Type ?.
The command window displays all the keywords that begin with letter or letters. For example, for
f it displays file, floating_marker, and so on.
To view all parameter names associated with a keyword:
1. Enter the keyword. For example, enter file.
2. Type ?.
The command window displays all the parameter names associated with the keyword.
To get assistance with values for a parameter:
1. Enter the parameter name but do not include the parameter value. For example, enter the
command mar del mar=.

6 Adams/View Commands

2. Type ?.
If the parameter value requires a modeling object, the command window displays a list of possible
objects in your current model. If the parameter value requires a file, the File Browser appears.
3. Copy or select the desired object and place it in the parameter value.

Grouping Operations into an Undo Block


As you issue Adams/View commands from the command window, you can group them into undo blocks.
By grouping them into undo blocks, you can use a single undo command to reverse all the operations in
the block. You can define undo blocks around macros, command files, or any group of Adams/View
commands. You can nest them to any level.
To create an undo block:
1. Enter the following command in the command window to mark the beginning of the block:
UNDO BEGIN_BLOCK
2. Issue all the commands to be included in the undo block.
3. To close the block, enter the command:
UNDO END_BLOCK
Once you have closed the undo block, any individual commands that you issue that are not in the undo
block or any nested undo blocks within the undo block are not affected by an Undo command. Once you
close the undo block, you cannot open it again.
The following is an example of an undo block with individual commands surrounding it and several undo
operations that were issued. The undo commands reverse all operations that were performed to create the
model and part.
MODEL CREATE...
UNDO BEGIN_BLOCK
PART CREATE...
MARKER CREATE...
UNDO BACKWARD ! Undo the MARKER CREATE above, not entire undo
block
MARKER CREATE...
GEOM CREATE...
UNDO END_BLOCK
PART DELETE...
UNDO BACKWARD ! Undo the PART DELETE command
UNDO BACKWARD ! Undo the entire undo block
UNDO FORWARD ! Restore the entire undo block
UNDO BACKWARD ! Undo the entire undo block again
UNDO BACKWARD ! Undo the MODEL CREATE command
Note the following about the example:
The first UNDO BACKWARD within the undo block undoes only the preceding MARKER

CREATE command.

Overview 7

The third UNDO BACKWARD command after the Undo block undoes the entire contents of the

undo block.
The UNDO FORWARD reverses the undo of the entire undo block as if the undo block were a

single command.
The limit on the number of commands Adams/View remembers does not apply to commands within an
undo block. You may notice slowed system performance if you store too many commands in a single
undo block or if you have the number of undo steps set too high using the undo set command.

analysis 1

analysis

2 Adams/View Commands
analysis collate_contacts

analysis collate_contacts
Sets the tolerance value for track data and reference marker with respect to which contact data is
computed.
Format:
analysis collate_contacts
analyis_name = existing analysis
contact_name = new contact
tolerance = real
reference_marker = existing marker
Example:
analysis collate_contacts &
analysis_name = last_run &
contact_name = contact_between_part_1_and_2 &
tolerance = 0.1 &
reference_marker = marker_3
Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

analysis_name

Existing analysis Specifies an existing analysis.

Contact_name

Existing contact

Specifies an existing contact.

tolerance

Real

Specifies the distance used to decide if two successive impacts


of two geometries used by the same contact belong to the same
track. If you do not provide it, Adams/Solver computes the
tolerance, which can take a long time.

reference_marker

Existing marker

Specifies the marker with respect to which the track data is


computed. Otherwise, the track data is in the global reference
frame.

Extended Definition:
1. A track is a sequence of individual impacts between two particular geometries specified by a
single contact object. The two geometries for a particular track should always be the same at every
impact along that track.

analysis 3
analysis collate_contacts

It is possible for a contact object and two of its geometries to have more than one track. For
example, if a contact and two of its geometries have more than one impact at the same time, each
separate impact must belong to a separate track to remove ambiguity. Also, when the separation
between impacts is great enough according to either an automatic or given criteria, the impacts
may be assembled into separate tracks.
There is an experimental method of specifying a delta value for the separation criteria that will
make the program skip the automatic criteria, sometimes saving a significant amount of time. This
can be done by setting the tolerance parameter using the analysis collate_contacts
command. By using a large tolerance value, you can coerce tracks together that may have been
separated by the automatic criteria. See Knowledge Base Article 10523 for more information.
Automatic criteria for a contact and an I and J geometry:
The geometric center (centroid) of all the impacts over the entire simulation is found in three

frames: the global frame and the I and J part frames.


The average distance of the impacts from the centroid is computed, again in each of the three

frames.
The standard deviation of the impacts from this average distance is computed in the three

frames. This value for the standard deviation is used as a delta to decide if any two impacts
are close enough to be considered to belong to the same track. The frame with the minimum
distance is used for the comparison.
To force a pair of locations on two different parts to belong to separate tracks you can place a
small separate piece of geometry at that particular point on each part. For example, instead of
making a table out of a single piece of geometry and letting the algorithm try to find the separate
legs as four separate tracks, placing a cap at the end of each leg will force separate tracks.
2. You can identify an entity, such as a marker or force, by typing its name or by picking it from the
screen. If the entity is not visible on the screen, you must type the name. You may also find it
convenient to type the name even if the element is displayed.
If an entity is available by default, you can identify it by entering its name only. If it is not, you
must enter its full name. To identify a entity under a different part, you may need to enter the
model and part names as well. For example, you can specify marker 'pivot' from model 'links', part
'lower_arm' by entering ".links.lower_arm.pivot".
If you type a "?", Adams/View lists the entity available by default.
You must separate multiple entity names by commas. If the entity is visible in one of your views,
you can identify it by picking it. You need not separate multiple element picks by commas.

4 Adams/View Commands
analysis collate_contacts

Note:

If you created a marker by reading an Adams/Solver dataset or graphics file, the

marker name is the letters MAR followed by the dataset marker ID number. For
example, the name of MARKER/101 is MAR101. If you created the marker
during preprocessing, you gave it a name at that time.
You may have explicitly named an analysis when you created it by reading one or

more Adams output files (graphics (.gra), request (.req), or results (.res)). By
default, the name of the analysis is the root name of the Adams output files without
the extension. If you created the analysis by reading an Adams graphics file, for
example, the analysis name is the name of the graphics file without the .gra
extension
You need to be using the XML Results File (XRF) format in order for the contact

incident data to be available for collation.

analysis 5
analysis create

analysis create
Allows you to create an empty analysis. This is useful for reading spreadsheet data into a results set, using
the numeric_results read_from_file command.
Format:
analysis create
analysis_name = new analysis
Example:
analysis create &
analysis_name = my_analysis
Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

analysis_name New Analysis Specifies the name of the analysis in which to store output files.
Extended Definition:
1. When using the Adams/View command language and naming entities, you can use the name later
to refer to this entity. Adams/View does not allow you to have two entities with the same name,
so you must provide a unique name. Normally, entity names are composed of alphabetic, numeric,
or '_' (underscore) characters, and start with an alphabetic or '_' character. They may be of any
length.
By enclosing the name in double quotes, you can use other printable characters, or start the name
with a numeral. If a name contains characters, or starts with a numeral, you must always quote
the name when entering it.
Note that you can specify the parentage of an entity (for example, what part "owns" a marker or
a geometry element) when you create it by changing the name. If you enter just the entity name,
then Adams/View assigns the default parent. If you type in the full name, then you can override
the default parent. In most cases, when creating an entity, Adams/View provides a default name.
The default name that Adams/View provides specifies the parentage that it has assumed. You can,
of course, delete this name and use your own. The form of a full name is:
"...._NAME.GRAND_PARENT_NAME.PARENT_NAME.ENTITY_NAME"
The number of levels used varies from case to case and the parentage must exist before an entity
can be assigned to it.

6 Adams/View Commands
analysis delete

analysis delete
Allows you to delete an existing analysis. You must enter the name of the analysis you want to delete by
specifying the name of an analysis on the default model or the full name.
You can reverse this modification by issuing an undo command.
Format:
analysis delete
analysis_name =

existing analysis

Example:
analysis delete &
analysis_name = my_analysis
Description:
Parameter
analysis_name

Value Type
existing analysis

Description
Specifies the name of the analysis to be deleted

Extended Definition:
1. When using the Adams/View command language and naming entities, you can use the name later
to refer to this entity. Adams/View does not allow you to have two entities with the same name,
so you must provide a unique name. Normally, entity names are composed of alphabetic, numeric,
or '_' (underscore) characters, and start with an alphabetic or '_' character. They may be of any
length.
By enclosing the name in double quotes, you can use other printable characters, or start the name
with a numeral. If a name contains characters, or starts with a numeral, you must always quote
the name when entering it.
Note that you can specify the parentage of an entity (for example, what part "owns" a marker or
a geometry element) when you create it by changing the name. If you enter just the entity name,
then Adams/View assigns the default parent. If you type in the full name, then you can override
the default parent. In most cases, when creating an entity, Adams/View provides a default name.
The default name that Adams/View provides specifies the parentage that it has assumed. You can,
of course, delete this name and use your own. The form of a full name is:
"...._NAME.GRAND_PARENT_NAME.PARENT_NAME.ENTITY_NAME"
The number of levels used varies from case to case and the parentage must exist before an entity
can be assigned to it.

analysis 7
analysis modify

analysis modify
Allows you to modify an existing analysis. You must enter the name of the analysis you want to modify
by specifying the name of an analysis on the default model or the full name.
You can reverse this modification by issuing an undo command.
Format:
analysis modify
analysis_name = existing analysis
new_analysis_name = new name of analysis
Example:
analysis modify &
analysis_name = .model_1.analysis_1 &
new_analysis_name = .model.my_analysis
Description:
Parameter
analysis_name

Value Type
Existing Analysis

Description
Specifies the name of the analysis in which to store
output files

New_analysis_name New Analysis Name Specifies the name of the new analysis
Extended Definition:
1. When using the Adams/View command language and naming entities, you can use the name later
to refer to this entity. Adams/View does not allow you to have two entities with the same name,
so you must provide a unique name. Normally, entity names are composed of alphabetic, numeric,
or '_' (underscore) characters, and start with an alphabetic or '_' character. They may be of any
length.
By enclosing the name in double quotes, you can use other printable characters, or start the name
with a numeral. If a name contains characters, or starts with a numeral, you must always quote the
name when entering it.
Note that you can specify the parentage of an entity (for example, what part "owns" a marker or
a geometry element) when you create it by changing the name. If you enter just the entity name,
then Adams/View assigns the default parent. If you type in the full name, then you can override
the default parent. In most cases, when creating an entity, Adams/View provides a default name.
The default name that Adams/View provides specifies the parentage that it has assumed. You can,
of course, delete this name and use your own. The form of a full name is:

8 Adams/View Commands
analysis modify

"...._NAME.GRAND_PARENT_NAME.PARENT_NAME.ENTITY_NAME"
The number of levels used varies from case to case and the parentage must exist before an entity
can be assigned to it.

analysis 9
analysis reload_files

analysis reload_files
Allows you to read the specified analysis file into Adams/View again, reloading any files that were read
when creating the analysis. The analysis files then update any existing plots or analysis results.
Format:
:

analysis reload_files
analysis_name = existing analysis
Example:
analysis reload_files &
analysis_name = my_analysis
Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

analysis_name Existing analysis Specifies the name of an existing analysis to be loaded


Extended Definition:
1. When using the Adams/View command language and naming entities, you can use the name later
to refer to this entity. Adams/View does not allow you to have two entities with the same name,
so you must provide a unique name. Normally, entity names are composed of alphabetic, numeric,
or '_' (underscore) characters, and start with an alphabetic or '_' character. They may be of any
length.
2. By enclosing the name in double quotes, you can use other printable characters, or start the name
with a numeral. If a name contains characters, or starts with a numeral, you must always quote the
name when entering it.
Note that you can specify the parentage of an entity (for example, what part "owns" a marker or
a geometry element) when you create it by changing the name. If you enter just the entity name,
then Adams/View assigns the default parent. If you type in the full name, then you can override
the default parent. In most cases, when creating an entity, Adams/View provides a default name.
The default name that Adams/View provides specifies the parentage that it has assumed. You can,
of course, delete this name and use your own. The form of a full name is:
"...._NAME.GRAND_PARENT_NAME.PARENT_NAME.ENTITY_NAME"
The number of levels used varies from case to case and the parentage must exist before an entity
can be assigned to it.

animation 1

animation

2 Adams/View Commands
animation add_simulation

animation add_simulation
Allows you to add a simulation to an existing animation.
Format:
:

animation add_simulation
animation_name =
page_name =

an existing animation
an existing page

old_analysis_name =

an existing analysis

new_analysis_name =

a new analysis

Example:
:

animation add_simulation &


animation_name = anim__1 &
old_analysis_name = Last_Run &
new_analysis_name = ana__1
Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

animation_name

An Existing
Animation

Specifies the name of an existing animation.

page_name

An Existing Page

Instead of animation_name, you can specify the page


name containing the animation.

old_analysis_name

An Existing Analysis Specifies the name of the existing analysis.

new_analysis_name

A New Analysis

Specifies a name for the new analysis

Extended Definition:
1. This command is useful when you need to compare two animations side by side. For example, if
you want to compare the animation of two cars side by side and see which is faster, you can add
the simulation of one car to the other cars animation.
2. Normally, entity names are composed of alphabetic, numeric, or '_' (underscore) characters, and
start with an alphabetic or '_' character. They may be of any length.
By enclosing the name in double quotes, you may use other printable characters, or start the name
with a numeral. If a name contains characters, or starts with a numeral, you must always quote the
name when entering it.

animation 3
animation add_simulation

Note that you can specify the parentage of an entity (e.g. what part "owns" a marker or a geometry
element) when you CREATE it by changing the name. If you enter just the entity name, then the
default parent will be assigned by Adams/View. If you type in the full name, then you may
override the default parent. In most cases, when creating an entity, Adams/View will provide a
default name. The default name that Adams/View provides will specify the parentage that it has
assumed.
You may, of course, delete this name and use your own. The form of a full name is:
"...._NAME.GRAND_PARENT_NAME.PARENT_NAME.ENTITY_NAME"
The number of levels used varies from case to case and the parentage must exist before an entity
can be assigned to it.

4 Adams/View Commands
animation create

animation create
Allows you to create a model
Format:
animation create
animation_name =
analysis_name =
view_name =
number_of_cycles =
time_range =

a new animation
an existing analysis
an existing view
integer
time

frame_range =

integer

frame_number =

integer

time =
configuration =

time
display_frame

increment_frame_by =

integer

superimposed =

on_off

base_marker =

an existing marker

camera_ref_marker =

an existing marker

point_trace_marker =

an existing marker

icon_visibility =
offset =
colors =

on_off
location
an existing color

Example:
animation create &
analysis_name = Hood_1 &
view_name = View_1 &
component = Plot_1 &
number_of_cycles = 10 &
animation_name = Animation__1 &
time = 50 &
configuration = Model_input &

animation 5
animation create

animation create &


point_trace_marker = Marker_71 &
icon_visibility = On
Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

animation_name

A New Animation

Specifies the name of a new animation

analysis_name

An Existing Analysis Specifies the name of an existing analysis

view_name

An Existing View

Specifies the name of the view that you would like to


view the animation from

number_of_cycles

Integer

Specifies the number of complete cycles to be animated

time_range

Time

Specifies the analysis output Adams simulation output


time steps at which to start and stop the animation (in
that order).

frame_range

Integer

Specifies the analysis frame number (output time step)


at which to start and stop the animation (in that order).

Frame_number

Integer

Specifies the frame number (adams simulation output


time step) at which to configure a model during the
single_frame_display command.

Time

Time

Specifies the time as a real number greater than or


equal to zero

Configuration

Display_frame

Specifies what output frame, or output time step, of the


simulation results is to be displayed for the
single_frame_display command

Increment_frame_by Integer

Specifies the number of frames to skip between each


animation step

Superimposed

On_off

Parameter used with the animation command to specify


whether or not to show each frame of the animation
individually or superimposed on top of another

Base_marker

An Existing Marker

Specifies a marker whose position will be frozen in the


view as the model gets animated

Camera_ref_marker

An Existing Marker

Identifies a marker which specifies the viewing


direction as the model gets animated

Point_trace_marker

An Existing Marker

Specifies marker(s) whose position will be traced in the


view as the model animates

Icon_visibility

On_off

Specifies whether or not to display icons during an


animation

6 Adams/View Commands
animation create

Parameter

Value Type

Description

Offset

Location

Specifies the offset of the axis line from the plot border

Colors

An Existing Color

Modifies the red, green, and blue components of


existing colors.

Extended Definition:
1. You may reverse this creation at a later time with an UNDO command.
2. When Adams/View reads a request, graphics, and results files (.req, .gra, and .res, respectively)
with the file analysis read command, it stores it in an analysis. By default, the name of the analysis
is the file name, excluding the extension.
3. Each view created has a name associated with it. The view_name parameter is used to identify a
view for a particular operation. In most cases, view_name=all is also a valid entry. The all option
indicates "all displayed views". There are eight standard views available when the Adams/View
is started. These views are: front, top, right, iso, bottom, left, and back. The first four of these
standard views are displayed by default when Adams/View is started.
The user may create new views using the 'VIEW MANAGEMENT CREATE' command, and
save/restore their attributesIf the VIEW_NAME parameter is used, the desired view can be
identified by picking in the window or entering the name from the keyboard.
4. This means, based on number_of_cycles parameter, the animation will continuously run through
all the specified frames the specified number of times.
f entered, the NUMBER_OF_CYCLES parameter must be a positive integer.This value will be
remembered and will be the default the next time an animation is performed. This parameter is
optional, and if not entered, will default initially to 1 (until updated by the user).
5. If entered, time_range parameter must be two real numbers (separated by commas) where the
second is greater than the first and the default values are initially 0.0,1000.0. If new values are
entered, these values will be remembered and be the default next time the parameter is used. If a
value greater than the simulation endint time is entered for the second value, the system will stop
at the last frame.
These time values will be rounded to the nearest simulation output time step value.This parameter
is optional and mutually exclusive with the FRAME_RANGE parameter. If neither is entered, the
previous values to TIME_RANGE will be used (0,0,1000.0, if they have not been changed by the
user
Special Note: Even if only one view_name is provided, the time range will be applied to the
specified view and any other views that contain the same model (the model indicated by
analysis_name parameter). If only analysis_name is provided (view_name parameter is omitted),
any views that contain the model indicated by analysis_name will be affected
6. If entered, this parameter must be two positive integers (separated by commas) where the second
is greater than the first and the default values are initially 1,10000. If new values are entered, these
values will be remembered and be the default next time the parameter is used.
If a value greater than the last frame number is entered for the second value, the system will stop
at the last frame. This parameter is optional and mutually exclusive with the TIME_RANGE

animation 7
animation create

parameter. If neither is entered, the previous values to FRAME_RANGE will be used (1,10000 if
they have not been changed by the user .Special Note: Even if only one view_name is provided,
the frame range will be applied to the specified view and any other views that contain the same
model (the model indicated by analysis_name parameter). If only analysis_name is provided
(view_name parameter is omitted), any views that contain the model indicated by analysis_name
will be affected
7. If entered the frame_number must be a positive integer corresponding to the desired frame (output
time step) and the default value is initially 1. If a new value is entered, this value will be
remembered and be the default next time the command is used. If a value greater than the last
frame number is entered, the system will display the last frame.
This parameter is optional and mutually exclusive with the CONFIGURATION and TIME
parameters. If none of the three are entered, the first frame will be displayed .Special Note: Even
if only one view_name is provided, the frame number will be applied to the specified view and
any other views that contain the same model (the model indicated by analysis_name parameter).
If only analysis_name is provided (view_name parameter is omitted), views that contain the
model indicated by analysis_name will be affected
8. The legal values for this parameter are:
MODEL_INPUT, the configuration as input to Adams before analysis,
INITIAL_CONDITIONS, the configuration after initial conditions are met,
EQUILIBRIUM, the configuration after an equilibrium analysis,
FORWARD, one frame forward from the current one displayed, and
BACKWARD, one frame backward from the current one displayed.
Therefore, this parameter is not used to specify a particular time or frame_number. In fact, this
parameter is mutually exclusive with the FRAME_NUMBER and TIME parameters. These two
parameters are used to specify the time dependent frames of the simulation output.
The CONFIGURATION parameter is optional and if not entered, the system will display the first
time dependent frame in the graphics file (assuming its mutually exclusive counterparts are not
entered either).
9. This allows the user to speed up the viewing of motions that take many frames to develop (that
move slowly). If a negative value is entered, the animation will play in the reverse.
If entered, the INCREMENT_FRAMES_BY parameter must have an absolute value less than the
maximum number of frames in the analysis. This parameter is optional and if not entered, will
default to 1.
10. The superimposed view is sometimes referred to as a fan diagram. Superimposing frames is useful
to show the relationship of the models parts between frames but often obscures the view of the
motion.
This is an optional parameter and if not entered, then no superimposed frames will be drawn. The
legal values of this parameter are ON and OFF. ON indicates that frames will be superimpose
during the animation. OFF, the default, indicates that frames will not be superimpose during the
animation.

8 Adams/View Commands
animation create

11. This is particularly useful when a relatively small object undergoes both, small configuration
changes as well as large overall gross motion. For example, the flight path of a jet is very large
over time relative to the motion of the control surfaces on the jet. In this case, selecting the
BASE_MARKER to be on the jet would be appropriate.
This parameter can be used with the CAMERA_REF_MARKER to create a different effect on
the viewing direction. When the CAMERA_REF_MARKER and the BASE_MARKER are
specified together, the viewing direction is "from" the CAMERA_REF_MARKER position "to"
the BASE_MARKER position.
In addition, the "up" direction of the view is computed based on the direction of the
CAMERA_REF_MARKER "y" axis (i.e. the y axis is projected into a direction perpendicular to
the viewing direction defined by the two markers). This viewing direction is recomputed between
each frame of the animation. This feature allows the effect of watching an object come from a
distance, pass by, and proceed into the distance.
12. camera_ref_marker parameter is used to identify a marker which specifies the viewing direction
as the model gets animated.
13. point_trace_marker parameter is particularly useful when a marker undergoes complicated
motion, or has motion that is easily obscured by other model graphics. For example, the path of a
chain link being whipped, or a car wheel center's 3D motion. In this case, selecting the
BASE_MARKER to be on the wheel center would be appropriate.
14. Entering 'ON' will cause Adams/View to display the icons during animation. This will cause
slower animation times. For this reason, 'OFF' is the default value.
Cautions:
1. Typing the name is the only way to identify a stored view that is not displayed.
2. The model graphics need not be displayed to trace the path of a marker in a view. Up to 10 markers
can be traced simultaneously.

animation 9
animation delete

animation delete
Allows you to delete an existing animation.
Format:
animation delete
animation_name =

an existing animation

Example:
animation delete &
animation_name = ani__1
Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

animation_name An Existing Animation Specifies an existing animation


Extended Definition:
1. Normally, entity names are composed of alphabetic, numeric, or '_' (underscore) characters, and
start with an alphabetic or '_' character. They may be of any length.
By enclosing the name in double quotes, you may use other printable characters, or start the name
with a numeral. If a name contains characters, or starts with a numeral, you must always quote the
name when entering it.
Note that you can specify the parentage of an entity (e.g. what part "owns" a marker or a geometry
element) when you CREATE it by changing the name. If you enter just the entity name, then the
default parent will be assigned by Adams/View. If you type in the full name, then you may
override the default parent. In most cases, when creating an entity, Adams/View will provide a
default name. The default name that Adams/View provides will specify the parentage that it has
assumed.
You may, of course, delete this name and use your own. The form of a full name is:
"...._NAME.GRAND_PARENT_NAME.PARENT_NAME.ENTITY_NAME"
The number of levels used varies from case to case and the parentage must exist before an entity
can be assigned to it.

10 Adams/View Commands
animation display

animation display
Allows you to display the model in the specified view.
Format:
animation display
animation_name = an existing animation
view_name = an existing view
Example:
animation display &
animation_name = animation_1 &
view_name = view_1
Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

animation_name An Existing Animation Specifies an existing animation name that is to be run


view_name

An Existing View

Specifies the name associated with the view created

Extended Definition:
1. If no view has been specified, the model will be displayed in the active view.
This command can be useful when the the entire model is no longer visible in the current view
space. MODEL DISPLAY will "fit" the model to the current view space.
2. The view_name parameter is used to identify a view for a particular operation. In most cases,
view_name=all is also a valid entry. The all option indicates "all displayed views". There are
eight standard views available when the Adams/View is started. These views are: front, top, right,
iso, bottom, left, and back. The first four of these standard views are displayed by default when
Adams/View is started. The user may create new views using the 'VIEW MANAGEMENT
CREATE' command, and save/restore their attributes.
If the VIEW_NAME parameter is used, the desired view can be identified by picking in the
window or entering the name from the keyboard.
Typing the name is the only way to identify a stored view that is not displayed.

animation 11
animation log

animation log
Allows you to specify whether or not cache information is to be maintained on the physical disk.
Format:
animation log
flex_caching =

boolean

object_caching =

boolean

Example:
animation log &
flex_caching =
object_caching =

on &
on

Description:
Parameter
flex_caching

Value Type

Description

Boolean

object_caching Boolean

Specifies if information for rigid/non flexible bodies is to be cached

Extended Definition:
1. By default, cache information necessary for animations containing flexible bodies is maintained
on the disk in files with a .fcf extension. Adams/PostProcessor can also maintain this information
in physical memory, which can result in significantly less disk input/output, higher CPU
utilization, and, consequently, faster performance. If you work in an environment with remote
disk servers (accessed across a network), you should see a dramatic improvement in performance
if you select to maintain the cache in memory. Users using local disk will see improvements on a
smaller scale.
The disadvantage of memory caching is the increased process size and the risk that it will exceed
your computer's physical memory. If your computer has enough physical memory, then this
approach is more efficient. If your computer does not have enough physical memory, then its
operating system will begin swapping and the animation performance may be worse than when
using the .fcf file. We recommend that you test each model with this setting and monitor the
process size using the Task Manager on Windows or the equivalent tool on UNIX (for example,
gmemusage -s on SGI).

12 Adams/View Commands
animation log

Cautions:
1. If the cache is turned on, performance will be improved but will use up the computers physical
memory.

animation 13
animation modify

animation modify
Allows you to modify an existing model
Format:
animation modify
animation_name =

a new animation

analysis_name =

an existing analysis

view_name =

an existing view

number_of_cycles =

integer

time_range =

time

frame_range =

integer

frame_number =

integer

time =

time

configuration =

display_frame

increment_frame_by =

integer

superimposed =

on_off

base_marker =

an existing marker

camera_ref_marker =

an existing marker

point_trace_marker =

an existing marker

icon_visibility =

on_off

offset =

location

colors =

an existing color

Example:
animation modify &
analysis_name = Hood_1 &
view_name = View_1 &
component = Plot_1 &
number_of_cycles = 10 &
animation_name = Animation__1 &
time = 50 &
configuration = Model_input &

14 Adams/View Commands
animation modify

animation modify &


point_trace_marker = Marker_71 &
icon_visibility = On
Description:
Parameter

Value type

Description

animation_name

A New Animation

Specifies the name of a new animation

analysis_name

An Existing Analysis Specifies the name of an existing analysis

view_name

An Existing View

Specifies the name of the view that you would like to


view the animation from

number_of_cycles

Integer

Specifies the number of complete cycles to animate

time_range

Time

Specifies the analysis output Adams simulation output


time steps at which to start and stop the animation (in
that order).

frame_range

Integer

Specifies the analysis frame number (output time step)


at which to start and stop the animation (in that order).

frame_number

Integer

Specifies the frame number (Adams simulation output


time step) at which to configure a model during the
single_frame_display command.

time

Time

Specifies the time as a real number greater than or equal


to zero

configuration

Display_frame

Specifies what output frame, or output time step, of the


simulation results is to be displayed for the
single_frame_display command

increment_frame_by Integer

Specifies the number of frames to skip between each


animation step

superimposed

On_off

Parameter used with the animation command to specify


whether or not to show each frame of the animation
individually or superimposed on top of another

base_marker

An Existing Marker

Specifies a marker whose position will be frozen in the


view as the model gets animated

camera_ref_marker

An Existing Marker

Identifies a marker which specifies the viewing


direction as the model animates

point_trace_marker

An Existing Marker

Specifies marker(s) whose position will be traced in the


view as the model gets animated

icon_visibility

On_off

Specifies whether or not to display icons during an


animation

animation 15
animation modify

Parameter

Value type

Description

offset

Location

Specifies the offset of the axis line from the plot border

colors

An Existing Color

Modifies the red, green, and blue components of


existing colors.

Extended Definition:
1. You must enter the name of the model you wish to modify either by picking it from the screen or
specifying the full name.
2. You may reverse this modification at a later time with an UNDO command.
3. When Adams/View reads a request, graphics, and results files (.req, .gra, and .res, respectively)
with the file analysis read command, it stores it in an analysis. By default, the name of the analysis
is the file name, excluding the extension.
4. Each view created has a name associated with it. The view_name parameter is used to identify a
view for a particular operation. In most cases, view_name=all is also a valid entry. The all option
indicates "all displayed views". There are eight standard views available when the Adams/View
is started. These views are: front, top, right, iso, bottom, left, and back. The first four of these
standard views are displayed by default when Adams/View is started.
The user may create new views using the 'VIEW MANAGEMENT CREATE' command, and
save/restore their attributes.
If the VIEW_NAME parameter is used, the desired view can be identified by picking in the
window or entering the name from the keyboard.
5. This means, based on number_of_cycles parameter, the animation will continuously run through
all the specified frames the specified number of times.
If entered, the NUMBER_OF_CYCLES parameter must be a positive integer.
This value will be remembered and will be the default the next time an animation is performed.
This parameter is optional and if not entered, will default initially to 1 (until updated by the user).
6. If entered, time_range parameter must be two real numbers (separated by commas) where the
second is greater than the first and the default values are initially 0.0,1000.0. If new values are
entered, these values will be remembered and be the default next time the parameter is used. If a
value greater than the simulation endint time is entered for the second value, the system will stop
at the last frame.
These time values will be rounded to the nearest simulation output time step value.
This parameter is optional and mutually exclusive with the FRAME_RANGE parameter. If
neither is entered, the previous values to TIME_RANGE will be used (0,0,1000.0, if they have
not been changed by the user)
Special Note: Even if only one view_name is provided, the time range will be applied to the
specified view and any other views that contain the same model (the model indicated by
analysis_name parameter). If only analysis_name is provided (view_name parameter is omitted),
any views that contain the model indicated by analysis_name will be affected

16 Adams/View Commands
animation modify

7. If entered, this parameter must be two positive integers (separated by commas) where the second
is greater than the first and the default values are initially 1,10000. If new values are entered, these
values will be remembered and be the default next time the parameter is used.
If a value greater than the last frame number is entered for the second value, the system will stop
at the last frame.
This parameter is optional and mutually exclusive of the TIME_RANGE parameter. If neither is
entered, the previous values to FRAME_RANGE will be used (1,10000, if they have not been
changed by the user)
Special Note: Even if only one view_name is provided, the frame range will be applied to the
specified view and any other views that contain the same model (the model indicated by
analysis_name parameter). If only analysis_name is provided (view_name parameter is omitted),
any views that contain the model indicated by analysis_name will be affected
8. If entered, the frame_number must be a positive integer corresponding to the desired frame
(output time step) and the default value is initially 1. If a new value is entered, this value will be
remembered and be the default next time the command is used. If a value greater than the last
frame number is entered, the system will display the last frame.
This parameter is optional and mutually exclusive with the CONFIGURATION and TIME
parameters. If none of the three are entered, the first frame will be displayed.
Special Note: Even if only one view_name is provided, the frame number will be applied to the
specified view and any other views that contain the same model (the model indicated by
analysis_name parameter). If only analysis_name is provided (view_name parameter is omitted),
any views that contain the model indicated by analysis_name will be affected
9. The legal values for this parameter are:
MODEL_INPUT, the configuration as input to Adams before analysis,
INITIAL_CONDITIONS, the configuration after initial conditions are met,
EQUILIBRIUM, the configuration after an equilibrium analysis,
FORWARD, one frame forward from the current one displayed, and BACKWARD, one frame
backward from the current one displayed.
Therefore, this parameter is not used to specify a particular time or frame_number. In fact, this
parameter is mutually exclusive with the FRAME_NUMBER and TIME parameters. These two
parameter are used to specify the time dependent frames of the simulation output.
The CONFIGURATION parameter is optional and if not entered the system will display the 1st
time dependent frame in the graphics file (assuming it's mutually exclusive counterparts are not
entered either).
10. This allows the user to speed up the viewing of motions that take many frames to develop (that
move slowly). If a negative value is entered, the animation will play in reverse.
If entered, the INCREMENT_FRAMES_BY parameter must have an absolute value less than the
maximum number of frames in the analysis. This parameter is optional and if not entered, will
default to 1.

animation 17
animation modify

11. The superimposed view is sometimes referred to as a fan diagram. Superimposing frames is useful
to show the relationship of the models parts between frames but often obscures the view of the
motion.
This is an optional parameter and if not entered then no superimposed frames will be drawn. The
legal values of this parameter are ON and OFF. ON indicates that frames will be superimpose
during the animation. OFF, the default, indicates that frames will not be superimpose during the
animation.
12. This is particularly useful when a relatively small object undergoes both small configuration
changes as well as large overall gross motion. For example, the flight path of a jet is very large
over time relative to the motion of the control surfaces on the jet. In this case selecting the
BASE_MARKER to be on the jet would be appropriate.
This parameter can be used with the CAMERA_REF_MARKER to create a different effect on
the viewing direction. When the CAMERA_REF_MARKER and the BASE_MARKER are
specified together, the viewing direction is "from" the CAMERA_REF_MARKER position "to"
the BASE_MARKER position.
In addition, the "up" direction of the view is computed based on the direction of the
CAMERA_REF_MARKER "y" axis (i.e. the y axis is projected into a direction perpendicular to
the viewing direction defined by the two markers). This viewing direction is recomputed between
each frame of the animation. This feature allows the effect of watching an object come from a
distance, pass by, and proceed into the distance.
13. camera_ref_marker parameter is used to identify a marker which specifies the viewing direction
as the model gets animated
14. point_trace_marker parameter is particularly useful when a marker undergoes complicated
motion, or has motion that is easily obscured by other model graphics. For example, the path of a
chain link being whipped, or a car wheel center's 3D motion. In this case, selecting the
BASE_MARKER to be on the wheel center would be appropriate.
15. Entering 'ON' will cause Adams/View to display the icons during animation. This will cause
slower animation times. For this reason, 'OFF' is the default value.
Cautions:
1. Typing the name is the only way to identify a stored view that is not displayed.
2. The model graphics need not be displayed to trace the path of a marker in a view. Up to 10 markers
can be traced simultaneously.

18 Adams/View Commands
animation pause

animation pause
Allows you to pause/stop an animation while it is running.
Format:
animation pause
animation_name =
page_name =

an existing animation
an existing page

Example:
animation pause &
animation_name =
page_name =

animation_1 &
page_1

Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

animation_name An Existing Animation Specifies an existing animation name that is to be run


page_name

An Existing Page

Specifies the page in the Adams/Postprocessor that is to


be run

Extended Definition:
1. The parameter supplied to this command could be either an animation name or a page name (run
from the post processor)

animation 19
animation play

animation play
Allows you to play an animation.
Format:
animation play
animation_name =
page_name =

an existing animation
an existing page

Example:
animation play &
animation_name = animation_1 &
page_name = page_1
Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

animation_name An Existing Animation Specifies an existing animation name that has to be run
page_name

An Existing Page

Specifies the page in the Adams/Postprocessor that is to


be run

Extended Definition:
1. The parameter supplied to this command could either be an animation name or a page name (run
from the post processor)

20 Adams/View Commands
animation record start

animation record start


Allows you to record the animation. The video file is saved in the current working directory.
Format:
animation record start
image_prefix =

string

image_type =

string

avi_frames_per_sec =
avi_compression =

integer
boolean

avi_quality =

integer

avi_keyframe_every =

integer

mpeg_ngop =

integer

mpeg_round_size =
window_size =

boolean
integer

Example:
animation record start &
image_prefix = ".jpg" &
image_type = jpg &
avi_frames_per_sec = 15 &
avi_compression = no &
avi_quality = 10 &
avi_keyframe_every = 25 &
mpeg_ngop = 2 &
mpeg_round_size = yes &
window_size = 2
Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

image_prefix

String

Set the prefix used to name the set of files.

image_type

String

Select the format: .avi, .tif, .jpg, .bmp, .mpg, .png, and .xpm

avi_frames_per_sec

Integer

Enter the number of frames per second used in the recording.

animation 21
animation record start

Parameter

Value Type

Description

avi_compression

Boolean

Enters yes or no depending on whether or not the avi needs to


be compressed.

avi_quality

Integer

Enters a value or use the slider to set the image quality.

avi_keyframe_every Integer

Sets the interval between key frames. The default is a key frame
every 5000 frames.

mpeg_ngop

Integer

Enters an integer number.

mpeg_round_size

Boolean

Specifies yes or no if size is to be rounded to multiples of 16.

window_size

Integer

Enters an integer number to specify window size.

Extended Definition:
1. Adams/PostProcessor appends a unique number to the prefix to form the name of each file. For
example, if you specify a prefix of suspension, then each .tif file is named suspension_0001.tif,
suspension_0002.tif, and so on. If you do not specify a name, the prefix is frame (for example,
frame_001.tif).
2. When a digital movie stream is encoded with compression, the pixels of each frame are evaluated
against previous frames (those designated as key) and only pixels that changed are stored. For
example, a movie of a car traveling along a road can have many pixels in the image background
that do not change during the entire movie. Therefore, storing only the pixels that change allows
for significant compression. In many cases, however, it can degrade movie quality, especially
with movies where a large percentage of pixels are changing from frame-to-frame, such as with
wireframe graphics. Because Adams/PostProcessor lets you set the key frame rates, you control
both, the compression factor and the movie quality.
3. Movies with many key frames will have high quality, while movies with few key frames, such as
the default every 5000 frames, will have lower quality. For a typical 20-second AVI movie of a
shaded Adams model, a key frame rate would be 12.
4. Some playback programs require the pixel height and width to be multiples of 16. Turning the
mpeg_round_size option on ensures that your movie plays in many playback programs.
Caution: (AVI format is only available on Windows).

Tip:

1. Turn off compression to improve the quality of the images.


2. When you set use compression when recording in AVI format, the playback
program may restrict the size of image frames, usually to a multiple of 2 or 4.
Therefore, your recording may appear cut off on one or more sides. The
workaround is to change the animation window size before recording.

22 Adams/View Commands
animation record stop

animation record stop


Stop the animation recording
Format:
animation record stop
Example:
animation record stop

animation 23
animation replace_simulation

animation replace_simulation
Replace an existing analysis/page name with another in the animation.
Format:
animation replace_simulation
animation_name =
page_name =
old_analysis_name =
new_analysis_name =

an existing animation
an existing page
an existing analysis
a new analysis

Example:
animation replace_simulation &
animation_name =

anim__1 &

old_analysis_name =

last_run &

new_analysis_name =

ana__1

Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

animation_name

An Existing
Animation

Specify name of an existing animation.

page_name

An Existing Page

Instead of animation_name, you can specify the


page name containing the animation.

old_analysis_name

An Existing Analysis Specify name of the existing analysis.

new_analysis_name

A New Analysis

Specify name of the new analysis

Extended Definition:
1. This command is useful when you need to compare two animations side by side. For example if
you want to compare the animation of two cars side by side and see which is faster, you can add
the simulation of one car to the other cars animation.
2. Normally, entity names are composed of alphabetic, numeric, or '_' (underscore) characters, and
start with an alphabetic or '_' character. They may be any length.

24 Adams/View Commands
animation replace_simulation

By enclosing the name in double quotes, you may use other printable characters, or start the name
with a numeral. If a name contains characters, or starts with a numeral, you must always quote the
name when entering it.
Note:

You can specify the parentage of an entity (e.g. what part "owns" a marker or a geometry
element) when you CREATE it by changing the name. If you enter just the entity name,
then the default parent will be assigned by Adams/View. If you type in the full name, then
you may over ride the default parent. In most cases, when creating anentity, Adams/View
will provide a default name. The default namethatAdams/View provides will specify the
parentage that it has assumed.
You may, or course, delete this name and use your own. The form of a full name is:
"...._NAME.GRAND_PARENT_NAME.PARENT_NAME.ENTITY_NAME"
The number of levels used varies from case to case and the parentage must exist before an entity
can be assigned to it.

animation 25
animation reset

animation reset
Allows you to reset an animation.
Format:
:

animation reset
animation_name =
page_name =

an existing animation
an existing page

Example:
animation reset &
animation_name =
page_name =

an existing animation &


an existing page

Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

animation_name An Existing Animation Specifies an existing animation name that is to be run


page_name

An Existing Page

Specifies the page in the Adams/Postprocessor that is to


be run

Extended Definition:
1. The parameter supplied to this command could either be an animation name or a page name (run
from the post processor)

26 Adams/View Commands
animation step

animation step
Allows you to step the animation either forward or backwards as needed.
Format:
animation step
direction =
animation_name =
page_name =

animation_direction
an existing animation
an existing page

Example:
animation step &
direction = forward &
animation_name = animation_1 &
page_name = page_1
Description:
Parameter
direction

Value Type
Animation_direction

Description
Specifies whether you want the animation to step in the
forward or backward direction

animation_name An Existing Animation Specifies an existing animation name that is to be run


page_name

An Existing Page

Specifies the page in the Adams/Postprocessor that is to


be run

Extended Definition:
1. When you play an animation, Adams/View plays every frame by default. You can rewind an
animation and play the animation at various speeds. During fast-forward and fast-backward play
modes, Adams/View plays only every fifth frame.

break 1

break
Allows you to exit the innermost FOR or WHILE loop immediately and stop execution of the loop.
When Adams/View encounters a BREAK command inside a loop, it immediately exits the loop without
executing the remaining commands for that iteration.
The BREAK command affects only the innermost FOR or WHILE loop.
Format:
BREAK
Example:
variable create variable_name=ip integer_value=0
while condition=(ip < 5)
variable modify variable_name=ip integer_value(eval(ip+1))
if condition=(eval(DB_EXISTS ("MAR"//ip)))
break
end
marker create marker_name=(eval("MAR"//ip)) &
location=(eval(ip-1)),0,0
end
variable delete variable_name=ip
In this example, Adams/View creates markers, named MAR1, MAR2, MAR3, MAR4, and MAR5,
unless a marker already exists with one of those names. As soon as it encounters an existing marker,
Adams/View exits the loop and does not create any more.

check_messages 1

check_messages
This command provides you with a way to monitor an Adams simulation while it is running in batch
mode. This is done by querying the Adams message data base using some filter and sorting parameters.
The FAULTS, ERRORS, WARNINGS, and INFO parameters allow you to filter out only the messages
that you want to see. All messages will be reported with like messages grouped according to message
type, unless the SORT_BY_TIME parameter is set to YES.
The SORT_BY_TIME parameter specifies in what order the messages of all types are to be reported.
When SORT_BY_TIME is set to YES, all message types will be merged together and reported in the
order in which they occurred during the simulation (i.e. sorted on the base of simulation time).
The FILE_NAME parameter specifies the name of the Adams message file that is to be read. This
parameter will default to the message file for the default analysis unless you override it by providing
another FILE_NAME with this parameter is specified. The proper extension is ".mdb", the default, but
can be overridden by simply supplying a different extension.
You do not need to enclose the file name in quotes if it only contains alpha-numeric characters and starts
with a letter. If you want to include other characters, such as a '.' for an extension or '/' or '[]' for directory
paths, you must enclose the name in quotes.
Format:
check_messages
file_name = string
faults = boolean
errors = boolean
warnings = boolean
info = boolean
sort_by_time = boolean
Example:
check_messages &
faults = yes &
errors = yes &
warnings = no &
info = no &
sort_by_time = yes

2 Adams/View Commands

When the above command is executed, all the messages related to faults and errors will be displayed in
the order in which they occur during the simulation.
Description:
Parameter

Value Type

file_name

String

Specifies the name of the Adams message file that is to be read.

faults

boolean

Specifies that the messages of type PROGRAM FAULT are to be


reported.

errors

boolean

Specifies that the messages of type ERROR are to be reported.

warnings

boolean

Specifies that the messages of type WARNING are to be reported.

info

boolean

Specifies that the messages of type INFO are to be reported.

sort_by_time boolean

Description

Specifies in what order the messages of all types are to be reported.

Extended Definition:
1. The FILE_NAME parameter will default to the file for the default analysis unless this parameter
is specified. The proper extension is ".mdb", the default, but can be overridden by simply
supplying a different extension.
You do not need to enclose the file name in quotes if it only contains alpha-numeric characters
and starts with a letter. If you want to include other characters, such as a '.' for an extension or '/'
or '[]' for directory paths, you must enclose the name in quotes.
2. All messages of type FAULTS, ERROR, WARNINGS and INFO will be reported together unless
the SORT_BY_TIME parameter is set to yes. In this case, all message types will be merged
together and reported in the order in which they occurred during the simulation (i.e. sorting based
on simulation time).

clearance 1

clearance

2 Adams/View Commands
clearance compute

clearance compute
Allows you to carry out the specified clearance study for post-processing clearances. Use the menu items
Tools Clearance Compute in Adams/PostProcessor, to execute a clearance study.
Format:
clearance compute
analysis_name = existing analysis
treat_flex_as_rigid = yes/no
Example:
clearance compute &
analysis_name = Last_Run &
treat_flex_as_rigid = yes
Description:
Parameter
analysis_name

Value Type

Description

Existing Analysis This parameter gets assigned the name of an existing


simulation analysis.

treat_flex_as_rigid Boolean

Decides if the flexible bodies should be treated as rigid bodies


while executing the clearance study.

Extended Definition:
1. The clearance study which is being carried out uses the analysis specified by the
existing_analysis parameter as the basis of the study.
Note:

This command is for computing post-processing clearances only. Run-time clearances will
not be computed using this command.

clearance 3
clearance create

clearance create
Creates a new clearance study. There are two kinds of clearances in Adams, Run-time clearances and
Post-processing clearances. Use the menu items Tools Clearance Create in Adams/PostProcessor,
to create a clearance study for post-processing clearance.
Format:
clearance create
clearance_name = string
comments = string
i_geometry = existing geometry
i_part = existing part
i_flex = existing flexible body
j_geometry = existing geometry
j_part = existing part
j_flex = existing flexible body
i_region = existing matrix
j_region = existing matrix
i_exclude = boolean
maximum = real
threshold = real
method = selection list
run_time = boolean
Example:
clearance create &
clearance_name = .testdb.CLEARANCE_1 &
comments = " test comment for post-processing
clearances " &
i_geometry =

LINK_2 &

j_geometry = BOX_1 &


maximum = 90 &
method = polygon
clearance_name = .testdb.CLEARANCE_run_time &

4 Adams/View Commands
clearance create

clearance create &


comments = " test run-time clearance comment" &
i_flex = FLEX_BODY_1,FLEX_BODY_2 &
j_geometry = BOX_1 &
i_region = MATRIX_1,MATRIX_2 &
i_exclude = no,yes &
threshold = 20 &
run_time = yes
Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

clearance_name String

Specifies the name of the clearance study.

comments

String

Any accompanying extra information that the user wishes to


store with the clearance study.

i_geometry

Existing Geometry The first selected entity if it is a geometry.

i_part

Existing Part

The first selected entity if it is a part. This option is only


available for post-processing clearances.

i_flex

Existing Flexible
Body

The first selected entity if it is a flexible body

j_geometry

Existing Geometry The second selected entity if it is a geometry

j_part

Existing Part

The second selected entity if it is a part. This option is only


available for post-processing clearances..

j_flex

Existing Flexible
Body

The first selected entity if it is a flexible body

i_region

Existing Matrix

If the i_flex parameter is specified, then i_region parameter


specifies the list of matrices to be excluded/included in the
clearance computations. This option is only available for postprocessing clearances.

j_region

Existing Matrix

If the j_flex parameter is specified, then j_region parameter


specifies the list of matrices to be excluded/included in the
clearance computations. This option is only available for postprocessing clearances.

i_exclude

Boolean

A list of Boolean values that specifies whether the regions


listed in the i_region parameter are to be excluded from the
clearance computation. This option is only available for runtime clearances.

clearance 5
clearance create

Parameter

Value Type

Description

j_exclude

Boolean

A list of Boolean values that specifies whether the regions


listed in the j_region parameter are to be excluded from the
clearance computation. This option is only available for runtime clearances.

maximum

Real

To reduce the calculations in the clearance study, you can also


define a maximum distance above which
Adams/PostProcessor does not calculate the clearance

threshold

Real

For run-time clearances, specifies the threshold distance.


When the clearance distance exceeds the threshold value, the
precise check is skipped and the gross clearance value is
returned.

method

Selection List

The calculation method used by the Adams/PostProcessor for


clearance studies.

run_time

Boolean

Specifies whether the clearance is a run-time clearance or not.


If this parameter is not specified then the clearance is treated
as a post-processing clearance.

Extended Definition:
1. There are two distinct types of clearances supported in Adams, Run time clearances and Post
Processing clearances. If the run_time parameter is not specified or specified as "no" then, the
clearance is treated as a post-processing clearance. The parameters threshold, i_region, j_region,
i_exclude and j_exclude are available only with run-time clearances. The parameters method and
maximum are only available with post-processing clearances.
2. The information entered in the comments parameter is displayed as the title on the post-processing
clearance plot which can be generated by the Adams/Postprocessor.
3. Clearance can be found out between two bodies which can be parts, flexible bodies or geometries.
If the first selected body happens to be a geometry, i_geometry should be selected as the parameter
which holds the first body for clearance create.
4. Clearance can be found out between two bodies which can be parts, flexible bodies or geometries.
If the second selected body happens to be a geometry, j_geometry should be selected as the
parameter which holds the second body for clearance create.
5. Clearance can be found out between two bodies which can be parts, flexible bodies or geometries.
If the first selected body happens to be a part, i_part should be selected as the parameter which
holds the first body for clearance create.
Note:

Clearances between parts is allowed only for post-processing clearances.

6 Adams/View Commands
clearance create

6. Clearance can be found out between two bodies which can be parts, flexible bodies or geometries.
If the second selected body happens to be a part, j_part should be selected as the parameter which
holds the second body for clearance create.
Note:

Clearances between parts is allowed only for post-processing clearances.

7. Clearance can be found out between two bodies which can be parts, flexible bodies or geometries.
If the second selected body happens to be a flexible body, i_flex should be selected as the
parameter which holds the second body for clearance create.
Note:

Only a single flexible body can be specified for post-processing clearance whereas
multiple flexible bodies separated by commas, can be specified for run-time
clearances.

8. Clearance can be found out between two bodies which can be parts, flexible bodies or geometries.
If the second selected body happens to be a flexible body, j_flex should be selected as the
parameter which holds the second body for clearance create.
Note:

Only a single flexible body can be specified for post-processing clearance whereas
multiple flexible bodies separated by commas, can be specified for run-time
clearances.

9. To reduce the calculations in the clearance study for post processing clearances, you can also
define a maximum distance above which Adams/PostProcessor does not calculate the clearance.
When you play an animation, if the distance between the pair of objects is greater than the
maximum distance specified by you, Adams/PostProcessor does not display a line between the
objects. In addition, in the clearance study reports, if the distance between two selected bodies
exceeds the maximum distance specified by you, Adams/PostProcessor records the distance as the
maximum distance and not the actual distance.
10. For run-time clearances, the threshold parameter specifies a double precision distance. If the gross
clearance check is greater than this value, then the precise check is skipped and the gross value is
returned. By default, the threshold parameter has value 0.0, indicating that the precise check is
always to be done.
11. Adams/PostProcessor uses two different calculations for clearance studies - polygon and vertex.
Polygon

In the Polygon method, Adams/PostProcessor calculates the minimum distance between the
surfaces of the triangles that make up the geometry. This is the most accurate method but
requires the most time and calculations. See also, Vertex.
Vertex

clearance 7
clearance create

In Vertex method, Adams/PostProcessor calculates only the minimum distances between the
vertices of the triangles that make up the geometry. This method is less accurate than Polygon,
but calculates faster.

8 Adams/View Commands
clearance delete

clearance delete
Allows you to delete an existing clearance study.
Format:
clearance delete
clearance_name = an existing clearance
Example:
clearance delete &
clearance_name = Clearance_1
Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

clearance_name An Existing Clearance Specifies an existing clearance to delete

clearance 9
clearance export_results

clearance export_results
Allows you to export the results of an existing post-processing clearance study to the specified file.
Format:
clearance export_results
file_name = any file
analysis_name = an existing analysis
Example:
clearance export_results &
file_name = "c:/testdir/test.out" &
analysis_name =

Last_Run

Description:
Parameter
file_name

Value Type
Any File

Description
Specifies the file to which the output is expected to be written

analysis_name An Existing
This parameter gets assigned the name of any existing
Simulation Analysis simulation analysis.
Extended Definition:
1. This parameter gets assigned the name of the output file to which the results of the current
clearance study should be written.
2. This analysis specified by the analysis_name parameter is used as the basis for the clearance study
being carried out.
Note:

This command is for exporting post-processing clearances only. Run-time clearances will
not be exported using this command.

10 Adams/View Commands
clearance modify

clearance modify
Enables the user to modify an existing clearance study.
Format:
clearance modify
clearance_name = an existing clearance
new_clearance_name = a new clearance
comments = comment string
maximum = real value
threshold = real value
method = selection list
Example:
clearance modify &
clearance_name = clearance_4 &
new_clearance_name = clearance_4_new_1 &
comments = "clearace_4 modified &
maximum = 120.0
Description:
Parameter
clearance_name

Value Type

Description

Existing Clearance Specifies the name of an existing clearance study

new_clearance_name New Clearance

Specifies the name of a new clearance study

comments

String

Comment string

maximum

Real Value

To reduce the calculations in the clearance study, you can


also define a maximum distance above which
Adams/PostProcessor does not calculate the clearance.
This parameter can be specified only for post-processing
clearances.

clearance 11
clearance modify

Parameter

Value Type

Description

threshold

Real Value

For run-time clearances, specifies the threshold distance.


When the clearance distance exceeds the threshold value,
the precise check is skipped and the gross clearance value
is returned.

method

Selection List

Specifies the calculation method for the clearance study.


This parameter can be specified only for post-processing
clearances.

Extended Definition:
1. When you play an animation, if the distance between the pair of objects is greater than the
maximum distance specified by you, Adams/PostProcessor does not display a line between the
objects. In addition, in the clearance study reports, if the distance between two selected bodies
exceeds the maximum distance specified by you, Adams/PostProcessor records the distance as the
maximum distance and not the actual distance. This parameter can only be specified in case the
clearance was defined to be of type post-processing clearance.
2. For run-time clearances, when the clearance distance exceeds the threshold value, the precise
check is skipped and the gross clearance value is returned. This parameter can only be specified
in case the clearance was defined to be of type run-time clearance.
3. Adams/PostProcessor uses two different calculations for clearance studies - polygon and vertex.
Polygon

In the Polygon method, Adams/PostProcessor calculates the minimum distance between the
surfaces of the triangles that make up the geometry. This is the most accurate method but
requires the most time and calculations. See also Vertex.
Vertex

In Vertex method, Adams/PostProcessor calculates only the minimum distance between the
vertices of the triangles that make up the geometry. This method is less accurate than Polygon,
but calculates faster.

color 1

color
Allows you to select a basic color or create a custom color to be used for displaying objects, the
background of the main window and any view windows that you create.

2 Adams/View Commands
color create

color create
Allows you to create a new color by specifying the red, blue and green components of the color.
Format:
color create
color_name= a new color
red_component= real
green_component= real
blue_component= real
Example:
color create &
Color_name= MY_COLOR &
Red_component= 0.98 &
Green_component= 0.89 &
Blue_component= 0.66
Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

color_name

A New Color

Specifies the name of the new color to be created

red_component

Real

Specifies the amount of red in a color

green_component

Real

Specifies the amount of green in a color

blue_component

Real

Specifies the amount of blue in a color

Extended Definition:
1. Color_name should be different from the names of any of the existing colors present. If you need
to modify the hue of an existing color, then use the modify keyword within the command color.
2. Red_component can be a real value greater than or equal to zero and less than or equal to one.
You can use any combination of red, green, or blue to define a color.
3. Green_component can be a real value greater than or equal to zero and less than or equal to one.
You can use any combination of red, green, or blue to define a color.
Blue_component can be a real value greater than or equal to zero and less than or equal to one.
You can use any combination of red, green, or blue to define a color.

color 3
color modify

color modify
This command allows you to modify an existing color by changing the red, blue and green components
of the color.
Format:
color modify
color_name= an existing color
new_color_name= a new color
red_component= real
green_component= real
blue_component= real
Example:
color modify &
Color_name= MY_COLOR &
New_color_name= MODIFIED_COLOR &
Red_component= 0.99 &
Green_component= 0.89 &
Blue_component= 0.56
Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

color_name

An Existing Color Specifies an existing color

new_color_name

A New Color

Changes the name of the existing color

red_component

Real

Specifies the amount of red in a color

green_component Real

Specifies the amount of green in a color

blue_component

Specifies the amount of blue in a color

Real

Extended Definition:
1. The new_color_name parameter allows the user to change the name of the existing color. For
example, if you make an existing color, RED, lighter by reducing its red component, you could
rename it as, say, LT_RED.
2. Red_componenet can be a real value greater than or equal to zero and less than or equal to one.
You can use any combination of red, green, or blue to define a color.

4 Adams/View Commands
color modify

3. Green_component can be a real value greater than or equal to zero and less than or equal to one.
You can use any combination of red, green, or blue to define a color.
4. Blue_component can be a real value greater than or equal to zero and less than or equal to one.
You can use any combination of red, green, or blue to define a color.

constraint 1

constraint

2 Adams/View Commands
constraint attributes

constraint attributes
Allows the specification of attributes to be set on an individual constraint or a group of constraints.
Format:
constraint attributes
constraint_name = existing constraint
scale_of_icons = real
size_of_icons = length
visibility = on/off/no_opinion/toggle
name_visibility = on/off/no_opinion/toggle
color = existing color
active = on/off/no_opinion
dependents_active = on/off/no_opinion
Example:
constraint attributes &
constraint_name = joint_1 &
scale_of_icons = 1.2 &
visibility = on &
name_visibility = off &
active = on &
dependents_active = off
The above statement will set the new size of the icons by multiplying the current icon size by 1.2. The
Joint_1 will be visible since its visibility parameter is turned ON. The visibility of the view name
displayed at the top center position of a given view will be turned OFF since the name_visibility
parameter is turned OFF.
If JOINT_1 has a marker MAR1 which is the I marker of a joint JOI1 (which has a J marker MAR2),
then JOI1 will be deactivated as well because the dependants_active parameter being turned OFF.
Also, if the joint JOI1 is referenced in a request function, or if the I marker is referenced by a request,
then the request will be deactivated.

constraint 3
constraint attributes

Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

constraint_name

Existing constraint
name

Specifies the constraint to modify.

scale_of_icons

Real

Specifies a unit-less scale factor to apply to the current


icon size.

size_of_icons

Length

Specifies the size, in modeling units, the Adams/View


icons will appear.

visibility

On/Off/No_optinion/
Toggle

Specifies the visibility of graphic entities.

name_visibility

On/Off/No_optinion/
Toggle

The Name_Visibility parameter provides control over the


visibility of the view name displayed at the top center
position of a given view.

color

Existing color

Specifies the color the modeling entity should be drawn


in.

active

On/Off/No_opinion

When you set Active=No, that element is written to the


data set as a comment. When you set the Active attribute
on an object, you are also setting it on the children of the
object.

dependents_active On/Off/No_opinion

Sets the active parameters for all the dependants of the


constraint.

Extended Definition:
1. You may identify a constraint by typing its name or by picking it from the screen.
If the constraint is not visible on the screen, you must type the name. You may also find it

convenient to type the name even if the constraint is displayed.


If you created the constraint by reading an Adams data set, the constraint name is the first three

letters of the Adams statement type followed by the Adams data set constraint ID number. The
name of ADAMS JOINT/101 is JOI101, for example. If you created the constraint during
preprocessing, you gave it a name at that time.
If a constraint is available by default, you may identify it by entering its name only. If it is not,

you must enter its full name. To identify a constraint under a different model, for instance, you
may need to enter the model name as well. For example, you may specify constraint
'servo_motor' from model 'test' by entering ".test.servo_motor". If you type a "?",
Adams/View will list the constraints available by default.
You must separate multiple constraint names by commas.
If the constraint is visible in one of your views, you may identify it by picking on any of the

graphics associated with it.


You need not separate multiple constraint picks by commas.

4 Adams/View Commands
constraint attributes

2. If no initial size is specified for Adams/View icons, the default size will be one modeling
LENGTH unit. For example, if the modeling units are K/M/S, a part axes icon will have triad legs
of one meter in length.
When you specify SCALE_OF_ICONS, a new size is calculated by multipling the current size,
by the scale, and storing the product as the new ICON_SIZE.
3. If no initial size is specified for Adams/View icons, the default size will be one modeling
LENGTH unit. For example, if the modeling units are K/M/S, a part axes icon will have triad legs
of one meter in length.
When you set SIZE_OF_ICONS at the model level, all Adams/View icons used in creating a
model will use the size specified.
If the model has an SIZE_OF_ICONS set, and a part under that model has a different
SIZE_OF_ICONS, the model's ICONS_SIZE will take precedence.
An Example:
.model ---------------------- SIZE_OF_ICONS = .15 meters
.constraint -------------------- SIZE_OF_ICONS = .125 meters
The constraint's icon will be 1.5 meters is size.
If the model has SIZE_OF_ICONS of set to 0.0 , and a constraint under that model has a
SIZE_OF_ICONS set to .125, the constraint's icon size will be used.
An Example:
.model ---------------------- SIZE_OF_ICONS = 0.0 meters
.constraint -------------------- SIZE_OF_ICONS = .125 meters
The constraint's icon will be .125 meters is size.
4. The visibility parameter is used to control whether graphic entities, such as markers, joints, and
parts, are to be drawn in an Adams/View viewport. The legal values for this parameter are: ON,
OFF, and TOGGLE. ON will make the desired entity visible. OFF will make the desired entity
invisible. TOGGLE will take the current state of an entities visibility and reverse it.
5. The legal values of the visibility parameter are ON and OFF. This is an optional parameter and if
not entered the name will be visible (i.e. will be ON).
6. Adams/View allows you to specify the following colors for modeling entities: BLACK, WHITE,
RED, GREEN, BLUE, CYAN, MAGENTA, YELLOW, and NO_COLOR
Specifying 'NO_COLOR' for a modeling entity, instructs Adams/View to use the default color for
this entity, if there is no color present in its parent modeling entity.
Example 1:
.model -------------------------NO_COLOR
.part---------------------- RED
.geometry(circle) ------- NO_COLOR
The circle will be RED.
Example 2:
.model -------------------------NO_COLOR
.part---------------------- RED
.geometry(circle) ------- BLUE

constraint 5
constraint attributes

If a parent modeling entity has a color previously specified, that color takes precedence.
Adams/View will issue a warning message about color precedence. The circle will be RED.
Example 3:
.model -------------------------NO_COLOR
.part---------------------- NO_COLOR
.geometry(circle) ------- BLUE
The circle will be BLUE.
7. If you set ACTIVE=NO on a part, but wish for a marker on that part to be on, then you must
explicitly set ACTIVE=YES on the marker, after setting activation on the part.
The DEPENDENTS_ACTIVE parameter acts in the same fashion, but sets the ACTIVE attribute
for the dependents, all the way down the dependency chain. For example, if you execute the
following command:
PART ATTRIBUTES PART=PAR1 DEPENDENTS_ACTIVE=NO
Where PAR1 has a marker MAR1 which is the I marker of a joint JOI1 (which has a J marker
MAR2), then JOI1 will be deactivated.
Also, if the joint JOI1 is referenced in a request function, or if the I marker is referenced by a
request, then the request will be deactivated.
Propagation of activation status through groups is as if each element were to have its activation
status changed indvidually.
Elements affected are:
Group
Part
Differential Equation
Marker
Geometry
Constraints
Forces
Data Elements
Output Control

8. You can set the following attributes on a constraint.


SIZE_OF_ICONS / SCALE_OF_ICONS: These two parameters are mutually exclusive. You

may set a size of the icon used for the constraint representation in modeling units, or you may
scale the size of the icon by a non-unit scale factor.
VISIBILITY. You may set a constraint's visibility ON, OFF or TOGGLE the current setting.

When you set a constraint's visibility OFF, the constraint will not be drawn. When you set a
constraint's visibility ON, you allow that constraint to be drawn.
NAME_VISIBILITY: You may set a constraint's name label visibility ON, OFF or TOGGLE the

current setting with this parameter.

6 Adams/View Commands
constraint attributes

COLOR: You may set the color of a constraint with this parameter.

If an entity does not have a GRAPHICS ATTRIBUTE setting, the value for that GRAPHIC
ATTRIBUTE may be inherited from another entity. INHERITANCE may be either TOP_DOWN
or BOTTOM_UP.
BOTTOM_UP and TOP_DOWN refer to the natural hierarchy of the Adams model. The
hierarchy is a tree structure with the model at the apex. Parts exist beneath the model, and markers
exist beneath the parts. If the icon size of the model is set to 0.1, and the default INHERITANCE
is set to TOP_DOWN, then all icons displayed within the model will be displayed at this size.
However, if the icon size of a model is set to 0.1, and then the default INHERITANCE is set to
BOTTOM_UP, then any icons set to a size other than the model's icon size will be displayed at
their own size.
Caution: Note that if the visibility of the view name is turned off the only indication that a view is
"active" will be the color of the viewport border. This would be a problem on a black and
white monitor.

Tip:

Use the constraint_name parameter to identify the existing constraint to affect with this
command.

constraint 7
constraint copy

constraint copy
Allows you to create a replica constraint within the same model.
Format:
constraint copy
constraint_name = existing constraint
new_constraint_name =

new constraint name

Example:
constraint copy &
constraint_name = joint_1 &
new_constraint_name = copy_joint_1
Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

Constraint_name

Existing constraint

Specifies the constraint to delete.

new_constraint_name

New constraint name

Specifies the name of the new constraint.

Extended Definition:
1. Any Adams/View object you delete, may be "undeleted" by using the UNDO commands. If you
have deleted something you would like back, enter the command "undo backward", or pick on the
fixed menu entry 'UNDO'.
You may identify a constraint by typing its name or by picking it from the screen.
If the constraint is not visible on the screen, you must type the name. You may also find it

convenient to type the name even if the constraint is displayed.


If you created the constraint by reading an Adams data set, the constraint name is the first three

letters of the Adams statement type followed by the Adams data set constraint ID number. The
name of Adams joint/101 is JOI101, for example. If you created the constraint during
preprocessing, you gave it a name at that time.
If a constraint is available by default, you may identify it by entering its name only. If it is not,

you must enter its full name.


To identify a constraint under a different model, for instance, you may need to enter the model

name as well. For example, you may specify constraint 'servo_motor' from model 'test' by
entering ".test.servo_motor". If you type a "?", Adams/View will list the constraints available
by default.

8 Adams/View Commands
constraint copy

You must separate multiple constraint names by commas.


If the constraint is visible in one of your views, you may identify it by picking on any of the

graphics associated with it.


You need not separate multiple constraint picks by commas.

2. Adams/View will not allow you to have two constraints with the same full name, so you must
provide a unique name.
Normally, entity names are composed of alphabetic, numeric, or '_' (underscore) characters, and
start with an alphabetic or '_' character. They may be any length.
By enclosing the name in double quotes, you may use other printable characters, or start the name
with a numeral. If a name contains characters, or starts with a numeral, you must always quote the
name when entering it.
Note that you can specify the parentage of an entity (e.g. what part "owns" a marker or a geometry
element) when you create it by changing the name. If you enter just the entity name, then the
default parent will be assigned by Adams/View. If you type in the full name, then you may over
ride the default parent. In most cases, when creating an entity, Adams/View will provide a default
name. The default name that Adams/View provides will specify the parentage that it has assumed.
You may, or course, delete this name and use your own. The form of a full name is:
"...._NAME.GRAND_PARENT_NAME.PARENT_NAME.ENTITY_NAME"
The number of levels used varies from case to case and the parentage must exist before an entity
can be assigned to it.
3. This replica constraint will be identical to the original with the exception of the constraint name.
Constraints must have unique names relative to other constraints in a given model. The replica
will be completely independent of the original, and may be modified without effecting the
original.
When the new constraint is created, it uses the same markers or joints as the original. A first step
after the copy of a joint constraint might be to modify the I and J markers on the replica.
Constraints may not be copied from model to model.
Tip:

You may use the new_constraint_name later to refer to the constraint.

constraint 9
constraint create complex_joint coupler

constraint create complex_joint coupler


Allows the creation of a coupler.
Format:
constraint create complex_joint coupler
coupler_name = a new coupler
adams_id = adams_id
comments = string
joint_name = an existing joint
type_of_freedom = coupler_freedom
motion_multipliers = real
first_angular_scale_factor = angle
first_scale_factor = real
second_angular_scale_factor = angle
second_scale_factor = real
third_angular_scale_factor = angle
third_scale_factor = real
user_function = real
Example:
constraint create complex_joint coupler &
coupler_name = coupler__1 &
adams_id = 1 &
comments = "comment string" &
joint_name = joint_1 , joint_1 &
motion_multipliers = 0.1 , 0.2 &
type_of_freedom = rot_rot_rot

10 Adams/View Commands
constraint create complex_joint coupler

Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

coupler_name

A New Coupler

Specifies the name of the new coupler. You may


use this name later to refer to this coupler.

adams_id

Adams_id

Specifies an integer used to identify this element in


the Adams data file.

comments

String

Specifies comments for the object being created or


modified.

joint_name

An Existing Joint Specifies the translational, revolute, or cylindrical


joint associated with this entity. Some entities
constrain motion at, or are otherwise associated
with, specific joints. You use this parameter to
identify that joint.

type_of_freedom

Coupler_freedom Specifies whether cylindrical joints transfer


translational or rotational motion.

motion_multipliers

Real

Specifies the relative motion of the joints you


identify with joints

first_angular_scale_factor

Angle

Specifies the angular motion of the first joint you


identify with JOINT_NAME relative to the motion
of the second and third joints you identify with
Joint_Name.

first_scale_factor

Real

Specifies the non-angular motion of the first joint


you identify with JOINT_NAME relative to the
motion of the second and third joints you identify
with Joint_Name.

second_angular_scale_factor Angle

Specifies the angular motion of the second joint


you identify with Joint_Name relative to the
motion of the first and third joints you identify with
JOINT_NAME

second_scale_factor

Real

Specifies the non-angular motion of the second


joint you identify with Joint_Name relative to the
motion of the first and third joints you identify with
Joint_Name.

third_angular_scale_factor

Angle

Specifies the angular motion of the third joint you


identify with Joint_Name relative to the motion of
the first and second joints you identify with
Joint_Name.

constraint 11
constraint create complex_joint coupler

Parameter

Value Type

Description

third_scale_factor

Real

Specifies the non-angular motion of the third joint


you identify with Joint_Name relative to the
motion of the first and second joints you identify
with Joint_Name.

user_function

Real

Specifies up to 30 values for Adams to pass to a


userwritten subroutine. See the Adams User's
Manual for information on writing user-written
subroutines.

Extended Definition:
1. A coupler creates the coupling of the translational and/or the rotational motion of two or three
joints. With this constraint, you can deliver or relate motion from one area of a mechanism to
another. Components whose behavior you might approximate with this statement include
combinations of hydraulic generators, motors, and pistons and include flexible, rotational
transmission cables.
2. Normally, entity names like the coupler name are composed of alphabetic, numeric, or '_'
(underscore) characters, and start with an alphabetic or '_' character. They may be any length. By
enclosing the name in double quotes, you may use other printable characters, or start the name
with a numeral. If a name contains characters, or starts with a numeral, you must always quote the
name when entering it. Note that you can specify the parentage of an entity (e.g. what part "owns"
a marker or a geometry element) when you create it by changing the name. If you enter just the
entity name, then the default parent will be assigned by Adams/View. If you type in the full name,
then you may over ride the default parent. In most cases, when creating an entity, Adams/View
will provide a default name. The default name that Adams/View provides will specify the
parentage that it has assumed. You may, or course, delete this name and use your own. The form
of a full name is:
"...._NAME.GRAND_PARENT_NAME.PARENT_NAME.ENTITY_NAME"
The number of levels used varies from case to case and the parentage must exist before an entity
can be assigned to it.
3. When you use the File Adams_data_set write command, Adams/View writes an Adams data
file for your model. Adams requires that each modeling element be identified by a unique integer
identifier. If you use this parameter to specify a non-zero identifier, Adams/View will use it in the
corresponding statement in the Adams data file. You may also enter zero as an identifier, either
explicitly or by default. The next time you write an Adams file, Adams/View will replace the zero
with a unique, internally-generated identifier. Adams/View will permanently store this identifier
with the element just as if you had entered it yourself. Normally, you would let all identifiers
default to zero, and Adams/View would generate the identifiers for you. You are never required
to enter a non-zero identifier. You only need to specify it if, for some reason, you wish to control
the Adams file output.

12 Adams/View Commands
constraint create complex_joint coupler

4. When an Adams/Solver data file (.adm) is read into Adams/View, all comments associated with
a statement (from the end of the previous statement through the end of the current statement) are
stored with the object. Comments in the data file can be associated with model. These comments
must follow the title statement and be followed by the comment 'END OF MODEL
COMMENTS'. This string must be uppercase. When an Adams/Solver data file is written, the
comments for an object are written before the statement corresponding to the object.
5. You may identify a joint by typing its name or by picking it from the screen. If the joint is not
visible on the screen, you must type the name. You may also find it convenient to type the name
even if the joint is displayed. If you created the joint by reading an data set or graphics file, the
joint name is the letters JOI followed by the Adams data set joint ID number. The name of Adams
JOINT/101 is JOI101, for example. If you created the joint during preprocessing, you gave it a
name at that time. If a joint is available by default, you may identify it by entering its name only.
If it is not, you must enter its full name. To identify a joint under a model, for instance, you may
need to enter the model name as well. For example, you may specify joint 'lower_pivot' in model
'links' by entering ".links.lower_pivot". You must separate multiple joint names by commas. If
the joint is visible in one of your views, you may identify it by picking on any of the graphics
associated with it. You need not separate multiple joint picks by commas.
6. Adams assumes that translational joints transfer translational motion and that revolute joints
transfer rotational motion. A cylindrical joint permits both translational and rotational motion,
however. If your coupler includes cylindrical joints, you must use this parameter to indicate which
motion is transferred at each joint.
7. Adams uses the values in the SCALES argument in the following equation:
(r1 * q1) + (r2 * q2) + (r3 * q3) = 0,
where r1, r2, and r3 are the scale factors for the three joints and q1, q2, and q3 are the translational
or the rotational displacements of the joint I markers with respect to their J markers. Suppose you
are coupling two joints, and SCALES=1,-2. The equation that relates the two joints is
q1 + (-2 * q2) = 0, or
q1 = 2 * q2.
The displacement (q1) of the I marker with respect to the J marker in the first joint is twice that
of the displacement (q2) of the I marker with respect to the J marker in the second joint; the two
displacements have the same sign. If you specify two joints in the JOINTS argument, you must
specify r2. If you specify only one value, Adams assumes it is r2 and uses the default value of 1
for r1.
8. Adams uses the first_angular_scale_factor (r1) in the following equation:
(r1 * q1) + (r2 * q2) + (r3 * q3) = 0,
where r1, r2, and r3 are the scale factors for the three joints and q1, q2, and q3 are the translational
or the rotational displacements of the joint I markers with respect to their J markers. Suppose you
are coupling two joints, and r1=1 and r2=-2. The equation that relates the two joints is
q1 + (-2 * q2) = 0, or
q1 = 2 * q2.

constraint 13
constraint create complex_joint coupler

The displacement (q1) of the I marker with respect to the J marker in the first joint is twice that
of the displacement (q2) of the I marker with respect to the J marker in the second joint; the two
displacements have the same sign.
9. Adams uses the first_scale_factor (r1) in the following equation:
(r1 * q1) + (r2 * q2) + (r3 * q3) = 0,
where r1, r2, and r3 are the scale factors for the three joints and q1, q2, and q3 are the translational
or the rotational displacements of the joint I markers with respect to their J markers. Suppose you
are coupling two joints, and r1=1 and r2=-2. The equation that relates the two joints is
q1 + (-2 * q2) = 0, or
q1 = 2 * q2.
The displacement (q1) of the I marker with respect to the J marker in the first joint is twice that
of the displacement (q2) of the I marker with respect to the J marker in the second joint; the two
displacements have the same sign.
10. Adams uses the second_angular scale_factor (r2) in the following equation:
(r1 * q1) + (r2 * q2) + (r3 * q3) = 0,
where r1, r2, and r3 are the scale factors for the three joints and q1, q2, and q3 are the translational
or the rotational displacements of the joint I markers with respect to their J markers. Suppose you
are coupling two joints, and r1=1 and r2=-2. The equation that relates the two joints is
q1 + (-2 * q2) = 0, or
q1 = 2 * q2.
The displacement (q1) of the I marker with respect to the J marker in the first joint is twice that
of the displacement (q2) of the I marker with respect to the J marker in the second joint; the two
displacements have the same sign.
11. Adams uses the second_scale_factor (r2) in the following equation:
(r1 * q1) + (r2 * q2) + (r3 * q3) = 0,
where r1, r2, and r3 are the scale factors for the three joints and q1, q2, and q3 are the translational
or the rotational displacements of the joint I markers with respect to their J markers. Suppose you
are coupling two joints, and r1=1 and r2=-2. The equation that relates the two joints is
q1 + (-2 * q2) = 0, or
q1 = 2 * q2.
The displacement (q1) of the I marker with respect to the J marker in the first joint is twice that
of the displacement (q2) of the I marker with respect to the J marker in the second joint; the two
displacements have the same sign.
12. Adams uses the third_angular_scale_factor (r3) in the following equation:
(r1 * q1) + (r2 * q2) + (r3 * q3) = 0,
where r1, r2, and r3 are the scale factors for the three joints and q1, q2, and q3 are the translational
or the rotational displacements of the joint I markers with respect to their J markers.
13. adams uses the third_scale_factor (r3) in the following equation:
(r1 * q1) + (r2 * q2) + (r3 * q3) = 0,

14 Adams/View Commands
constraint create complex_joint coupler

where r1, r2, and r3 are the scale factors for the three joints and q1, q2, and q3 are the translational
or the rotational displacements of the joint I markers with respect to their J markers.
Caution: Adams/View will not allow you to have two couplers with the same full name, so you must
provide a unique name.

Tip:

If you type a "?", Adams/View will list the joints available by default.

constraint 15
constraint create complex_joint gear

constraint create complex_joint gear


Allows the creation of a gear pair.
Format:
constraint create complex_joint gear
joint_name = a new gear
adams_id = integer
comments = string
joint_name = an existing joint
common_velocity_marker = an existing marker
Example:
constraint create complex_joint gear &
gear_name = gear__1 &
adams_id = 3 &
comments = "comment string" &
joint_name = joint_1 &
common_velocity_marker = marker_1
Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

gear_name

A New Gear

Specifies the name of the new gear.

adams_id

Adams_id

Specifies an integer used to identify this element in


the Adams data file.

comments

String

Specifies comments for the object being created or


modified.

joint_name

An Existing Joint

Specifies the translational, revolute, or cylindrical


joint associated with this entity.

common_velocity_ marker An Existing Marker Specifies the marker that designates the point of
contact and determines the ratio of the two gears.

16 Adams/View Commands
constraint create complex_joint gear

Extended Definition:
1. A gear pair relates the motion of three parts and two joints. The three parts are the two gear parts
and a third part, the carrier, to which the gears are attached by the two joints. The joints must be
translational, revolute, or cylindrical. Different combinations of joint types and orientations allow
you to model spur, helical, planetary, bevel, and rack-and-pinion gear pairs.
2. The gear element uses the location of the common velocity marker to determine the point of
contact of the two gear pitch circles. The direction of the z-axis of the common velocity marker
indicates the direction of the common velocity of points on the gear teeth in contact. This is also
the direction in which gear tooth forces act. The location of the common velocity marker is
constant with respect to the carrier part.
3. Normally, entity names like the gear name are composed of alphabetic, numeric, or '_'
(underscore) characters, and start with an alphabetic or '_' character. They may be any length. By
enclosing the name in double quotes, you may use other printable characters, or start the name
with a numeral. If a name contains characters, or starts with a numeral, you must always quote the
name when entering it. Note that you can specify the parentage of an entity (e.g. what part "owns"
a marker or a geometry element) when you create it by changing the name. If you enter just the
entity name, then the default parent will be assigned by Adams/View. If you type in the full name,
then you may over ride the default parent. In most cases, when creating an entity, Adams/View
will provide a default name. The default name that Adams/View provides will specify the
parentage that it has assumed. You may, or course, delete this name and use your own. The form
of a full name is:
"...._NAME.GRAND_PARENT_NAME.PARENT_NAME.ENTITY_NAME"
The number of levels used varies from case to case and the parentage must exist before an entity
can be assigned to it.
4. When you use the FILE Adams_data_set write command, Adams/View writes an Adams data file
for your model. Adams requires that each modeling element be identified by a unique integer
identifier. If you use this parameter to specify a non-zero identifier, Adams/View will use it in the
corresponding statement in the Adams data file. You may also enter zero as an identifier, either
explicitly or by default. The next time you write an Adams file, Adams/View will replace the zero
with a unique, internally-generated identifier. Adams/View will permanently store this identifier
with the element just as if you had entered it yourself. Normally, you would let all identifiers
default to zero, and Adams/View would generate the identifiers for you. You are never required
to enter a non-zero identifier. You only need to specify it if, for some reason, you wish to control
the Adams file output.
5. When an Adams/Solver data file (.adm) is read into Adams/View, all comments associated with
a statement (from the end of the previous statement through the end of the current statement) are
stored with the object. Comments in the data file can be associated with model. These comments
must follow the title statement and be followed by the comment 'END OF MODEL
COMMENTS'. This string must be uppercase. When an Adams/Solver data file is written, the
comments for an object are written before the statement corresponding to the object.

constraint 17
constraint create complex_joint gear

6. You may identify a joint by typing its name or by picking it from the screen. If the joint is not
visible on the screen, you must type the name. You may also find it convenient to type the name
even if the joint is displayed. If you created the joint by reading an Adams data set or graphics
file, the joint name is the letters JOI followed by the Adams data set joint ID number. The name
of Adams joint/101 is JOI101, for example. If you created the joint during preprocessing, you
gave it a name at that time. If a joint is available by default, you may identify it by entering its
name only. If it is not, you must enter its full name. To identify a joint under a model, for instance,
you may need to enter the model name as well. For example, you may specify joint 'lower_pivot'
in model 'links' by entering ".links.lower_pivot". You must separate multiple joint names by
commas. If the joint is visible in one of your views, you may identify it by picking on any of the
graphics associated with it. You need not separate multiple joint picks by commas.
7. You define the constant-velocity (CV) marker on the carrier part to which the J markers of the
joints belong. The z-axis of this marker must point in the direction of common velocity at the point
of contact. The direction of common velocity is tangent to both pitch circles and would be normal
to the tooth surfaces of the gears if the pressure angle was zero. (Adams always assumes a
pressure angle of zero.) The CV marker has constant position and orientation in the carrier LPRF
and does not change when the direction of power flow through the gear changes.
Tip:

1. If you type a "?", Adams/View will list the joints available by default.
2. You may use the gear_name later to refer to this gear. Adams/View will not allow
you to have two gears with the same full name, so you must provide a unique name.
3. Some entities constrain motion at, or are otherwise associated with, specific joints.
You use the joint_name parameter to identify that joint.
4. The common_velocity_marker also determines the direction of the reaction forces
developed by the joints in the gear pair.

18 Adams/View Commands
constraint create general_constraint

constraint create general_constraint


Format:
constraint create general_constraint
general_constraint_name = new gen_constraint name
adams_id =

geom. _id

comments = string,
i_marker_name =
function =

existing marker
function

Example:
constraint create general_constraint &
general_constraint_name = gcon_1 &
i_marker_name = marker_11 &
function = time
Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

general_constraint_name New name

Specify a name for the GCON

adams_id

integer

Specifies an integer used to identify this element in the


Adams data file.

comments

String

Specifies comments for the object being created or


modified.

I_marker_name

Existing marker Specify an existing marker name.

function

Function

Specifies an expression or defines and passes constants


to a user-written subroutine to define the motion.

Extended Definition:
1. When you use the File Adams_data_set write command, Adams/View writes an Adams data file
for your model. Adams requires that each modeling element be identified by a unique integer
identifier. If you use this parameter to specify a non-zero identifier, Adams/View will use it in the
corresponding statement in the Adams data file.

constraint 19
constraint create general_constraint

You may also enter zero as an identifier, either explicitly or by default. The next time you write
an Adams file, Adams/View will replace the zero with a unique, internally-generated identifier.
Adams/View will permanently store this identifier with the element just as if you had entered it
yourself.
Normally, you would let all identifiers default to zero, and Adams/View would generate the
identifiers for you. You are never required to enter a non-zero identifier. You only need to specify
it if, for some reason, you wish to control the Adams file output.
2. You may identify a joint by typing its name or by picking it from the screen.
If the joint is not visible on the screen, you must type the name. You may also find it convenient
to type the name even if the joint is displayed.
If you created the joint by reading an Adams data set or graphics file, the joint name is the letters
JOI followed by the Adams data set joint ID number. The name of Adams JOINT/101 is JOI101,
for example. If you created the joint during preprocessing, you gave it a name at that time.
If a joint is available by default, you may identify it by entering its name only. If it is not, you must
enter its full name. To identify a joint under a model, for instance, you may need to enter the
model name as well. For example, you may specify joint 'lower_pivot' in model 'links' by entering
".links.lower_pivot". If you type a "?", Adams/View will list the joints available by default.
You must separate multiple joint names by commas.
If the joint is visible in one of your views, you may identify it by picking on any of the graphics
associated with it.
You need not separate multiple joint picks by commas.
3. While the JOINT statement describes a physically recognizable combination of constraints that
are used to connect bodies together, the GCON statement enables you to define an arbitrary
constraint specific to a particular model. The GCON statement is more general and can be used
to equivalently define the existent JOINT elements. Therefore, the spherical joint
JOINT/11, SPHERICAL, I=1,J=3
could be equivalently replaced by the following set of three GCONs:
GCON/111, I=2, FUNC=DX(2,3)
GCON/112, I=2, FUNC=DY(2,3)
GCON/113, I=2, FUNC=DZ(2,3)
The GCON statement allows you to define both holonomic and non-holonomic constraints.
Holonomic constraints only depend on position measures, like GCON/111 through GCON/113
above. A constraint is non-holonomic if (a) its expression exp1 contains velocity measures, and
(b) there is no expression exp2 that is the time integral of exp1. An example of a non-holonomic
constraint is a roll without slip condition
GCON/34, FUNC=VX(2) - WZ(2)*DY(2)
The GCON statement introduces a constraint to Adams/Solver (C++) that is guaranteed to be
handled correctly as long as the FUNCTION is in Pfaffian form. In this context, note that any
holonomic expression is automatically in Pfaffian form. In the case of non-holonomic constraints,
a Pfaffian constraint requires that the FUNCTION is limited to expressions that are linear in
velocity quantities. In other words, if there are velocity quantities in the definition of the

20 Adams/View Commands
constraint create general_constraint

FUNCTION (as is the case in the previous GCON), a partial derivative of the FUNCTION with
respect to any velocity quantity present in its definition should lead to an expression that does not
depend on velocity quantities. The previous GCON is therefore in Pfaffian form,
FUNC- = 1 and ------------------FUNC- = DX 2 which makes the FUNC linear in velocity quantities.
since ------------------FUNC

WZ 2

Another example of a Pfaffian non-holonomic constraint is the perpendicularity condition


GCON/25, FU=VX(2,3)*DX(2,1)+ VY(2,3)*DY(2,1)+ VZ(2,3)*DZ(2,1)
that indicates that the velocity V(2,3) is orthogonal to the distance vector between markers I=2
and J=1.
An example of a non-Pfaffian GCON is
GCON/25,FU=VX(2,3)*VX(2,3)*DX(2,1)+VY(2,3)*DY(2,1)+
VZ(2,3)*DZ(2,1)
FU
For this example, -----------------------= 2 VX 2 3 DX 2 1 which is an expression that depends on the
VX 2 3
velocity measure VX(2,3).
The FUNCTION expression exp can reference variables defined in the .adm file through the
VARVAL construct. It should be stressed again that correct handling of the GCON requires that
the expression defining the VARIABLE only depends on time, and position and velocity
measures; in other words, the Pfaffian character of the GCON is not undermined by the presence
of the VARVAL.
Cautions:
1. Objects of type General_Constraint are not compatible with Adams/Solver (FORTRAN).
2. The topology of the model has changed so .model_1.GCON__1 is no longer connected in a way
that is compatible with Adams/Solver (FORTRAN).
3. An attribute of .model_1.GCON__1 is no longer compatible with Adams/Solver (FORTRAN).
If you intend to use Adams/Solver (FORTRAN), you must change your model to eliminate the
incompatibility. For more information, see the online help for the object listed.
If you do not want to use Adams/Solver (FORTRAN), then be sure that you set your preferences
so Adams/Solver (C++) is the default as follows:
a. From the Settings menu, point to Solver and then select either Solver Executable or
Preferences, depending on the product you are using.
b. To learn more, press F1 in the dialog box.
Correct handling of a GCON element assumes a FUNCTION defined in Pfaffian form.
Kinematic models are incompatible with velocity constraints. If a model is rendered kinematic

by displacement constraints, any additional velocity constraints will be either redundant or


conflicting. In either case, version 2003 of Adams/Solver (C++) is incapable of analyzing the
model as explained below:
Currently, there is no redundancy check for user constraints defined at the velocity level.
Therefore, you can impose constraints that are not redundant at the position level, but lead to a set
of redundant constraints when their time derivative is considered with other velocity level
constraints during the velocity Initial Conditions (IC) analysis. Consider the situation when two

constraint 21
constraint create general_constraint

constraints are defined as GCON/1, FU=DX(1,2), and GCON/2, FU=VX(1,2). Because the
redundant constraint analysis only includes position level constraints, Adams/Solver (C++) will
not identify that a velocity-level constraint (GCON/2) induces a redundant constraint during the
velocity computation. As a result, a model that contains these two user constraints will fail during
the velocity analysis with a singular Jacobian error.
GCON is a new modeling element only available in the Adams/Solver (C++). Currently there is

no support for defining GCON through Adams/View, so you need to edit the .adm file to add
user-defined constraints. Adams/View correctly imports the edited .adm file, and the internal
Adams/Solver (C++) from within Adams/View correctly handles the simulation of the model.
If you use GCON to constrain the values of DIFF, LSE, and TFSISO elements, note that they

will not contribute degrees of freedom that are considered removed by a GCON element. The
GCON statement functions properly for Pfaffian expressions depending on position and velocity
measures and time, or as mentioned earlier, on VARVALs measures for VARIABLEs that only
depend on position and velocity measures and time.
Consequently, a model that contains velocity constraints can only be simulated using the

dynamic solver.
For a position-level GCON, the FUNCTION must be at least three times differentiable. If the

GCON introduces a velocity-level constraint, then the FUNCTION should be at least twice
differentiable. This requirement ensures that internally Adams/Solver (C++) can take the
necessary derivatives to perform certain types of analyses such as Acceleration/Force
reconciliation, dynamic analysis, and so on. Note that if the expression provided for GCON is
not continuously differentiable for the required number of times, the integrator will either fail, or
have a difficult time finding the numerical solution.
The ability of the Adams/Solver (C++) to handle function expressions to provide the necessary

derivatives required by the GCON does not extend to user subroutines. Consequently, a
VARIABLE can only be referenced in a GCON provided it is defined using function
expressions, rather than a VARSUB subroutine.
Use the RESULTS/XRF statement in order to get the reaction force on marker I reported in the

results file. This is the only output format currently able to handle GCON output.
Tip:

There is no dedicated function that returns the reaction force induced by a user constraint
on a marker. You can invoke an existing function such as FX(I[; J][;K]) for this purpose.
Note that FX(I[; J][;K]) reports the force that acts on the I marker as a result of both
constraint and external forces applied to this marker. To only obtain the contribution of the
the GCON, the markers that appear in FX(I[; J][;K]) should be exclusively used to define
the GCON, and no other elements such as applied forces, joints, or motions should refer
them.

22 Adams/View Commands
constraint create higher_pair_contact curve_curve

constraint create higher_pair_contact curve_curve


Allows you to create a curve_curve constraint.
Format:
constraint create higher_pair_contact curve_curve
curve_curve_name = new ccurve
adams_id = geom._id
comments = string
i_curve_name = existing acurve
J_curve_name = existing acurve
I_ref_marker_name = existing marker
J_ref_marker_name = Existing marker
i_marker_id = integer
J_marker_id = integer
I_displacement_ic = length
no_i_displacement_ic = true
j_displacement_ic = length
no_j_displacement_ic = true
i_ velocity_ic =

velocity

no_i_velocity_ic = true
j_velocity_ic = velocity
no_j_velocity_ic =

true

i_ ic_ref_marker_name = existing marker


ji_ ic_ref_marker_name = existing marker
Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

curve_curve_name

New ccurve

Specifies the name of the new curve_curve. You


may use this name later to refer to this
curve_curve.

adams_id

Integer

Specifies an integer used to identify this element in


the Adams data File.

Comments

String

Specifies comments for the object being created or


modified.

constraint 23
constraint create higher_pair_contact curve_curve

Parameter

Value Type

Description

i_curve_name

Existing Acurve name Specifies the name of a CURVE from which


Adams constructs the first Curve

J_curve_name

Existing acurve

Specifies the name of a CURVE from which


Adams constructs the second curve.

I_ref_marker_name

Existing marker

Specifies the name of a fixed MARKER on the


part containing I_CURVE.

J_ref_marker_name

Existing marker

Specifies the name of a fixed MARKER on the


part containing J_CURVE.

I_floating_marker_name Existing marker

Specify an existing floating marker.

J_floating_marker_name Existing marker

Specify an existing floating marker.

I_marker_id

Integer

Specifies the Adams ID for the floating marker


which is automatically created on the I part by
AdamS/View.

J_marker_id

Integer

Specifies the ID for the floating marker which is


automatically created on the J part by
Adams/View. This allows you to reference the
floating marker in a request or function by the id
you specify, instead of letting Adams/View
generate one.

I_displacement_ic

Length

Specifies the initial point of contact on the first


curve.

J_displacement_ic

Length

Specifies the initial point of contact on the second


curve.

No_i_displacement_ic

True

Specifies that if an I_DISPLACEMENT_IC has


been set via any means, to "UNSET" the
displacement initial condition.

No_j_displacement_ic

True

Specifies that if an J_DISPLACEMENT_IC has


been set via any means, to "UNSET" the
displacement initial condition.

I_velocity_ic

Velocity

Specifies the initial velocity of the contact point


along I_CURVE.

J_velocity_ic

Velocity

Specifies the initial velocity of the contact point


along J_CURVE.

No_i_velocity_ic

True

Specifies that if an I_VELOCITY_IC has been set


via any means, to "UNSET" the velocity initial
condition.

No_j_velocity_ic

True

Specifies that if an J_VELOCITY_IC has been set


via any means, to "UNSET" the velocity initial
condition.

24 Adams/View Commands
constraint create higher_pair_contact curve_curve

Parameter

Value Type

Description

I_ic_ref_marker_name

An existing marker

Specifies the name of a fixed MARKER defining


the coordinate system in which the values for
I_DISPLACEMENT_IC are defined. The
I_IC_REF_MARKER must be on the same part as
the I_REF_MARKER.

J_ic_ref_marker_name

An existing marker

Specifies the name of a fixed MARKER defining


the coordinate system in which the values for
J_DISPLACEMENT_IC are defined. The
J_IC_REF_MARKER must be on the same part as
the J_REF_MARKER.

Extended Definition:
1. Adams/View will not allow you to have two point_curves with the same full name, so you must
provide a unique name.
Normally, entity names are composed of alphabetic, numeric, or '_' (underscore) characters, and
start with an alphabetic or '_' character. They may be any length.
By enclosing the name in double quotes, you may use other printable characters, or start the name
with a numeral. If a name contains characters, or starts with a numeral, you must always quote the
name when entering it.
Note that you can specify the parentage of an entity (e.g. what part "owns" a marker or a geometry
element) when you CREATE it by changing the name. If you enter just the entity name, then the
default parent will be assigned by Adams/View. If you type in the full name, then you may over
ride the default parent. In most cases, when creating an entity, Adams/View will provide a default
name. The default name that Adams/View provides will specify the parentage that it has assumed.
You may, or course, delete this name and use your own. The form of a full name is:
"...._NAME.GRAND_PARENT_NAME.PARENT_NAME.ENTITY_NAME"
The number of levels used varies from case to case and the parentage must exist before an entity
can be assigned to it.
2. When you use the File Adams_data_set write command, Adams/View writes an Adams data file
for your model. Adams requires that each modeling element be identified by a unique integer
identifier. If you use this parameter to specify a non-zero identifier, Adams/View will use it in the
corresponding statement in the Adams data file.
You may also enter zero as an identifier, either explicitly or by default. The next time you write
an Adams file, Adams/View will replace the zero with a unique, internally-generated identifier.
Adams/View will permanently store this identifier with the element just as if you had entered it
yourself.
Normally, you would let all identifiers default to zero, and Adams/View would generate the
identifiers for you. You are never required to enter a non-zero identifier. You only need to specify
it if, for some reason, you wish to control the Adams file output.

constraint 25
constraint create higher_pair_contact curve_curve

3. The I_REFERENCE_MARKER marker specifies the coordinate system in which the x, y, z


coordinates of I_CURVE are specified. The curve is attached rigidly to the part specified in the
I_PART_NAME parameter and containing the I_REFERENCE_MARKER marker. The z
component of the CURVE must be zero. As a result, the curve will lie in the x-y plane of the
I_REFERENCE_MARKER marker.
4. The J_REFERENCE_MARKER specifies the coordinate system in which the x, y, z coordinates
of J_CURVE are specified. The curve is attached rigidly to the part specified in the
J_PART_NAME parameter and containing the J_REFERENCE_MARKER. The z component of
the CURVE must be zero. As a result, the curve will lie in the x-y plane of the
J_REFERENCE_MARKER.
5. The I_REF_MARKER marker identifies the coordinate system in which the coordinates of
ICURVE are specified. Adams constructs the I_CURVE in the I_REF_MARKER marker
coordinate system. Adams/View will automatically create the I "floating" marker. The I "floating
marker" and I_REF_MARKER markers must lie on the same part.
6. The J_REF_MARKER marker identifies the coordinate system that the coordinates of J_CURVE
are specified. Adams constructs the J_CURVE in the J_REF_MARKER coordinate system. The
J "floating" and J_REF_MARKER markers must lie on the same part.
7. For the i_displacement_ic parameter, if the point specified is not exactly on the curve, Adams will
use a point on the curve nearest to that specified. By default, the contact point is specified in the
I_REF_MARKER coordinate system. If another coordinate system is more convenient, you may
supply the I_IC_REF_MARKER argument and enter I_DISPLACEMENT_IC in
I_IC_REF_MARKER coordinates.
If you supply I_DISPLACEMENT_IC, Adams assembles the system with the contact at the
specified point on the curve, even if it must override part initial conditions in order to do so. If
you do not supply I_DISPLACEMENT_IC, Adams assumes the initial contact is at the point on
the first curve closest to J_CURVE in the input configuration. In this case, Adams may adjust that
contact point to maintain other part or constraint initial conditions.
8. For the j_displacement_ic parameter, if the point specified is not exactly on the curve, Adams uses
a point on the curve nearest to that specified. By default, the contact point is specified in the
J_REF_MARKER coordinate system. If another coordinate system is more convenient, you may
supply the J_IC_REF_MARKER and enter J_DISPLACEMENT_IC in J_IC_REF_MARKER
coordinates.
If you supply J_DISPLACEMENT_IC, Adams assembles the system with the contact at the
specified point on the curve, even if it must override part initial conditions in order to do so. If
you do not supply J_DISPLACEMENT_IC, Adams assumes the initial contact is at a point on the
second curve closest to ICURVE in the input configuration. In this case, Adams may adjust that
contact point to maintain other part or constraint initial conditions.
9. The i_velocity_ic is the speed at which the contact point is initially moving relative to the curve.
I_VELOCITY_IC is negative if the contact point is moving towards the start of the curve, positive
if the contact point is moving toward the end of the curve, and zero if the contact point is
stationary on the curve.

26 Adams/View Commands
constraint create higher_pair_contact curve_curve

If you supply I_VELOCITY_IC, Adams gives the contact point the specified initial velocity along
the first curve, even if it must override part initial conditions in order to do so. If you do not supply
I_VELOCITY_IC, Adams assumes the initial velocity is zero, but may adjust that velocity to
maintain other part or constraint initial conditions.
10. The j_velocity_ic is the speed at which the contact point is initially moving relative to the curve.
J_VELOCITY_IC is negative if the contact point is moving towards the start of the curve, positive
if the contact point is moving toward the end of the curve, and zero if the contact point is
stationary on the curve.
If you supply J_VELOCITY_IC, Adams gives the contact point the specified initial velocity
along the second curve, even if it must override part initial conditions in order to do so. If you do
not supply J_VELOCITY_IC, Adams assumes the initial velocity is zero, but may adjust that
velocity to maintain other part or constraint initial conditions.
11. The CURVE_CURVE defines a curve-curve constraint, which restricts a planar curve on one part
to be in contact with, and tangent to, a planar curve on a second part. The curves must lie in
parallel planes.
Adams constructs the first curve from the I_CURVE curve and the I_REF_MARKER, the second
curve from the J_CURVE value and the J_REF_MARKER. In both cases, the CURVE command
(I_CURVE or J_CURVE) defines x and y coordinates along the curve as a function of the
independent parameter (u). The z coordinates of the curves must be zero. The reference marker
(I_REF_MARKER or J_REF_MARKER) defines the part the constraining curve is attached to
and the coordinate system in which Adams applies the coordinates from the CURVE statement.
Both I_CURVE and J_CURVE may be open or closed, defined analytically or as a set of discrete
data points.
The CURVE_CURVE constraint removes three degrees-of-freedom from the system. Adams
restricts the motion of the parts such that the curves are always in contact and the curves are
tangent at the contact point. Although Adams requires that the curves lie in parallel planes, the
CURVE_CURVE command does not enforce this. You must build the model in such a way that
the curves are held in parallel planes, which will remove another three degrees of freedom.
Assuming the curves are held in parallel planes, a CURVE_CURVE leaves two relative degrees
of freedom between the curves. The first curve may slide or roll on the second, but may not move
perpendicular to the curve tangents at the contact.
Internally, Adams actually generates five constraint equations, but also adds two new system
variables and equations for a net decrease of one degree-of-freedom. The added system variables
are the two curve parameters at the contact points on the curves. Two of the constraints restrict
the x and y coordinates at the contact point on the first curve to match the x and y coordinates at
the the contact point on the second curve. The third constraint restricts the tangent at the contact
point on the first curve to be parallel to the tangent at the contact point on the second curve.
More than one POINT_CURVE or CURVE_CURVE statement may reference the same CURVE
statement. If the mechanism contains several similar contacts, you may enter just one CURVE
statement, then use it with several POINT_CURVE or CURVE_CURVE constraints, each with a
different REF_MARKER.

constraint 27
constraint create higher_pair_contact curve_curve

The I_VELOCITY_IC and J_VELOCITY_IC are specified in the reference frame of the part
containing the I_REF_MARKER or J_REF_MARKER marker, respectively. In other words, the
I_VELOCITY_IC is the speed of the contact point specified from the standpoint of an observer
on the part containing the first curve. This means if the contact point is not moving globally, but
the first curve is, then I_VELOCITY_IC is still non-zero.
Adams detects a fatal user error if the contact point moves off the end of an open curve. You
should make sure the CURVE statement defines the curve over the expected range of motion. The
initial conditions arguments, I_DISPLACEMENT_IC, J_DISPLACEMENT_IC,
I_VELOCITY_IC and J_VELOCITY_IC, impose constraints that are active only during an initial
conditions analysis. Adams does not impose these initial conditions during subsequent analyses.
For a kinematic analysis, the initial conditions are redundant. Do not use the
I_DISPLACEMENT_IC, J_DISPLACEMENT_IC, I_VELOCITY_IC or J_VELOCITY_IC
arguments on the CURVE_CURVE statements for systems with zero degrees of freedom.
Adams requires that there be a unique contact point in the vicinity of the I floating and J floating
markers during simulation. If this condition is violated, Adams may be unable to find the correct
contact point or may even jump from one contact point to the next.
One way to ensure that contact points are unique is to specify curve shapes that are convex. Note
that for a convex curve, any line segment connecting two points on the curve lie in the domain of
the curve. The same is not true for non-convex curves.
Caution: For the no_i_displacement_ic,no_j_displacement_ic,no_i_velocity and no_j_velocity
parameters, setting these parameters to true is not the same as setting the value to zero. A
zero displacement/velocity is not the same as "no" displacement/velocity. Therefore, by
setting this parameter to true there is no longer a displacement/velocity initial condition for
this element.

Note:

The I- and J- marker id allow you to reference the floating marker in a request or function
by the id you specify, instead of letting Adams/View generate one.

28 Adams/View Commands
constraint create higher_pair_contact point_curve

constraint create higher_pair_contact point_curve


Allows you to create a point_curve.
Format:
constraint create higher_pair_contact point_curve
point_curve_name = new pcurve
adams_id = geom._id
comments = string
curve_name = existing acurve
i_part_name = existing body
location =

location

relative_to = an existing model, part or marker


i_marker_name = An existing marker
j_floating_marker_name = An existing fmarker
j_marker_id =

integer

ref_marker_name = existing marker


displacement_ic = length
no_displacement_ic = true
velocity_ic =

velocity

no_velocity_ic = true
ic_ref_marker_name = existing marker
Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

point_curve_name

New Pcurve

Specifies the name of the new point_curve. You


may use this name later to refer to this point_curve.

adams_id

Integer

Specifies an integer used to identify this element in


the Adams data file.

Comments

String

Specifies comments for the object being created or


modified.

curve_name

Existing Acurve
name

Specifies the name of a CURVE that defines the


contour or shape on which the fixed marker can
move.

constraint 29
constraint create higher_pair_contact point_curve

Parameter

Value Type

Description

i_part_name

Existing body

Specifies the name of the part which will have a


point location constrained to lie on the curve
defined by CURVE and REF_MARKER.

location

Location

Specifies the point location on the i part that will be


constrained to lie on the curve defined by CURVE
and REF_MARKER.

relative_to

Existing part, body or Specifies the coordinate system that location


marker
coordinates and orientation angles are with respect
to.

i_marker_name

Existing marker
name

Specifies the name of a fixed MARKER that


Adams constrains to lie on the curve defined by
CURVE and REF_MARKER.

j_floating_marker_name Existing floating


marker name

Specify an existing floating marker name.

j_marker_id

Integer

Specifies the Adams ID for the floating marker


which is automatically created on the J part by
Adams/View. This allows you to reference the
floating marker in a request or function by the id
you specify, instead of letting Adams/View
generate one.

ref_marker_name

Existing marker

Specifies the name of a MARKER fixed on the part


containing the curve on which the I_MARKER
must move.

displacement_ic

Length

Specifies the initial point of contact on the curve.

no_displacement_ic

true

Specifies that if a DISPLACEMENT_IC has been


set via any means, to "UNSET" the displacement
initial condition.

velocity_ic

Velocity

Specifies the initial tangential velocity of the


I_MARKER along the curve.

no_velocity_ic

True

Specifies that if a VELOCITY_IC has been set via


any means, to "UNSET" the velocity initial
condition.

ic_ref_marker_name

Existing marker

Specifies the name of a the fixed MARKER


defining the coordinate system in which the values
for DISPLACEMENT_IC values are specified.
The IC_REF_MARKER must be on the same part
as the REF_MARKER.

30 Adams/View Commands
constraint create higher_pair_contact point_curve

Extended Definition:
1. Adams/View will not allow you to have two point_curves with the same full name, so you must
provide a unique name.
Normally, entity names are composed of alphabetic, numeric, or '_' (underscore) characters, and
start with an alphabetic or '_' character. They may be any length.
By enclosing the name in double quotes, you may use other printable characters, or start the name
with a numeral. If a name contains characters, or starts with a numeral, you must always quote the
name when entering it.
Note that you can specify the parentage of an entity (e.g. what part "owns" a marker or a geometry
element) when you CREATE it by changing the name. If you enter just the entity name, then the
default parent will be assigned by Adams/View. If you type in the full name, then you may over
ride the default parent. In most cases, when creating an entity, Adams/View will provide a default
name. The default name that Adams/View provides will specify the parentage that it has assumed.
You may, or course, delete this name and use your own. The form of a full name is:
"...._NAME.GRAND_PARENT_NAME.PARENT_NAME.ENTITY_NAME"
The number of levels used varies from case to case and the parentage must exist before an entity
can be assigned to it.
2. When you use the FILE Adams_DATA_SET WRITE command, Adams/View writes an Adams
data file for your model. Adams requires that each modeling element be identified by a unique
integer identifier. If you use this parameter to specify a non-zero identifier, Adams/View will use
it in the corresponding statement in the Adams data file.
You may also enter zero as an identifier, either explicitly or by default. The next time you write
an Adams file, Adams/View will replace the zero with a unique, internally-generated identifier.
Adams/View will permanently store this identifier with the element just as if you had entered it
yourself.
Normally, you would let all identifiers default to zero, and Adams/View would generate the
identifiers for you. You are never required to enter a non-zero identifier. You only need to specify
it if, for some reason, you wish to control the Adams file output.
3. The specfied part and the curve must belong to different parts. You may identify a part by typing
its name or by picking it from the screen.
If the part is not visible on the screen, you must type the name. You may also find it convenient
to type the name even if the part is displayed.
If you created the part by reading an Adams data set or graphics file, the part name is the letters
PAR followed by the Adams data set part ID number. The name of Adams PART/101 is PAR101,
for example. If you created the part during preprocessing, you gave it a name at that time.
If a part is available by default, you may identify it by entering its name only. If it is not, you must
enter its full name. To identify a part under another model, for instance, you may need to enter the
model name as well. For example, you may specify part 'arm' from model 'robot' by entering
".robot.arm". If you type a "?", Adams/View will list the parts available by default.
You must separate multiple part names by commas.

constraint 31
constraint create higher_pair_contact point_curve

If the part is visible in one of your views, you may identify it by picking on any of the graphics
associated with it.
You need not separate multiple part picks by commas.
4. The "floating" marker is automatically created by Adams/View on the part specified in the
J_PART_NAME parameter. Adams will orient the J floating marker so that its x-axis is along the
tangent vector at the contact point, its y-axis is along the gradient vector at the contact point in the
plane containing the tangent vector and the center of curvature, and its z-axis is along the binormal
at contact point.
You may identify a part by typing its name or by picking it from the screen.
If the part is not visible on the screen, you must type the name. You may also find it convenient
to type the name even if the part is displayed.
If you created the part by reading an Adams data set or graphics file, the part name is the letters
PAR followed by the Adams data set part ID number. The name of Adams PART/101 is PAR101,
for example. If you created the part during preprocessing, you gave it a name at that time.
If a part is available by default, you may identify it by entering its name only. If it is not, you must
enter its full name. To identify a part under another model, for instance, you may need to enter the
model name as well. For example, you may specify part 'arm' from model 'robot' by entering
".robot.arm". If you type a "?", Adams/View will list the parts available by default.
You must separate multiple part names by commas.
If the part is visible in one of your views, you may identify it by picking on any of the graphics
associated with it.
You need not separate multiple part picks by commas.
5. If this parameter is not specified, the default coordinate system is used. The default coordinate
system is initially your model, i.e. the global coordinate system. You may change the default
coordinate system using the 'defaults coordinate_system' command.
6. The REF_MARKER is used to associate the shape defined by the CURVE to the part on which
the REF_MARKER lies. The curve coordinates are therefore specified in the coordinate system
of the REF_MARKER. The floating J marker and REF_MARKER must belong to the same
PART.
You may identify a marker by typing its name or by picking it from the screen.
If the marker is not visible on the screen, you must type the name.
You may also find it convenient to type the name even if the marker is displayed.
If you created the marker by reading an Adams data set or graphics file, the marker name is the
letters MAR followed by the Adams data set marker ID number. The name of Adams
MARKER/101 is MAR101, for example. If you created the marker during preprocessing, you
gave it a name at that time.

32 Adams/View Commands
constraint create higher_pair_contact point_curve

If a marker is available by default, you may identify it by entering its name only. If it is not, you
must enter its full name. To identify a marker under a different part, for instance, you may need
to enter the model and part names as well. For example, you may specify marker 'pivot' from
model 'links', part 'lower_arm' by entering ".links.lower_arm.pivot". If you type a "?",
Adams/View will list the markers available by default.
You must separate multiple marker names by commas.
If the marker is visible in one of your views, you may identify it by picking on it.
You need not separate multiple marker picks by commas.
7. If the point specified is not exactly on the curve, Adams uses a point on the curve nearest to that
specified. By default, DISPLACEMENT_IC is specified in the REF_MARKER marker
coordinate system. If another coordinate system is more convenient, you may supply the
IC_REF_MARKER argument and enter DISPLACEMENT_IC in IC_REF_MARKER marker
coordinates. If you supply DISPLACEMENT_IC values, Adams assembles the system with the
I_MARKER at the specified point on the curve, even if it must override part initial conditions in
order to do so. If you do not supply DISPLACEMENT_IC, Adams assumes the initial contact is
at the point on the curve closest to the initial I_MARKER position. However, it may adjust that
contact point to maintain other part or constraint initial conditions.
8. The velocity_ic parameter specified the speed at which the I_MARKER is initially moving
relative to the curve. The VELOCITY_IC is negative if the I_MARKER is moving towards the
start of the curve, positive if the I_MARKER is moving toward the end of the curve, and zero if
the I_MARKER is stationary on the curve.
If you supply the VELOCITY_IC, 1 gives the I_MARKER the specified initial tangential velocity
along the curve, even if it must override part initial conditions in order to do so. If you do not
supply VELOCITY_IC, Adams assumes the initial tangential velocity is zero, but may adjust that
velocity to maintain other part or constraint initial conditions.
The I_MARKER and REF_MARKER must belong to different parts.
9. The POINT_CURVE command defines a point-to-curve constraint, which restricts a fixed point
defined on one part to lie on a curve defined on a second part. This is an instance of a higher pair
constraint.
10. The part containing the I_MARKER is free to roll and slide on the curve that is fixed to a second
part. Lift-off is not allowed, i.e., the I_MARKER must always lie on the curve.
11. The curve itself may be planar or spatial, open or closed. The "floating J" marker origin defines
the contact point on the curve; its orientation defines the tangent, normal, and binormal at the
contact point. A POINT_CURVE constraint removes two translational degrees-of-freedom from
the system. Adams restricts the origin of the I_MARKER to always lie on the curve. The
I_MARKER may translate only in one direction relative to the curve, along the instantaneous
tangent. The I marker is free to rotate in all three directions.

constraint 33
constraint create higher_pair_contact point_curve

12. More than one POINT_CURVE or CURVE_CURVE element may reference the same CURVE
statement. If the mechanism contains several similar contacts, you may enter just one CURVE
statement, then use it with several POINT_CURVE or CURVE_CURVE constraints, each with a
different REF_MARKER.
13. The VELOCITY_IC is specified in the reference frame of the part containing the
REF_MARKER. In other words, the VELOCITY_IC is the speed of the I_MARKER specified
from the standpoint of an observer on the part containing the curve. This means that if the
I_MARKER is not moving globally but the curve is, then VELOCITY_IC is still non-zero.
14. The initial conditions arguments, DISPLACEMENT_IC and VELOCITY_IC, impose constraints
that are active only during an initial conditions analysis. Adams does not impose these initial
conditions during subsequent analyses.
For a kinematic analysis, the initial conditions are redundant. Do not use the
DISPLACEMENT_IC or VELOCITY_IC arguments on the POINT_CURVE command for
systems with zero degrees of freedom.
Caution:

1. For the no_displacement_ic and no_velocity parameters, setting these parameters to


true is not the same as setting the value to zero. A zero displacement/velocity is not
the same as "no" displacement/velocity. Therefore, by setting this parameter to true
there is no longer a displacement initial condition for this element.
2. The I_MARKER and REF_MARKER must belong to different parts.
3. Adams aborts the simulation if the contact point moves off the end of an open curve.
The user should make sure the CURVE statement defines the curve over the
expected range of motion.

Tip:

The x, y, z values associated with the CURVE are the coordinates of points lying on the
CURVE and are calculated in the coordinate system of the REF_MARKER.

34 Adams/View Commands
constraint create joint convel

constraint create joint convel


Allows the creation of a constant velocity joint.
Format:
constraint create joint convel
joint_name =

a new joint

adams_id =

integer

comments =

string

i_part_name =

an existing body

j_part_name =

an existing body

location =

location

orientation =

location

along_axis_orientation =

location

in_plane_orientation =

location

relative_to =

an existing model, part or marker

i_marker_name =

an existing marker

j_marker_name =

an existing marker

Example:
constraint create joint convel &
joint_name =

JOINT__1 &

adams_id =

2 &

comments =

"comment string" &

i_part_name =

part_1 &

j_part_name =

part_2 &

location =

10 , 10 , 5 &

orientation =

1 , 2 , 1 &

relative_to =

ground &

i_marker_name =

marker_1 &

j_marker_name =

marker_2

constraint 35
constraint create joint convel

Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

joint_name

A New Joint

Specifies the name of the new joint. You may use this
name later to refer to this joint. Adams/View will not
allow you to have two joints with the same full name,
so you must provide a unique name.

adams_id

Adams_id

Specifies an integer used to identify this element in the


Adams data file.

comments

String

Specifies comments for the object being created or


modified.

i_part_name

An Existing Body

Specifies the part that is the first of two parts


connected by this joint. Adams/View connects one
part at the I marker to the other at the J marker. These
markers are automatically generated using this
method of joint creation.

j_part_name

An Existing Body

Specifies the part that is the second of two parts


connected by this joint. Adams/View connects one
part at the J marker to the other at the I marker. These
markers are automatically generated using this
method of joint creation.

location

Location

Specifies the locations to be used to define the


position of a constraint during its creation. The I and J
markers will be automatically created at this location
on the I_PART_NAME and J_PART_NAME
respectively.

orientation

Orientation

Specifies the orientation of the J marker for the


constraint being created using three rotation angles.
The I marker is oriented based on the J marker
orientation and the requirements of the particular
constraint being created. These markers are created
automatically.

along_axis_orientation Location

Specifies the orientation of a coordinate system (e.g.


marker or part) by directing one of the axes.
Adams/View will assign an arbitrary rotation about
the axis.

in_plane_orientation

Location

Specifies the orientation of a coordinate system (e.g.


marker or part) by directing one of the axes and
locating one of thecoordinate planes.

relative_to

An Existing Model,
Part Or Marker

Specifies the coordinate system that location


coordinates and orientation angles are with respect to.

36 Adams/View Commands
constraint create joint convel

Parameter

Value Type

Description

i_marker_name

An Existing Marker Specifies a marker on the first of two parts connected


by this joint. Adams/View connects one part at the I
marker to the other at the J marker.

j_marker_name

An Existing Marker Specifies a marker on the second of two parts


connected by this joint. Adams/View connects one
part at the I marker to the other at the J marker.

Extended Definition:
1. A CONVEL joint is a two-degree-of-freedom joint that superimposes the origin of two markers
while constraining the local z-rotation of the I marker to match the local z-rotation of the J marker.
2. Normally, entity names like the joint name are composed of alphabetic, numeric, or '_'
(underscore) characters, and start with an alphabetic or '_' character. They may be any length. By
enclosing the name in double quotes, you may use other printable characters, or start the name
with a numeral. If a name contains characters, or starts with a numeral, you must always quote the
name when entering it. Note that you can specify the parentage of an entity (e.g. what part "owns"
a marker or a geometry element) when you CREATE it by changing the name. If you enter just
the entity name, then the default parent will be assigned by Adams/View. If you type in the full
name, then you may over ride the default parent. In most cases, when creating an entity,
Adams/View will provide a default name. The default name that Adams/View provides will
specify the parentage that it has assumed. You may, or course, delete this name and use your own.
The form of a full name is:
"...._NAME.GRAND_PARENT_NAME.PARENT_NAME.ENTITY_NAME"
The number of levels used varies from case to case and the parentage must exist before an entity
can be assigned to it.
3. When you use the File Adams_data_set write command, Adams/View writes an Adams data file
for your model. Adams requires that each modeling element be identified by a unique integer
identifier. If you use this parameter to specify a non-zero identifier, Adams/View will use it in the
corresponding statement in the Adams data file. You may also enter zero as an identifier, either
explicitly or by default. The next time you write an Adams file, Adams/View will replace the zero
with a unique, internally-generated identifier. Adams/View will permanently store this identifier
with the element just as if you had entered it yourself. Normally, you would let all identifiers
default to zero, and Adams/View would generate the identifiers for you. You are never required
to enter a non-zero identifier. You only need to specify it if, for some reason, you wish to control
the Adams file output.
4. When an Adams/Solver data file (.adm) is read into Adams/View, all comments associated with
a statement (from the end of the previous statement through the end of the current statement) are
stored with the object. Comments in the data file can be associated with model. These comments
must follow the title statement and be followed by the comment 'END OF MODEL
COMMENTS'. This string must be uppercase. When an Adams/Solver data file is written, the
comments for an object are written before the statement corresponding to the object.

constraint 37
constraint create joint convel

5. Adams/View will orient the coordinate system by starting from the initial coordinate system and
applying three successive rotations. Depending on the convention you have selected, the rotations
may occur about space-fixed or bodyfixed axes in any meaningful combination of the x, y, and z
axes.
By default, you supply Euler (body313, or body-fixed z, x, z) angles. You may change this
convention with the 'DEFAULTS UNITS ORIENTATION_TYPE=' command. For example,
selecting SPACE123 means you will subsequently be supplying space-fixed x, y, and z angles.
Adams/View applies your orientation angles starting from the coordinate system you identify
with the RELATIVE_TO parameter. The default for the RELATIVE_TO parameter is the default
coordinate system.
6. For the along_axis_orientation parameter you may enter either one or two locations to direct the
axis. If you enter one location, the axis will point toward the location. If you specify two locations,
the axis will be parallel to, and pointing the same way as, the vector from the first location to the
second. Note that this does not completely dictate the orientation of the coordinate system.
Adams/View will osition the coordinate system with an arbitrary rotation about the axis. If you
must completely control the coordinate system orientation, use ORIENTATION or
IN_PLANE_ORIENTATION. By default, you direct the Z axis of the coordinate system.
You may change this convention with the 'DEFAULTS ORIENT_AXIS_AND_PLANE
AXIS_AND_PLANE_SETTING=' command. For example, selecting either
X_AXIS_XY_PLANE or X_AXIS_XZ_PLANE means you will subsequently be directing the X
axis. The plane-convention setting does not affect this parameter. Adams/View applies your
location coordinates in the coordinate system you identify with the RELATIVE_TO parameter.
The default for the RELATIVE_TO parameter is the default coordinate system.
7. For the in_plane_orientation parameter you may enter either two or three locations. If you enter
two locations, the axis will point toward the first location and the plane will fall on the second. If
you specify three locations, the axis will be parallel to, and pointing the same way as, the vector
from the first location to the second and the plane will be parallel to the plane defined by the three
locations. By default, you direct the Z axis of the coordinate system and locate the ZX plane. You
may use the 'DEFAULTS ORIENT_AXIS_AND_PLANE AXIS_AND_PLANE_SETTING='
command to change this convention. For example, selecting X_AXIS_XY_PLANE means you
will subsequently be directing the X axis and locating the XY plane. Adams/View applies your
location coordinates in the coordinate system you identify with the RELATIVE_TO parameter.
The default for the RELATIVE_TO parameter is the default coordinate system.
8. If the relative_to parameter is not specified, the default coordinate system is used. The default
coordinate system is initially your model, i.e. the global coordinate system. You may change the
default coordinate system using the 'defaults coordinate_system' command.
9. The pitch diameter relates the rotational motion of the pinion to the translational motion of the
rack. When the pinion turns in the positive direction around the z-axis of the I marker, a positive
pitch diameter moves the rack in the positive direction along the z-axis of the J marker and a
negative pitch diameter moves the rack in the negative direction along the z-axis of the J marker.

38 Adams/View Commands
constraint create joint cylindrical

constraint create joint cylindrical


Allows the creation of a cylindrical joint.
Format:
constraint create joint cylindrical
joint_name = new joint name
adams_id = Geom_id
comments = String
translational_ic = length
no_translational_ic = true
velocity_ic = velocity
no_velocity_ic = true
rotational_ic = angle
no_rotational_ic = true
angular_velocity_ic = angular_velocity
no_angular_velocity_ic = true
i_part_name = existing body
j_part_name = existing body
Location = location
orientation = orientation
along_axis_orientation = location
in_plane_orientation = location
relative_to = existing model, part or marker
i_marker_name = existing marker
j_marker_name = existing marker
Example:
constraint create joint Cylindrical &
joint_name = .model_1.JOINT_2 &
adams_id = 2 &
i_part_name = PART_2 &
j_part_name = PART_3

constraint 39
constraint create joint cylindrical

Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

joint_name

New joint name

Specifies the name of the new joint.

adams_id

Integer

Specifies an integer used to identify this element in the


Adams data file.

comments

String

Specifies comments for the object being created or


modified.

translational_ic

Length

Specifies the initial translational displacement on a


translational or cylindrical joint.

no_translational_ic

True

Specifies to "UNSET" the "translational" velocity


initial condition for the specified constraint, if set.

velocity_ic

Velocity

Specifies the initial translational velocity on a


translational or cylindrical joint.

no_velocity_ic

True

Specifies to "UNSET" the velocity initial condition, if


a VELOCITY_IC is set via any means.

rotational_ic

Real

Specifies the initial rotational displacement on a


revolute or cylindrical joint.

no_rotational_ic

True

Specifies to "UNSET" the "rotational" velocity initial


condition for the specified constraint, if set.

angular_velocity_ic

Angular_velocity

Specifies the initial angular velocity on a revolute or


cylindrical joint.

no_angular_velocity_ic True

Specifies to "UNSET" the "angular_velocity" initial


condition for the specified constraint, if set.

i_part_name

Existing body

Specifies the part that is the first of two parts


connected by this joint.

j_part_name

Existing body

Specifies the part that is the second of two parts


connected by this joint.

location

location

Specifies the locations to be used to define the position


of a constraint during its creation.

orientation

Orientation

Specifies the orientation of the J marker for the


constraint being created using three rotation angles.

along_axis_orientation

Location

Specifies the orientation of a coordinate system (e.g.


marker or part) by directing one of the axes.
Adams/View will assign an arbitrary rotation about the
axis.

in_plane_orientation

Location

Specifies the orientation of a coordinate system (e.g.


marker or part) by directing one of the axes and
locating one of the coordinate planes.

40 Adams/View Commands
constraint create joint cylindrical

Parameter

Value Type

Description

relative_to

Existing model,
part or marker

Specifies the coordinate system that location


coordinates and orientation angles correspond to.

i_marker_name

Existing marker

Specifies a marker on the first of the two parts


connected by this joint.

j_marker_name

Existing marker

Specifies a marker on the second of the two parts


connected by this joint.

Extended Definition:
1. Adams/View will not allow you to have two joints with the same name, so you must provide a
unique name.
Normally, entity names are composed of alphabetic, numeric, or '_' (underscore) characters, and
start with an alphabetic or '_' character. They may be of any length.
By enclosing the name in double quotes, you may use other printable characters, or start the name
with a numeral. If a name contains characters, or starts with a numeral, you must always quote the
name when entering it.
Note that you can specify the parentage of an entity (e.g. what part "owns" a marker or a geometry
element) when you CREATE it by changing the name. If you enter just the entity name, then the
default parent will be assigned by Adams/View. If you type in the full name, then you may
override the default parent. In most cases, when creating an entity, Adams/View will provide a
default name. The default name that Adams/View provides will specify the parentage that it has
assumed.
You may, of course, delete this name and use your own. The form of a full name is:
"...._NAME.GRAND_PARENT_NAME.PARENT_NAME.ENTITY_NAME"
The number of levels used varies from case to case and the parentage must exist before an entity
can be assigned to it.
2. When you use the FILE ADAMS_DATA_SET WRITE command, Adams/View writes an
Adams data file for your model. Adams requires that each modeling element be identified by a
unique integer identifier. If you use this parameter to specify a non-zero identifier, Adams/View
will use it in the corresponding statement in the Adams data file.
You may also enter zero as an identifier, either explicitly or by default. The next time you write
an Adams file, Adams/View will replace the zero with a unique, internally-generated identifier.
Adams/View will permanently store this identifier with the element just as if you had entered it
yourself.
Normally, you would let all identifiers default to zero, and Adams/View would generate the
identifiers for you. You are never required to enter a non-zero identifier. You only need to specify
it if, for some reason, you wish to control the Adams file output.
3. Adams/View measures the translational displacement of the origin of the I marker along the
common z-axis of the I and the J markers with respect to the origin of the J marker.

constraint 41
constraint create joint cylindrical

If you specify TRANSLATIONAL_IC, but not VELOCITY_IC, Adams/View will set


VELOCITY_IC to zero.
Joint initial conditions impose constraints that are active only during initial conditions analysis
(not at the time of the initial configuration). Adams does not impose initial conditions during
subsequent analyses.
If you impose initial conditions on the joint that are inconsistent with those on a part in the joint,
the initial conditions take precedence. However, if you impose initial conditions on the joint that
are inconsistent with imparted motions on the joint, the initial conditions, as specified by the
motion generator, take precedence.
4. Adams/View measures the translational velocity of the origin of the I marker along the common
z-axis of the I and the J markers with respect to the origin of the J marker.
If you specify VELOCITY_IC, but not TRANSLATIONAL_IC, Adams/View will set
TRANSLATIONAL_IC to zero.
Joint initial conditions impose constraints that are active only during initial conditions analysis
(not at the time of the initial configuration). Adams does not impose initial conditions during
subsequent analyses.
If you impose initial conditions on the joint that are inconsistent with those on a part in the joint,
the initial conditions take precedence. However, if you impose initial conditions on the joint that
are inconsistent with imparted motions on the joint, the initial conditions, as specified by the
motion generator, take precedence.
5. Adams/View measures the rotational displacement of the x-axis of the I marker about the
common z-axis of the I and the J markers with respect to the x-axis of the J marker.
If you specify ROTATIONAL_IC, but not ANGULAR_VELOCITY_IC, Adams/View will set
ANGULAR_VELOCITY_IC to zero.
Joint initial conditions impose constraints that are active only during initial conditions analysis
(not at the time of the initial configuration). Adams does not impose initial conditions during
subsequent analyses.
If you impose initial conditions on the joint that are inconsistent with those on a part in the joint,
the initial conditions take precedence. However, if you impose initial conditions on the joint that
are inconsistent with imparted motions on the joint, the initial conditions, as specified by the
motion generator, take precedence.
6. Adams/View measures the angular velocity of the x-axis of the I marker about the common z-axis
of the I and the J markers with respect to the x-axis of the J marker.
If you specify ANGULAR_VELOCITY_IC, but not ROTATIONAL_IC, Adams/View will set
ROTATIONAL_IC to zero.
Joint initial conditions impose constraints that are active only during initial conditions analysis
(not at the time of the initial configuration). Adams does not impose initial conditions during
subsequent analyses.

42 Adams/View Commands
constraint create joint cylindrical

If you impose initial conditions on the joint that are inconsistent with those on a part in the joint,
the initial conditions take precedence. However, if you impose initial conditions on the joint that
are inconsistent with imparted motions on the joint, the initial conditions, as specified by the
motion generator, take precedence.
7. By default, you supply Cartesian (x, y, z) coordinates. You may use the 'defaults units
coordinate_system_type =' command to change this convention. For example, selecting
'cylindrical' means you will subsequently be supplying r, theta, and z coordinates.
Adams/View applies your location coordinates in the coordinate system you identify with the
RELATIVE_TO parameter. The default for the RELATIVE_TO parameter is the default
coordinate system.
(See the RELATIVE_TO parameter for this command.)
8. For the parameter orientation, the I marker is oriented based on the J marker orientation and the
requirements of the particular constraint being created. These markers are created automatically.
Adams/View will orient the coordinate system by starting from the initial coordinate system and
applying three successive rotations.
Depending on the convention you have selected, the rotations may occur about space-fixed or
body-fixed axes in any meaningful combination of the x, y, and z axes.
By default, you supply Euler (body313, or body-fixed z, x, z) angles.
You may change this convention with the 'DEFAULTS UNITS ORIENTATION_TYPE='
command. For example, selecting SPACE123 means you will subsequently be supplying spacefixed x, y, and z angles.
Adams/View applies your orientation angles starting from the coordinate system you identify
with the RELATIVE_TO parameter. The default for the RELATIVE_TO parameter is the default
coordinate system.
9. For the along_axis_orientation parameter, you may enter either one or two locations to direct
the axis. If you enter one location, the axis will point towards the location. If you specify two
locations, the axis will be parallel to, and pointing the same way as, the vector from the first
location to the second.
Note that this does not completely dictate the orientation of the coordinate system. Adams/View
will position the coordinate system with an arbitrary rotation about the axis. If you must
completely control the coordinate system orientation, use ORIENTATION or
IN_PLANE_ORIENTATION.
By default, you direct the Z axis of the coordinate system. You may change this convention with
the 'DEFAULTS ORIENT_AXIS_AND_PLANE AXIS_AND_PLANE_SETTING=' command.
For example, selecting either X_AXIS_XY_PLANE or X_AXIS_XZ_PLANE means you will
subsequently be directing the X axis. The plane-convention setting does not affect this parameter.
Adams/View applies your location coordinates in the coordinate system you identify with the
RELATIVE_TO parameter. The default for the RELATIVE_TO parameter is the default
coordinate system.

constraint 43
constraint create joint cylindrical

10. For the in_plane_orientation parameter, you may enter either two or three locations. If you enter
two locations, the axis will point toward the first location and the plane will fall on the second. If
you specify three locations, the axis will be parallel to, and pointing the same way as, the vector
from the first location to the second and the plane will be parallel to the plane defined by the three
locations.
By default, you direct the Z axis of the coordinate system and locate the ZX plane. You may use
the 'DEFAULTS ORIENT_AXIS_AND_PLANE AXIS_AND_PLANE_SETTING=' command
to change this convention. For example, selecting X_AXIS_XY_PLANE means you will
subsequently be directing the X axis and locating the XY plane.
Adams/View applies your location coordinates in the coordinate system you identify with the
RELATIVE_TO parameter. The default for the RELATIVE_TO parameter is the default
coordinate system.
11. If the relative_to parameter is not specified, the default coordinate system is used. The default
coordinate system is initially your model, i.e. the global coordinate system. You may change the
default coordinate system using the 'defaults coordinate_system' command.
12. A cylindrical joint is a two-degree-of-freedom joint that allows both relative translational and
relative rotational displacement of one part with respect to another. For a cylindrical joint, Adams
keeps the z-axis of the I marker parallel to, and co-directed with, the z-axis of the J marker and
confines the origin of the I marker to the z-axis of the J marker so that the I and the J markers have
a common z-axis. To determine translational motion, Adams measures the movement of the
origin of the I marker along the z-axis and with respect to the J marker. To determine rotational
motion, Adams measures the rotation of the x-axis of the I marker about the common z-axis and
with respect to the x-axis of the J marker.
Caution: For the parameters,
no_translational_ic,no_velocity_ic,no_rotational_ic,no_angular_velocity_ic,
setting the values to true is not the same as setting them to zero. A zero velocity is not the
same as "no" velocity. Therefore, by setting this parameter to true, there is no longer a
velocity initial condition for this element.

Tip:

1. You may use the joint_name later to refer to this joint.


2. Adams/View connects one part at the J marker to the other at the I marker. These
markers are automatically generated using this method of joint creation.
The I and J markers will be automatically created at this location on the
I_PART_NAME and J_PART_NAME respectively.

44 Adams/View Commands
constraint create joint fixed

constraint create joint fixed


Allows the creation of a fixed joint.
Format:
constraint create joint fixed
joint_name =

a new joint

Adams_id =

integer

comments =

string

i_part_name =

an existing body

j_part_name =

an existing body

location =

location

orientation =

location

along_axis_orientation =

location

in_plane_orientation =

location

relative_to =

an existing model, part or marker

i_marker_name =

an existing marker

j_marker_name =

an existing marker

Example:
constraint create joint convel &
joint_name =

JOINT__1 &

Adams_id =

2 &

comments =

"comment string" &

i_part_name =

part_1 &

j_part_name =

part_2 &

location =

10 , 10 , 5 &

orientation =

1 , 2 , 1 &

relative_to =

ground &

i_marker_name =

marker_1 &

j_marker_name =

marker_2

constraint 45
constraint create joint fixed

Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

joint_name

A New Joint

Specifies the name of the new joint.

Adams_id

Adams_id

Specifies an integer used to identify this element in


the Adams data file.

comments

String

Specifies comments for the object being created or


modified.

i_part_name

An Existing Body

Specifies the part that is the first of two parts


connected by this joint.

j_part_name

An Existing Body

Specifies the part that is the second of two parts


connected by this joint.

location

Location

Specifies the locations to be used to define the


position of a constraint during its creation.

orientation

Orientation

Specifies the orientation of the J marker for the


constraint being created using three rotation angles.

along_axis_orientation Location

Specifies the orientation of a coordinate system (e.g.


marker or part) by directing one of the axes.
Adams/View will assign an arbitrary rotation about
the axis.

in_plane_orientation

Location

Specifies the orientation of a coordinate system (e.g.


marker or part) by directing one of the axes and
locating one of the coordinate planes.

relative_to

An Existing Model,
Part Or Marker

Specifies the coordinate system that location


coordinates and orientation angles are with respect to.

i_marker_name

An Existing Marker

Specifies a marker on the first of two parts connected


by this joint. Adams/View connects one part at the I
marker to the other at the J marker.

j_marker_name

An Existing Marker

Specifies a marker on the second of two parts


connected by this joint.

Extended Definition:
1. A fixed joint essentially locks two parts together. It can be used as a placeholder for another joint
or in conjunction with the ACTIVATE and DACTIVATE commands in Adams to model special
effects.
2. Normally, entity names like the joint name are composed of alphabetic, numeric, or '_'
(underscore) characters, and start with an alphabetic or '_' character. They may be any length. By
enclosing the name in double quotes, you may use other printable characters, or start the name
with a numeral. If a name contains characters, or starts with a numeral, you must always quote the
name when entering it. Note that you can specify the parentage of an entity (e.g. what part "owns"

46 Adams/View Commands
constraint create joint fixed

a marker or a geometry element) when you CREATE it by changing the name. If you enter just
the entity name, then the default parent will be assigned by Adams/View. If you type in the full
name, then you may over ride the default parent. In most cases, when creating an entity,
Adams/View will provide a default name. The default name that Adams/View provides will
specify the parentage that it has assumed. You may, or course, delete this name and use your own.
The form of a full name is:
"...._NAME.GRAND_PARENT_NAME.PARENT_NAME.ENTITY_NAME"
The number of levels used varies from case to case and the parentage must exist before an entity
can be assigned to it.
3. When you use the FILE_ADAMS_DATA_SET WRITE command, Adams/View writes an
Adams data file for your model. Adams requires that each modeling element be identified by a
unique integer identifier. If you use this parameter to specify a non-zero identifier, Adams/View
will use it in the corresponding statement in the Adams data file. You may also enter zero as an
identifier, either explicitly or by default. The next time you write an Adams file, Adams/View will
replace the zero with a unique, internally-generated identifier. Adams/View will permanently
store this identifier with the element just as if you had entered it yourself. Normally, you would
let all identifiers default to zero, and Adams/View would generate the identifiers for you. You are
never required to enter a non-zero identifier. You only need to specify it if, for some reason, you
wish to control the Adams file output.
4. When an Adams/Solver data file (.adm) is read into Adams/View, all comments associated with
a statement (from the end of the previous statement through the end of the current statement) are
stored with the object. Comments in the data file can be associated with model. These comments
must follow the title statement and be followed by the comment 'END OF MODEL
COMMENTS'. This string must be uppercase. When an Adams/Solver data file is written, the
comments for an object are written before the statement corresponding to the object.
5. Adams/View will orient the coordinate system by starting from the initial coordinate system and
applying three successive rotations. Depending on the convention you have selected, the rotations
may occur about space-fixed or bodyfixed axes in any meaningful combination of the x, y, and z
axes.
By default, you supply Euler (body313, or body-fixed z, x, z) angles. You may change this
convention with the 'DEFAULTS UNITS ORIENTATION_TYPE=' command. For example,
selecting SPACE123 means you will subsequently be supplying space-fixed x, y, and z angles.
Adams/View applies your orientation angles starting from the coordinate system you identify
with the RELATIVE_TO parameter. The default for the RELATIVE_TO parameter is the default
coordinate system.
6. For the along_axis_orientation parameter you may enter either one or two locations to direct the
axis. If you enter one location, the axis will point toward the location. If you specify two locations,
the axis will be parallel to, and pointing the same way as, the vector from the first location to the
second. Note that this does not completely dictate the orientation of the coordinate system.
Adams/View will osition the coordinate system with an arbitrary rotation about the axis. If you
must completely control the coordinate system orientation, use ORIENTATION or
IN_PLANE_ORIENTATION. By default, you direct the Z axis of the coordinate system.

constraint 47
constraint create joint fixed

You may change this convention with the 'DEFAULTS ORIENT_AXIS_AND_PLANE


AXIS_AND_PLANE_SETTING=' command. For example, selecting either
X_AXIS_XY_PLANE or X_AXIS_XZ_PLANE means you will subsequently be directing the X
axis. The plane-convention setting does not affect this parameter. Adams/View applies your
location coordinates in the coordinate system you identify with the RELATIVE_TO parameter.
The default for the RELATIVE_TO parameter is the default coordinate system.
7. For the in_plane_orientation parameter you may enter either two or three locations. If you enter
two locations, the axis will point toward the first location and the plane will fall on the second. If
you specify three locations, the axis will be parallel to, and pointing the same way as, the vector
from the first location to the second and the plane will be parallel to the plane defined by the three
locations. By default, you direct the Z axis of the coordinate system and locate the ZX plane. You
may use the 'DEFAULTS ORIENT_AXIS_AND_PLANE AXIS_AND_PLANE_SETTING='
command to change this convention. For example, selecting X_AXIS_XY_PLANE means you
will subsequently be directing the X axis and locating the XY plane. Adams/View applies your
location coordinates in the coordinate system you identify with the RELATIVE_TO parameter.
The default for the RELATIVE_TO parameter is the default coordinate system.
8. If the relative_to parameter is not specified, the default coordinate system is used. The default
coordinate system is initially your model, i.e. the global coordinate system. You may change the
default coordinate system using the 'defaults coordinate_system' command.
9. The pitch diameter relates the rotational motion of the pinion to the translational motion of the
rack. When the pinion turns in the positive direction around the z-axis of the I marker, a positive
pitch diameter moves the rack in the positive direction along the z-axis of the J marker and a
negative pitch diameter moves the rack in the negative direction along the z-axis of the J marker.
10. A FIXED joint is a zero-degree-of-freedom joint that superimposes the origins of the I and J
markers while also constraining the X, Y, and Z axes of the I marker to remain parallel to the
respective X, Y, and Z axes of the J marker.
Tip:

1. You may use this name later to refer to this joint. Adams/View will not allow you
to have two joints with the same full name, so you must provide a unique name.
2. Adams/View connects one part at the I marker to the other at the J marker. These
markers are automatically generated using this method of joint creation.
3. The I and J markers will be automatically created at this location on the
I_PART_NAME and J_PART_NAME respectively.
4. The I marker is oriented based on the J marker orientation and the requirements of
the particular constraint being created. These markers are created automatically.

48 Adams/View Commands
constraint create joint hooke

constraint create joint hooke


Allows the creation of a hooke joint.
Format:
constraint create joint hooke
joint_name =

A New Joint

adams_id =

Integer

comments =

String

i_part_name =

An Existing Body

j_part_name =

An Existing Body

location =

Location

orientation =

Location

along_axis_orientation =

Location

in_plane_orientation =

Location

relative_to =

An Existing Model, Part Or Marker

i_marker_name =

An Existing Marker

j_marker_name =

An Existing Marker

Example:
constraint create joint convel &
joint_name =

JOINT__1 &

adams_id =

2 &

comments =

"comment string" &

i_part_name =

part_1 &

j_part_name =

part_2 &

location =

10 , 10 , 5 &

orientation =

1 , 2 , 1 &

relative_to =

ground &

i_marker_name =

marker_1 &

j_marker_name =

marker_2

constraint 49
constraint create joint hooke

Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

joint_name

A NEW JOINT

Specifies the name of the new joint.

adams_id

ADAMS_ID

Specifies an integer used to identify this element in the


Adams data file.

comments

STRING

Specifies comments for the object being created or


modified.

i_part_name

AN EXISTING
BODY

Specifies the part that is the first of two parts connected


by this joint.

j_part_name

AN EXISTING
BODY

Specifies the part that is the second of two parts


connected by this joint.

location

LOCATION

Specifies the locations to be used to define the position


of a constraint during its creation.

orientation

ORIENTATION

Specifies the orientation of the J marker for the


constraint being created using three rotation angles.

along_axis_orientation LOCATION

Specifies the orientation of a coordinate system (e.g.


marker or part) by directing one of the axes.
Adams/View will assign an arbitrary rotation about the
axis.

in_plane_orientation

LOCATION

Specifies the orientation of a coordinate system (e.g.


marker or part) by directing one of the axes and
locating one of the coordinate planes.

relative_to

AN EXISTING
Specifies the coordinate system that location
MODEL, PART OR coordinates and orientation angles are with respect to.
MARKER

i_marker_name

AN EXISTING
MARKER

Specifies a marker on the first of two parts connected


by this joint.

j_marker_name

AN EXISTING
MARKER

Specifies a marker on the second of two parts


connected by this joint.

Extended Definition:
1. The UNIVERSAL joint required the Z-axis of the I marker to be perpendicular to the Z-axis of
the J marker, whereas the HOOKE joint requires THE X-axis of the I marker to be perpendicular
to the Y-axis of the J marker, so that they outline the crosspiece of the joint. A valid HOOKE joint
may be properly defined with two coincident markers and can better take advantage of the
automatic marker generation capabilities of Adams/View.

50 Adams/View Commands
constraint create joint hooke

2. Normally, entity names like the joint name are composed of alphabetic, numeric, or '_'
(underscore) characters, and start with an alphabetic or '_' character. They may be any length. By
enclosing the name in double quotes, you may use other printable characters, or start the name
with a numeral. If a name contains characters, or starts with a numeral, you must always quote the
name when entering it. Note that you can specify the parentage of an entity (e.g. what part "owns"
a marker or a geometry element) when you CREATE it by changing the name. If you enter just
the entity name, then the default parent will be assigned by Adams/View. If you type in the full
name, then you may over ride the default parent. In most cases, when creating an entity,
Adams/View will provide a default name. The default name that Adams/View provides will
specify the parentage that it has assumed. You may, or course, delete this name and use your own.
The form of a full name is:
"...._NAME.GRAND_PARENT_NAME.PARENT_NAME.ENTITY_NAME"
The number of levels used varies from case to case and the parentage must exist before an entity
can be assigned to it.
3. When you use the FILE ADAMS_DATA_SET WRITE command, Adams/View writes an
Adams data file for your model. Adams requires that each modeling element be identified by a
unique integer identifier. If you use this parameter to specify a non-zero identifier, Adams/View
will use it in the corresponding statement in the Adams data file. You may also enter zero as an
identifier, either explicitly or by default. The next time you write an Adams file, Adams/View will
replace the zero with a unique, internally-generated identifier. Adams/View will permanently
store this identifier with the element just as if you had entered it yourself. Normally, you would
let all identifiers default to zero, and Adams/View would generate the identifiers for you. You are
never required to enter a non-zero identifier. You only need to specify it if, for some reason, you
wish to control the Adams file output.
4. When an Adams/Solver data file (.adm) is read into Adams/View, all comments associated with
a statement (from the end of the previous statement through the end of the current statement) are
stored with the object. Comments in the data file can be associated with model. These comments
must follow the title statement and be followed by the comment 'END OF MODEL
COMMENTS'. This string must be uppercase. When an Adams/Solver data file is written, the
comments for an object are written before the statement corresponding to the object.
5. Adams/View will orient the coordinate system by starting from the initial coordinate system and
applying three successive rotations. Depending on the convention you have selected, the rotations
may occur about space-fixed or bodyfixed axes in any meaningful combination of the x, y, and z
axes.
By default, you supply Euler (body313, or body-fixed z, x, z) angles. You may change this
convention with the 'DEFAULTS UNITS ORIENTATION_TYPE=' command. For example,
selecting SPACE123 means you will subsequently be supplying space-fixed x, y, and z angles.
Adams/View applies your orientation angles starting from the coordinate system you identify
with the RELATIVE_TO parameter. The default for the RELATIVE_TO parameter is the default
coordinate system.

constraint 51
constraint create joint hooke

6. For the along_axis_orientation parameter you may enter either one or two locations to direct the
axis. If you enter one location, the axis will point toward the location. If you specify two locations,
the axis will be parallel to, and pointing the same way as, the vector from the first location to the
second. Note that this does not completely dictate the orientation of the coordinate system.
Adams/View will osition the coordinate system with an arbitrary rotation about the axis. If you
must completely control the coordinate system orientation, use ORIENTATION or
IN_PLANE_ORIENTATION. By default, you direct the Z axis of the coordinate system.
You may change this convention with the 'DEFAULTS ORIENT_AXIS_AND_PLANE
AXIS_AND_PLANE_SETTING=' command. For example, selecting either
X_AXIS_XY_PLANE or X_AXIS_XZ_PLANE means you will subsequently be directing the X
axis. The plane-convention setting does not affect this parameter. Adams/View applies your
location coordinates in the coordinate system you identify with the RELATIVE_TO parameter.
The default for the RELATIVE_TO parameter is the default coordinate system.
7. For the in_plane_orientation parameter you may enter either two or three locations. If you enter
two locations, the axis will point toward the first location and the plane will fall on the second. If
you specify three locations, the axis will be parallel to, and pointing the same way as, the vector
from the first location to the second and the plane will be parallel to the plane defined by the three
locations. By default, you direct the Z axis of the coordinate system and locate the ZX plane. You
may use the 'DEFAULTS ORIENT_AXIS_AND_PLANE AXIS_AND_PLANE_SETTING='
command to change this convention. For example, selecting X_AXIS_XY_PLANE means you
will subsequently be directing the X axis and locating the XY plane. Adams/View applies your
location coordinates in the coordinate system you identify with the RELATIVE_TO parameter.
The default for the RELATIVE_TO parameter is the default coordinate system.
8. If the relative_to parameter is not specified, the default coordinate system is used. The default
coordinate system is initially your model, i.e. the global coordinate system. You may change the
default coordinate system using the 'defaults coordinate_system' command.
9. The pitch diameter relates the rotational motion of the pinion to the translational motion of the
rack. When the pinion turns in the positive direction around the z-axis of the I marker, a positive
pitch diameter moves the rack in the positive direction along the z-axis of the J marker and a
negative pitch diameter moves the rack in the negative direction along the z-axis of the J marker.
10. A HOOKE joint is a two-degree-of-freedom joint that is that same as the UNIVERSAL joint with
the exception that the marker orientations have been modified.
Tip:

1. You may use the joint_name later to refer to this joint. Adams/View will not allow
you to have two joints with the same full name, so you must provide a unique name.
2. Adams/View connects one part at the I marker to the other at the J marker. These
markers are automatically generated using this method of joint creation.
3. The I and J markers will be automatically created at this location on the
I_PART_NAME and J_PART_NAME respectively.
4. The I marker is oriented based on the J marker orientation and the requirements of
the particular constraint being created. These markers are created automatically.

52 Adams/View Commands
constraint create joint planar

constraint create joint planar


Allows the creation of a planar joint. A planar joint is a three-degree-of-freedom joint that allows the xy plane of one part to slide in the x-y plane of another part.
Format:
constraint create joint planar
joint_name =

a new joint

adams_id =

integer

comments =

string

i_part_name =

an existing body

j_part_name =

an existing body

location =

location

orientation =

location

along_axis_orientation =

location

in_plane_orientation =

location

relative_to =

an existing model, part or marker

i_marker_name =

an existing marker

j_marker_name =

an existing marker

Example:
constraint create joint planar &
joint_name =

JOINT__1 &

adams_id =

2 &

comments =

"comment string" &

i_part_name =

part_1 &

j_part_name =

part_2 &

location =

10 , 10 , 5 &

orientation =

1 , 2 , 1 &

relative_to =

ground &

i_marker_name =

marker_1 &

j_marker_name =

marker_2

constraint 53
constraint create joint planar

Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

joint_name

A New Joint

Specifies the name of the new joint.

adams_id

Adams_id

Specifies an integer used to identify this element in


the Adams data file.

comments

String

Specifies comments for the object being created or


modified.

i_part_name

An Existing Body

Specifies the part that is the first of two parts


connected by this joint.

j_part_name

An Existing Body

Specifies the part that is the second of two parts


connected by this joint.

location

Location

Specifies the locations to be used to define the


position of a constraint during its creation.

orientation

Orientation

Specifies the orientation of the J marker for the


constraint being created using three rotation angles.

along_axis_orientation Location

Specifies the orientation of a coordinate system (e.g.


marker or part) by directing one of the axes.
Adams/View will assign an arbitrary rotation about
the axis.

in_plane_orientation

Location

Specifies the orientation of a coordinate system (e.g.


marker or part) by directing one of the axes and
locating one of the coordinate planes.

relative_to

An Existing Model,
Part Or Marker

Specifies the coordinate system that location


coordinates and orientation angles are with respect to.

i_marker_name

An Existing Marker

Specifies a marker on the first of two parts connected


by this joint.

j_marker_name

An Existing Marker

Specifies a marker on the second of two parts


connected by this joint.

Extended Definition:
1. For a planar joint, Adams keeps the origin of the I marker in the x-y plane of the J marker and
keeps the z axis of the I marker perpendicular to the x-y plane of the J marker.
2. Normally, entity names like the joint name are composed of alphabetic, numeric, or '_'
(underscore) characters, and start with an alphabetic or '_' character. They may be any length. By
enclosing the name in double quotes, you may use other printable characters, or start the name
with a numeral. If a name contains characters, or starts with a numeral, you must always quote the
name when entering it. Note that you can specify the parentage of an entity (e.g. what part "owns"
a marker or a geometry element) when you CREATE it by changing the name. If you enter just
the entity name, then the default parent will be assigned by Adams/View. If you type in the full

54 Adams/View Commands
constraint create joint planar

name, then you may over ride the default parent. In most cases, when creating an entity,
Adams/View will provide a default name. The default name that Adams/View provides will
specify the parentage that it has assumed. You may, or course, delete this name and use your own.
The form of a full name is:
"...._NAME.GRAND_PARENT_NAME.PARENT_NAME.ENTITY_NAME"
The number of levels used varies from case to case and the parentage must exist before an entity
can be assigned to it.
3. When you use the FILE ADAMS_DATA_SET WRITE command, Adams/View writes an
Adams data file for your model. Adams requires that each modeling element be identified by a
unique integer identifier. If you use this parameter to specify a non-zero identifier, Adams/View
will use it in the corresponding statement in the Adams data file. You may also enter zero as an
identifier, either explicitly or by default. The next time you write an Adams file, Adams/View will
replace the zero with a unique, internally-generated identifier. Adams/View will permanently
store this identifier with the element just as if you had entered it yourself. Normally, you would
let all identifiers default to zero, and Adams/View would generate the identifiers for you. You are
never required to enter a non-zero identifier. You only need to specify it if, for some reason, you
wish to control the Adams file output.
4. When an Adams/Solver data file (.adm) is read into Adams/View, all comments associated with
a statement (from the end of the previous statement through the end of the current statement) are
stored with the object. Comments in the data file can be associated with model. These comments
must follow the title statement and be followed by the comment 'END OF MODEL
COMMENTS'. This string must be uppercase. When an Adams/Solver data file is written, the
comments for an object are written before the statement corresponding to the object.
5. Adams/View will orient the coordinate system by starting from the initial coordinate system and
applying three successive rotations. Depending on the convention you have selected, the rotations
may occur about space-fixed or bodyfixed axes in any meaningful combination of the x, y, and z
axes.
By default, you supply Euler (body313, or body-fixed z, x, z) angles. You may change this
convention with the 'DEFAULTS UNITS ORIENTATION_TYPE=' command. For example,
selecting SPACE123 means you will subsequently be supplying space-fixed x, y, and z angles.
Adams/View applies your orientation angles starting from the coordinate system you identify
with the RELATIVE_TO parameter. The default for the RELATIVE_TO parameter is the default
coordinate system.
6. For the along_axis_orientation parameter you may enter either one or two locations to direct the
axis. If you enter one location, the axis will point toward the location. If you specify two locations,
the axis will be parallel to, and pointing the same way as, the vector from the first location to the
second. Note that this does not completely dictate the orientation of the coordinate system.
Adams/View will osition the coordinate system with an arbitrary rotation about the axis. If you
must completely control the coordinate system orientation, use ORIENTATION or
IN_PLANE_ORIENTATION. By default, you direct the Z axis of the coordinate system.

constraint 55
constraint create joint planar

You may change this convention with the 'DEFAULTS ORIENT_AXIS_AND_PLANE


AXIS_AND_PLANE_SETTING=' command. For example, selecting either
X_AXIS_XY_PLANE or X_AXIS_XZ_PLANE means you will subsequently be directing the X
axis. The plane-convention setting does not affect this parameter. Adams/View applies your
location coordinates in the coordinate system you identify with the RELATIVE_TO parameter.
The default for the RELATIVE_TO parameter is the default coordinate system.
7. For the in_plane_orientation parameter you may enter either two or three locations. If you enter
two locations, the axis will point toward the first location and the plane will fall on the second. If
you specify three locations, the axis will be parallel to, and pointing the same way as, the vector
from the first location to the second and the plane will be parallel to the plane defined by the three
locations. By default, you direct the Z axis of the coordinate system and locate the ZX plane. You
may use the 'DEFAULTS ORIENT_AXIS_AND_PLANE AXIS_AND_PLANE_SETTING='
command to change this convention. For example, selecting X_AXIS_XY_PLANE means you
will subsequently be directing the X axis and locating the XY plane. Adams/View applies your
location coordinates in the coordinate system you identify with the RELATIVE_TO parameter.
The default for the RELATIVE_TO parameter is the default coordinate system.
8. If the relative_to parameter is not specified, the default coordinate system is used. The default
coordinate system is initially your model, i.e. the global coordinate system. You may change the
default coordinate system using the 'defaults coordinate_system' command.
Tip:

1. You may use the joint_name later to refer to the joint. Adams/View will not allow
you to have two joints with the same full name, so you must provide a unique name.
2. Adams/View connects one part at the I marker to the other at the J marker. These
markers are automatically generated using this method of joint creation.
3. The I and J markers will be automatically created at this location on the
I_PART_NAME and J_PART_NAME respectively.
4. The I marker is oriented based on the J marker orientation and the requirements of
the particular constraint being created. These markers are created automatically.

56 Adams/View Commands
constraint create joint rackpin

constraint create joint rackpin


A rack-and-pinion joint is a five-degree-of-freedom joint that constrains the rotational and translational
displacement of the I marker as it rolls along the z-axis of the J marker.
Format:
constraint create joint rackpin
joint_name =

a new joint

adams_id =

integer

comments =

string

i_part_name =

an existing body

j_part_name =

an existing body

location =

location

orientation =

location

along_axis_orientation =

location

in_plane_orientation =

location

relative_to =

an existing model, part or marker

i_marker_name =

an existing marker

j_marker_name =

an existing marker

diameter_of_pitch =

real number

Example:
constraint create joint rackpin &
joint_name =

JOINT__1 &

adams_id =

2 &

comments =

"comment string" &

i_part_name =

part_1 &

j_part_name =

part_2 &

location =

10 , 10 , 5 &

orientation =

1 , 2 , 1 &

relative_to =

ground &

i_marker_name =

marker_1 &

j_marker_name =

marker_2 &

diameter_of_pitch =

0.2

constraint 57
constraint create joint rackpin

Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

joint_name

A New Joint

Specifies the name of the new joint. You may use this
name later to refer to this joint. Adams/View will not
allow you to have two joints with the same full name,
so you must provide a unique name.

adams_id

Adams_id

Specifies an integer used to identify this element in the


Adams data file.

comments

String

Specifies comments for the object being created or


modified.

i_part_name

An Existing Body

Specifies the part that is the first of two parts


connected by this joint. Adams/View connects one
part at the I marker to the other at the J marker. These
markers are automatically generated using this
method of joint creation.

j_part_name

An Existing Body

Specifies the part that is the second of two parts


connected by this joint. Adams/View connects one
part at the J marker to the other at the I marker. These
markers are automatically generated using this
method of joint creation.

location

Location

Specifies the locations to be used to define the


position of a constraint during its creation. The I and J
markers will be automatically created at this location
on the I_PART_NAME and J_PART_NAME
respectively.

orientation

Orientation

Specifies the orientation of the J marker for the


constraint being created using three rotation angles.
The I marker is oriented based on the J marker
orientation and the requirements of the particular
constraint being created. These markers are created
automatically.

along_axis_orientation Location

Specifies the orientation of a coordinate system (e.g.


marker or part) by directing one of the axes.
Adams/View will assign an arbitrary rotation about
the axis.

in_plane_orientation

Location

Specifies the orientation of a coordinate system (e.g.


marker or part) by directing one of the axes and
locating one of the coordinate planes.

relative_to

An Existing Model,
Part Or Marker

Specifies the coordinate system that location


coordinates and orientation angles are with respect to.

58 Adams/View Commands
constraint create joint rackpin

Parameter

Value Type

Description

i_marker_name

An Existing Marker

Specifies a marker on the first of two parts connected


by this joint. Adams/View connects one part at the I
marker to the other at the J marker.

j_marker_name

An Existing Marker

Specifies a marker on the second of two parts


connected by this joint. Adams/View connects one
part at the I marker to the other at the J marker.

diameter_of_pitch

Length

Specifies the pitch diameter of the pinion gear of a


rack-andpinion joint.

Extended Definition:
1. For a rack-and-pinion joint, the x-axis of the pinion must be parallel to and pointed in the same
direction as the z (translational) axis of the rack. The separation between the two axes should be
one-half the pitch diameter of the pinion. The rack-and-pinion joint itself does not enforce the
position and orientation it requires, but the chain of both parts and joints that connects markers I
and J should enforce the position and orientation. A common approach for enforcing the position
and the orientation is to support the rack with a translational joint and to support the pinion with
a revolute joint.
2. Normally, entity names like the joint name are composed of alphabetic, numeric, or '_'
(underscore) characters, and start with an alphabetic or '_' character. They may be any length. By
enclosing the name in double quotes, you may use other printable characters, or start the name
with a numeral. If a name contains characters, or starts with a numeral, you must always quote the
name when entering it. Note that you can specify the parentage of an entity (e.g. what part "owns"
a marker or a geometry element) when you CREATE it by changing the name. If you enter just
the entity name, then the default parent will be assigned by Adams/View. If you type in the full
name, then you may over ride the default parent. In most cases, when creating an entity,
Adams/View will provide a default name. The default name that Adams/View provides will
specify the parentage that it has assumed. You may, or course, delete this name and use your own.
The form of a full name is:
"...._NAME.GRAND_PARENT_NAME.PARENT_NAME.ENTITY_NAME"
The number of levels used varies from case to case and the parentage must exist before an entity
can be assigned to it.
3. When you use the FILE ADAMS_DATA_SET WRITE command, Adams/View writes an
Adams data file for your model. Adams requires that each modeling element be identified by a
unique integer identifier. If you use this parameter to specify a non-zero identifier, Adams/View
will use it in the corresponding statement in the Adams data file. You may also enter zero as an
identifier, either explicitly or by default. The next time you write an Adams file, Adams/View will
replace the zero with a unique, internally-generated identifier. Adams/View will permanently
store this identifier with the element just as if you had entered it yourself. Normally, you would
let all identifiers default to zero, and Adams/View would generate the identifiers for you. You are
never required to enter a non-zero identifier. You only need to specify it if, for some reason, you
wish to control the Adams file output.

constraint 59
constraint create joint rackpin

4. When an Adams/Solver data file (.adm) is read into Adams/View, all comments associated with
a statement (from the end of the previous statement through the end of the current statement) are
stored with the object. Comments in the data file can be associated with model. These comments
must follow the title statement and be followed by the comment 'END OF MODEL
COMMENTS'. This string must be uppercase. When an Adams/Solver data file is written, the
comments for an object are written before the statement corresponding to the object.
5. Adams/View will orient the coordinate system by starting from the initial coordinate system and
applying three successive rotations. Depending on the convention you have selected, the rotations
may occur about space-fixed or bodyfixed axes in any meaningful combination of the x, y, and z
axes.
By default, you supply Euler (body313, or body-fixed z, x, z) angles. You may change this
convention with the 'DEFAULTS UNITS ORIENTATION_TYPE=' command. For example,
selecting SPACE123 means you will subsequently be supplying space-fixed x, y, and z angles.
Adams/View applies your orientation angles starting from the coordinate system you identify
with the RELATIVE_TO parameter. The default for the RELATIVE_TO parameter is the default
coordinate system.
6. For the along_axis_orientation parameter you may enter either one or two locations to direct the
axis. If you enter one location, the axis will point toward the location. If you specify two locations,
the axis will be parallel to, and pointing the same way as, the vector from the first location to the
second. Note that this does not completely dictate the orientation of the coordinate system.
Adams/View will osition the coordinate system with an arbitrary rotation about the axis. If you
must completely control the coordinate system orientation, use ORIENTATION or
IN_PLANE_ORIENTATION. By default, you direct the Z axis of the coordinate system.
You may change this convention with the 'DEFAULTS ORIENT_AXIS_AND_PLANE
AXIS_AND_PLANE_SETTING=' command. For example, selecting either
X_AXIS_XY_PLANE or X_AXIS_XZ_PLANE means you will subsequently be directing the X
axis. The plane-convention setting does not affect this parameter. Adams/View applies your
location coordinates in the coordinate system you identify with the RELATIVE_TO parameter.
The default for the RELATIVE_TO parameter is the default coordinate system.
7. For the in_plane_orientation parameter you may enter either two or three locations. If you enter
two locations, the axis will point toward the first location and the plane will fall on the second. If
you specify three locations, the axis will be parallel to, and pointing the same way as, the vector
from the first location to the second and the plane will be parallel to the plane defined by the three
locations. By default, you direct the Z axis of the coordinate system and locate the ZX plane. You
may use the 'DEFAULTS ORIENT_AXIS_AND_PLANE AXIS_AND_PLANE_SETTING='
command to change this convention. For example, selecting X_AXIS_XY_PLANE means you
will subsequently be directing the X axis and locating the XY plane. Adams/View applies your
location coordinates in the coordinate system you identify with the RELATIVE_TO parameter.
The default for the RELATIVE_TO parameter is the default coordinate system.
8. If the relative_to parameter is not specified, the default coordinate system is used. The default
coordinate system is initially your model, i.e. the global coordinate system. You may change the
default coordinate system using the 'defaults coordinate_system' command.

60 Adams/View Commands
constraint create joint rackpin

9. The pitch diameter relates the rotational motion of the pinion to the translational motion of the
rack. When the pinion turns in the positive direction around the z-axis of the I marker, a positive
pitch diameter moves the rack in the positive direction along the z-axis of the J marker and a
negative pitch diameter moves the rack in the negative direction along the z-axis of the J marker.
Tip:

The I marker is at the center of the pinion, and the J marker is in the rack.

constraint 61
constraint create joint revolute

constraint create joint revolute


Allows the creation of a revolute joint.
Format:
Constraint create joint revolute
joint_name = new joint
adams_id = geom._id
comments = string
rotational_ic = angle
no_rotational_ic = true
angular_velocity_ic = angular_vel
no_angular_velocity_ic = true
friction_enabled = enable_friction
delta_v = real
maximum_deformation = real
mu_dyn_rot = real
mu_stat_rot = real
max_fric_rot = torque
preload_radial = force
preload_axial = force
inner_radius = length
outer_radius = length
i_part_name = existing body
j_part_name =

existing body

location = location
orientation = orienatation
along_axis_orientation = location
in_plane_orientation = location
relative_to = existing model, part or marker
i_marker_name = existing marker
j_marker_name =

existing marker

62 Adams/View Commands
constraint create joint revolute

Example:
constraint create joint Revolute &
joint_name = .model_1.JOINT_1 &
adams_id = 1 &
i_marker_name = .model_1.PART_2.MARKER_5 &
j_marker_name = .model_1.PART_3.MARKER_6
Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

joint_name

New joint

Specifies the name of the new joint. You may use


this name later to refer to this joint.

adams_id

Integer

Specifies an integer used to identify this element


in the Adams data file.

Comments

String

Specifies comments for the object being created


or modified.

rotational_ic

Real

Specifies the initial rotational displacement on a


revolute or cylindrical joint.

no_rotational_ic

True

Specifies that if a "rotational" velocity initial


condition has been set, to "UNSET" the
"rotational" velocity initial condition for the
specified constraint.

angular_velocity_ic

Real

Specifies the initial angular velocity on a


revolute or cylindrical joint.

no_angular_velocity_ic

True

Specifies that if an "angular_velocity" initial


condition has been set, to "UNSET" the
"angular_velocity" initial condition for the
specified constraint.

Friction_enabled

Yes/No/Preload_only

The constant default value will be used if this


parameter is omitted

delta_v

Real

Real number should be greater than zero.

maximum_deformation

Real

Real number should be greater than zero.

mu_dyn_rot

Real

A real number greater than or equal to 0

mu_stat_rot

Real

A real number greater than or equal to 0

max_fric_rot

Torque

A real number greater than or equal to 0

preload_radial

Force

A real number greater than or equal to 0

preload_axial

Force

A real number greater than or equal to 0

constraint 63
constraint create joint revolute

Parameter

Value Type

Description

inner_radius

Length

A real number greater than or equal to 0

outer_radius

Length

A real number greater than or equal to 0

i_part_name

Existing body

Specifies the part that is the first of two parts


connected by this joint. Adams/View connects
one part at the I marker to the other at the J
marker.

j_part_name

Existing body

Specifies the part that is the second of two parts


connected by this joint. Adams/View connects
one part at the J marker to the other at the I
marker.
These markers are automatically generated using
this method of joint creation.

Location

Location

Specifies the locations to be used to define the


position of a constraint during its creation.

Orientation

orientation

Specifies the orientation of the J marker for the


constraint being created using three rotation
angles.

along_axis_orientation

Location

Specifies the orientation of a coordinate system


(e.g. marker or part) by directing one of the axes.

in_plane_orientation

Location

Specifies the orientation of a coordinate system


(e.g. marker or part) by directing one of the axes
and locating one of the coordinate planes.

relative_to

Existing model, part


or marker

Specifies the coordinate system that location


coordinates and orientation angles are with
respect to.

i_marker_name

Existing marker

Specifies a marker on the first of two parts


connected by this joint.

j_marker_name

Existing marker

Specifies a marker on the second of two parts


connected by this joint.

Extended Definition:
1. Adams/View will not allow you to have two joints with the same full name, so you must provide
a unique name.
Normally, entity names are composed of alphabetic, numeric, or '_' (underscore) characters, and
start with an alphabetic or '_' character. They may be any length.
By enclosing the name in double quotes, you may use other printable characters, or start the name
with a numeral. If a name contains characters, or starts with a numeral, you must always quote the
name when entering it.

64 Adams/View Commands
constraint create joint revolute

Note that you can specify the parentage of an entity (e.g. what part "owns" a marker or a geometry
element) when you CREATE it by changing the name. If you enter just the entity name, then the
default parent will be assigned by Adams/View. If you type in the full name, then you may over
ride the default parent. In most cases, when creating an entity, Adams/View will provide a default
name. The default name that Adams/View provides will specify the parentage that it has assumed.
You may, or course, delete this name and use your own. The form of a full name is:
"...._NAME.GRAND_PARENT_NAME.PARENT_NAME.ENTITY_NAME"
The number of levels used varies from case to case and the parentage must exist before an entity
can be assigned to it.
2. When you use the FILE ADAMS_DATA_SET WRITE command, Adams/View writes an
Adams data file for your model. Adams requires that each modeling element be identified by a
unique integer identifier. If you use this parameter to specify a non-zero identifier, Adams/View
will use it in the corresponding statement in the Adams data file.
You may also enter zero as an identifier, either explicitly or by default. The next time you write
an Adams file, Adams/View will replace the zero with a unique, internally-generated identifier.
Adams/View will permanently store this identifier with the element just as if you had entered it
yourself.
Normally, you would let all identifiers default to zero, and Adams/View would generate the
identifiers for you. You are never required to enter a non-zero identifier. You only need to specify
it if, for some reason, you wish to control the Adams file output.
3. Adams/View measures the rotational displacement of the x-axis of the I marker about the
common z-axis of the I and the J markers with respect to the x-axis of the J marker.
If you specify ROTATIONAL_IC, but not ANGULAR_VELOCITY_IC, Adams/View will set
ANGULAR_VELOCITY_IC to zero.
Joint initial conditions impose constraints that are active only during initial conditions analysis
(not at the time of the initial configuration). Adams does not impose initial conditions during
subsequent analyses.
If you impose initial conditions on the joint that are inconsistent with those on a part in the joint,
the initial conditions on the joint have precedence over those on the part. However, if you impose
initial conditions on the joint that are inconsistent with imparted motions on the joint, the initial
conditions as specified by the motion generator have precedence over those here.
4. Adams/View measures the angular velocity of the x-axis of the I marker about the common z-axis
of the I and the J markers with respect to the x-axis of the J marker.
If you specify ANGULAR_VELOCITY_IC, but not ROTATIONAL_IC, Adams/View ill set
ROTATIONAL_IC to zero.
Joint initial conditions impose constraints that are active only uring initial conditions analysis (not
at the time of the initial onfiguration). Adams does not impose initial conditions during
subsequent analyses.

constraint 65
constraint create joint revolute

If you impose initial conditions on the joint that are inconsistent with those on a part in the joint,
the initial conditions on the joint have precedence over those on the part. However, if you impose
initial conditions on the joint that are inconsistent with imparted motions on the joint, the initial
conditions as specified by the motion generator have precedence over those here.
5. The I and J markers will be automatically created at this location on the I_PART_NAME and
J_PART_NAME respectively.
By default, you supply Cartesian (x, y, z) coordinates. You may use the 'defaults units
coordinate_system_type =' command to change this convention. For example, selecting
'cylindrical' means you will subsequently be supplying r, theta, and z coordinates.
Adams/View applies your location coordinates in the coordinate system you identify with the
RELATIVE_TO parameter. The default for the RELATIVE_TO parameter is the default
coordinate system. (See the RELATIVE_TO parameter for this command).
6. The I marker is oriented based on the J marker orientation and the requirements of the particular
constraint being created. These markers are created automatically.
Adams/View will orient the coordinate system by starting from the initial coordinate system and
applying three successive rotations.
Depending on the convention you have selected, the rotations may occur about space-fixed or
body-fixed axes in any meaningful combination of the x, y, and z axes.
By default, you supply Euler (body313, or body-fixed z, x, z) angles.
You may change this convention with the 'DEFAULTS UNITS ORIENTATION_TYPE='
command. For example, selecting SPACE123 means you will subsequently be supplying spacefixed x, y, and z angles.
Adams/View applies your orientation angles starting from the coordinate system you identify
with the RELATIVE_TO parameter. The default for the RELATIVE_TO parameter is the default
coordinate system.
7. Adams/View will assign an arbitrary rotation about the axis.
You may enter either one or two locations to direct the axis. If you enter one location, the axis will
point toward the location. If you specify two locations, the axis will be parallel to, and pointing
the same way as, the vector from the first location to the second.
Note that this does not completely dictate the orientation of the coordinate system. Adams/View
will position the coordinate system with an arbitrary rotation about the axis. If you must
completely control the coordinate system orientation, use ORIENTATION or
IN_PLANE_ORIENTATION.
By default, you direct the Z axis of the coordinate system. You may change this convention with
the 'DEFAULTS ORIENT_AXIS_AND_PLANE AXIS_AND_PLANE_SETTING=' command.
For example, selecting either X_AXIS_XY_PLANE or X_AXIS_XZ_PLANE means you will
subsequently be directing the X axis. The plane-convention setting does not affect this parameter.
Adams/View applies your location coordinates in the coordinate system you identify with the
RELATIVE_TO parameter. The default for the RELATIVE_TO parameter is the default
coordinate system.

66 Adams/View Commands
constraint create joint revolute

8. For the in_plane_orientation parameter, you may enter either two or three locations. If you enter
two locations, the axis will point toward the first location and the plane will fall on the second. If
you specify three locations, the axis will be parallel to, and pointing the same way as, the vector
from the first location to the second and the plane will be parallel to the plane defined by the three
locations.
By default, you direct the Z axis of the coordinate system and locate the ZX plane. You may use
the 'DEFAULTS ORIENT_AXIS_AND_PLANE AXIS_AND_PLANE_SETTING=' command
to change this convention. For example, selecting X_AXIS_XY_PLANE means you will
subsequently be directing the X axis and locating the XY plane.
Adams/View applies your location coordinates in the coordinate system you identify with the
RELATIVE_TO parameter. The default for the RELATIVE_TO parameter is the default
coordinate system.
9. If the relative_to parameter is not specified, the default coordinate system is used. The default
coordinate system is initially your model, i.e. the global coordinate system. You may change the
default coordinate system using the 'defaults coordinate_system' command.
10. A revolute joint is a single-degree-of-freedom joint that allows rotation of one part with respect
to another about a common axis. For a revolute joint, Adams superimposes the origins of the I and
J markers and keeps their z-axes parallel and co-directed. Relative motion occurs about the
common z-axis. Adams measures the angle of the x-axis of the I marker relative to the x-axis of
the J marker to determine the rotational displacement. Adams measures positive rotation
according to the right-hand rule.
Caution: No_rotational_ic and no_angular_velocity_ic being set to True is not the same as
setting the value to zero. A zero velocity is not the same as "no" velocity. Therefore, by
setting this parameter to true there is no longer a velocity initial condition for this element.

Tip:

1. The I- and J- markers are automatically generated using this method of joint
creation.
2. Adams/View connects one part at the I marker to the other at the J marker.

constraint 67
constraint create joint screw

constraint create joint screw


Allows the creation of a screw joint. A screw joint is a five-degree-of-freedom joint that constrains the
rotational and translational displacement of the I marker as it spins about the z-axis of the J marker.
Format:
constraint create joint screw
joint_name =

a new joint

adams_id =

integer

comments =

string

i_part_name =

an existing body

j_part_name =

an existing body

location =

location

orientation =

location

along_axis_orientation =

location

in_plane_orientation =

location

relative_to =

an existing model, part or marker

i_marker_name =

an existing marker

j_marker_name =

an existing marker

pitch =

real number

Example:
constraint create joint screw &
joint_name =

joint__1 &

adams_id =

2 &

comments =

"comment string" &

i_part_name =

part_1 &

j_part_name =

part_2 &

location =

10 , 10 , 5 &

orientation =

1 , 2 , 1 &

relative_to =

ground &

i_marker_name =

marker_1 &

j_marker_name =

marker_2 &

pitch =

0.2

68 Adams/View Commands
constraint create joint screw

Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

joint_name

A New Joint

Specifies the name of the new joint. You may use this
name later to refer to this joint. Adams/View will not
allow you to have two joints with the same full name,
so you must provide a unique name.

adams_id

Adams_id

Specifies an integer used to identify this element in


the Adams data file.

comments

String

Specifies comments for the object being created or


modified.

i_part_name

An Existing Body

Specifies the part that is the first of two parts


connected by this joint. Adams/View connects one
part at the I marker to the other at the J marker. These
markers are automatically generated using this
method of joint creation.

j_part_name

An Existing Body

Specifies the part that is the second of two parts


connected by this joint. Adams/View connects one
part at the J marker to the other at the I marker. These
markers are automatically generated using this
method of joint creation.

location

Location

Specifies the locations to be used to define the


position of a constraint during its creation. The I and
J markers will be automatically created at this
location on the I_PART_NAME and J_PART_NAME
respectively.

orientation

Orientation

Specifies the orientation of the J marker for the


constraint being created using three rotation angles.
The I marker is oriented based on the J marker
orientation and the requirements of the particular
constraint being created. These markers are created
automatically.

along_axis_orientation Location

Specifies the orientation of a coordinate system (e.g.


marker or part) by directing one of the axes.
Adams/View will assign an arbitrary rotation about
the axis.

in_plane_orientation

Specifies the orientation of a coordinate system (e.g.


marker or part) by directing one of the axes and
locating one of the

Location

coordinate planes.

constraint 69
constraint create joint screw

Parameter

Value Type

Description

relative_to

An Existing Model,
Part Or Marker

Specifies the coordinate system that location


coordinates and orientation angles are with respect to.

i_marker_name

An Existing Marker

Specifies a marker on the first of two parts connected


by this joint. Adams/View connects one part at the I
marker to the other at the J marker.

j_marker_name

An Existing Marker

Specifies a marker on the second of two parts


connected by this joint. Adams/View connects one
part at the I marker to the other at the J marker.

pitch

Length

Specifies the pitch of the joint.

Extended Definition:
1. For a screw joint, the z-axis of the I marker and the z-axis of the J marker must always be parallel
and co-directed. Although the screw joint does not enforce this parallelism, the chain of parts and
joints that connects the two markers should. During simulation, the I marker displacement along
the J marker z-axis is a function of the relative angle of the x-axis of the I marker with respect to
the x-axis of the J marker. Adams measures a positive rotation according to the right-hand rule.
For every full rotation, the displacement of the I marker along the z-axis of the J marker is equal
to the value of the screw pitch. If phi is zero, the translational displacement may be zero or any
multiple of the pitch.
2. Normally, entity names like the joint name are composed of alphabetic, numeric, or '_'
(underscore) characters, and start with an alphabetic or '_' character. They may be any length. By
enclosing the name in double quotes, you may use other printable characters, or start the name
with a numeral. If a name contains characters, or starts with a numeral, you must always quote the
name when entering it. Note that you can specify the parentage of an entity (e.g. what part "owns"
a marker or a geometry element) when you CREATE it by changing the name. If you enter just
the entity name, then the default parent will be assigned by Adams/View. If you type in the full
name, then you may over ride the default parent. In most cases, when creating an entity,
Adams/View will provide a default name. The default name that Adams/View provides will
specify the parentage that it has assumed. You may, or course, delete this name and use your own.
The form of a full name is:
"...._NAME.GRAND_PARENT_NAME.PARENT_NAME.ENTITY_NAME"
The number of levels used varies from case to case and the parentage must exist before an entity
can be assigned to it.
3. When you use the FILE ADAMS_DATA_SET WRITE command, Adams/View writes an
Adams data file for your model. Adams requires that each modeling element be identified by a
unique integer identifier. If you use this parameter to specify a non-zero identifier, Adams/View
will use it in the corresponding statement in the Adams data file. You may also enter zero as an
identifier, either explicitly or by default. The next time you write an Adams file, Adams/View will
replace the zero with a unique, internally-generated identifier. Adams/View will permanently

70 Adams/View Commands
constraint create joint screw

store this identifier with the element just as if you had entered it yourself. Normally, you would
let all identifiers default to zero, and Adams/View would generate the identifiers for you. You are
never required to enter a non-zero identifier. You only need to specify it if, for some reason, you
wish to control the Adams file output.
4. When an Adams/Solver data file (.adm) is read into Adams/View, all comments associated with
a statement (from the end of the previous statement through the end of the current statement) are
stored with the object. Comments in the data file can be associated with model. These comments
must follow the title statement and be followed by the comment 'END OF MODEL
COMMENTS'. This string must be uppercase. When an Adams/Solver data file is written, the
comments for an object are written before the statement corresponding to the object.
5. Adams/View will orient the coordinate system by starting from the initial coordinate system and
applying three successive rotations. Depending on the convention you have selected, the rotations
may occur about space-fixed or bodyfixed axes in any meaningful combination of the x, y, and z
axes.
By default, you supply Euler (body313, or body-fixed z, x, z) angles. You may change this
convention with the 'DEFAULTS UNITS ORIENTATION_TYPE=' command. For example,
selecting SPACE123 means you will subsequently be supplying space-fixed x, y, and z angles.
Adams/View applies your orientation angles starting from the coordinate system you identify
with the RELATIVE_TO parameter. The default for the RELATIVE_TO parameter is the default
coordinate system.
6. For the along_axis_orientation parameter you may enter either one or two locations to direct the
axis. If you enter one location, the axis will point toward the location. If you specify two locations,
the axis will be parallel to, and pointing the same way as, the vector from the first location to the
second. Note that this does not completely dictate the orientation of the coordinate system.
Adams/View will osition the coordinate system with an arbitrary rotation about the axis. If you
must completely control the coordinate system orientation, use ORIENTATION or
IN_PLANE_ORIENTATION. By default, you direct the Z axis of the coordinate system.
You may change this convention with the 'DEFAULTS ORIENT_AXIS_AND_PLANE
AXIS_AND_PLANE_SETTING=' command. For example, selecting either
X_AXIS_XY_PLANE or X_AXIS_XZ_PLANE means you will subsequently be directing the X
axis. The plane-convention setting does not affect this parameter. Adams/View applies your
location coordinates in the coordinate system you identify with the RELATIVE_TO parameter.
The default for the RELATIVE_TO parameter is the default coordinate system.
7. For the in_plane_orientation parameter you may enter either two or three locations. If you enter
two locations, the axis will point toward the first location and the plane will fall on the second. If
you specify three locations, the axis will be parallel to, and pointing the same way as, the vector
from the first location to the second and the plane will be parallel to the plane defined by the three
locations. By default, you direct the Z axis of the coordinate system and locate the ZX plane. You
may use the 'DEFAULTS ORIENT_AXIS_AND_PLANE AXIS_AND_PLANE_SETTING='
command to change this convention. For example, selecting X_AXIS_XY_PLANE means you
will subsequently be directing the X axis and locating the XY plane. Adams/View applies your
location coordinates in the coordinate system you identify with the RELATIVE_TO parameter.
The default for the RELATIVE_TO parameter is the default coordinate system.

constraint 71
constraint create joint screw

8. If the relative_to parameter is not specified, the default coordinate system is used. The default
coordinate system is initially your model, i.e. the global coordinate system. You may change the
default coordinate system using the 'defaults coordinate_system' command.
9. The pitch diameter relates the rotational motion of the pinion to the translational motion of the
rack. When the pinion turns in the positive direction around the z-axis of the I marker, a positive
pitch diameter moves the rack in the positive direction along the z-axis of the J marker and a
negative pitch diameter moves the rack in the negative direction along the z-axis of the J marker.

72 Adams/View Commands
constraint create joint spherical

constraint create joint spherical


Allows the creation of a spherical joint.
Format:
constraint create joint spherical
joint_name = new joint
adams_id = geom._id
comments = string
i_part_name = existing body
j_part_name = existing body
location =

location

Orientation = orientation
along_axis_orientation = location
in_plane_orientation = location
relative_to = existing part, body or marker
i_marker_name = existing marker
j_marker_name = existing marker
Example:
constraint create joint Spherical &
joint_name = .model_1.JOINT_6 &
adams_id = 6 &
i_marker_name = .model_1.PART_2.MARKER_15 &
j_marker_name = .model_1.PART_3.MARKER_16

Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

joint_name

New joint name

Specifies the name of the new joint. You may use this name
later to refer to this joint.

adams_id

Integer

Specifies an integer used to identify this element in the Adams


data file.

comments

String

Specifies comments for the object being created or modified.

constraint 73
constraint create joint spherical

Parameter

Value Type

Description

i_part_name

Existing body

Specifies the part that is the first of two parts connected by this
joint. Adams/View connects one part at the I marker to the
other at the J marker. These markers are automatically
generated using this method of joint creation.

j_part_name

Existing body

Specifies the part that is the second of two parts connected by


this joint. Adams/View connects one part at the J marker to the
other at the I marker. These markers are automatically
generated using this method of joint creation.

location

Location

Specifies the locations to be used to define the position of a


constraint during its creation. The I and J markers will be
automatically created at this location on the I_PART_NAME
and J_PART_NAME respectively.

orientation

Orientation

Specifies the orientation of the J marker for the constraint


being created using three rotation angles. The I marker is
oriented based on the J marker orientation and the
requirements of the particular constraint being created. These
markers are created automatically.

along_axis_orient Location
ation

Specifies the orientation of a coordinate system (e.g. marker


or part) by directing one of the axes. Adams/View will assign
an arbitrary rotation about the axis.

in_plane_orientati Location
on

Specifies the orientation of a coordinate system (e.g. marker


or part) by directing one of the axes and locating one of the
coordinate planes.

relative_to

Existing body,
part or marker

Specifies the coordinate system that location coordinates and


orientation angles are with respect to.

i_marker_name

Existing marker

Specifies a marker on the first of two parts connected by this


joint.
Adams/View connects one part at the I marker to the other at
the J marker.

j_marker_name

Existing marker

Specifies a marker on the second of two parts connected by


this joint.
Adams/View connects one part at the I marker to the other at
the J marker.

Extended Definition:
1. Adams/View will not allow you to have two joints with the same full name, so you must provide
a unique name.

74 Adams/View Commands
constraint create joint spherical

Normally, entity names are composed of alphabetic, numeric, or '_' (underscore) characters, and
start with an alphabetic or '_' character. They may be any length.
By enclosing the name in double quotes, you may use other printable characters, or start the name
with a numeral. If a name contains characters, or starts with a numeral, you must always quote the
name when entering it.
Note that you can specify the parentage of an entity (e.g. what part "owns" a marker or a geometry
element) when you CREATE it by changing the name. If you enter just the entity name, then the
default parent will be assigned by Adams/View. If you type in the full name, then you may over
ride the default parent. In most cases, when creating an entity, Adams/View will provide a default
name. The default name that Adams/View provides will specify the parentage that it has assumed.
You may, or course, delete this name and use your own. The form of a full name is:
"...._NAME.GRAND_PARENT_NAME.PARENT_NAME.ENTITY_NAME"
The number of levels used varies from case to case and the parentage must exist before an entity
can be assigned to it.
2. When you use the FILE ADAMS_DATA_SET WRITE command, Adams/View writes an
Adams data file for your model. Adams requires that each modeling element be identified by a
unique integer identifier. If you use this parameter to specify a non-zero identifier, Adams/View
will use it in the corresponding statement in the Adams data file.
You may also enter zero as an identifier, either explicitly or by default. The next time you write
an Adams file, Adams/View will replace the zero with a unique, internally-generated identifier.
Adams/View will permanently store this identifier with the element just as if you had entered it
yourself.
Normally, you would let all identifiers default to zero, and Adams/View would generate the
identifiers for you. You are never required to enter a non-zero identifier. You only need to specify
it if, for some reason, you wish to control the Adams file output.
3. By default, you supply Cartesian (x, y, z) coordinates. You may use the 'defaults units
coordinate_system_type =' command to change this convention. For example, selecting
'cylindrical' means you will subsequently be supplying r, theta, and z coordinates.
Adams/View applies your location coordinates in the coordinate system you identify with the
RELATIVE_TO parameter. The default for the RELATIVE_TO parameter is the default
coordinate system. (See the RELATIVE_TO parameter for this command).
4. Adams/View will orient the coordinate system by starting from the initial coordinate system and
applying three successive rotations. Depending on the convention you have selected, the rotations
may occur about space-fixed or body-fixed axes in any meaningful combination of the x, y, and
z axes.
By default, you supply Euler (body313, or body-fixed z, x, z) angles.
You may change this convention with the 'DEFAULTS UNITS ORIENTATION_TYPE='
command. For example, selecting SPACE123 means you will subsequently be supplying spacefixed x, y, and z angles.

constraint 75
constraint create joint spherical

Adams/View applies your orientation angles starting from the coordinate system you identify
with the RELATIVE_TO parameter. The default for the RELATIVE_TO parameter is the default
coordinate system.
5. For the along_axis_orientation parameter, you may enter either one or two locations to direct
the axis. If you enter one location, the axis will point toward the location. If you specify two
locations, the axis will be parallel to, and pointing the same way as, the vector from the first
location to the second.
Note that this does not completely dictate the orientation of the coordinate system. Adams/View
will position the coordinate system with an arbitrary rotation about the axis. If you must
completely control the coordinate system orientation, use ORIENTATION or
IN_PLANE_ORIENTATION.
By default, you direct the Z axis of the coordinate system. You may change this convention with
the 'DEFAULTS ORIENT_AXIS_AND_PLANE AXIS_AND_PLANE_SETTING=' command.
For example, selecting either X_AXIS_XY_PLANE or X_AXIS_XZ_PLANE means you will
subsequently be directing the X axis. The plane-convention setting does not affect this parameter.
Adams/View applies your location coordinates in the coordinate system you identify with the
RELATIVE_TO parameter. The default for the RELATIVE_TO parameter is the default
coordinate system.
6. For the in_plane_orientation parameter, you may enter either two or three locations. If you enter
two locations, the axis will point toward the first location and the plane will fall on the second. If
you specify three locations, the axis will be parallel to, and pointing the same way as, the vector
from the first location to the second and the plane will be parallel to the plane defined by the three
locations.
By default, you direct the Z axis of the coordinate system and locate the ZX plane. You may use
the 'DEFAULTS ORIENT_AXIS_AND_PLANE AXIS_AND_PLANE_SETTING=' command
to change this convention. For example, selecting X_AXIS_XY_PLANE means you will
subsequently be directing the X axis and locating the XY plane.
Adams/View applies your location coordinates in the coordinate system you identify with the
RELATIVE_TO parameter. The default for the RELATIVE_TO parameter is the default
coordinate system.
7. If the relative_to parameter is not specified, the default coordinate system is used. The default
coordinate system is initially your model, i.e. the global coordinate system. You may change the
default coordinate system using the 'defaults coordinate_system' command.
8. A spherical joint is a three-degree-of-freedom joint. While permitting all three rotations, a
spherical joint superimposes the I and the J markers.

76 Adams/View Commands
constraint create joint translational

constraint create joint translational


Allows the creation of a translational joint. A translational joint is a single-degree-of-freedom joint that
allows translational displacement of one part relative to another.
Format:
constraint create joint translational
joint_name =

a new joint

adams_id =

integer

comments =

string

translational_ic =

length

no_translational_ic =

true

velocity_ic =

real

no_velocity_ic =

true

friction_enabled =

enable_friction

delta_v =

real

maximum_deformation =

real

mu_dyn_trans =

real

mu_stat_trans =

real

max_fric_trans =

real

preload_x =

real

preload_y =

real

height =

real

width =

real

i_part_name =

an existing body

j_part_name =

an existing body

location =

location

orientation =

location

along_axis_orientation =

location

in_plane_orientation =

location

relative_to =

an existing model, part or marker

i_marker_name =

an existing marker

j_marker_name =

an existing marker

constraint 77
constraint create joint translational

Example:
constraint create joint translational &
joint_name =

joint__1 &

adams_id =

2 &

comments =

"comment string" &

translational_ic =

1.2 &

velocity_ic =

1.4 &

friction_enabled =
delta_v =
maximum_deformation =

preload_only &
1.4 &
0.02 &

mu_dyn_trans =

0.4 &

mu_stat_trans =

0.8 &

max_fric_trans =

0.15 &

preload_x =

1 &

preload_y =

1.2 &

height =

1.5 &

width =

0.8 &

i_part_name =

part_1 &

j_part_name =

part_2 &

location =

10 , 10 , 5 &

orientation =

1 , 2 , 1 &

relative_to =

ground &

i_marker_name =

marker_1 &

j_marker_name =

marker_2

Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

joint_name

A New Joint

Specifies the name of the new joint.

adams_id

Adams_id

Specifies an integer used to identify this element in


the Adams data file.

comments

String

Specifies comments for the object being created or


modified.

78 Adams/View Commands
constraint create joint translational

Parameter

Value Type

Description

translational_ic

Length

Specifies the initial translational displacement on a


translational or cylindrical joint.

no_translational_ic

True_only

Specifies that if a "translational" velocity initial


condition has been set, to "UNSET" the
"translational" velocity initial condition for the
specified constraint.

velocity_ic

Velocity

Specifies the initial translational velocity on a


translational or cylindrical joint.

no_velocity_ic

True_only

Specifies that if a VELOCITY_IC has been set via


any means, to "UNSET" the velocity initial
condition.

friction_enabled

Enable_friction

delta_v

Real

maximum_deformation Real
mu_dyn_trans

Real

mu_stat_trans

Real

max_fric_trans

Real

preload_x

Force

preload_y

Force

height

Real

Specify a height for the info window.

width

Real

Specify a width for the info window.

i_part_name

An Existing Body

Specifies the part that is the first of two parts


connected by this joint.

j_part_name

An Existing Body

Specifies the part that is the second of two parts


connected by this joint.

location

Location

Specifies the locations to be used to define the


position of a constraint during its creation.

orientation

Orientation

Specifies the orientation of the J marker for the


constraint being created using three rotation angles.

along_axis_orientation

Location

Specifies the orientation of a coordinate system (e.g.


marker or part) by directing one of the axes.
Adams/View will assign an arbitrary rotation about
the axis.

in_plane_orientation

Location

Specifies the orientation of a coordinate system (e.g.


marker or part) by directing one of the axes and
locating one of the coordinate planes.

constraint 79
constraint create joint translational

Parameter

Value Type

Description

relative_to

An Existing Model,
Part Or Marker

Specifies the coordinate system that location


coordinates and orientation angles are with respect
to.

i_marker_name

An Existing Marker

Specifies a marker on the first of two parts connected


by this joint.

j_marker_name

An Existing Marker

Specifies a marker on the second of two parts


connected by this joint.

Extended Definition:
1. For a translational joint, Adams keeps all the axes of the I and the J markers parallel and keeps
the origin of the I marker on the z-axis of the J marker so that the two markers have a common zaxis. To determine the translational displacement of the I marker with respect to the J marker,
Adams measures the origin of the I marker with respect to the origin of the J marker along their
common z-axis.
2. Normally, entity names like the joint name are composed of alphabetic, numeric, or '_'
(underscore) characters, and start with an alphabetic or '_' character. They may be any length. By
enclosing the name in double quotes, you may use other printable characters, or start the name
with a numeral. If a name contains characters, or starts with a numeral, you must always quote the
name when entering it. Note that you can specify the parentage of an entity (e.g. what part "owns"
a marker or a geometry element) when you CREATE it by changing the name. If you enter just
the entity name, then the default parent will be assigned by Adams/View. If you type in the full
name, then you may over ride the default parent. In most cases, when creating an entity,
Adams/View will provide a default name. The default name that Adams/View provides will
specify the parentage that it has assumed. You may, or course, delete this name and use your own.
The form of a full name is:
"...._NAME.GRAND_PARENT_NAME.PARENT_NAME.ENTITY_NAME"
The number of levels used varies from case to case and the parentage must exist before an entity
can be assigned to it.
3. When you use the FILE ADAMS_DATA_SET WRITE command, Adams/View writes an
Adams data file for your model. Adams requires that each modeling element be identified by a
unique integer identifier. If you use this parameter to specify a non-zero identifier, Adams/View
will use it in the corresponding statement in the Adams data file. You may also enter zero as an
identifier, either explicitly or by default. The next time you write an Adams file, Adams/View will
replace the zero with a unique, internally-generated identifier. Adams/View will permanently
store this identifier with the element just as if you had entered it yourself. Normally, you would
let all identifiers default to zero, and Adams/View would generate the identifiers for you. You are
never required to enter a non-zero identifier. You only need to specify it if, for some reason, you
wish to control the Adams file output.

80 Adams/View Commands
constraint create joint translational

4. When an Adams/Solver data file (.adm) is read into Adams/View, all comments associated with
a statement (from the end of the previous statement through the end of the current statement) are
stored with the object. Comments in the data file can be associated with model. These comments
must follow the title statement and be followed by the comment 'END OF MODEL
COMMENTS'. This string must be uppercase. When an Adams/Solver data file is written, the
comments for an object are written before the statement corresponding to the object.
5. Adams/View measures the translational displacement of the origin of the I marker along the
common z-axis of the I and the J markers with respect to the origin of the J marker. If you specify
TRANSLATIONAL_IC, but not VELOCITY_IC, Adams/View will set VELOCITY_IC to zero.
Joint initial conditions impose constraints that are active only during initial conditions analysis
(not at the time of the initial configuration). Adams does not impose initial conditions during
subsequent analyses. If you impose initial conditions on the joint that are inconsistent with those
on a part in the joint, the initial conditions on the joint have precedence over those on the part.
However, if you impose initial conditions on the joint that are inconsistent with imparted motions
on the joint, the initial conditions as specified by the motion generator have precedence over those
here.
6. Setting the no_translational_ic is not the same as setting the value to zero. A zero velocity is not
the same as "no" velocity. Therefore, by setting this parameter to true there is no longer a velocity
initial condition for this element.
7. Adams/View measures the translational velocity of the origin of the I marker along the common
z-axis of the I and the J markers with respect to the origin of the J marker. If you specify
VELOCITY_IC, but not TRANSLATIONAL_IC, Adams/View will set TRANSLATIONAL_IC
to zero. Joint initial conditions impose constraints that are active only during initial conditions
analysis (not at the time of the initial configuration). Adams does not impose initial conditions
during subsequent analyses. If you impose initial conditions on the joint that are inconsistent with
those on a part in the joint, the initial conditions on the joint have precedence over those n the part.
However, if you impose initial conditions on the joint that are inconsistent with imparted motions
on the joint, the initial conditions as specified by the motion generator have precedence over those
here.
8. Setting the no_velocity_ic parameter is not the same as setting the value to zero. A zero velocity
is not the same as "no" velocity. Therefore, by setting this parameter to true there is no longer a
velocity initial condition for this element.
9. The height and the width values should be a real number between 0.0 and 2.0, where 2.0
represents the height of the Adams/View window. Therefore, a value of 1.0 will set the info
window to be one half as high as the Adams/View window.
10. By default, you supply Cartesian (x, y, z) coordinates for the location parameter. You may use the
'defaults units coordinate_system_type =' command to change this convention. For example,
selecting 'cylindrical' means you will subsequently be supplying r, theta, and z coordinates.
Adams/View applies your location coordinates in the coordinate system you identify with the
RELATIVE_TO parameter. The default for the RELATIVE_TO parameter is the default
coordinate system. (See the RELATIVE_TO parameter for this command).

constraint 81
constraint create joint translational

11. Adams/View will orient the coordinate system by starting from the initial coordinate system and
applying three successive rotations. Depending on the convention you have selected, the rotations
may occur about space-fixed or bodyfixed axes in any meaningful combination of the x, y, and z
axes.
By default, you supply Euler (body313, or body-fixed z, x, z) angles. You may change this
convention with the 'DEFAULTS UNITS ORIENTATION_TYPE=' command. For example,
selecting SPACE123 means you will subsequently be supplying space-fixed x, y, and z angles.
Adams/View applies your orientation angles starting from the coordinate system you identify
with the RELATIVE_TO parameter. The default for the RELATIVE_TO parameter is the default
coordinate system.
12. For the along_axis_orientation parameter you may enter either one or two locations to direct the
axis. If you enter one location, the axis will point toward the location. If you specify two locations,
the axis will be parallel to, and pointing the same way as, the vector from the first location to the
second. Note that this does not completely dictate the orientation of the coordinate system.
Adams/View will osition the coordinate system with an arbitrary rotation about the axis. If you
must completely control the coordinate system orientation, use ORIENTATION or
IN_PLANE_ORIENTATION. By default, you direct the Z axis of the coordinate system.
You may change this convention with the 'DEFAULTS ORIENT_AXIS_AND_PLANE
AXIS_AND_PLANE_SETTING=' command. For example, selecting either
X_AXIS_XY_PLANE or X_AXIS_XZ_PLANE means you will subsequently be directing the X
axis. The plane-convention setting does not affect this parameter. Adams/View applies your
location coordinates in the coordinate system you identify with the RELATIVE_TO parameter.
The default for the RELATIVE_TO parameter is the default coordinate system.
13. For the in_plane_orientation parameter you may enter either two or three locations. If you enter
two locations, the axis will point toward the first location and the plane will fall on the second. If
you specify three locations, the axis will be parallel to, and pointing the same way as, the vector
from the first location to the second and the plane will be parallel to the plane defined by the three
locations. By default, you direct the Z axis of the coordinate system and locate the ZX plane. You
may use the 'DEFAULTS ORIENT_AXIS_AND_PLANE AXIS_AND_PLANE_SETTING='
command to change this convention. For example, selecting X_AXIS_XY_PLANE means you
will subsequently be directing the X axis and locating the XY plane. Adams/View applies your
location coordinates in the coordinate system you identify with the RELATIVE_TO parameter.
The default for the RELATIVE_TO parameter is the default coordinate system.
14. If the relative_to parameter is not specified, the default coordinate system is used. The default
coordinate system is initially your model, i.e. the global coordinate system. You may change the
default coordinate system using the 'defaults coordinate_system' command.

82 Adams/View Commands
constraint create joint translational

Tip:

1. You may use the joint_name later to refer to this joint. Adams/View will not allow
you to have two joints with the same full name, so you must provide a unique name.
2. Adams/View connects one part at the I marker to the other at the J marker. These
markers are automatically generated using this method of joint creation.
3. The I and J markers will be automatically created at this location on the
I_PART_NAME and J_PART_NAME respectively.
4. The I marker is oriented based on the J marker orientation and the requirements of
the particular constraint being created. These markers are created automatically.

constraint 83
constraint create joint universal

constraint create joint universal


Allows you to create a universal joint.
Format:
:

constraint create joint universal


joint_name = new joint
adams_id = geom_id
comments = string
i_part_name = existing body
j_part_name = existing body
location = location
orientation = orientation
along_axis_orientation = location
in_plane_orientation = location
relative_to = existing part,body or marker
i_marker_name = existing marker
j_marker_name = existing marker
Example:
constraint create joint universal &
joint_name =
adams_id =

JOINT__2 &
4 &

i_marker_name =

MARKER_11 &

j_marker_name =

MARKER_12

Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

joint_name

New joint name

Specifies the name of the new joint. You may use


this name later to refer to this joint.

adams_id

Integer

Specifies an integer used to identify this element


in the Adams data file.

Comments

String

Specifies comments for the object being created


or modified.

84 Adams/View Commands
constraint create joint universal

Parameter

Value Type

Description

i_part_name

Existing body

Specifies the part that is the first of two parts


connected by this joint.

j_part_name

Existing body

Specifies the part that is the second of two parts


connected by this joint.

location

Location

Specifies the locations to be used to define the


position of a constraint during its creation.

orientation

orientation

Specifies the orientation of the J marker for the


constraint being created using three rotation
angles.

along_axis_orientation location

Specifies the orientation of a coordinate system


(e.g. marker or part) by directing one of the axes.
Adams/View will assign an arbitrary rotation
about the axis.

in_plane_orientation

location

Specifies the orientation of a coordinate system


(e.g. marker or part) by directing one of the axes
and locating one of the coordinate planes.

relative_to

Existing model, part or


marker

Specifies the coordinate system that location


coordinates and orientation angles are with
respect to.

i_marker_name

Existing marker

Specifies a marker on the first of two parts


connected by this joint.

j_marker_name

Existing marker

Specifies a marker on the second of two parts


connected by this joint.
Adams/View connects one part at the I marker to
the other at the J
marker.

Extended Definition:
1. Adams/View will not allow you to have two joints with the same full name, so you must provide
a unique name.
Normally, entity names are composed of alphabetic, numeric, or '_' (underscore) characters, and
start with an alphabetic or '_' character. They may be any length.
By enclosing the name in double quotes, you may use other printable characters, or start the name
with a numeral. If a name contains characters, or starts with a numeral, you must always quote the
name when entering it.

constraint 85
constraint create joint universal

Note that you can specify the parentage of an entity (e.g. what part "owns" a marker or a geometry
element) when you CREATE it by changing the name. If you enter just the entity name, then the
default parent will be assigned by Adams/View. If you type in the full name, then you may over
ride the default parent. In most cases, when creating an entity, Adams/View will provide a default
name. The default name that Adams/View provides will specify the parentage that it has assumed.
You may, or course, delete this name and use your own. The form of a full name is:
"...._NAME.GRAND_PARENT_NAME.PARENT_NAME.ENTITY_NAME"
The number of levels used varies from case to case and the parentage must exist before an entity
can be assigned to it.
2. When you use the FILE ADAMS_DATA_SET WRITE command, Adams/View writes an
Adams data file for your model. Adams requires that each modeling element be identified by a
unique integer identifier. If you use this parameter to specify a non-zero identifier, Adams/View
will use it in the corresponding statement in the Adams data file.
You may also enter zero as an identifier, either explicitly or by default. The next time you write
an Adams file, Adams/View will replace the zero with a unique, internally-generated identifier.
Adams/View will permanently store this identifier with the element just as if you had entered it
yourself.
Normally, you would let all identifiers default to zero, and Adams/View would generate the
identifiers for you. You are never required to enter a non-zero identifier. You only need to specify
it if, for some reason, you wish to control the Adams file output.
3. By default, you supply Cartesian (x, y, z) coordinates. You may use the 'defaults units
coordinate_system_type =' command to change this convention. For example, selecting
'cylindrical' means you will subsequently be supplying r, theta, and z coordinates.
Adams/View applies your location coordinates in the coordinate system you identify with the
RELATIVE_TO parameter. The default for the RELATIVE_TO parameter is the default
coordinate system. (See the RELATIVE_TO parameter for this command).
4. Adams/View will orient the coordinate system by starting from the initial coordinate system and
applying three successive rotations.
Depending on the convention you have selected, the rotations may occur about space-fixed or
body-fixed axes in any meaningful combination of the x, y, and z axes.
By default, you supply Euler (body313, or body-fixed z, x, z) angles. You may change this
convention with the 'DEFAULTS UNITS ORIENTATION_TYPE=' command. For example,
selecting SPACE123 means you will subsequently be supplying space-fixed x, y, and z angles.
Adams/View applies your orientation angles starting from the coordinate system you identify
with the RELATIVE_TO parameter. The default for the RELATIVE_TO parameter is the default
coordinate system.
5. For the along_axis_orientation parameter, you may enter either one or two locations to direct
the axis. If you enter one location, the axis will point toward the location. If you specify two
locations, the axis will be parallel to, and pointing the same way as, the vector from the first
location to the second.

86 Adams/View Commands
constraint create joint universal

Note that this does not completely dictate the orientation of the coordinate system. Adams/View
will position the coordinate system with an arbitrary rotation about the axis. If you must
completely control the coordinate system orientation, use ORIENTATION or
IN_PLANE_ORIENTATION.
By default, you direct the Z axis of the coordinate system. You may change this convention with
the 'DEFAULTS ORIENT_AXIS_AND_PLANE AXIS_AND_PLANE_SETTING=' command.
For example, selecting either X_AXIS_XY_PLANE or X_AXIS_XZ_PLANE means you will
subsequently be directing the X axis. The plane-convention setting does not affect this parameter.
Adams/View applies your location coordinates in the coordinate system you identify with the
RELATIVE_TO parameter. The default for the RELATIVE_TO parameter is the default
coordinate system.
6. For the in_plane_orientation parameter, you may enter either two or three locations. If you enter
two locations, the axis will point toward the first location and the plane will fall on the second. If
you specify three locations, the axis will be parallel to, and pointing the same way as, the vector
from the first location to the second and the plane will be parallel to the plane defined by the three
locations.
By default, you direct the Z axis of the coordinate system and locate the ZX plane. You may use
the 'DEFAULTS ORIENT_AXIS_AND_PLANE AXIS_AND_PLANE_SETTING=' command
to change this convention. For example, selecting X_AXIS_XY_PLANE means you will
subsequently be directing the X axis and locating the XY plane.
Adams/View applies your location coordinates in the coordinate system you identify with the
RELATIVE_TO parameter. The default for the RELATIVE_TO parameter is the default
coordinate system.
7. If the relative_to parameter is not specified, the default coordinate system is used. The default
coordinate system is initially your model, i.e. the global coordinate system. You may change the
default coordinate system using the 'defaults coordinate_system' command.
8. A universal joint is a joint that allows two degrees of rotational freedom.
For a universal joint, Adams superimposes the origins of I and J and keeps their z-axes
perpendicular, so that they outline the crosspiece of the joint. The origins of the I and the J markers
are at the center of the crosspiece.
Tip:

1. Adams/View connects one part at the I marker to the other at the J marker. These
markers are automatically generated using this method of joint creation.
2. Adams/View connects one part at the J marker to the other at the I marker. These
markers are automatically generated using this method of joint creation.
3. The I and J markers will be automatically created at this location on the
I_PART_NAME and J_PART_NAME respectively.
4. The I marker is oriented based on the J marker orientation and the requirements of
the particular constraint being created. These markers are created automatically.
5. Adams/View connects one part at the I marker to the other at the J marker.

constraint 87
constraint create motion_generator

constraint create motion_generator


Allows the creation of a motion generator in a model.
Format:
constraint create motion_generator
motion_name = a new motion
adams_id = geom._id
comments = string
joint_name = existing joint
type_of_freedom = freedom type
i_marker_name = existing marker
j_marker_name = existing marker
axis = motion_axes
function = function
user_function = real
time_derivative = displacement/ velocity/ acceleration
displacement_ic = length
velocity_ic = velocity
rotational_displacement_ic = angle
rotational_velocity_ic = angular_velocity
Routine = string
Example:
constraint create motion_generator &
motion_name = ROT_MOTION &
joint_name = JOINT_1 &
type_of_freedom = rotational &
function = time &
rotational_velocity_ic = 25.9 &
rotational_displacement_ic = 25.4
The above command will apply a rotational motion to the specified joint which is a function of time. Its
rotational velocity would be 25.9 and its rotational displacement would be 25.4.

88 Adams/View Commands
constraint create motion_generator

Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

motion_name

New Motion Name

Specifies the name of the new motion generator.


You may use this name later to refer to this motion
generator.

adams_id

Integer

Specifies an integer used to identify this element in


the Adams data file.

Comments

String

Specifies comments for the object being created or


modified.

joint_name

Existing Joint

Specifies the translational, revolute, or cylindrical


joint associated with this entity. Some entities
constrain motion at, or are otherwise associated
with, specific joints. You use this parameter to
identify that joint.

type_of_freedom

Translational/rotational Specifies translational or a rotational motion if you


attach this motion generator to a cylindrical joint.

i_marker_name

Existing Marker

Specify an existing I marker

j_marker_name

Existing Marker

Specify an existing J marker

axis

X/y/ Z/ B1/ B2/ B3

Allows you to create and modify additional axes on


a plot to effect multiple axis plotting.

function

Function

Specifies an expression or defines and passes


constants to a user-written subroutine to define the
motion.

user_function

Real

Specifies up to 30 values for Adams to pass to a


user-written subroutine.

Routine

String

time_derivative

Velocity/displacement/
acceleration

Specifies that the FUNCTION argument defines the


motion displacement, velocity, or acceleration.

displacement_ic

Length

Specifies the initial displacement of the motion,


when the motion is defined in terms of velocity or
acceleration.

velocity_ic

Velocity

Specifies the initial velocity of the motion, when the


motion is defined in terms of acceleration.

rotational_displaceme
nt_ic

Angle

Specifies the rotational displacement.

rotational_velocity_ic

Real

Specifies the rotational velocity.

constraint 89
constraint create motion_generator

Extended Definition:
1. Adams/View will not allow you to have two motion generators with the same full name, so you
must provide a unique name.
Normally, entity names are composed of alphabetic, numeric, or '_' (underscore) characters, and
start with an alphabetic or '_' character. They may be any length.
By enclosing the name in double quotes, you may use other printable characters, or start the name
with a numeral. If a name contains characters, or starts with a numeral, you must always quote the
name when entering it.
Note that you can specify the parentage of an entity (e.g. what part "owns" a marker or a geometry
element) when you CREATE it by changing the name. If you enter just the entity name, then the
default parent will be assigned by Adams/View. If you type in the full name, then you may over
ride the default parent. In most cases, when creating an entity, Adams/View will provide a default
name. The default name that Adams/View provides will specify the parentage that it has assumed.
You may, or course, delete this name and use your own. The form of a full name is:
"...._NAME.GRAND_PARENT_NAME.PARENT_NAME.ENTITY_NAME"
The number of levels used varies from case to case and the parentage must exist before an entity
can be assigned to it.
2. When you use the FILE ADAMS_DATA_SET WRITE command, Adams/View writes an
Adams data file for your model. Adams requires that each modeling element be identified by a
unique integer identifier. If you use this parameter to specify a non-zero identifier, Adams/View
will use it in the corresponding statement in the Adams data file.
You may also enter zero as an identifier, either explicitly or by default. The next time you write
an Adams file, Adams/View will replace the zero with a unique, internally-generated identifier.
Adams/View will permanently store this identifier with the element just as if you had entered it
yourself.
Normally, you would let all identifiers default to zero, and Adams/View would generate the
identifiers for you. You are never required to enter a non-zero identifier. You only need to specify
it if, for some reason, you wish to control the Adams file output.
3. You may identify a joint by typing its name or by picking it from the screen.
If the joint is not visible on the screen, you must type the name. You may also find it convenient
to type the name even if the joint is displayed.
If you created the joint by reading an Adams data set or graphics file, the joint name is the letters
JOI followed by the Adams data set joint ID number. The name of Adams JOINT/101 is JOI101,
for example. If you created the joint during preprocessing, you gave it a name at that time.
If a joint is available by default, you may identify it by entering its name only. If it is not, you must
enter its full name. To identify a joint under a model, for instance, you may need to enter the
model name as well. For example, you may specify joint 'lower_pivot' in model 'links' by entering
".links.lower_pivot". If you type a "?", Adams/View will list the joints available by default.
You must separate multiple joint names by commas.
If the joint is visible in one of your views, you may identify it by picking on any of the graphics
associated with it.

90 Adams/View Commands
constraint create motion_generator

You need not separate multiple joint picks by commas.


4. The type_of_freedom parameter is necessary only when you apply motion to a cylindrical joint.
For a translational joint or a revolute joint, Adams assumes you want translational motion or
rotational motion, respectively.
5. When you create a plot template, Adams/View creates two axes by default, one horizontal and
one vertical. These are the plot's primary axes which Adams/View uses to perform cursor tracking
and to draw the grid. The plot TEMPLATE commands also operate on the plot's primary axes.
Each axis consists of an axis line, tic marks, numbers and a label. Use the axis ATTRIBUTES to
change visibility and color attributes for the axis entities.
To plot a curve against the new axes, specify the axis names when you create the curve.
You can make the new axes the plot's primary axes by modifying the plot's template and
specifying the desired axes as the PRIMARY_HAXIS and PRIMARY_VAXIS. The grid will
then reflect the divisions of the new axes and cursor tracking will reflect the new axes' coordinate
system.
6. The motion must be a function of time only and not a function of the state variables.
Adams/View treats this parameter as a series of literal strings. When you write an Adams data set,
Adams/View writes these strings, just as you enter them here, after the 'FUNCTION=' argument.
If you want to define the motion with an expression, enclose the expression in quotes and enter it
just as you would in the data set. See the Adams User's Manual for information on writing
function expressions. If your expression is longer than 65 characters, you should break it up into
separate strings so it does not extend past the Adams 80-character line-length limit. Adams/View
will write each string on a separate line in the data set.
If you want to define the motion with a user-written subroutine, enter the character string
"USER(r1[,...,r30])", where r1[,...,r30] are the values you want Adams to pass to your user-written
subroutine MOTSUB. If you enter "USER(1.,2.,3.)", for instance, Adams will call your
MOTSUB with values 1, 2, and 3. See the Adams User's Manual for more information on using
MOTSUBs.
7. A MOTION_GENERATOR determines a translational or a rotational motion as a function of
time. In Adams you can apply a motion to a translational, to a revolute, or to a cylindrical joint.
You can define the motion with a FUNCTION expression or with a user-written subroutine.
You can assign a translational motion at either a translational or a cylindrical joint, and you can
assign a rotational motion at either a revolute or a cylindrical joint. Adams uses the two markers
that specify the joint to define the motion. In other words, Adams controls the rotational or the
translational displacement of the I marker in the joint with respect to the J marker in the joint.
For a translational motion, Adams moves the I marker along the z-axis of the J marker. The J
marker origin represents zero displacement, while the z-axis of the J marker defines the positive
direction. For a rotational motion, Adams rotates the I marker about the z-axis of the J marker.
Positive rotations are positive according to the right-hand rule. The z-axis of the I marker must be
collinear with the z-axis of the J marker at all times. The angle is zero when the x-axis of the I
marker is also collinear with the x-axis of the J marker.

constraint 91
constraint create primitive_joint at_point

constraint create primitive_joint at_point


Allows the creation of an at_point joint primitive.
Format:
constraint create primitive_joint at_point
jprim_name = new primitive joint
adams_id = integer
comments = string
i_part_name = existing body
j_part_name = existing body
location = location
Orientation = orientation
along_axis_orientation = location
in_plane_orientation = location
relative_to =

existing model, part or marker

i_marker_name = existing marker


j_marker_name = existing marker
Example:
constraint create primitive_joint at_point &
jprim_name = JPRIM__1 &
i_marker_name = MARKER_10 &
j_marker_name = MARKER_12
Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

jprim_name

New primitive joint


name

Specifies the name of the new jprim. You may use


this name later to refer to this jprim.

adams_id

Integer

Specifies an integer used to identify this element


in the Adams data file.

comments

String

Specifies comments for the object being created


or modified.

92 Adams/View Commands
constraint create primitive_joint at_point

Parameter

Value Type

Description

i_part_name

Existing body

Specifies the part that is the first of two parts


connected by this joint.

j_part_name

Existing body

Specifies the part that is the second of two parts


connected by this joint.

location

Location

Specifies the locations to be used to define the


position of a constraint during its creation.

orientation

Orientation

Specifies the orientation of the J marker for the


constraint being created using three rotation
angles.

along_axis_orientation Location

Specifies the orientation of a coordinate system


(e.g. marker or part) by directing one of the axes.
Adams/View will assign an arbitrary rotation
about the axis.

in_plane_orientation

Location

Specifies the orientation of a coordinate system


(e.g. marker or part) by directing one of the axes
and locating one of the coordinate planes.

relative_to

Existing model, part or


marker

Specifies the coordinate system that location


coordinates and orientation angles are with
respect to.

i_marker_name

Existing marker

Specifies a marker on the first of two parts


connected by this joint.

j_marker_name

Existing marker

Specifies a marker on the second of two parts


connected by this joint.

Extended Definition:
1. Adams/View will not allow you to have two jprims with the same full name, so you must provide
a unique name.
Normally, entity names are composed of alphabetic, numeric, or '_' (underscore) characters, and
start with an alphabetic or '_' character. They may be any length.
By enclosing the name in double quotes, you may use other printable characters, or start the name
with a numeral. If a name contains characters, or starts with a numeral, you must always quote the
name when entering it.
Note that you can specify the parentage of an entity (e.g. what part "owns" a marker or a geometry
element) when you CREATE it by changing the name. If you enter just the entity name, then the
default parent will be assigned by Adams/View. If you type in the full name, then you may over
ride the default parent. In most cases, when creating an entity, Adams/View will provide a default
name. The default name that Adams/View provides will specify the parentage that it has assumed.
You may, or course, delete this name and use your own. The form of a full name is:
"...._NAME.GRAND_PARENT_NAME.PARENT_NAME.ENTITY_NAME"

constraint 93
constraint create primitive_joint at_point

The number of levels used varies from case to case and the parentage must exist before an entity
can be assigned to it.
2. When you use the FILE ADAMS_DATA_SET WRITE command, Adams/View writes an
Adams data file for your model. Adams requires that each modeling element be identified by a
unique integer identifier. If you use this parameter to specify a non-zero identifier, Adams/View
will use it in the corresponding statement in the Adams data file.
You may also enter zero as an identifier, either explicitly or by default. The next time you write
an Adams file, Adams/View will replace the zero with a unique, internally-generated identifier.
Adams/View will permanently store this identifier with the element just as if you had entered it
yourself.
Normally, you would let all identifiers default to zero, and Adams/View would generate the
identifiers for you. You are never required to enter a non-zero identifier. You only need to specify
it if, for some reason, you wish to control the Adams file output.
3. For the location parameter, the I and J markers will be automatically created at this location on
the I_PART_NAME and J_PART_NAME respectively.
By default, you supply Cartesian (x, y, z) coordinates. You may use the 'defaults units
coordinate_system_type =' command to change this convention. For example, selecting
'cylindrical' means you will subsequently be supplying r, theta, and z coordinates.
Adams/View applies your location coordinates in the coordinate system you identify with the
RELATIVE_TO parameter. The default for the RELATIVE_TO parameter is the default
coordinate system. (See the RELATIVE_TO parameter for this command).
4. The I marker is oriented based on the J marker orientation and the requirements of the particular
constraint being created. These markers are created automatically.
Adams/View will orient the coordinate system by starting from the initial coordinate system and
applying three successive rotations.
Depending on the convention you have selected, the rotations may occur about space-fixed or
body-fixed axes in any meaningful combination of the x, y, and z axes.
By default, you supply Euler (body313, or body-fixed z, x, z) angles. You may change this
convention with the 'DEFAULTS UNITS ORIENTATION_TYPE=' command. For example,
selecting SPACE123 means you will subsequently be supplying space-fixed x, y, and z angles.
Adams/View applies your orientation angles starting from the coordinate system you identify
with the RELATIVE_TO parameter. The default for the RELATIVE_TO parameter is the default
coordinate system.
5. You may enter either one or two locations to direct the axis. If you enter one location, the axis will
point toward the location. If you specify two locations, the axis will be parallel to, and pointing
the same way as, the vector from the first location to the second.
Note that this does not completely dictate the orientation of the coordinate system. Adams/View
will position the coordinate system with an arbitrary rotation about the axis. If you must
completely control the coordinate system orientation, use ORIENTATION or
IN_PLANE_ORIENTATION.

94 Adams/View Commands
constraint create primitive_joint at_point

By default, you direct the Z axis of the coordinate system. You may change this convention with
the 'DEFAULTS ORIENT_AXIS_AND_PLANE AXIS_AND_PLANE_SETTING=' command.
For example, selecting either X_AXIS_XY_PLANE or X_AXIS_XZ_PLANE means you will
subsequently be directing the X axis. The plane-convention setting does not affect this parameter.
Adams/View applies your location coordinates in the coordinate system you identify with the
RELATIVE_TO parameter. The default for the RELATIVE_TO parameter is the default
coordinate system.
6. For the in_plane_orientation parameter, you may enter either two or three locations. If you enter
two locations, the axis will point toward the first location and the plane will fall on the second. If
you specify three locations, the axis will be parallel to, and pointing the same way as, the vector
from the first location to the second and the plane will be parallel to the plane defined by the three
locations.
By default, you direct the Z axis of the coordinate system and locate the ZX plane. You may use
the 'DEFAULTS ORIENT_AXIS_AND_PLANE AXIS_AND_PLANE_SETTING=' command
to change this convention. For example, selecting X_AXIS_XY_PLANE means you will
subsequently be directing the X axis and locating the XY plane.
Adams/View applies your location coordinates in the coordinate system you identify with the
RELATIVE_TO parameter. The default for the RELATIVE_TO parameter is the default
coordinate system.
7. If the relative_to parameter is not specified, the default coordinate system is used. The default
coordinate system is initially your model, i.e. the global coordinate system. You may change the
default coordinate system using the 'defaults coordinate_system' command.
Tip:

Adams/View connects one part at the I marker to the other at the J marker. These markers
are automatically generated using this method of joint creation.

constraint 95
constraint create primitive_joint inline

constraint create primitive_joint inline


Allows the creation of an inline joint primitive.
Format:
constraint create primitive_joint inline
jprim_name = new primitive joint
adams_id = integer
comments = string
i_part_name = existing body
j_part_name = existing body
location = location
Orientation = orientation
along_axis_orientation = location
in_plane_orientation = location
relative_to =

existing model, part or marker

i_marker_name = existing marker


j_marker_name = existing marker
Example:
constraint create primitive_joint inline &
jprim_name =

JPRIM__1 &

i_marker_name =

MARKER_10 &

j_marker_name =

MARKER_12

Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

jprim_name

New primitive joint


name

Specifies the name of the new jprim. You may


use this name later to refer to this jprim.

adams_id

Integer

Specifies an integer used to identify this element


in the Adams data file.

comments

String

Specifies comments for the object being created


or modified.

96 Adams/View Commands
constraint create primitive_joint inline

Parameter

Value Type

Description

i_part_name

Existing body

Specifies the part that is the first of two parts


connected by this joint.

j_part_name

Existing body

Specifies the part that is the second of two parts


connected by this joint.

location

Location

Specifies the locations to be used to define the


position of a constraint during its creation.

orientation

Orientation

Specifies the orientation of the J marker for the


constraint being created using three rotation
angles.

along_axis_orientation

Location

Specifies the orientation of a coordinate system


(e.g. marker or part) by directing one of the
axes. Adams/View will assign an arbitrary
rotation about the axis.

in_plane_orientation

Location

Specifies the orientation of a coordinate system


(e.g. marker or part) by directing one of the axes
and locating one of the coordinate planes.

relative_to

Existing model, part or


marker

Specifies the coordinate system that location


coordinates and orientation angles are with
respect to.

i_marker_name

Existing marker

Specifies a marker on the first of two parts


connected by this joint.

j_marker_name

Existing marker

Specifies a marker on the second of two parts


connected by this joint.

Extended Definition:
1. Adams/View will not allow you to have two jprims with the same full name, so you must provide
a unique name.
Normally, entity names are composed of alphabetic, numeric, or '_' (underscore) characters, and
start with an alphabetic or '_' character. They may be any length.
By enclosing the name in double quotes, you may use other printable characters, or start the name
with a numeral. If a name contains characters, or starts with a numeral, you must always quote the
name when entering it.
Note that you can specify the parentage of an entity (e.g. what part "owns" a marker or a geometry
element) when you CREATE it by changing the name. If you enter just the entity name, then the
default parent will be assigned by Adams/View. If you type in the full name, then you may over
ride the default parent. In most cases, when creating an entity, Adams/View will provide a default
name. The default name that Adams/View provides will specify the parentage that it has assumed.
You may, or course, delete this name and use your own. The form of a full name is:
"...._NAME.GRAND_PARENT_NAME.PARENT_NAME.ENTITY_NAME"

constraint 97
constraint create primitive_joint inline

The number of levels used varies from case to case and the parentage must exist before an entity
can be assigned to it.
2. When you use the FILE ADAMS_DATA_SET WRITE command, Adams/View writes an
Adams data file for your model. Adams requires that each modeling element be identified by a
unique integer identifier. If you use this parameter to specify a non-zero identifier, Adams/View
will use it in the corresponding statement in the Adams data file.
You may also enter zero as an identifier, either explicitly or by default. The next time you write
an Adams file, Adams/View will replace the zero with a unique, internally-generated identifier.
Adams/View will permanently store this identifier with the element just as if you had entered it
yourself.
Normally, you would let all identifiers default to zero, and Adams/View would generate the
identifiers for you. You are never required to enter a non-zero identifier. You only need to specify
it if, for some reason, you wish to control the Adams file output.
3. For the location parameter, the I and J markers will be automatically created at this location on
the I_PART_NAME and J_PART_NAME respectively.
By default, you supply Cartesian (x, y, z) coordinates. You may use the 'defaults units
coordinate_system_type =' command to change this convention. For example, selecting
'cylindrical' means you will subsequently be supplying r, theta, and z coordinates.
Adams/View applies your location coordinates in the coordinate system you identify with the
RELATIVE_TO parameter. The default for the RELATIVE_TO parameter is the default
coordinate system. (See the RELATIVE_TO parameter for this command).
4. The I marker is oriented based on the J marker orientation and the requirements of the particular
constraint being created. These markers are created automatically.
Adams/View will orient the coordinate system by starting from the initial coordinate system and
applying three successive rotations. Depending on the convention you have selected, the rotations
may occur about space-fixed or body-fixed axes in any meaningful combination of the x, y, and
z axes.
By default, you supply Euler (body313, or body-fixed z, x, z) angles. You may change this
convention with the 'DEFAULTS UNITS ORIENTATION_TYPE=' command. For example,
selecting SPACE123 means you will subsequently be supplying space-fixed x, y, and z angles.
Adams/View applies your orientation angles starting from the coordinate system you identify
with the RELATIVE_TO parameter. The default for the RELATIVE_TO parameter is the default
coordinate system.
5. You may enter either one or two locations to direct the axis. If you enter one location, the axis will
point toward the location. If you specify two locations, the axis will be parallel to, and pointing
the same way as, the vector from the first location to the second.
Note that this does not completely dictate the orientation of the coordinate system. Adams/View
will position the coordinate system with an arbitrary rotation about the axis. If you must
completely control the coordinate system orientation, use ORIENTATION or
IN_PLANE_ORIENTATION.

98 Adams/View Commands
constraint create primitive_joint inline

By default, you direct the Z axis of the coordinate system. You may change this convention with
the 'DEFAULTS ORIENT_AXIS_AND_PLANE AXIS_AND_PLANE_SETTING=' command.
For example, selecting either X_AXIS_XY_PLANE or X_AXIS_XZ_PLANE means you will
subsequently be directing the X axis. The plane-convention setting does not affect this parameter.
Adams/View applies your location coordinates in the coordinate system you identify with the
RELATIVE_TO parameter. The default for the RELATIVE_TO parameter is the default
coordinate system.
6. For the in_plane_orientation parameter, you may enter either two or three locations. If you enter
two locations, the axis will point toward the first location and the plane will fall on the second. If
you specify three locations, the axis will be parallel to, and pointing the same way as, the vector
from the first location to the second and the plane will be parallel to the plane defined by the three
locations.
By default, you direct the Z axis of the coordinate system and locate the ZX plane. You may use
the 'DEFAULTS ORIENT_AXIS_AND_PLANE AXIS_AND_PLANE_SETTING=' command
to change this convention. For example, selecting X_AXIS_XY_PLANE means you will
subsequently be directing the X axis and locating the XY plane.
Adams/View applies your location coordinates in the coordinate system you identify with the
RELATIVE_TO parameter. The default for the RELATIVE_TO parameter is the default
coordinate system.
7. If the relative_to parameter is not specified, the default coordinate system is used. The default
coordinate system is initially your model, i.e. the global coordinate system. You may change the
default coordinate system using the 'defaults coordinate_system' command.
8. An inline joint primitive indicates a four-degree-of-freedom joint primitive that allows one
translational and three rotational motions of one part with respect to another.
For an inline primitive, Adams imposes two translational constraints, which confine the
translational motion of the I marker to the line defined by the z-axis of the J marker.
Tip:

Adams/View connects one part at the I marker to the other at the J marker. These markers
are automatically generated using this method of joint creation.

constraint 99
constraint create primitive_joint inplane

constraint create primitive_joint inplane


Allows the creation of an inplane joint primitive.
Format:
constraint create primitive_joint inplane
jprim_name = a new primitive joint name
adams_id = integer
comments = string
i_part_name = existing body
j_part_name = existing body
location = location
orientation = location
along_axis_orientation = location
in_plane_orientation = location
relative_to = existing model, part or marker
i_marker_name = existing marker
j_marker_name = existing marker
Example:
constraint create primitive_joint inplane &
jprim_name =
adams_id =
comments =

JPRIM__1 &
2&
"comment string" &

i_part_name =

part_1 &

j_part_name =

part_2 &

location =

10 , 10 , 5 &

orientation =

1 , 2 , 1 &

relative_to =

ground &

i_marker_name =

marker_1 &

j_marker_name =

marker_2

100 Adams/View Commands


constraint create primitive_joint inplane

Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

jprim_name

A NEW
PRIMITIVE
JOINT

Specifies the name of the new jprim.

adams_id

ADAMS_ID

Specifies an integer used to identify this element in the


Adams data file.

comments

STRING

Specifies comments for the object being created or


modified.

i_part_name

AN EXISTING
BODY

Specifies the part that is the first of two parts connected


by this joint.

j_part_name

AN EXISTING
BODY

Specifies the part that is the second of two parts


connected by this joint.

location

LOCATION

Specifies the locations to be used to define the position of


a constraint during its creation.

orientation

ORIENTATION

Specifies the orientation of the J marker for the constraint


being created using three rotation angles.

along_axis_orientation LOCATION

Specifies the orientation of a coordinate system (e.g.


marker or part) by directing one of the axes. Adams/View
will assign an arbitrary rotation about the axis.

in_plane_orientation

LOCATION

Specifies the orientation of a coordinate system (e.g.


marker or part) by directing one of the axes and locating
one of the coordinate planes.

relative_to

AN EXISTING
MODEL, PART
OR MARKER

Specifies the coordinate system that location coordinates


and orientation angles are with respect to.

i_marker_name

AN EXISTING
MARKER

Specifies a marker on the first of two parts connected by


this joint.

j_marker_name

AN EXISTING
MARKER

Specifies a marker on the second of two parts connected


by this joint.

Extended Definition:
1. For an inplane primitive, Adams imposes one translational constraint, which confines the
translational motion of the I marker to the x-y plane of the J marker.
2. Normally, entity names like the jprim_name are composed of alphabetic, numeric, or '_'
(underscore) characters, and start with an alphabetic or '_' character. They may be any length. By
enclosing the name in double quotes, you may use other printable characters, or start the name
with a numeral. If a name contains characters, or starts with a numeral, you must always quote the
name when entering it. Note that you can specify the parentage of an entity (e.g. what part "owns"

constraint 101
constraint create primitive_joint inplane

a marker or a geometry element) when you CREATE it by changing the name. If you enter just
the entity name, then the default parent will be assigned by Adams/View. If you type in the full
name, then you may over ride the default parent. In most cases, when creating an entity,
Adams/View will provide a default name. The default name that Adams/View provides will
specify the parentage that it has assumed. You may, or course, delete this name and use your own.
The form of a full name is:
"...._NAME.GRAND_PARENT_NAME.PARENT_NAME.ENTITY_NAME"
The number of levels used varies from case to case and the parentage must exist before an entity
can be assigned to it.
3. When you use the FILE ADAMS_DATA_SET WRITE command, Adams/View writes an
Adams data file for your model. Adams requires that each modeling element be identified by a
unique integer identifier. If you use this parameter to specify a non-zero identifier, Adams/View
will use it in the corresponding statement in the Adams data file. You may also enter zero as an
identifier, either explicitly or by default. The next time you write an Adams file, Adams/View will
replace the zero with a unique, internally-generated identifier. Adams/View will permanently
store this identifier with the element just as if you had entered it yourself. Normally, you would
let all identifiers default to zero, and Adams/View would generate the identifiers for you. You are
never required to enter a non-zero identifier. You only need to specify it if, for some reason, you
wish to control the Adams file output.
4. When an Adams/Solver data file (.adm) is read into Adams/View, all comments associated with
a statement (from the end of the previous statement through the end of the current statement) are
stored with the object. Comments in the data file can be associated with model. These comments
must follow the title statement and be followed by the comment 'END OF MODEL
COMMENTS'. This string must be uppercase. When an Adams/Solver data file is written, the
comments for an object are written before the statement corresponding to the object.
5. Adams/View will orient the coordinate system by starting from the initial coordinate system and
applying three successive rotations. Depending on the convention you have selected, the rotations
may occur about space-fixed or bodyfixed axes in any meaningful combination of the x, y, and z
axes.
By default, you supply Euler (body313, or body-fixed z, x, z) angles. You may change this
convention with the 'DEFAULTS UNITS ORIENTATION_TYPE=' command. For example,
selecting SPACE123 means you will subsequently be supplying space-fixed x, y, and z angles.
Adams/View applies your orientation angles starting from the coordinate system you identify
with the RELATIVE_TO parameter. The default for the RELATIVE_TO parameter is the default
coordinate system.
6. For the along_axis_orientation parameter you may enter either one or two locations to direct the
axis. If you enter one location, the axis will point toward the location. If you specify two locations,
the axis will be parallel to, and pointing the same way as, the vector from the first location to the
second. Note that this does not completely dictate the orientation of the coordinate system.
Adams/View will osition the coordinate system with an arbitrary rotation about the axis. If you
must completely control the coordinate system orientation, use ORIENTATION or
IN_PLANE_ORIENTATION. By default, you direct the Z axis of the coordinate system.

102 Adams/View Commands


constraint create primitive_joint inplane

You may change this convention with the 'DEFAULTS ORIENT_AXIS_AND_PLANE


AXIS_AND_PLANE_SETTING=' command. For example, selecting either
X_AXIS_XY_PLANE or X_AXIS_XZ_PLANE means you will subsequently be directing the X
axis. The plane-convention setting does not affect this parameter. Adams/View applies your
location coordinates in the coordinate system you identify with the RELATIVE_TO parameter.
The default for the RELATIVE_TO parameter is the default coordinate system.
7. For the in_plane_orientation parameter you may enter either two or three locations. If you enter
two locations, the axis will point toward the first location and the plane will fall on the second. If
you specify three locations, the axis will be parallel to, and pointing the same way as, the vector
from the first location to the second and the plane will be parallel to the plane defined by the three
locations. By default, you direct the Z axis of the coordinate system and locate the ZX plane. You
may use the 'DEFAULTS ORIENT_AXIS_AND_PLANE AXIS_AND_PLANE_SETTING='
command to change this convention. For example, selecting X_AXIS_XY_PLANE means you
will subsequently be directing the X axis and locating the XY plane. Adams/View applies your
location coordinates in the coordinate system you identify with the RELATIVE_TO parameter.
The default for the RELATIVE_TO parameter is the default coordinate system.
8. If the relative_to parameter is not specified, the default coordinate system is used. The default
coordinate system is initially your model, i.e. the global coordinate system. You may change the
default coordinate system using the 'defaults coordinate_system' command.
9. An inplane joint primitive indicates a five-degree-of-freedom joint primitive that allows both
translational and rotational motion of one part with respect to another.
Tip:

1. You may use the jprim_name later to refer to this jprim. Adams/View will not allow
you to have two jprims with the same full name, so you must provide a unique
name.
2. Adams/View connects one part at the I marker to the other at the J marker. These
markers are automatically generated using this method of joint creation.
3. The I and J markers will be automatically created at this location on the
I_PART_NAME and J_PART_NAME respectively.
4. The I marker is oriented based on the J marker orientation and the requirements of
the particular constraint being created. These markers are created automatically.

constraint 103
constraint create primitive_joint orientation

constraint create primitive_joint orientation


Allows the creation of an orientation joint primitive.
Format:
constraint create primitive_joint orientation
jprim_name =

a new primitive joint name

adams_id =

integer

comments =

string

i_part_name =

an existing body

j_part_name =

an existing body

location =

location

orientation =

location

along_axis_orientation =

location

in_plane_orientation =

location

relative_to =

an existing model, part or marker

i_marker_name =

an existing marker

j_marker_name =

an existing marker

Example:
constraint create primitive_joint orientation &
jprim_name =

JPRIM__1 &

adams_id =

2 &

comments =

"comment string" &

i_part_name =

part_1 &

j_part_name =

part_2 &

location =

10 , 10 , 5 &

orientation =

1 , 2 , 1 &

relative_to =

ground &

i_marker_name =

marker_1 &

j_marker_name =

marker_2

104 Adams/View Commands


constraint create primitive_joint orientation

Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

jprim_name

A New Primative
Joint

Specifies the name of the new jprim.

adams_id

Adams_id

Specifies an integer used to identify this element in


the Adams data file.

comments

String

Specifies comments for the object being created or


modified.

i_part_name

An Existing Body

Specifies the part that is the first of two parts


connected by this joint.

j_part_name

An Existing Body

Specifies the part that is the second of two parts


connected by this joint.

location

Location

Specifies the locations to be used to define the


position of a constraint during its creation.

orientation

Orientation

Specifies the orientation of the J marker for the


constraint being created using three rotation angles.

along_axis_orientation Location

Specifies the orientation of a coordinate system (e.g.


marker or part) by directing one of the axes.
Adams/View will assign an arbitrary rotation about
the axis.

in_plane_orientation

Location

Specifies the orientation of a coordinate system (e.g.


marker or part) by directing one of the axes and
locating one of thecoordinate planes.

relative_to

An Existing Model,
Part Or Marker

Specifies the coordinate system that location


coordinates and orientation angles are with respect
to.

i_marker_name

An Existing Marker

Specifies a marker on the first of two parts connected


by this joint.

j_marker_name

An Existing Marker

Specifies a marker on the second of two parts


connected by this joint.

Extended Definition:
1. For an orientation primitive, Adams imposes three rotational constraints to keep the orientation
of the I marker identical to the orientation of the J marker.
2. Normally, entity names like the jprim_name are composed of alphabetic, numeric, or '_'
(underscore) characters, and start with an alphabetic or '_' character. They may be any length. By
enclosing the name in double quotes, you may use other printable characters, or start the name
with a numeral. If a name contains characters, or starts with a numeral, you must always quote the
name when entering it. Note that you can specify the parentage of an entity (e.g. what part "owns"

constraint 105
constraint create primitive_joint orientation

a marker or a geometry element) when you CREATE it by changing the name. If you enter just
the entity name, then the default parent will be assigned by Adams/View. If you type in the full
name, then you may over ride the default parent. In most cases, when creating an entity,
Adams/View will provide a default name. The default name that Adams/View provides will
specify the parentage that it has assumed. You may, or course, delete this name and use your own.
The form of a full name is:
"...._NAME.GRAND_PARENT_NAME.PARENT_NAME.ENTITY_NAME"
The number of levels used varies from case to case and the parentage must exist before an entity
can be assigned to it.
3. When you use the FILE ADAMS_DATA_SET WRITE command, Adams/View writes an
Adams data file for your model. Adams requires that each modeling element be identified by a
unique integer identifier. If you use this parameter to specify a non-zero identifier, Adams/View
will use it in the corresponding statement in the Adams data file. You may also enter zero as an
identifier, either explicitly or by default. The next time you write an Adams file, Adams/View will
replace the zero with a unique, internally-generated identifier. Adams/View will permanently
store this identifier with the element just as if you had entered it yourself. Normally, you would
let all identifiers default to zero, and Adams/View would generate the identifiers for you. You are
never required to enter a non-zero identifier. You only need to specify it if, for some reason, you
wish to control the Adams file output.
4. When an Adams/Solver data file (.adm) is read into Adams/View, all comments associated with
a statement (from the end of the previous statement through the end of the current statement) are
stored with the object. Comments in the data file can be associated with model. These comments
must follow the title statement and be followed by the comment 'END OF MODEL
COMMENTS'. This string must be uppercase. When an Adams/Solver data file is written, the
comments for an object are written before the statement corresponding to the object.
5. Adams/View will orient the coordinate system by starting from the initial coordinate system and
applying three successive rotations. Depending on the convention you have selected, the rotations
may occur about space-fixed or bodyfixed axes in any meaningful combination of the x, y, and z
axes.
By default, you supply Euler (body313, or body-fixed z, x, z) angles. You may change this
convention with the 'DEFAULTS UNITS ORIENTATION_TYPE=' command. For example,
selecting SPACE123 means you will subsequently be supplying space-fixed x, y, and z angles.
Adams/View applies your orientation angles starting from the coordinate system you identify
with the RELATIVE_TO parameter. The default for the RELATIVE_TO parameter is the default
coordinate system.
6. For the along_axis_orientation parameter you may enter either one or two locations to direct the
axis. If you enter one location, the axis will point toward the location. If you specify two locations,
the axis will be parallel to, and pointing the same way as, the vector from the first location to the
second. Note that this does not completely dictate the orientation of the coordinate system.
Adams/View will osition the coordinate system with an arbitrary rotation about the axis. If you
must completely control the coordinate system orientation, use ORIENTATION or
IN_PLANE_ORIENTATION. By default, you direct the Z axis of the coordinate system.

106 Adams/View Commands


constraint create primitive_joint orientation

You may change this convention with the 'DEFAULTS ORIENT_AXIS_AND_PLANE


AXIS_AND_PLANE_SETTING=' command. For example, selecting either
X_AXIS_XY_PLANE or X_AXIS_XZ_PLANE means you will subsequently be directing the X
axis. The plane-convention setting does not affect this parameter. Adams/View applies your
location coordinates in the coordinate system you identify with the RELATIVE_TO parameter.
The default for the RELATIVE_TO parameter is the default coordinate system.
7. For the in_plane_orientation parameter you may enter either two or three locations. If you enter
two locations, the axis will point toward the first location and the plane will fall on the second. If
you specify three locations, the axis will be parallel to, and pointing the same way as, the vector
from the first location to the second and the plane will be parallel to the plane defined by the three
locations. By default, you direct the Z axis of the coordinate system and locate the ZX plane. You
may use the 'DEFAULTS ORIENT_AXIS_AND_PLANE AXIS_AND_PLANE_SETTING='
command to change this convention. For example, selecting X_AXIS_XY_PLANE means you
will subsequently be directing the X axis and locating the XY plane. Adams/View applies your
location coordinates in the coordinate system you identify with the RELATIVE_TO parameter.
The default for the RELATIVE_TO parameter is the default coordinate system.
8. If the relative_to parameter is not specified, the default coordinate system is used. The default
coordinate system is initially your model, i.e. the global coordinate system. You may change the
default coordinate system using the 'defaults coordinate_system' command.
9. An orientation joint primitive indicates a three-degree-of-freedom joint primitive that allows only
translational motion of one part with respect to another.
Tip:

1. You may use the jprim_name later to refer to this jprim. Adams/View will not allow
you to have two jprims with the same full name, so you must provide a unique
name.
2. Adams/View connects one part at the I marker to the other at the J marker. These
markers are automatically generated using this method of joint creation.
3. The I and J markers will be automatically created at this location on the
I_PART_NAME and J_PART_NAME respectively.
4. The I marker is oriented based on the J marker orientation and the requirements of
the particular constraint being created. These markers are created automatically.

constraint 107
constraint create primitive_joint parallel_axis

constraint create primitive_joint parallel_axis


Allows creation of a parallel axis joint primitive.
Format:
constraint create primitive_joint parallel_axis
jprim_name =

a new primitive joint name

adams_id =

integer

comments =

string

i_part_name =

an existing body

j_part_name =

an existing body

location =

location

orientation =

location

along_axis_orientation =

location

in_plane_orientation =

location

relative_to =

an existing model, part or marker

i_marker_name =

an existing marker

j_marker_name =

an existing marker

Example:
constraint create primitive_joint parallel_axis &
jprim_name =

JPRIM__1 &

adams_id =

2 &

comments =

"comment string" &

i_part_name =

part_1 &

j_part_name =

part_2 &

location =

10 , 10 , 5 &

orientation =

1 , 2 , 1

relative_to =

ground &

i_marker_name =

marker_1 &

j_marker_name =

marker_2

108 Adams/View Commands


constraint create primitive_joint parallel_axis

Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

jprim_name

A New Primative
Joint

Specifies the name of the new jprim.

adams_id

Adams_id

Specifies an integer used to identify this element in


the Adams data file.

comments

String

Specifies comments for the object being created or


modified.

i_part_name

An Existing Body

Specifies the part that is the first of two parts


connected by this joint.

j_part_name

An Existing Body

Specifies the part that is the second of two parts


connected by this joint.

location

Location

Specifies the locations to be used to define the


position of a constraint during its creation.

orientation

Orientation

Specifies the orientation of the J marker for the


constraint being created using three rotation angles.

along_axis_orientation Location

Specifies the orientation of a coordinate system (e.g.


marker or part) by directing one of the axes.
Adams/View will assign an arbitrary rotation about
the axis.

in_plane_orientation

Location

Specifies the orientation of a coordinate system (e.g.


marker or part) by directing one of the axes and
locating one of the coordinate planes.

relative_to

An Existing Model,
Part Or Marker

Specifies the coordinate system that location


coordinates and orientation angles are with respect to.

i_marker_name

An Existing Marker

Specifies a marker on the first of two parts connected


by this joint. Adams/View connects one part at the I
marker to the other at the J marker.

j_marker_name

An Existing Marker

Specifies a marker on the second of two parts


connected by this joint.

Extended Definition:
1. For a parallel axis primitive, Adams imposes two rotational constraints so that the z-axis of the I
marker stays parallel to the z-axis of the J marker. This primitive permits relative rotation about
the common z-axis of I and J and permits all relative displacements.
2. Normally, entity names like the jprim_name are composed of alphabetic, numeric, or '_'
(underscore) characters, and start with an alphabetic or '_' character. They may be any length. By
enclosing the name in double quotes, you may use other printable characters, or start the name
with a numeral. If a name contains characters, or starts with a numeral, you must always quote the

constraint 109
constraint create primitive_joint parallel_axis

name when entering it. Note that you can specify the parentage of an entity (e.g. what part "owns"
a marker or a geometry element) when you CREATE it by changing the name. If you enter just
the entity name, then the default parent will be assigned by Adams/View. If you type in the full
name, then you may over ride the default parent. In most cases, when creating an entity,
Adams/View will provide a default name. The default name that Adams/View provides will
specify the parentage that it has assumed. You may, or course, delete this name and use your own.
The form of a full name is:
"...._NAME.GRAND_PARENT_NAME.PARENT_NAME.ENTITY_NAME"
The number of levels used varies from case to case and the parentage must exist before an entity
can be assigned to it.
3. When you use the FILE ADAMS_DATA_SET WRITE command, Adams/View writes an
Adams data file for your model. Adams requires that each modeling element be identified by a
unique integer identifier. If you use this parameter to specify a non-zero identifier, Adams/View
will use it in the corresponding statement in the Adams data file. You may also enter zero as an
identifier, either explicitly or by default. The next time you write an Adams file, Adams/View will
replace the zero with a unique, internally-generated identifier. Adams/View will permanently
store this identifier with the element just as if you had entered it yourself. Normally, you would
let all identifiers default to zero, and Adams/View would generate the identifiers for you. You are
never required to enter a non-zero identifier. You only need to specify it if, for some reason, you
wish to control the Adams file output.
4. When an Adams/Solver data file (.adm) is read into Adams/View, all comments associated with
a statement (from the end of the previous statement through the end of the current statement) are
stored with the object. Comments in the data file can be associated with model. These comments
must follow the title statement and be followed by the comment 'END OF MODEL
COMMENTS'. This string must be uppercase. When an Adams/Solver data file is written, the
comments for an object are written before the statement corresponding to the object.
5. Adams/View will orient the coordinate system by starting from the initial coordinate system and
applying three successive rotations. Depending on the convention you have selected, the rotations
may occur about space-fixed or bodyfixed axes in any meaningful combination of the x, y, and z
axes.
By default, you supply Euler (body313, or body-fixed z, x, z) angles. You may change this
convention with the 'DEFAULTS UNITS ORIENTATION_TYPE=' command. For example,
selecting SPACE123 means you will subsequently be supplying space-fixed x, y, and z angles.
Adams/View applies your orientation angles starting from the coordinate system you identify
with the RELATIVE_TO parameter. The default for the RELATIVE_TO parameter is the default
coordinate system.
6. For the along_axis_orientation parameter you may enter either one or two locations to direct the
axis. If you enter one location, the axis will point toward the location. If you specify two locations,
the axis will be parallel to, and pointing the same way as, the vector from the first location to the
second. Note that this does not completely dictate the orientation of the coordinate system.
Adams/View will osition the coordinate system with an arbitrary rotation about the axis. If you
must completely control the coordinate system orientation, use ORIENTATION or
IN_PLANE_ORIENTATION. By default, you direct the Z axis of the coordinate system.

110 Adams/View Commands


constraint create primitive_joint parallel_axis

You may change this convention with the 'DEFAULTS ORIENT_AXIS_AND_PLANE


AXIS_AND_PLANE_SETTING=' command. For example, selecting either
X_AXIS_XY_PLANE or X_AXIS_XZ_PLANE means you will subsequently be directing the X
axis. The plane-convention setting does not affect this parameter. Adams/View applies your
location coordinates in the coordinate system you identify with the RELATIVE_TO parameter.
The default for the RELATIVE_TO parameter is the default coordinate system.
7. For the in_plane_orientation parameter you may enter either two or three locations. If you enter
two locations, the axis will point toward the first location and the plane will fall on the second. If
you specify three locations, the axis will be parallel to, and pointing the same way as, the vector
from the first location to the second and the plane will be parallel to the plane defined by the three
locations. By default, you direct the Z axis of the coordinate system and locate the ZX plane. You
may use the 'DEFAULTS ORIENT_AXIS_AND_PLANE AXIS_AND_PLANE_SETTING='
command to change this convention. For example, selecting X_AXIS_XY_PLANE means you
will subsequently be directing the X axis and locating the XY plane. Adams/View applies your
location coordinates in the coordinate system you identify with the RELATIVE_TO parameter.
The default for the RELATIVE_TO parameter is the default coordinate system.
8. If the relative_to parameter is not specified, the default coordinate system is used. The default
coordinate system is initially your model, i.e. the global coordinate system. You may change the
default coordinate system using the 'defaults coordinate_system' command.
9. A parallel joint primitive is a four-degree-of-freedom joint primitive that allows both translational
and rotational motion of one part with respect to another.
Tip:

1. You may use the jprim_name later to refer to this jprim. Adams/View will not allow
you to have two jprims with the same full name, so you must provide a unique
name.
2. Adams/View connects one part at the I marker to the other at the J marker. These
markers are automatically generated using this method of joint creation.
3. The I and J markers will be automatically created at this location on the
I_PART_NAME and J_PART_NAME respectively.
4. The I marker is oriented based on the J marker orientation and the requirements of
the particular constraint being created. These markers are created automatically.

constraint 111
constraint create primitive_joint perpendicular

constraint create primitive_joint perpendicular


Allows the creation of a perpendicular joint primitive.
Format:
Constraint create primitive_joint perpendicular
jprim_name = new primitive joint name
adams_id = geom_id
comments = string
i_part_name = existing body
j_part_name = Existing body
location =

location

Orientation = orientation
along_axis_orientation = location
in_plane_orientation = location
relative_to =

existing part, body or marker

i_marker_name = existing marker name


j_marker_name = existing marker name
Example:
constraint create primitive_joint perpendicular &
jprim_name =

JPRIM__1 &

i_marker_name =

MARKER_1 &

j_marker_name = MARKER_11
Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

Jprim_name

New primitive joint


name

Specifies the name of the new jprim. You may


use this name later to refer to this jprim.

adams_id

Integer

Specifies an integer used to identify this element


in the Adams data file.

Comments

String

Specifies comments for the object being created


or modified.

112 Adams/View Commands


constraint create primitive_joint perpendicular

Parameter

Value Type

Description

i_part_name

Existing body

Specifies the part that is the first of two parts


connected by this joint.

j_part_name

Existing body

Specifies the part that is the second of two parts


connected by this joint.

location

Location

Specifies the locations to be used to define the


position of a constraint during its creation.

orientation

Orientation

Specifies the orientation of the J marker for the


constraint being created using three rotation
angles. The I marker is oriented based on the J
marker orientation and the requirements of the
particular constraint being created. These
markers are created automatically.

along_axis_orientation

Location

Specifies the orientation of a coordinate system


(e.g. marker or part) by directing one of the axes.
Adams/View will assign an arbitrary rotation
about the axis.

in_plane_orientation

Location

Specifies the orientation of a coordinate system


(e.g. marker or part) by directing one of the axes
and locating one of the coordinate planes.

relative_to

Existing part, body or


marker

Specifies the coordinate system that location


coordinates and orientation angles are with
respect to.

i_marker_name

Existing marker name

Specifies a marker on the first of two parts


connected by this joint.
Adams/View connects one part at the I marker to
the other at the J marker.

j_marker_name

Existing marker name

Specifies a marker on the second of two parts


connected by this joint.
Adams/View connects one part at the I marker to
the other at the J
marker.

Extended Definition:
1. Adams/View will not allow you to have two jprims with the same full name, so you must provide
a unique name.
Normally, entity names are composed of alphabetic, numeric, or '_' (underscore) characters, and
start with an alphabetic or '_' character. They may be any length.

constraint 113
constraint create primitive_joint perpendicular

By enclosing the name in double quotes, you may use other printable characters, or start the name
with a numeral. If a name contains characters, or starts with a numeral, you must always quote the
name when entering it.
Note that you can specify the parentage of an entity (e.g. what part "owns" a marker or a geometry
element) when you CREATE it by changing the name. If you enter just the entity name, then the
default parent will be assigned by Adams/View. If you type in the full name, then you may over
ride the default parent. In most cases, when creating an entity, Adams/View will provide a default
name. The default name that Adams/View provides will specify the parentage that it has assumed.
You may, or course, delete this name and use your own. The form of a full name is:
"...._NAME.GRAND_PARENT_NAME.PARENT_NAME.ENTITY_NAME"
The number of levels used varies from case to case and the parentage must exist before an entity
can be assigned to it.
2. When you use the FILE ADAMS_DATA_SET WRITE command, Adams/View writes an
Adams data file for your model. Adams requires that each modeling element be identified by a
unique integer identifier. If you use this parameter to specify a non-zero identifier, Adams/View
will use it in the corresponding statement in the Adams data file.
You may also enter zero as an identifier, either explicitly or by default. The next time you write
an Adams file, Adams/View will replace the zero with a unique, internally-generated identifier.
Adams/View will permanently store this identifier with the element just as if you had entered it
yourself.
Normally, you would let all identifiers default to zero, and Adams/View would generate the
identifiers for you. You are never required to enter a non-zero identifier. You only need to specify
it if, for some reason, you wish to control the Adams file output.
3. By default, you supply Cartesian (x, y, z) coordinates. You may use the 'defaults units
coordinate_system_type =' command to change this convention. For example, selecting
'cylindrical' means you will subsequently be supplying r, theta, and z coordinates.
Adams/View applies your location coordinates in the coordinate system you identify with the
RELATIVE_TO parameter. The default for the RELATIVE_TO parameter is the default
coordinate system. (See the RELATIVE_TO parameter for this command).
4. Adams/View will orient the coordinate system by starting from the initial coordinate system and
applying three successive rotations. Depending on the convention you have selected, the rotations
may occur about space-fixed or body-fixed axes in any meaningful combination of the x, y, and
z axes.
By default, you supply Euler (body313, or body-fixed z, x, z) angles. You may change this
convention with the 'DEFAULTS UNITS ORIENTATION_TYPE=' command. For example,
selecting SPACE123 means you will subsequently be supplying space-fixed x, y, and z angles.
Adams/View applies your orientation angles starting from the coordinate system you identify
with the RELATIVE_TO parameter. The default for the RELATIVE_TO parameter is the default
coordinate system.

114 Adams/View Commands


constraint create primitive_joint perpendicular

5. For the along_axis_orientation parameter, you may enter either one or two locations to direct
the axis. If you enter one location, the axis will point toward the location. If you specify two
locations, the axis will be parallel to, and pointing the same way as, the vector from the first
location to the second.
Note that this does not completely dictate the orientation of the coordinate system. Adams/View
will position the coordinate system with an arbitrary rotation about the axis. If you must
completely control the coordinate system orientation, use ORIENTATION or
IN_PLANE_ORIENTATION.
By default, you direct the Z axis of the coordinate system. You may change this convention with
the 'DEFAULTS ORIENT_AXIS_AND_PLANE AXIS_AND_PLANE_SETTING=' command.
For example, selecting either X_AXIS_XY_PLANE or X_AXIS_XZ_PLANE means you will
subsequently be directing the X axis. The plane-convention setting does not affect this parameter.
Adams/View applies your location coordinates in the coordinate system you identify with the
RELATIVE_TO parameter. The default for the RELATIVE_TO parameter is the default
coordinate system.
6. For the in_plane_orientation parameter, you may enter either two or three locations. If you enter
two locations, the axis will point toward the first location and the plane will fall on the second. If
you specify three locations, the axis will be parallel to, and pointing the same way as, the vector
from the first location to the second and the plane will be parallel to the plane defined by the three
locations.
By default, you direct the Z axis of the coordinate system and locate the ZX plane. You may use
the 'DEFAULTS ORIENT_AXIS_AND_PLANE AXIS_AND_PLANE_SETTING=' command
to change this convention. For example, selecting X_AXIS_XY_PLANE means you will
subsequently be directing the X axis and locating the XY plane.
Adams/View applies your location coordinates in the coordinate system you identify with the
RELATIVE_TO parameter. The default for the RELATIVE_TO parameter is the default
coordinate system.
7. If the relative_to parameter is not specified, the default coordinate system is used. The default
coordinate system is initially your model, i.e. the global coordinate system. You may change the
default coordinate system using the 'defaults coordinate_system' command.
8. A perpendicular joint primitive is a five-degree-of-freedom joint primitive that allows both
translational and rotational motion of one part with respect to another.
For a perpendicular primitive, Adams imposes a single rotational constraint on the I and the J
markers so that their z-axes remain perpendicular. This allows relative rotations about either zaxis, but does not allow any relative rotation in the direction perpendicular to both z-axes.
Tip:

1. Adams/View connects one part at the I marker to the other at the J marker. These
markers are automatically generated using this method of joint creation.
2. The I and J markers will be automatically created at this location on the
I_PART_NAME and J_PART_NAME respectively.

constraint 115
constraint create primitive_joint point _point

constraint create primitive_joint point _point


Allows the creation of an point_point joint primitive.
Format:
constraint create primitive_joint point_point
prim_name = new primitive joint
adams_id = integer
comments = string
i_part_name = existing body
j_part_name = existing body
location = location
Orientation = orientation
along_axis_orientation = location
in_plane_orientation = location
relative_to = existing model, part or marker
i_marker_name = existing marker
j_marker_name = existing marker
offset = length
Example:
constraint create primitive_joint point_point &
jprim_name = JPRIM__1 &
i_marker_name = MARKER_10 &
j_marker_name = MARKER_12 &
offset = 2

116 Adams/View Commands


constraint create primitive_joint point _point

Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

jprim_name

New primitive joint


name

Specifies the name of the new jprim. You may use


this name later to refer to this jprim.

adams_id

Integer

Specifies an integer used to identify this element


in the Adams data file.

comments

String

Specifies comments for the object being created


or modified.

i_part_name

Existing body

Specifies the part that is the first of two parts


connected by this joint.

j_part_name

Existing body

Specifies the part that is the second of two parts


connected by this joint.

location

Location

Specifies the locations to be used to define the


position of a constraint during its creation.

orientation

Orientation

Specifies the orientation of the J marker for the


constraint being created using three rotation
angles.

along_axis_orientation Location

Specifies the orientation of a coordinate system


(e.g. marker or part) by directing one of the axes.
Adams/View will assign an arbitrary rotation
about the axis.

in_plane_orientation

Location

Specifies the orientation of a coordinate system


(e.g. marker or part) by directing one of the axes
and locating one of the coordinate planes.

relative_to

Existing model, part or


marker

Specifies the coordinate system that location


coordinates and orientation angles are with
respect to.

i_marker_name

Existing marker

Specifies a marker on the first of two parts


connected by this joint.

j_marker_name

Existing marker

Specifies a marker on the second of two parts


connected by this joint.

offset

Length

Specifies the prescribed distance between the two


points.

Extended Definition:
1. Adams/View will not allow you to have two jprims with the same full name, so you must provide
a unique name.

constraint 117
constraint create primitive_joint point _point

Normally, entity names are composed of alphabetic, numeric, or '_' (underscore) characters, and
start with an alphabetic or '_' character. They may be any length.
By enclosing the name in double quotes, you may use other printable characters, or start the name
with a numeral. If a name contains characters, or starts with a numeral, you must always quote the
name when entering it.
Note that you can specify the parentage of an entity (e.g. what part "owns" a marker or a geometry
element) when you CREATE it by changing the name. If you enter just the entity name, then the
default parent will be assigned by Adams/View. If you type in the full name, then you may over
ride the default parent. In most cases, when creating an entity, Adams/View will provide a default
name. The default name that Adams/View provides will specify the parentage that it has assumed.
You may, or course, delete this name and use your own. The form of a full name is:
"...._NAME.GRAND_PARENT_NAME.PARENT_NAME.ENTITY_NAME". The number of
levels used varies from case to case and the parentage must exist before an entity can be assigned
to it.
2. When you use the FILE ADAMS_DATA_SET WRITE command, Adams/View writes an Adams
data file for your model. Adams requires that each modeling element be identified by a unique
integer identifier. If you use this parameter to specify a non-zero identifier, Adams/View will use
it in the corresponding statement in the Adams data file.
You may also enter zero as an identifier, either explicitly or by default. The next time you write
an Adams file, Adams/View will replace the zero with a unique, internally-generated identifier.
Adams/View will permanently store this identifier with the element just as if you had entered it
yourself.
Normally, you would let all identifiers default to zero, and Adams/View would generate the
identifiers for you. You are never required to enter a non-zero identifier. You only need to specify
it if, for some reason, you wish to control the Adams file output.
3. For the location parameter, the I and J markers will be automatically created at this location on
the I_PART_NAME and J_PART_NAME respectively.
By default, you supply Cartesian (x, y, z) coordinates. You may use the 'defaults units
coordinate_system_type =' command to change this convention. For example, selecting
'cylindrical' means you will subsequently be supplying r, theta, and z coordinates.
Adams/View applies your location coordinates in the coordinate system you identify with the
RELATIVE_TO parameter. The default for the RELATIVE_TO parameter is the default coordinate
system. (See the RELATIVE_TO parameter for this command).
4. The I marker is oriented based on the J marker orientation and the requirements of the particular
constraint being created. These markers are created automatically.
Adams/View will orient the coordinate system by starting from the initial coordinate system and
applying three successive rotations.
Depending on the convention you have selected, the rotations may occur about space-fixed or
body-fixed axes in any meaningful combination of the x, y, and z axes. By default, you supply
Euler (body313, or body-fixed z, x, z) angles. You may change this convention with the
'DEFAULTS UNITS ORIENTATION_TYPE=' command. For example, selecting SPACE123 means

118 Adams/View Commands


constraint create primitive_joint point _point

you will subsequently be supplying space-fixed x, y, and z angles.


Adams/View applies your orientation angles starting from the coordinate system you identify
with the RELATIVE_TO parameter. The default for the RELATIVE_TO parameter is the default
coordinate system.
5. You may enter either one or two locations to direct the axis. If you enter one location, the axis will
point toward the location. If you specify two locations, the axis will be parallel to, and pointing
the same way as, the vector from the first location to the second.
Note that this does not completely dictate the orientation of the coordinate system. Adams/View
will position the coordinate system with an arbitrary rotation about the axis. If you must
completely control the coordinate system orientation, use ORIENTATION or
IN_PLANE_ORIENTATION.
By default, you direct the Z axis of the coordinate system. You may change this convention with
the 'DEFAULTS ORIENT_AXIS_AND_PLANE AXIS_AND_PLANE_SETTING=' command. For
example, selecting either X_AXIS_XY_PLANE or X_AXIS_XZ_PLANE means you will
subsequently be directing the X axis. The plane-convention setting does not affect this parameter.
Adams/View applies your location coordinates in the coordinate system you identify with the
RELATIVE_TO parameter. The default for the RELATIVE_TO parameter is the default coordinate
system.
6. For the in_plane_orientation parameter, you may enter either two or three locations. If you enter
two locations, the axis will point toward the first location and the plane will fall on the second. If
you specify three locations, the axis will be parallel to, and pointing the same way as, the vector
from the first location to the second and the plane will be parallel to the plane defined by the three
locations. By default, you direct the Z axis of the coordinate system and locate the ZX plane. You
may use the 'DEFAULTS ORIENT_AXIS_AND_PLANE AXIS_AND_PLANE_SETTING=' command
to change this convention. For example, selecting X_AXIS_XY_PLANE means you will
subsequently be directing the X axis and locating the XY plane.
Adams/View applies your location coordinates in the coordinate system you identify with the
RELATIVE_TO parameter. The default for the RELATIVE_TO parameter is the default coordinate
system.
7. If the relative_to parameter is not specified, the default coordinate system is used. The default
coordinate system is initially your model, i.e. the global coordinate system. You may change the
default coordinate system using the 'defaults coordinate_system' command.
Tip:

Adams/View connects one part at the I marker to the other at the J marker. These markers
are automatically generated using this method of joint creation.

constraint 119
constraint create user_defined

constraint create user_defined


Allows the user to create a USER DEFINED constraint.
Format:
constraint create user_defined
user_constraint_name = new user constraint
adams_id =

geom._id

comments = string
user_function =

function

Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

user_constraint_name

New user defined


constraint

Allows the user to create a USER DEFINED constraint.

adams_id

Integer

Specifies an integer used to identify this element in the


Adams data file.

comments

String

Specifies comments for the object being created or


modified.

user_function

Real

Specifies up to 30 values for Adams to pass to a userwritten subroutine.

Extended Definition:
1. When you use the FILE ADAMS_DATA_SET WRITE command, Adams/View writes an
Adams data file for your model. Adams requires that each modeling element be identified by a
unique integer identifier. If you use this parameter to specify a non-zero identifier, Adams/View
will use it in the corresponding statement in the Adams data file.
You may also enter zero as an identifier, either explicitly or by default. The next time you write
an Adams file, Adams/View will replace the zero with a unique, internally-generated identifier.
Adams/View will permanently store this identifier with the element just as if you had entered it
yourself.
Normally, you would let all identifiers default to zero, and Adams/View would generate the
identifiers for you. You are never required to enter a non-zero identifier. You only need to specify
it if, for some reason, you wish to control the Adams file output.
2. A user-defined constraint describes a system constraint as a function of time and as many as thirty
variables. Each of these variables must be the displacement or the velocity of a part. For any part
at any point in time, six displacements define its position, and six velocities define its velocity.
The six displacements are the x, y, and z translations and the three Euler angle rotations. The six

120 Adams/View Commands


constraint create user_defined

velocities are the x, y, and z translational velocities and the time derivatives of the three Euler
angles. Adams measures all of these displacements and velocities at the origin of the principal
axes with respect to the global coordinate system. A USER DEFINED constraint is only used
when a constraint is needed that is not definable by any of the other constraint types.

constraint 121
constraint delete

constraint delete
Allows you to delete an existing constraint.
Format:
constraint delete
constraint_name = existing constraint
Example:
constraint delete &
constraint_name = joint_1
Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

Constraint_name Existing constraint Specifies the constraint to delete.


Extended Definition:
1. Any Adams/View object you delete, may be "undeleted" by using the UNDO commands. If you
have deleted something you would like back, enter the command "undo backward", or pick on the
fixed menu entry 'UNDO'.
You may identify a constraint by typing its name or by picking it from the screen.
If the constraint is not visible on the screen, you must type the name. You may also find it

convenient to type the name even if the constraint is displayed.


If you created the constraint by reading an Adams data set, the constraint name is the first three

letters of the Adams statement type followed by the Adams data set constraint ID number. The
name of Adams JOINT/101 is JOI101, for example. If you created the constraint during
preprocessing, you gave it a name at that time.
If a constraint is available by default, you may identify it by entering its name only. If it is not,

you must enter its full name. To identify a constraint under a different model, for instance, you
may need to enter the model name as well. For example, you may specify constraint
'servo_motor' from model 'test' by entering ".test.servo_motor". If you type a "?",
Adams/View will list the constraints available by default.
You must separate multiple constraint names by commas.
If the constraint is visible in one of your views, you may identify it by picking on any of the

graphics associated with it.


You need not separate multiple constraint picks by commas.

122 Adams/View Commands


constraint delete

2. You must enter the name of the constraint you wish to delete by either picking it from the screen
or specifying the full name.
You may reverse this deletion at a later time with an UNDO command.

constraint 123
constraint modify complex_joint coupler

constraint modify complex_joint coupler


Allows the modification of an existing coupler.
Format:
constraint modify complex_joint coupler
coupler_name =
new_coupler_name =

an existing coupler
a new coupler

adams_id =

adams_id

comments =

string

joint_name =
type_of_freedom =
motion_multipliers =
first_angular_scale_factor =
first_scale_factor =
second_angular_scale_factor =
second_scale_factor =
third_angular_scale_factor =

an existing joint
coupler_freedom
real
angle
real
angle
real
angle

third_scale_factor =

real

user_function =

real

Example:
constraint modify complex_joint coupler &
coupler_name =

coupler__1 &

new_coupler_name =

coupler__2 &

adams_id =

1 &

comments =

"comment string" &

joint_name =

JOINT_1 , JOINT_1 &

motion_multipliers =

0.1 , 0.2 &

type_of_freedom =

rot_rot_rot

124 Adams/View Commands


constraint modify complex_joint coupler

Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

coupler_name

An Existing Coupler Specifies the coupler to modify.

new_coupler_name

A New Coupler

Specifies the name of the new coupler.

adams_id

Adams_id

Specifies an integer used to identify this element


in the Adams data file.

comments

String

Specifies comments for the object being created


or modified.

joint_name

An Existing Joint

Specifies the translational, revolute, or


cylindrical joint associated with this entity.

type_of_freedom

Coupler_freedom

Specifies whether cylindrical joints transfer


translational or rotational motion.

motion_multipliers

Real

Specifies the relative motion of the joints you


identify with JOINTS

first_angular_scale_factor

Angle

Specifies the angular motion of the first joint


you identify with JOINT_NAME relative to the
motion of the second and third joints you
identify with JOINT_NAME.

first_scale_factor

Real

Specifies the non-angular motion of the first


joint you identify with JOINT_NAME relative
to the motion of the second and third joints you
identify with JOINT_NAME.

second_angular_scale_factor Angle

Specifies the angular motion of the second joint


you identify with JOINT_NAME relative to the
motion of the first and third joints you identify
with JOINT_NAME

second_scale_factor

Real

Specifies the non-angular motion of the second


joint you identify with JOINT_NAME relative
to the motion of the first and third joints you
identify with JOINT_NAME.

third_angular_scale_factor

Angle

Specifies the angular motion of the third joint


you identify with JOINT_NAME relative to the
motion of the first and second joints you identify
with JOINT_NAME.

constraint 125
constraint modify complex_joint coupler

Parameter

Value Type

Description

third_scale_factor

Real

Specifies the non-angular motion of the third


joint you identify with JOINT_NAME relative
to the motion of the first and second joints you
identify with JOINT_NAME.

user_function

Real

Specifies up to 30 values for Adams to pass to a


userwritten subroutine.

Extended Definition:
1. A coupler creates the coupling of the translational and/or the rotational motion of two or three
joints. With this constraint, you can deliver or relate motion from one area of a mechanism to
another. Components whose behavior you might approximate with this statement include
combinations of hydraulic generators, motors, and pistons and include flexible, rotational
transmission cables.
2. You may identify a coupler by typing its name or by picking it from the screen.
If the coupler is not visible on the screen, you must type the name. You may also find it convenient
to type the name even if the coupler is displayed. If you created the coupler by reading an Adams
data set, the coupler name is the letters COU followed by the Adams data set coupler ID number.
The name of Adams COUPLER/101 is COU101, for example. If you created the coupler during
preprocessing, you gave it a name at that time. If a coupler is available by default, you may
identify it by entering its name only. If it is not, you must enter its full name. To identify a coupler
under a different model, for instance, you may need to enter the model name as well. For example,
you may specify coupler 'differential' from model 'test' by entering ".test.differential". You must
separate multiple coupler names by commas.
3. Normally, entity names like the coupler name are composed of alphabetic, numeric, or '_'
(underscore) characters, and start with an alphabetic or '_' character. They may be any length. By
enclosing the name in double quotes, you may use other printable characters, or start the name
with a numeral. If a name contains characters, or starts with a numeral, you must always quote the
name when entering it. Note that you can specify the parentage of an entity (e.g. what part "owns"
a marker or a geometry element) when you CREATE it by changing the name. If you enter just
the entity name, then the default parent will be assigned by Adams/View. If you type in the full
name, then you may over ride the default parent. In most cases, when creating an entity,
Adams/View will provide a default name. The default name that Adams/View provides will
specify the parentage that it has assumed. You may, or course, delete this name and use your own.
The form of a full name is:
"...._NAME.GRAND_PARENT_NAME.PARENT_NAME.ENTITY_NAME"
The number of levels used varies from case to case and the parentage must exist before an entity
can be assigned to it.
4. When you use the FILE ADAMS_DATA_SET WRITE command, Adams/View writes an
Adams data file for your model. Adams requires that each modeling element be identified by a
unique integer identifier. If you use this parameter to specify a non-zero identifier, Adams/View
will use it in the corresponding statement in the Adams data file. You may also enter zero as an

126 Adams/View Commands


constraint modify complex_joint coupler

identifier, either explicitly or by default. The next time you write an Adams file, Adams/View will
replace the zero with a unique, internally-generated identifier. Adams/View will permanently
store this identifier with the element just as if you had entered it yourself. Normally, you would
let all identifiers default to zero, and Adams/View would generate the identifiers for you. You are
never required to enter a non-zero identifier. You only need to specify it if, for some reason, you
wish to control the Adams file output.
5. When an Adams/Solver data file (.adm) is read into Adams/View, all comments associated with
a statement (from the end of the previous statement through the end of the current statement) are
stored with the object. Comments in the data file can be associated with model. These comments
must follow the title statement and be followed by the comment 'END OF MODEL
COMMENTS'. This string must be uppercase. When an Adams/Solver data file is written, the
comments for an object are written before the statement corresponding to the object.
6. You may identify a joint by typing its name or by picking it from the screen. If the joint is not
visible on the screen, you must type the name. You may also find it convenient to type the name
even if the joint is displayed. If you created the joint by reading an Adams data set or graphics
file, the joint name is the letters JOI followed by the Adams data set joint ID number. The name
of Adams JOINT/101 is JOI101, for example. If you created the joint during preprocessing, you
gave it a name at that time. If a joint is available by default, you may identify it by entering its
name only. If it is not, you must enter its full name. To identify a joint under a model, for instance,
you may need to enter the model name as well. For example, you may specify joint 'lower_pivot'
in model 'links' by entering ".links.lower_pivot". You must separate multiple joint names by
commas. If the joint is visible in one of your views, you may identify it by picking on any of the
graphics associated with it. You need not separate multiple joint picks by commas.
7. AdamsAdams assumes that translational joints transfer translational motion and that revolute
joints transfer rotational motion. A cylindrical joint permits both translational and rotational
motion, however. If your coupler includes cylindrical joints, you must use this parameter to
indicate which motion is transferred at each joint.
8. Adams uses the values in the SCALES argument in the following equation:
(r1 * q1) + (r2 * q2) + (r3 * q3) = 0,
where r1, r2, and r3 are the scale factors for the three joints and q1, q2, and q3 are the translational
or the rotational displacements of the joint I markers with respect to their J
markers. Suppose you are coupling two joints, and SCALES=1,-2. The equation that relates the
two joints is
q1 + (-2 * q2) = 0, or
q1 = 2 * q2.
The displacement (q1) of the I marker with respect to the J marker in the first joint is twice that
of the displacement (q2) of the I marker with respect to the J marker in the second joint; the two
displacements have the same sign. If you specify two joints in the JOINTS argument, you must
specify r2. If you specify only one value, Adams assumes it is r2 and uses the default value of 1
for r1.
9. Adams uses the first_angular_scale_factor (r1) in the following equation:
(r1 * q1) + (r2 * q2) + (r3 * q3) = 0,

constraint 127
constraint modify complex_joint coupler

where r1, r2, and r3 are the scale factors for the three joints and q1, q2, and q3 are the translational
or the rotational displacements of the joint I markers with respect to their J markers. Suppose you
are coupling two joints, and r1=1 and r2=-2. The equation that relates the two joints is
q1 + (-2 * q2) = 0, or
q1 = 2 * q2.
The displacement (q1) of the I marker with respect to the J marker in the first joint is twice that
of the displacement (q2) of the I marker with respect to the J marker in the second joint; the two
displacements have the same sign.
10. Adams uses the first_scale_factor (r1) in the following equation:
(r1 * q1) + (r2 * q2) + (r3 * q3) = 0,
where r1, r2, and r3 are the scale factors for the three joints and q1, q2, and q3 are the translational
or the rotational displacements of the joint I markers with respect to their J markers. Suppose you
are coupling two joints, and r1=1 and r2=-2. The equation that relates the two joints is
q1 + (-2 * q2) = 0, or
q1 = 2 * q2.
The displacement (q1) of the I marker with respect to the J marker in the first joint is twice that
of the displacement (q2) of the I marker with respect to the J marker in the second joint; the two
displacements have the same sign.
11. Adams uses the second_angular scale_factor (r2) in the following equation:
(r1 * q1) + (r2 * q2) + (r3 * q3) = 0,
where r1, r2, and r3 are the scale factors for the three joints and q1, q2, and q3 are the translational
or the rotational displacements of the joint I markers with respect to their J markers. Suppose you
are coupling two joints, and r1=1 and r2=-2. The equation that relates the two joints is
q1 + (-2 * q2) = 0, or
q1 = 2 * q2.
The displacement (q1) of the I marker with respect to the J marker in the first joint is twice that
of the displacement (q2) of the I marker with respect to the J marker in the second joint; the two
displacements have the same sign.
12. Adams uses the second_scale_factor (r2) in the following equation:
(r1 * q1) + (r2 * q2) + (r3 * q3) = 0,
where r1, r2, and r3 are the scale factors for the three joints and q1, q2, and q3 are the translational
or the rotational displacements of the joint I markers with respect to their J markers. Suppose you
are coupling two joints, and r1=1 and r2=-2. The equation that relates the two joints is
q1 + (-2 * q2) = 0, or
q1 = 2 * q2.
The displacement (q1) of the I marker with respect to the J marker in the first joint is twice that
of the displacement (q2) of the I marker with respect to the J marker in the second joint; the two
displacements have the same sign.
13. Adams uses the third_angular_scale_factor (r3) in the following equation:
(r1 * q1) + (r2 * q2) + (r3 * q3) = 0,

128 Adams/View Commands


constraint modify complex_joint coupler

where r1, r2, and r3 are the scale factors for the three joints and q1, q2, and q3 are the translational
or the rotational displacements of the joint I markers with respect to their J markers.
14. Adams uses the third_scale_factor (r3) in the following equation:
(r1 * q1) + (r2 * q2) + (r3 * q3) = 0,
where r1, r2, and r3 are the scale factors for the three joints and q1, q2, and q3 are the translational
or the rotational displacements of the joint I markers with respect to their J markers.
Tip:

1. If you type a "?", Adams/View will list the couplers available by default.
2. If the coupler is visible in one of your views, you may identify it by picking on any
of the graphics associated with it.
3. You need not separate multiple coupler picks by commas.
4. You use the coupler_name parameter to identify the existing coupler to affect with
this command.
5. You may use the new_coupler_name later to refer to this coupler. Adams/View will
not allow you to have two couplers with the same full name, so you must provide a
unique name.
6. Some entities constrain motion at, or are otherwise associated with, specific joints.
You use this parameter to identify that joint.
7. See the Adams User's Manual for information on writing user-written subroutines.

constraint 129
constraint modify complex_joint gear

constraint modify complex_joint gear


Allows the modification of an existing gear pair.
Format:
constraint modify complex_joint gear
gear_name =
new_gear_name =

an existing joint
a new joint

adams_id =

integer

comments =

string

joint_name =
common_velocity_marker =

an existing joint
an existing marker

Example:
constraint modify complex_joint gear &
gear_name = GEAR__1 &
new_gear_name = GEAR__2 &
adams_id = 2 &
comments = "comment string" &
joint_name = JOINT__1 &
common_velocity_marker = marker_1
Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

gear_name

An existing gear

Specifies the gear to modify.

new_gear_name

A new gear

Specifies the name of the new gear. .

adams_id

ADAMS_ID

Specifies an integer used to identify this element in


the Adams data file.

comments

String

Specifies comments for the object being created or


modified.

joint_name

An Existing Joint

Specifies the translational, revolute, or cylindrical


joint associated with this entity.

common_velocity_marker An Existing Marker Specifies the marker that designates the point of
contact and determines the ratio of the two gears.

130 Adams/View Commands


constraint modify complex_joint gear

Extended Definition:
1. The gear element uses the location of the common velocity marker to determine the point of
contact of the two gear pitch circles. The direction of the z-axis of the common velocity marker
indicates the direction of the common velocity of points on the gear teeth in contact. This is also
the direction in which gear tooth forces act. The location of the common velocity marker is
constant with respect to the carrier part.
2. You may identify a gear pair by typing its name or by picking it from the screen.
If the gear pair is not visible on the screen, you must type the name. You may also find it
convenient to type the name even if the gear is displayed. If you created the gear by reading an
Adams data set, the gear name is the letters GEA followed by the Adams data set gear ID number.
The name of Adams GEAR/101 is GEA101, for example. If you created the gear during
preprocessing, you gave it a name at that time. If a gear is available by default, you may identify
it by entering its name only. If it is not, you must enter its full name. To identify a gear under
another model, for instance, you may need to enter the model name as well. For example, you may
specify gear 'spur1' from model 'train' by entering ".train.spur1". You must separate multiple gear
names by commas. If the gear is visible in one of your views, you may identify it by picking on
any of the graphics associated with it. You need not separate multiple gear picks by commas.
3. Normally, entity names like the gear name are composed of alphabetic, numeric, or '_'
(underscore) characters, and start with an alphabetic or '_' character. They may be any length. By
enclosing the name in double quotes, you may use other printable characters, or start the name
with a numeral. If a name contains characters, or starts with a numeral, you must always quote the
name when entering it. Note that you can specify the parentage of an entity (e.g. what part "owns"
a marker or a geometry element) when you CREATE it by changing the name. If you enter just
the entity name, then the default parent will be assigned by Adams/View. If you type in the full
name, then you may over ride the default parent. In most cases, when creating an entity,
Adams/View will provide a default name. The defaultname that Adams/View provides will
specify the parentage that it has assumed. You may, or course, delete this name and use your own.
The form of a full name is:
"...._NAME.GRAND_PARENT_NAME.PARENT_NAME.ENTITY_NAME"
The number of levels used varies from case to case and the parentage must exist before an entity
can be assigned to it.
4. When you use the FILE ADAMS_DATA_SET WRITE command, Adams/View writes an
Adams data file for your model. Adams requires that each modeling element be identified by a
unique integer identifier. If you use this parameter to specify a non-zero identifier, Adams/View
will use it in the corresponding statement in the Adams data file. You may also enter zero as an
identifier, either explicitly or by default. The next time you write an Adams file, Adams/View will
replace the zero with a unique, internally-generated identifier. Adams/View will permanently
store this identifier with the element just as if you had entered it yourself. Normally, you would
let all identifiers default to zero, and Adams/View would generate the identifiers for you. You are
never required to enter a non-zero identifier. You only need to specify it if, for some reason, you
wish to control the Adams file output.

constraint 131
constraint modify complex_joint gear

5. When an Adams/Solver data file (.adm) is read into Adams/View, all comments associated with
a statement (from the end of the previous statement through the end of the current statement) are
stored with the object. Comments in the data file can be associated with model. These comments
must follow the title statement and be followed by the comment 'END OF MODEL
COMMENTS'. This string must be uppercase. When an Adams/Solver data file is written, the
comments for an object are written before the statement corresponding to the object.
6. You may identify a joint by typing its name or by picking it from the screen. If the joint is not
visible on the screen, you must type the name. You may also find it convenient to type the name
even if the joint is displayed. If you created the joint by reading an Adams data set or graphics
file, the joint name is the letters JOI followed by the Adams data set joint ID number. The name
of Adams JOINT/101 is JOI101, for example. If you created the joint during preprocessing, you
gave it a name at that time. If a joint is available by default, you may identify it by entering its
name only. If it is not, you must enter its full name. To identify a joint under a model, for instance,
you may need to enter the model name as well. For example, you may specify joint 'lower_pivot'
in model 'links' by entering ".links.lower_pivot". If you type a "?", Adams/View will list the joints
available by default. You must separate multiple joint names by commas. If the joint is visible in
one of your views, you may identify it by picking on any of the graphics associated with it. You
need not separate multiple joint picks by commas.
7. You define the constant-velocity (CV) marker on the carrier part to which the J markers of the
joints belong. The z-axis of this marker must point in the direction of common velocity at the point
of contact. The direction of common velocity is tangent to both pitch circles and would be normal
to the tooth surfaces of the gears if the pressure angle was zero. (Adams always assumes a
pressure angle of zero.)
The CV marker has constant position and orientation in the carrier LPRF and does not change
when the direction of power flow through the gear changes.
8. A gear pair relates the motion of three parts and two joints. The three parts are the two gear parts
and a third part, the carrier, to which the gears are attached by the two joints. The joints must be
translational, revolute, or cylindrical. Different combinations of joint types and orientations allow
you to model spur, helical, planetary, bevel, and rack-and-pinion gear pairs.
Tip:

1. If you type a "?", Adams/View will list the gears available by default.
2. You use the joint_name parameter to identify the existing gear to affect with this
command.
3. You may use the new_gear_name later to refer to this gear. Adams/View will not
allow you to have two gears with the same full name, so you must provide a unique
name.
4. Some entities constraint motion at, or are otherwise associated with, specific joints.
You use this parameter to identify that joint.
5. The common_velocity_marker also determines the direction of the reaction forces
developed by the joints in the gear pair.

132 Adams/View Commands


constraint modify general_constraint

constraint modify general_constraint


The GCON statement introduces a constraint equation that must be satisfied by Adams/Solver (C++)
during the simulation. This allows you to specify both holonomic and non-holonomic constraints.
Format:
constraint modify general_constraint
general_constraint_name = existing gen_constraint name
new_general_constraint_name = new gen_constraint name
adams_id =

geom. _id

comments = string,
i_marker_name =

existing marker

function =

function

Example:
constraint modify general_constraint &
general_constraint_name =
new_general_constraint_name =
i_marker_name =

GCON_1 &
MY_GCON &
MARKER_11 &

function = time
Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

general_constraint_name

Existing GCON name

Specify a name of the GCON to be modified

New_general_constraint_
name

New GCON name

Specify the new name for the GCON

adams_id

integer

Specifies an integer used to identify this


element in the Adams data file.

comments

String

Specifies comments for the object being created


or modified.

I_marker_name

Existing marker

Specify an existing marker name.

function

Function

Specifies an expression or defines and passes


constants to a user-written subroutine to define
the motion.

constraint 133
constraint modify general_constraint

Extended Definition:
1. When you use the FILE ADAMS_DATA_SET WRITE command, Adams/View writes an
Adams data file for your model. Adams requires that each modeling element be identified by a
unique integer identifier. If you use this parameter to specify a non-zero identifier, Adams/View
will use it in the corresponding statement in the Adams data file.
You may also enter zero as an identifier, either explicitly or by default. The next time you write
an Adams file, Adams/View will replace the zero with a unique, internally-generated identifier.
Adams/View will permanently store this identifier with the element just as if you had entered it
yourself.
Normally, you would let all identifiers default to zero, and Adams/View would generate the
identifiers for you. You are never required to enter a non-zero identifier. You only need to specify
it if, for some reason, you wish to control the Adams file output.
2. You may identify a joint by typing its name or by picking it from the screen.
If the joint is not visible on the screen, you must type the name. You may also find it convenient
to type the name even if the joint is displayed.
If you created the joint by reading an Adams data set or graphics file, the joint name is the letters
JOI followed by the Adams data set joint ID number. The name of Adams JOINT/101 is JOI101,
for example. If you created the joint during preprocessing, you gave it a name at that time.
If a joint is available by default, you may identify it by entering its name only. If it is not, you must
enter its full name. To identify a joint under a model, for instance, you may need to enter the
model name as well. For example, you may specify joint 'lower_pivot' in model 'links' by entering
".links.lower_pivot". If you type a "?", Adams/View will list the joints available by default.
You must separate multiple joint names by commas.
If the joint is visible in one of your views, you may identify it by picking on any of the graphics
associated with it.
You need not separate multiple joint picks by commas.
3. While the JOINT statement describes a physically recognizable combination of constraints that
are used to connect bodies together, the GCON statement enables you to define an arbitrary
constraint specific to a particular model. The GCON statement is more general and can be used
to equivalently define the existent JOINT elements. Therefore, the spherical joint
JOINT/11, SPHERICAL, I=1,J=3
could be equivalently replaced by the following set of three GCONs:
GCON/111, I=2, FUNC=DX(2,3)
GCON/112, I=2, FUNC=DY(2,3)
GCON/113, I=2, FUNC=DZ(2,3)
The GCON statement allows you to define both holonomic and non-holonomic constraints.
Holonomic constraints only depend on position measures, like GCON/111 through GCON/113
above. A constraint is non-holonomic if (a) its expression exp1 contains velocity measures, and
(b) there is no expression exp2 that is the time integral of exp1. An example of a non-holonomic
constraint is a roll without slip condition
GCON/34, FUNC=VX(2) - WZ(2)*DY(2)

134 Adams/View Commands


constraint modify general_constraint

The GCON statement introduces a constraint to Adams/Solver (C++) that is guaranteed to be


handled correctly as long as the FUNCTION is in Pfaffian form. In this context, note that any
holonomic expression is automatically in Pfaffian form. In the case of non-holonomic constraints,
a Pfaffian constraint requires that the FUNCTION is limited to expressions that are linear in
velocity quantities. In other words, if there are velocity quantities in the definition of the
FUNCTION (as is the case in the previous GCON), a partial derivative of the FUNCTION with
respect to any velocity quantity present in its definition should lead to an expression that does not
depend on velocity quantities. The previous GCON is therefore in Pfaffian form,
FUNC- = 1 and ------------------FUNC- = DX 2 which makes the FUNC linear in velocity quantities.
since ------------------FUNC

WZ 2

Another example of a Pfaffian non-holonomic constraint is the perpendicularity condition


GCON/25, FU=VX(2,3)*DX(2,1)+ VY(2,3)*DY(2,1)+ VZ(2,3)*DZ(2,1)
that indicates that the velocity V(2,3) is orthogonal to the distance vector between markers I=2
and J=1.
An example of a non-Pfaffian GCON is
GCON/25,FU=VX(2,3)*VX(2,3)*DX(2,1)+VY(2,3)*DY(2,1)+
VZ(2,3)*DZ(2,1)
FU
For this example, -----------------------= 2 VX 2 3 DX 2 1 which is an expression that depends on the
VX 2 3
velocity measure VX(2,3).
The FUNCTION expression exp can reference variables defined in the .adm file through the
VARVAL construct. It should be stressed again that correct handling of the GCON requires that
the expression defining the VARIABLE only depends on time, and position and velocity
measures; in other words, the Pfaffian character of the GCON is not undermined by the presence
of the VARVAL.
Cautions:
1. Objects of type General_Constraint are not compatible with Adams/Solver (FORTRAN).
2. The topology of the model has changed so .model_1.GCON__1 is no longer connected in a way
that is compatible with Adams/Solver (FORTRAN).
3. An attribute of .model_1.GCON__1 is no longer compatible with Adams/Solver (FORTRAN).
If you intend to use Adams/Solver (FORTRAN), you must change your model to eliminate the
incompatibility. For more information, see the online help for the object listed.
If you do not want to use Adams/Solver (FORTRAN), then be sure that you set your preferences
so Adams/Solver (C++) is the default as follows:
a. From the Settings menu, point to Solver and then select either Solver Executable or
Preferences, depending on the product you are using.
b. To learn more, press F1 in the dialog box.
Correct handling of a GCON element assumes a FUNCTION defined in Pfaffian form.
Kinematic models are incompatible with velocity constraints. If a model is rendered kinematic

by displacement constraints, any additional velocity constraints will be either redundant or


conflicting. In either case, version 2003 of Adams/Solver (C++) is incapable of analyzing the
model as explained below:

constraint 135
constraint modify general_constraint

Currently, there is no redundancy check for user constraints defined at the velocity level.
Therefore, you can impose constraints that are not redundant at the position level, but lead to
a set of redundant constraints when their time derivative is considered with other velocity level
constraints during the velocity Initial Conditions (IC) analysis. Consider the situation when
two constraints are defined as GCON/1, FU=DX(1,2), and GCON/2, FU=VX(1,2). Because
the redundant constraint analysis only includes position level constraints, Adams/Solver
(C++) will not identify that a velocity-level constraint (GCON/2) induces a redundant
constraint during the velocity computation. As a result, a model that contains these two user
constraints will fail during the velocity analysis with a singular Jacobian error.
GCON is a new modeling element only available in the Adams/Solver (C++). Currently there

is no support for defining GCON through Adams/View, so you need to edit the .adm file to
add user-defined constraints. Adams/View correctly imports the edited .adm file, and the
internal Adams/Solver (C++) from within Adams/View correctly handles the simulation of
the model.
If you use GCON to constrain the values of DIFF, LSE, and TFSISO elements, note that they

will not contribute degrees of freedom that are considered removed by a GCON element. The
GCON statement functions properly for Pfaffian expressions depending on position and
velocity measures and time, or as mentioned earlier, on VARVALs measures for
VARIABLEs that only depend on position and velocity measures and time.
Consequently, a model that contains velocity constraints can only be simulated using the

dynamic solver.
For a position-level GCON, the FUNCTION must be at least three times differentiable. If the

GCON introduces a velocity-level constraint, then the FUNCTION should be at least twice
differentiable. This requirement ensures that internally Adams/Solver (C++) can take the
necessary derivatives to perform certain types of analyses such as Acceleration/Force
reconciliation, dynamic analysis, and so on. Note that if the expression provided for GCON is
not continuously differentiable for the required number of times, the integrator will either fail,
or have a difficult time finding the numerical solution.
The ability of the Adams/Solver (C++) to handle function expressions to provide the

necessary derivatives required by the GCON does not extend to user subroutines.
Consequently, a VARIABLE can only be referenced in a GCON provided it is defined using
function expressions, rather than a VARSUB subroutine.
Use the RESULTS/XRF statement in order to get the reaction force on marker I reported in

the results file. This is the only output format currently able to handle GCON output.
Tips:
1. There is no dedicated function that returns the reaction force induced by a user constraint on a
marker. You can invoke an existing function such as FX(I[; J][;K]) for this purpose. Note that
FX(I[; J][;K]) reports the force that acts on the I marker as a result of both constraint and external
forces applied to this marker. To only obtain the contribution of the the GCON, the markers that
appear in FX(I[; J][;K]) should be exclusively used to define the GCON, and no other elements
such as applied forces, joints, or motions should refer them.

136 Adams/View Commands


constraint modify higher_pair_contact curve_curve

constraint modify higher_pair_contact curve_curve


Allows you to modify a curve_curve constraint.
Format:
constraint modify higher_pair_contact curve_curve
curve_curve_name = existing ccurve
new curve_curve_name =

new cccurve name

adams_id = geom._id
comments = string
i_curve_name = existing acurve
J_curve_name = existing acurve
I_ref_marker_name = existing marker
J_ref_marker_name = existing marker
I_displacement_ic = length
no_i_displacement_ic = true
j_displacement_ic = length
no_j_displacement_ic = true
i_ velocity_ic =

velocity

no_i_velocity_ic = true
j_velocity_ic = velocity
no_j_velocity_ic =

true

i_ ic_ref_marker_name = existing marker,


ji_ ic_ref_marker_name = existing marker
Description:
Parameter
curve_curve_name

Value Type
New ccurve

Description
Specifies the name of an existing curve_curve

New_curve_curve_name New ccurve name

Specifies the name of the new curve_curve. You


may use this name later to refer to this
curve_curve.

adams_id

Integer

Specifies an integer used to identify this element


in the Adams data File.

Comments

String

Specifies comments for the object being created


or modified.

constraint 137
constraint modify higher_pair_contact curve_curve

Parameter

Value Type

Description

i_curve_name

Existing Acurve name

Specifies the name of a CURVE from which


Adams constructs the first Curve

J_curve_name

Existing acurve

Specifies the name of a CURVE from which


Adams constructs the second curve.

I_ref_marker_name

Existing marker

Specifies the name of a fixed MARKER on the


part containing I_CURVE.

J_ref_marker_name

Existing marker

Specifies the name of a fixed MARKER on the


part containing J_CURVE.

I_floating_marker_name Existing marker

Specify an existing floating marker.

J_floating_marker_name Existing marker

Specify an existing floating marker.

I_displacement_ic

Length

Specifies the initial point of contact on the first


curve.

J_displacement_ic

Length

Specifies the initial point of contact on the


second curve.

No_i_displacement_ic

True

Specifies that if an I_DISPLACEMENT_IC has


been set via any means, to "UNSET" the
displacement initial condition.

No_j_displacement_ic

True

Specifies that if an J_DISPLACEMENT_IC has


been set via any means, to "UNSET" the
displacement initial condition.

I_velocity_ic

Velocity

Specifies the initial velocity of the contact point


along I_CURVE.

J_velocity_ic

Velocity

Specifies the initial velocity of the contact point


along J_CURVE.

No_i_velocity_ic

True

Specifies that if an I_VELOCITY_IC has been


set via any means, to "UNSET" the velocity
initial condition.

No_j_velocity_ic

True

Specifies that if an J_VELOCITY_IC has been


set via any means, to "UNSET" the velocity
initial condition.

138 Adams/View Commands


constraint modify higher_pair_contact curve_curve

Parameter

Value Type

Description

I_ic_ref_marker_name

An existing marker

Specifies the name of a fixed MARKER


defining the coordinate system in which the
values for I_DISPLACEMENT_IC are defined.
The I_IC_REF_MARKER must be on the same
part as the I_REF_MARKER.

J_ic_ref_marker_name

An existing marker

Specifies the name of a fixed MARKER


defining the co ordinate system in which the
values for J_DISPLACEMENT_IC are defined.
The J_IC_REF_MARKER must be on the same
part as the J_REF_MARKER.

Extended Definition:
1. Adams/View will not allow you to have two point_curves with the same full name, so you must
provide a unique name.
Normally, entity names are composed of alphabetic, numeric, or '_' (underscore) characters, and
start with an alphabetic or '_' character. They may be any length.
By enclosing the name in double quotes, you may use other printable characters, or start the name
with a numeral. If a name contains characters, or starts with a numeral, you must always quote the
name when entering it.
Note that you can specify the parentage of an entity (e.g. what part "owns" a marker or a geometry
element) when you CREATE it by changing the name. If you enter just the entity name, then the
default parent will be assigned by Adams/View. If you type in the full name, then you may over
ride the default parent. In most cases, when creating an entity, Adams/View will provide a default
name. The default name that Adams/View provides will specify the parentage that it has assumed.
You may, or course, delete this name and use your own. The form of a full name is:
"...._NAME.GRAND_PARENT_NAME.PARENT_NAME.ENTITY_NAME"
The number of levels used varies from case to case and the parentage must exist before an entity
can be assigned to it.
2. When you use the FILE ADAMS_DATA_SET WRITE command, Adams/View writes an
Adams data file for your model. Adams requires that each modeling element be identified by a
unique integer identifier. If you use this parameter to specify a non-zero identifier, Adams/View
will use it in the corresponding statement in the Adams data file.
You may also enter zero as an identifier, either explicitly or by default. The next time you write
an Adams file, Adams/View will replace the zero with a unique, internally-generated identifier.
Adams/View will permanently store this identifier with the element just as if you had entered it
yourself.
Normally, you would let all identifiers default to zero, and Adams/View would generate the
identifiers for you. You are never required to enter a non-zero identifier. You only need to specify
it if, for some reason, you wish to control the Adams file output.

constraint 139
constraint modify higher_pair_contact curve_curve

3. The I_REFERENCE_MARKER marker specifies the coordinate system in which the x, y, z


coordinates of I_CURVE are specified. The curve is attached rigidly to the part specified in the
I_PART_NAME parameter and containing the I_REFERENCE_MARKER marker. The z
component of the CURVE must be zero. As a result, the curve will lie in the x-y plane of the
I_REFERENCE_MARKER marker.
4. The J_REFERENCE_MARKER specifies the coordinate system in which the x, y, z coordinates
of J_CURVE are specified. The curve is attached rigidly to the part specified in the
J_PART_NAME parameter and containing the J_REFERENCE_MARKER. The z component of
the CURVE must be zero. As a result, the curve will lie in the x-y plane of the
J_REFERENCE_MARKER.
5. The I_REF_MARKER marker identifies the coordinate system in which the coordinates of
ICURVE are specified. Adams constructs the I_CURVE in the I_REF_MARKER marker
coordinate system. Adams/View will automatically create the I "floating" marker. The I "floating
marker" and I_REF_MARKER markers must lie on the same part.
6. The J_REF_MARKER marker identifies the coordinate system that the coordinates of J_CURVE
are specified. Adams constructs the J_CURVE in the J_REF_MARKER coordinate system. The
J "floating" and J_REF_MARKER markers must lie on the same part.
7. For the i_displacement_ic parameter, if the point specified is not exactly on the curve, Adams will
use a point on the curve nearest to that specified. By default, the contact point is specified in the
I_REF_MARKER coordinate system. If another coordinate system is more convenient, you may
supply the I_IC_REF_MARKER argument and enter I_DISPLACEMENT_IC in
I_IC_REF_MARKER coordinates.
If you supply I_DISPLACEMENT_IC, Adams assembles the system with the contact at the
specified point on the curve, even if it must override part initial conditions in order to do so. If
you do not supply I_DISPLACEMENT_IC, Adams assumes the initial contact is at the point on
the first curve closest to J_CURVE in the input configuration. In this case, Adams may adjust that
contact point to maintain other part or constraint initial conditions.
8. For the j_displacement_ic parameter, if the point specified is not exactly on the curve, Adams uses
a point on the curve nearest to that specified. By default, the contact point is specified in the
J_REF_MARKER coordinate system. If another coordinate system is more convenient, you may
supply the J_IC_REF_MARKER and enter J_DISPLACEMENT_IC in J_IC_REF_MARKER
coordinates.
If you supply J_DISPLACEMENT_IC, Adams assembles the system with the contact at the
specified point on the curve, even if it must override part initial conditions in order to do so. If
you do not supply J_DISPLACEMENT_IC, Adams assumes the initial contact is at a point on the
second curve closest to ICURVE in the input configuration. In this case, Adams may adjust that
contact point to maintain other part or constraint initial conditions.
9. The i_velocity_ic is the speed at which the contact point is initially moving relative to the curve.
I_VELOCITY_IC is negative if the contact point is moving towards the start of the curve, positive
if the contact point is moving toward the end of the curve, and zero if the contact point is
stationary on the curve.

140 Adams/View Commands


constraint modify higher_pair_contact curve_curve

If you supply I_VELOCITY_IC, Adams gives the contact point the specified initial velocity along
the first curve, even if it must override part initial conditions in order to do so. If you do not supply
I_VELOCITY_IC, Adams assumes the initial velocity is zero, but may adjust that velocity to
maintain other part or constraint initial conditions.
10. The j_velocity_ic is the speed at which the contact point is initially moving relative to the curve.
J_VELOCITY_IC is negative if the contact point is moving towards the start of the curve, positive
if the contact point is moving toward the end of the curve, and zero if the contact point is
stationary on the curve.
If you supply J_VELOCITY_IC, Adams gives the contact point the specified initial velocity
along the second curve, even if it must override part initial conditions in order to do so. If you do
not supply J_VELOCITY_IC, Adams assumes the initial velocity is zero, but may adjust that
velocity to maintain other part or constraint initial conditions.
11. The CURVE_CURVE defines a curve-curve constraint, which restricts a planar curve on one part
to be in contact with, and tangent to, a planar curve on a second part. The curves must lie in
parallel planes.
Adams constructs the first curve from the I_CURVE curve and the I_REF_MARKER, the second
curve from the J_CURVE value and the J_REF_MARKER. In both cases, the CURVE command
(I_CURVE or J_CURVE) defines x and y coordinates along the curve as a function of the
independent parameter (u). The z coordinates of the curves must be zero. The reference marker
(I_REF_MARKER or J_REF_MARKER) defines the part the constraining curve is attached to
and the coordinate system in which Adams applies the coordinates from the CURVE statement.
Both I_CURVE and J_CURVE may be open or closed, defined analytically or as a set of discrete
data points.
The CURVE_CURVE constraint removes three degrees-of-freedom from the system. Adams
restricts the motion of the parts such that the curves are always in contact and the curves are
tangent at the contact point. Although Adams requires that the curves lie in parallel planes, the
CURVE_CURVE command does not enforce this. You must build the model in such a way that
the curves are held in parallel planes, which will remove another three degrees of freedom.
Assuming the curves are held in parallel planes, a CURVE_CURVE leaves two relative degrees
of freedom between the curves. The first curve may slide or roll on the second, but may not move
perpendicular to the curve tangents at the contact.
Internally, Adams actually generates five constraint equations, but also adds two new system
variables and equations for a net decrease of one degree-of-freedom. The added system variables
are the two curve parameters at the contact points on the curves. Two of the constraints restrict
the x and y coordinates at the contact point on the first curve to match the x and y coordinates at
the contact point on the second curve. The third constraint restricts the tangent at the contact point
on the first curve to be parallel to the tangent at the contact point on the second curve.
More than one POINT_CURVE or CURVE_CURVE statement may reference the same CURVE
statement. If the mechanism contains several similar contacts, you may enter just one CURVE
statement, then use it with several POINT_CURVE or CURVE_CURVE constraints, each with a
different REF_MARKER.

constraint 141
constraint modify higher_pair_contact curve_curve

The I_VELOCITY_IC and J_VELOCITY_IC are specified in the reference frame of the part
containing the I_REF_MARKER or J_REF_MARKER marker, respectively. In other words, the
I_VELOCITY_IC is the speed of the contact point specified from the standpoint of an observer
on the part containing the first curve. This means if the contact point is not moving globally, but
the first curve is, then I_VELOCITY_IC is still non-zero.
Adams detects a fatal user error if the contact point moves off the end of an open curve. You
should make sure the CURVE statement defines the curve over the expected range of motion. The
initial conditions arguments, I_DISPLACEMENT_IC, J_DISPLACEMENT_IC,
I_VELOCITY_IC and J_VELOCITY_IC, impose constraints that are active only during an initial
conditions analysis. Adams does not impose these initial conditions during subsequent analyses.
For a kinematic analysis, the initial conditions are redundant. Do not use the
I_DISPLACEMENT_IC, J_DISPLACEMENT_IC, I_VELOCITY_IC or J_VELOCITY_IC
arguments on the CURVE_CURVE statements for systems with zero degrees of freedom.
Adams requires that there be a unique contact point in the vicinity of the I floating and J floating
markers during simulation. If this condition is violated, Adams may be unable to find the correct
contact point or may even jump from one contact point to the next.
One way to ensure that contact points are unique is to specify curve shapes that are convex. Note
that for a convex curve, any line segment connecting two points on the curve lie in the domain of
the curve. The same is not true for non-convex curves.
Cautions:
1. For the no_i_displacement_ic,no_j_displacement_ic,no_i_velocity and no_j_velocity
parameters, setting these parameters to true is not the same as setting the value to zero. A zero
displacement/velocity is not the same as "no" displacement/velocity. Therefore, by setting this
parameter to true there is no longer a displacement/velocity initial condition for this element.

142 Adams/View Commands


constraint modify higher_pair_contact point_curve

constraint modify higher_pair_contact point_curve


Allows you to modify a point_curve.
Format:
constraint modify higher_pair_contact point_curve
point_curve_name = existing pcurve
new_point_curve_name =

new name for pcurve

adams_id = geom._id
comments = string
curve_name = existing acurve
i_marker_name = An existing marker
j_floating_marker_name = An existing fmarker
ref_marker_name = existing marker
displacement_ic = length
no_displacement_ic = true
velocity_ic =

velocity

no_velocity_ic = true
ic_ref_marker_name = existing marker
Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

point_curve_name

Existing Pcurve

Specifies the name of an existing point_curve.

New_point_curve_name

New pcurve name

Specifies the name of the new point_curve. You


may use this name later to refer to this
point_curve.

adams_id

Integer

Specifies an integer used to identify this element


in the Adams data file.

Comments

String

Specifies comments for the object being created


or modified.

curve_name

Existing Acurve name

Specifies the name of a CURVE that defines the


contour or shape on which the fixed marker can
move.

i_marker_name

Existing marker name

Specifies the name of a fixed MARKER that


Adams constrains to lie on the curve defined by
CURVE and REF_MARKER.

constraint 143
constraint modify higher_pair_contact point_curve

Parameter

Value Type

Description

j_floating_marker_name Existing floating marker


name

Specify an existing floating marker name.

ref_marker_name

Existing marker

Specifies the name of a MARKER fixed on the


part containing the curve on which the
I_MARKER must move.

displacement_ic

Length

Specifies the initial point of contact on the


curve.

no_displacement_ic

true

Specifies that if a DISPLACEMENT_IC has


been set via any means, to "UNSET" the
displacement initial condition.

velocity_ic

Velocity

Specifies the initial tangential velocity of the


I_MARKER along the curve.

no_velocity_ic

True

Specifies that if a VELOCITY_IC has been set


via any means, to "UNSET" the velocity initial
condition.

ic_ref_marker_name

Existing marker

Specifies the name of a the fixed MARKER


defining the coordinate system in which the
values for DISPLACEMENT_IC values are
specified.

Extended Definition:
1. Adams/View will not allow you to have two point_curves with the same full name, so you must
provide a unique name.
Normally, entity names are composed of alphabetic, numeric, or '_' (underscore) characters, and
start with an alphabetic or '_' character. They may be any length.
By enclosing the name in double quotes, you may use other printable characters, or start the name
with a numeral. If a name contains characters, or starts with a numeral, you must always quote the
name when entering it.
Note that you can specify the parentage of an entity (e.g. what part "owns" a marker or a geometry
element) when you CREATE it by changing the name. If you enter just the entity name, then the
default parent will be assigned by Adams/View. If you type in the full name, then you may over
ride the default parent. In most cases, when creating an entity, Adams/View will provide a default
name. The default name that Adams/View provides will specify the parentage that it has assumed.
You may, or course, delete this name and use your own. The form of a full name is:
"...._NAME.GRAND_PARENT_NAME.PARENT_NAME.ENTITY_NAME"
The number of levels used varies from case to case and the parentage must exist before an entity
can be assigned to it.

144 Adams/View Commands


constraint modify higher_pair_contact point_curve

2. When you use the FILE ADAMS_DATA_SET WRITE command, Adams/View writes an
Adams data file for your model. AdamsAdams requires that each modeling element be identified
by a unique integer identifier. If you use this parameter to specify a non-zero identifier,
Adams/View will use it in the corresponding statement in the Adams data file.
You may also enter zero as an identifier, either explicitly or by default. The next time you write
an Adams file, Adams/View will replace the zero with a unique, internally-generated identifier.
Adams/View will permanently store this identifier with the element just as if you had entered it
yourself.
Normally, you would let all identifiers default to zero, and Adams/View would generate the
identifiers for you. You are never required to enter a non-zero identifier. You only need to specify
it if, for some reason, you wish to control the Adams file output.
3. The REF_MARKER is used to associate the shape defined by the CURVE to the part on which
the REF_MARKER lies. The curve coordinates are therefore specified in the coordinate system
of the REF_MARKER. The floating J marker and REF_MARKER must belong to the same
PART.
You may identify a marker by typing its name or by picking it from the screen.
If the marker is not visible on the screen, you must type the name. You may also find it convenient
to type the name even if the marker is displayed.
If you created the marker by reading an Adams data set or graphics file, the marker name is the
letters MAR followed by the Adams data set marker ID number. The name of Adams
MARKER/101 is MAR101, for example. If you created the marker during preprocessing, you
gave it a name at that time.
If a marker is available by default, you may identify it by entering its name only. If it is not, you
must enter its full name. To identify a marker under a different part, for instance, you may need
to enter the model and part names as well. For example, you may specify marker 'pivot' from
model 'links', part 'lower_arm' by entering ".links.lower_arm.pivot". If you type a "?",
Adams/View will list the markers available by default.
You must separate multiple marker names by commas.
If the marker is visible in one of your views, you may identify it by picking on it.
You need not separate multiple marker picks by commas.
4. If the point specified is not exactly on the curve, Adams uses a point on the curve nearest to that
specified. By default, DISPLACEMENT_IC is specified in the REF_MARKER marker
coordinate system. If another coordinate system is more convenient, you may supply the
IC_REF_MARKER argument and enter DISPLACEMENT_IC in IC_REF_MARKER marker
coordinates. If you supply DISPLACEMENT_IC values, Adams assembles the system with the
I_MARKER at the specified point on the curve, even if it must override part initial conditions in
order to do so. If you do not supply DISPLACEMENT_IC, Adams assumes the initial contact is
at the point on the curve closest to the initial I_MARKER position. However, it may adjust that
contact point to maintain other part or constraint initial conditions.

constraint 145
constraint modify higher_pair_contact point_curve

5. The velocity_ic parameter specified the speed at which the I_MARKER is initially moving
relative to the curve. The VELOCITY_IC is negative if the I_MARKER is moving towards the
start of the curve, positive if the I_MARKER is moving toward the end of the curve, and zero if
the I_MARKER is stationary on the curve.
If you supply the VELOCITY_IC, Adams gives the I_MARKER the specified initial tangential
velocity along the curve, even if it must override part initial conditions in order to do so. If you
do not supply VELOCITY_IC, Adams assumes the initial tangential velocity is zero, but may
adjust that velocity to maintain other part or constraint initial conditions.
6. The POINT_CURVE command defines a point-to-curve constraint, which restricts a fixed point
defined on one part to lie on a curve defined on a second part. This is an instance of a higher pair
constraint.
The part containing the I_MARKER is free to roll and slide on the curve that is fixed to a second
part. Lift-off is not allowed, i.e., the I_MARKER must always lie on the curve.
The curve itself may be planar or spatial, open or closed. The "floating J" marker origin defines
the contact point on the curve; its orientation defines the tangent, normal, and binormal at the
contact point. A POINT_CURVE constraint removes two translational degrees-of-freedom from
the system. Adams restricts the origin of the I_MARKER to always lie on the curve. The
I_MARKER may translate only in one direction relative to the curve, along the instantaneous
tangent. The I marker is free to rotate in all three directions.
More than one POINT_CURVE or CURVE_CURVE element may reference the same CURVE
statement. If the mechanism contains several similar contacts, you may enter just one CURVE
statement, then use it with several POINT_CURVE or CURVE_CURVE constraints, each with a
different REF_MARKER.
The VELOCITY_IC is specified in the reference frame of the part containing the
REF_MARKER. In other words, the VELOCITY_IC is the speed of the I_MARKER specified
from the standpoint of an observer on the part containing the curve. This means that if the
I_MARKER is not moving globally but the curve is, then VELOCITY_IC is still non-zero.
The initial conditions arguments, DISPLACEMENT_IC and VELOCITY_IC, impose constraints
that are active only during an initial conditions analysis. Adams does not impose these initial
conditions during subsequent analyses.
For a kinematic analysis, the initial conditions are redundant. Do not use the
DISPLACEMENT_IC or VELOCITY_IC arguments on the POINT_CURVE command for
systems with zero degrees of freedom.
Cautions:
1. For the no_displacement_ic and no_velocity parameters, setting these parameters to true is not the
same as setting the value to zero. A zero displacement/velocity is not the same as "no"
displacement/velocity. Therefore, by setting this parameter to true there is no longer a
displacement initial condition for this element.
2. The I_MARKER and REF_MARKER must belong to different parts.
3. Adams aborts the simulation if the contact point moves off the end of an open curve. The user
should make sure the CURVE statement defines the curve over the expected range of motion.

146 Adams/View Commands


constraint modify higher_pair_contact point_curve

4. The IC_REF_MARKER must be on the same part as the REF_MARKER.


Tip:

1. The x, y, z values associated with the CURVE are the coordinates of points lying
on the CURVE and are calculated in the coordinate system of the REF_MARKER.

constraint 147
constraint modify joint cylindrical

constraint modify joint cylindrical


Allows the modifcation of a cylindrical joint.
Format:
constraint modify joint cylindrical
joint_name = existing joint name
new_joint_name =

new joint name

adams_id = Geom_id
comments = String
translational_ic = length
no_translational_ic = true
velocity_ic = velocity
no_velocity_ic = true
rotational_ic = angle
no_rotational_ic = true
angular_velocity_ic = angular_velocity
no_angular_velocity_ic = true
i_marker_name = existing marker
j_marker_name = existing marker
Example:
constraint modify joint Cylindrical &
joint_name = .model_1.JOINT_2 &
new_joint_name = My_Cylinderical_joint &
adams_id = 2 &
i_marker_name = MARKER_2 &
j_marker_name = MARKER_3

148 Adams/View Commands


constraint modify joint cylindrical

Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

joint_name

New joint name

Specifies the name of an existing joint.

New_joint_name

New joint name

Specifies new name of the joint. You may use this name
later to refer to this joint.

adams_id

Integer

Specifies an integer used to identify this element in the


Adams data file.

comments

String

Specifies comments for the object being created or


modified.

translational_ic

Length

Specifies the initial translational displacement on a


translational or cylindrical joint.

no_translational_ic

True

Specifies that if a "translational" velocity initial


condition has been set, to "UNSET" the "translational"
velocity initial condition for the specified constraint.

velocity_ic

Velocity

Specifies the initial translational velocity on a


translational or cylindrical joint.

no_velocity_ic

True

Specifies that if a VELOCITY_IC has been set via any


means, to "UNSET" the velocity initial condition.

rotational_ic

Real

Specifies the initial rotational displacement on a


revolute or cylindrical joint.

no_rotational_ic

True

Specifies that if a "rotational" velocity initial condition


has been set, to "UNSET" the "rotational" velocity
initial condition for the specified constraint.

angular_velocity_ic

Angular_velocity Specifies the initial angular velocity on a revolute or


cylindrical joint.

no_angular_velocity_ic True

Specifies that if an "angular_velocity" initial condition


has been set, to "UNSET" the "angular_velocity" initial
condition for the specified constraint.

i_marker_name

Existing marker

Specifies a marker on the first of two parts connected by


this joint.

j_marker_name

Existing marker

Specifies a marker on the second of two parts connected


by this joint.

Extended Definition:
1. Adams/View will not allow you to have two joints with the same full name, so you must provide
a unique name.
Normally, entity names are composed of alphabetic, numeric, or '_' (underscore) characters, and
start with an alphabetic or '_' character. They may be any length.

constraint 149
constraint modify joint cylindrical

By enclosing the name in double quotes, you may use other printable characters, or start the name
with a numeral. If a name contains characters, or starts with a numeral, you must always quote the
name when entering it.
Note that you can specify the parentage of an entity (e.g. what part "owns" a marker or a geometry
element) when you CREATE it by changing the name. If you enter just the entity name, then the
default parent will be assigned by Adams/View. If you type in the full name, then you may over
ride the default parent. In most cases, when creating an entity, Adams/View will provide a default
name. The default name that Adams/View provides will specify the parentage that it has assumed.
You may, or course, delete this name and use your own. The form of a full name is:
"...._NAME.GRAND_PARENT_NAME.PARENT_NAME.ENTITY_NAME"
The number of levels used varies from case to case and the parentage must exist before an entity
can be assigned to it.
2. When you use the FILE ADAMS_DATA_SET WRITE command, Adams/View writes an
Adams data file for your model. Adams requires that each modeling element be identified by a
unique integer identifier. If you use this parameter to specify a non-zero identifier, Adams/View
will use it in the corresponding statement in the AdamsAdams data file.
You may also enter zero as an identifier, either explicitly or by default. The next time you write
an Adams file, Adams/View will replace the zero with a unique, internally-generated identifier.
Adams/View will permanently store this identifier with the element just as if you had entered it
yourself.
Normally, you would let all identifiers default to zero, and Adams/View would generate the
identifiers for you. You are never required to enter a non-zero identifier. You only need to specify
it if, for some reason, you wish to control the Adams file output.
3. Adams/View measures the translational displacement of the origin of the I marker along the
common z-axis of the I and the J markers with respect to the origin of the J marker.
If you specify TRANSLATIONAL_IC, but not VELOCITY_IC, Adams/View will set
VELOCITY_IC to zero.
Joint initial conditions impose constraints that are active only during initial conditions analysis
(not at the time of the initial configuration). Adams does not impose initial conditions during
subsequent analyses.
If you impose initial conditions on the joint that are inconsistent with those on a part in the joint,
the initial conditions on the joint have precedence over those on the part. However, if you impose
initial conditions on the joint that are inconsistent with imparted motions on the joint, the initial
conditions as specified by the motion generator have precedence over those here.
4. Adams/View measures the translational velocity of the origin of the I marker along the common
z-axis of the I and the J markers with respect to the origin of the J marker.
If you specify VELOCITY_IC, but not TRANSLATIONAL_IC, Adams/View will set
TRANSLATIONAL_IC to zero.
Joint initial conditions impose constraints that are active only during initial conditions analysis
(not at the time of the initial configuration). Adams does not impose initial conditions during
subsequent analyses.

150 Adams/View Commands


constraint modify joint cylindrical

If you impose initial conditions on the joint that are inconsistent with those on a part in the joint,
the initial conditions on the joint have precedence over those on the part. However, if you impose
initial conditions on the joint that are inconsistent with imparted motions on the joint, the initial
conditions as specified by the motion generator have precedence over those here.
5. Adams/View measures the rotational displacement of the x-axis of the I marker about the
common z-axis of the I and the J markers with respect to the x-axis of the J marker.
If you specify ROTATIONAL_IC, but not ANGULAR_VELOCITY_IC, Adams/View will set
ANGULAR_VELOCITY_IC to zero.
Joint initial conditions impose constraints that are active only during initial conditions analysis
(not at the time of the initial configuration). Adams does not impose initial conditions during
subsequent analyses.
If you impose initial conditions on the joint that are inconsistent with those on a part in the joint,
the initial conditions on the joint have precedence over those on the part. However, if you impose
initial conditions on the joint that are inconsistent with imparted motions on the joint, the initial
conditions as specified by the motion generator have precedence over those here.
6. Adams/View measures the angular velocity of the x-axis of the I marker about the common z-axis
of the I and the J markers with respect to the x-axis of the J marker.
If you specify ANGULAR_VELOCITY_IC, but not ROTATIONAL_IC, Adams/View will set
ROTATIONAL_IC to zero.
Joint initial conditions impose constraints that are active only during initial conditions analysis
(not at the time of the initial configuration). Adams does not impose initial conditions during
subsequent analyses.
If you impose initial conditions on the joint that are inconsistent with those on a part in the joint,
the initial conditions on the joint have precedence over those on the part. However, if you impose
initial conditions on the joint that are inconsistent with imparted motions on the joint, the initial
conditions as specified by the motion generator have precedence over those here.
7. A cylindrical joint is a two-degree-of-freedom joint that allows both relative translational and
relative rotational displacement of one part with respect to another. For a cylindrical joint, Adams
keeps the z-axis of the I marker parallel to, and co-directed with, the z-axis of the J marker and
confines the origin of the I marker to the z-axis of the J marker so that the I and the J markers have
a common z-axis. To determine translational motion, Adams measures the movement of the
origin of the I marker along the z-axis and with respect to the J marker. To determine rotational
motion, Adams measures the rotation of the x-axis of the I marker about the common z-axis and
with respect to the x-axis of the J marker.
Caution:

1. For the parameters


no_translational_ic,no_velocity_ic,no_rotational_ic,setting it to true is not
the same as setting the value to zero. A zero velocity is not the same as "no"
velocity. Therefore, by setting this parameter to true there is no longer a velocity
initial condition for this element.

constraint 151
constraint modify joint cylindrical

Tip:

1. Adams/View connects one part at the I marker to the other at the J marker.

152 Adams/View Commands


constraint modify joint fixed

constraint modify joint fixed


Allows the modification of an existing fixed joint.
Format:
constraint modify joint fixed
joint_name =

an existing joint

new_joint_name =

a new joint

adams_id =

integer

comments =

string

i_marker_name =

an existing marker

j_marker_name =

an existing marker

Example:
constraint modify joint fixed &
joint_name =

JOINT__1 &

new_joint_name =

JOINT__2 &

adams_id =

2 &

comments =

"comment string" &

i_marker_name =

marker_1 &

j_marker_name =

marker_2

Description:
Parameter
joint_name

Value Type
An existing joint

Description
Specifies the joint to modify.

new_joint_name A new joint

Specifies the name of the new joint.

adams_id

ADAMS_ID

Specifies an integer used to identify this element in the


Adams data file.

comments

String

Specifies comments for the object being created or modified.

constraint 153
constraint modify joint fixed

Parameter

Value Type

Description

i_marker_name

An Existing Marker Specifies a marker on the first of two parts connected by this
joint. Adams/View connects one part at the I marker to the
other at the J marker.

j_marker_name

An Existing Marker Specifies a marker on the second of two parts connected by


this joint. Adams/View connects one part at the I marker to
the other at the J marker.

Extended Definition:
1. A fixed joint essentially locks to parts together. It can be used as a placeholder for another joint
or in conjunction with the ACTIVATE and DACTIVATE commands in Adams to model special
effects.
2. You may identify a joint by typing its name or by picking it from the screen. If the joint is not
visible on the screen, you must type the name. You may also find it convenient to type the name
even if the joint is displayed. If you created the joint by reading an Adams data set or graphics
file, the joint name is the letters JOI followed by the Adams data set joint ID number. The name
of Adams JOINT/101 is JOI101, for example. If you created the joint during preprocessing, you
gave it a name at that time. If a joint is available by default, you may identify it by entering its
name only. If it is not, you must enter its full name. To identify a joint under a model, for instance,
you may need to enter the model name as well. For example, you may specify joint 'lower_pivot'
in model 'links' by entering ".links.lower_pivot". You must separate multiple joint names by
commas. If the joint is visible in one of your views, you may identify it by picking on any of the
graphics associated with it. You need not separate multiple joint picks by commas.
3. Normally, entity names like the joint name are composed of alphabetic, numeric, or '_'
(underscore) characters, and start with an alphabetic or '_' character. They may be any length. By
enclosing the name in double quotes, you may use other printable characters, or start the name
with a numeral. If a name contains characters, or starts with a numeral, you must always quote the
name when entering it. Note that you can specify the parentage of an entity (e.g. what part "owns"
a marker or a geometry element) when you CREATE it by changing the name. If you enter just
the entity name, then the default parent will be assigned by Adams/View. If you type in the full
name, then you may over ride the default parent. In most cases, when creating an entity,
Adams/View will provide a default name. The default name that Adams/View provides will
specify the parentage that it has assumed. You may, or course, delete this name and use your own.
The form of a full name is:
"...._NAME.GRAND_PARENT_NAME.PARENT_NAME.ENTITY_NAME"
The number of levels used varies from case to case and the parentage must exist before an entity
can be assigned to it.
4. When you use the FILE ADAMS_DATA_SET WRITE command, Adams/View writes an
Adams data file for your model. Adams requires that each modeling element be identified by a
unique integer identifier. If you use this parameter to specify a non-zero identifier, Adams/View
will use it in the corresponding statement in the Adams data file. You may also enter zero as an
identifier, either explicitly or by default. The next time you write an Adams file, Adams/View will

154 Adams/View Commands


constraint modify joint fixed

replace the zero with a unique, internally-generated identifier. Adams/View will permanently
store this identifier with the element just as if you had entered it yourself. Normally, you would
let all identifiers default to zero, and Adams/View would generate the identifiers for you. You are
never required to enter a non-zero identifier. You only need to specify it if, for some reason, you
wish to control the Adams file output.
5. When an Adams/Solver data file (.adm) is read into Adams/View, all comments associated with
a statement (from the end of the previous statement through the end of the current statement) are
stored with the object. Comments in the data file can be associated with model. These comments
must follow the title statement and be followed by the comment 'END OF MODEL
COMMENTS'. This string must be uppercase. When an Adams/Solver data file is written, the
comments for an object are written before the statement corresponding to the object.
6. A FIXED joint is a zero-degree-of-freedom joint that superimposes the origins of the I and J
markers while also constraining the X, Y, and Z axes of the I marker to remain parallel to the
respective X, Y, and Z axes of the J marker.
Tip:

1. If you type a "?", Adams/View will list the joints available by default.
2. Use the joint name parameter to identify the existing joint to affect with this
command.
3. You may use the new_joint_name later to refer to this joint. Adams/View will not
allow you to have two joints with the same full name, so you must provide a unique
name.

constraint 155
constraint modify joint hooke

constraint modify joint hooke


Allows the modification of an existing hooke joint.
Format:
constraint modify joint hooke
joint_name =
new_joint_name =

an existing joint
a new joint

adams_id =

integer

comments =

string

i_marker_name =

an existing marker

j_marker_name =

an existing marker

Example:
constraint modify joint hooke &
joint_name =

JOINT__1 &

new_joint_name =

JOINT__2 &

adams_id =

2 &

comments =

"comment string" &

i_marker_name =

marker_1 &

j_marker_name =

marker_2

Description:
Parameter
joint_name

Value Type
An existing joint

Description
Specifies the joint to modify. You use this parameter to
identify the existing joint to affect with this command.

new_joint_name A new joint

Specifies the name of the new joint. You may use this name
later to refer to this joint. Adams/View will not allow you to
have two joints with the same full name, so you must provide
a unique name.

adams_id

ADAMS_ID

Specifies an integer used to identify this element in the


Adams data file.

comments

String

Specifies comments for the object being created or modified.

156 Adams/View Commands


constraint modify joint hooke

Parameter

Value Type

Description

i_marker_name

An Existing Marker Specifies a marker on the first of two parts connected by this
joint. Adams/View connects one part at the I marker to the
other at the J marker.

j_marker_name

An Existing Marker Specifies a marker on the second of two parts connected by


this joint. Adams/View connects one part at the I marker to
the other at the J marker.

Extended Definition:
1. The UNIVERSAL joint required the Z-axis of the I marker to be perpendicular to the Z-axis of
the J marker, whereas the HOOKE joint requires THE X-axis of the I marker to be perpendicular
to the Y-axis of the J marker, so that they outline the crosspiece of the joint. A valid HOOKE joint
may be properly defined with two coincident markers and can better take advantage of the
automatic marker generation capabilities of Adams/View.
2. You may identify a joint by typing its name or by picking it from the screen. If the joint is not
visible on the screen, you must type the name. You may also find it convenient to type the name
even if the joint is displayed. If you created the joint by reading an Adams data set or graphics
file, the joint name is the letters JOI followed by the Adams data set joint ID number. The name
of Adams JOINT/101 is JOI101, for example. If you created the joint during preprocessing, you
gave it a name at that time. If a joint is available by default, you may identify it by entering its
name only. If it is not, you must enter its full name. To identify a joint under a model, for instance,
you may need to enter the model name as well. For example, you may specify joint 'lower_pivot'
in model 'links' by entering ".links.lower_pivot". You must separate multiple joint names by
commas. If the joint is visible in one of your views, you may identify it by picking on any of the
graphics associated with it. You need not separate multiple joint picks by commas.
3. Normally, entity names like the joint name are composed of alphabetic, numeric, or '_'
(underscore) characters, and start with an alphabetic or '_' character. They may be any length. By
enclosing the name in double quotes, you may use other printable characters, or start the name
with a numeral. If a name contains characters, or starts with a numeral, you must always quote the
name when entering it. Note that you can specify the parentage of an entity (e.g. what part "owns"
a marker or a geometry element) when you CREATE it by changing the name. If you enter just
the entity name, then the default parent will be assigned by Adams/View. If you type in the full
name, then you may over ride the default parent. In most cases, when creating an entity,
Adams/View will provide a default name. The default name that Adams/View provides will
specify the parentage that it has assumed. You may, or course, delete this name and use your own.
The form of a full name is:
"...._NAME.GRAND_PARENT_NAME.PARENT_NAME.ENTITY_NAME"
The number of levels used varies from case to case and the parentage must exist before an entity
can be assigned to it.

constraint 157
constraint modify joint hooke

4. When you use the FILE ADAMS_DATA_SET WRITE command, Adams/View writes an
Adams data file for your model. Adams requires that each modeling element be identified by a
unique integer identifier. If you use this parameter to specify a non-zero identifier, Adams/View
will use it in the corresponding statement in the Adams data file. You may also enter zero as an
identifier, either explicitly or by default. The next time you write an Adams file, Adams/View will
replace the zero with a unique, internally-generated identifier. Adams/View will permanently
store this identifier with the element just as if you had entered it yourself. Normally, you would
let all identifiers default to zero, and Adams/View would generate the identifiers for you. You are
never required to enter a non-zero identifier. You only need to specify it if, for some reason, you
wish to control the Adams file output.
5. When an Adams/Solver data file (.adm) is read into Adams/View, all comments associated with
a statement (from the end of the previous statement through the end of the current statement) are
stored with the object. Comments in the data file can be associated with model. These comments
must follow the title statement and be followed by the comment 'END OF MODEL
COMMENTS'. This string must be uppercase. When an Adams/Solver data file is written, the
comments for an object are written before the statement corresponding to the object.
6. A HOOKE joint is a two-degree-of-freedom joint that is that same as the UNIVERSAL joint with
the exception that the marker orientations have been modified.

158 Adams/View Commands


constraint modify joint planar

constraint modify joint planar


Allows the modification of an existing planar joint.
Format:
constraint modify joint planar
joint_name =
new_joint_name =

an existing joint
a new joint

adams_id =

integer

comments =

string

i_marker_name =

an existing marker

j_marker_name =

an existing marker

Example:
constraint modify joint planar &
joint_name = JOINT__1 &
new_joint_name = JOINT__2 &
adams_id = 2 &
comments = "comment string" &
i_marker_name = marker_1 &
j_marker_name = marker_2
Description:
Parameter
joint_name

Value Type
An Existing Joint

Description
Specifies the joint to modify.

new_joint_name A New Joint

Specifies the name of the new joint.

adams_id

Adams_id

Specifies an integer used to identify this element in the


Adams data file.

comments

String

Specifies comments for the object being created or modified.

i_marker_name

An Existing Marker Specifies a marker on the first of two parts connected by this
joint.

j_marker_name

An Existing Marker Specifies a marker on the second of two parts connected by


this joint.

constraint 159
constraint modify joint planar

Extended Definition:
1. You may identify a joint by typing its name or by picking it from the screen. If the joint is not
visible on the screen, you must type the name. You may also find it convenient to type the name
even if the joint is displayed. If you created the joint by reading an Adams data set or graphics
file, the joint name is the letters JOI followed by the Adams data set joint ID number. The name
of Adams JOINT/101 is JOI101, for example. If you created the joint during preprocessing, you
gave it a name at that time. If a joint is available by default, you may identify it by entering its
name only. If it is not, you must enter its full name. To identify a joint under a model, for instance,
you may need to enter the model name as well. For example, you may specify joint 'lower_pivot'
in model 'links' by entering ".links.lower_pivot". You must separate multiple joint names by
commas. If the joint is visible in one of your views, you may identify it by picking on any of the
graphics associated with it. You need not separate multiple joint picks by commas.
2. Normally, entity names like the joint name are composed of alphabetic, numeric, or '_'
(underscore) characters, and start with an alphabetic or '_' character. They may be any length. By
enclosing the name in double quotes, you may use other printable characters, or start the name
with a numeral. If a name contains characters, or starts with a numeral, you must always quote the
name when entering it. Note that you can specify the parentage of an entity (e.g. what part "owns"
a marker or a geometry element) when you CREATE it by changing the name. If you enter just
the entity name, then the default parent will be assigned by Adams/View. If you type in the full
name, then you may over ride the default parent. In most cases, when creating an entity,
Adams/View will provide a default name. The default name that Adams/View provides will
specify the parentage that it has assumed. You may, or course, delete this name and use your own.
The form of a full name is:
"...._NAME.GRAND_PARENT_NAME.PARENT_NAME.ENTITY_NAME"
The number of levels used varies from case to case and the parentage must exist before an entity
can be assigned to it.
3. When you use the FILE ADAMS_DATA_SET WRITE command, Adams/View writes an
Adams data file for your model. Adams requires that each modeling element be identified by a
unique integer identifier. If you use this parameter to specify a non-zero identifier, Adams/View
will use it in the corresponding statement in the Adams data file. You may also enter zero as an
identifier, either explicitly or by default. The next time you write an Adams file, Adams/View will
replace the zero with a unique, internally-generated identifier. Adams/View will permanently
store this identifier with the element just as if you had entered it yourself. Normally, you would
let all identifiers default to zero, and Adams/View would generate the identifiers for you. You are
never required to enter a non-zero identifier. You only need to specify it if, for some reason, you
wish to control the Adams file output.
4. When an Adams/Solver data file (.adm) is read into Adams/View, all comments associated with
a statement (from the end of the previous statement through the end of the current statement) are
stored with the object. Comments in the data file can be associated with model. These comments
must follow the title statement and be followed by the comment 'END OF MODEL
COMMENTS'. This string must be uppercase. When an Adams/Solver data file is written, the
comments for an object are written before the statement corresponding to the object.

160 Adams/View Commands


constraint modify joint planar

5. A planar joint is a three-degree-of-freedom joint that allows the x-y plane of one part to slide in
the x-y plane of another part. For a planar joint, Adams keeps the origin of the I marker in the xy plane of the J marker and keeps the z axis of the I marker perpendicular to the x-y plane of the
J marker.
Tip:

1. If you type a "?", Adams/View will list the joints available by default.
2. Use the joint_name parameter to identify the existing joint to affect with this
command.
3. You may use the new_joint_name later to refer to this joint. Adams/View will not
allow you to have two joints with the same full name, so you must provide a unique
name.
4. Adams/View connects one part at the I marker to the other at the J marker.

constraint 161
constraint modify joint rackpin

constraint modify joint rackpin


Allows modification of an existing rack-and-pinion joint.
Format:
constraint modify joint rackpin
joint_name =
new_joint_name =

an existing joint
a new joint

adams_id =

integer

comments =

string

i_marker_name =

an existing marker

j_marker_name =

an existing marker

diameter_of_pitch =

real number

Example:
:

constraint modify joint rackpin &


joint_name =

JOINT__1 &

new_joint_name =

JOINT__2 &

adams_id =

2 &

comments =

"comment string" &

i_marker_name =

marker_1 &

j_marker_name=

marker_2 &

diameter_of_pitch =

0.22

Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

joint_name

An Existing Joint

Specifies the joint to modify.

new_joint_name

A New Joint

Specifies the name of the new joint.

adams_id

Adams_id

Specifies an integer used to identify this element in the


Adams data file.

comments

String

Specifies comments for the object being created or


modified.

i_marker_name

An Existing Marker Specifies a marker on the first of two parts connected by


this joint.

162 Adams/View Commands


constraint modify joint rackpin

Parameter
j_marker_name

Value Type

Description

An Existing Marker Specifies a marker on the second of two parts connected by


this joint.

diameter_of_pitch Length

Specifies the pitch diameter of the pinion gear of a rackand-pinion joint.

Extended Definition:
1. For a rack-and-pinion joint, the x-axis of the pinion must be parallel to and pointed in the same
direction as the z (translational) axis of the rack. The separation between the two axes should be
one-half the pitch diameter of the pinion. The rack-and-pinion joint itself does not enforce the
position and orientation it requires, but the chain of both parts and joints that connects markers I
and J should enforce the position and orientation. A common approach for enforcing the position
and the orientation is to support the rack with a translational joint and to support the pinion with
a revolute joint.
2. You may identify a joint by typing its name or by picking it from the screen. If the joint is not
visible on the screen, you must type the name. You may also find it convenient to type the name
even if the joint is displayed. If you created the joint by reading an Adams data set or graphics
file, the joint name is the letters JOI followed by the Adams data set joint ID number. The name
of Adams JOINT/101 is JOI101, for example. If you created the joint during preprocessing, you
gave it a name at that time. If a joint is available by default, you may identify it by entering its
name only. If it is not, you must enter its full name. To identify a joint under a model, for instance,
you may need to enter the model name as well. For example, you may specify joint 'lower_pivot'
in model 'links' by entering ".links.lower_pivot". You must separate multiple joint names by
commas. If the joint is visible in one of your views, you may identify it by picking on any of the
graphics associated with it. You need not separate multiple joint picks by commas.
3. Normally, entity names like the joint name are composed of alphabetic, numeric, or '_'
(underscore) characters, and start with an alphabetic or '_' character. They may be any length. By
enclosing the name in double quotes, you may use other printable characters, or start the name
with a numeral. If a name contains characters, or starts with a numeral, you must always quote the
name when entering it. Note that you can specify the parentage of an entity (e.g. what part "owns"
a marker or a geometry element) when you CREATE it by changing the name. If you enter just
the entity name, then the default parent will be assigned by Adams/View. If you type in the full
name, then you may over ride the default parent. In most cases, when creating an entity,
Adams/View will provide a default name. The default name that Adams/View provides will
specify the parentage that it has assumed. You may, or course, delete this name and use your own.
The form of a full name is:
"...._NAME.GRAND_PARENT_NAME.PARENT_NAME.ENTITY_NAME"
The number of levels used varies from case to case and the parentage must exist before an entity
can be assigned to it.

constraint 163
constraint modify joint rackpin

4. When you use the FILE ADAMS_DATA_SET WRITE command, Adams/View writes an
Adams data file for your model. Adams requires that each modeling element be identified by a
unique integer identifier. If you use this parameter to specify a non-zero identifier, Adams/View
will use it in the corresponding statement in the Adams data file. You may also enter zero as an
identifier, either explicitly or by default. The next time you write an Adams file, Adams/View will
replace the zero with a unique, internally-generated identifier. Adams/View will permanently
store this identifier with the element just as if you had entered it yourself. Normally, you would
let all identifiers default to zero, and Adams/View would generate the identifiers for you. You are
never required to enter a non-zero identifier. You only need to specify it if, for some reason, you
wish to control the Adams file output.
5. When an Adams/Solver data file (.adm) is read into Adams/View, all comments associated with
a statement (from the end of the previous statement through the end of the current statement) are
stored with the object. Comments in the data file can be associated with model. These comments
must follow the title statement and be followed by the comment 'END OF MODEL
COMMENTS'. This string must be uppercase. When an Adams/Solver data file is written, the
comments for an object are written before the statement corresponding to the object.
6. The pitch diameter relates the rotational motion of the pinion to the translational motion of the
rack. When the pinion turns in the positive direction around the z-axis of the I marker, a positive
pitch diameter moves the rack in the positive direction along the z-axis of the J marker and a
negative pitch diameter moves the rack in the negative direction along the z-axis of the J marker.
7. A rack-and-pinion joint is a five-degree-of-freedom joint that constrains the rotational and
translational displacement of the I marker as it rolls along the z-axis of the J marker. The I marker
is at the center of the pinion, and the J marker is in the rack.
Tip:

1. If you type a "?", AdamsAdams/View will list the joints available by default.
2. Use the joint_name parameter to identify the existing joint to affect with this
command.
3. You may use the new_joint_name later to refer to this joint. Adams/View will not
allow you to have two joints with the same full name, so you must provide a unique
name.
4. Adams/View connects one part at the I marker to the other at the J marker.

164 Adams/View Commands


constraint modify joint revolute

constraint modify joint revolute


Allows the modifcation of a revolute joint.
Format:
constraint modify joint revolute
joint_name = existing joint
new_joint_name =

new joint

adams_id = geom._id
comments = string
rotational_ic = angle
no_rotational_ic = true
angular_velocity_ic = angular_vel
no_angular_velocity_ic = true
friction_enabled = enable_friction
delta_v = real
maximum_deformation = real
mu_dyn_rot = real
mu_stat_rot = real
max_fric_rot = torque
preload_radial = force
preload_axial = force
inner_radius = length
outer_radius = length
i_part_name = existing body
j_part_name =

existing body

location = location
orientation = orienatation
along_axis_orientation = location
in_plane_orientation = location
relative_to = existing model, part or marker
i_marker_name = existing marker
j_marker_name =

existing marker

constraint 165
constraint modify joint revolute

Example:
constraint modify joint Revolute &
joint_name = .model_1.JOINT_1 &
neW_joint_name =

MY_REVOLUTE_JOINT &

adams_id = 1 &
i_marker_name = .model_1.PART_2.MARKER_5 &
j_marker_name = .model_1.PART_3.MARKER_6
Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

joint_name

Existing joint

Specifies the name of the joint to be modified. You may


use this name later to refer to this joint.

New_joint_name

New joint name

Specified the name of the new joint.

adams_id

Integer

Specifies an integer used to identify this element in the


Adams data file.

comments

String

Specifies comments for the object being created or


modified.

rotational_ic

Real

Specifies the initial rotational displacement on a revolute


or cylindrical joint.

no_rotational_ic

True

Specifies that if a "rotational" velocity initial condition


has been set, to "UNSET" the "rotational" velocity initial
condition for the specified constraint.

angular_velocity_ic Real

Specifies the initial angular velocity on a revolute or


cylindrical joint.

no_angular_velocity True
_ic

Specifies that if an "angular_velocity" initial condition


has been set, to "UNSET" the "angular_velocity" initial
condition for the specified constraint.

friction_enabled

Yes/No/Preload_onl
y

The constant default value will be used if this parameter


is omitted.

delta_v

Real

Real number should be greater than zero.

maximum_deformat Real
ion

Real number should be greater than zero.

mu_dyn_rot

Real

A real number greater than or equal to 0

mu_stat_rot

Real

A real number greater than or equal to 0

max_fric_rot

Torque

A real number greater than or equal to 0

166 Adams/View Commands


constraint modify joint revolute

Parameter

Value Type

Description

preload_radial

Force

A real number greater than or equal to 0

preload_axial

Force

A real number greater than or equal to 0

inner_radius

Length

A real number greater than or equal to 0

outer_radius

Length

A real number greater than or equal to 0

i_part_name

Existing body

Specifies the part that is the first of two parts connected


by this joint. Adams/View connects one part at the I
marker to the other at the J marker. These markers are
automatically generated using this method of joint
creation.

j_part_name

Existing body

Specifies the part that is the second of two parts


connected by this joint. Adams/View connects one part at
the J marker to the other at the I marker. These markers
are automatically generated using this method of joint
creation.

Location

Location

Specifies the locations to be used to define the position


of a constraint during its creation.

orientation

orientation

Specifies the orientation of the J marker for the constraint


being created using three rotation angles.

along_axis_orientati Location
on

Specifies the orientation of a coordinate system (e.g.


marker or part) by directing one of the axes.

in_plane_orientation Location

Specifies the orientation of a coordinate system (e.g.


marker or part) by directing one of the axes and locating
one of the coordinate planes.

relative_to

Existing model, part


or marker

Specifies the coordinate system that location coordinates


and orientation angles are with respect to.

i_marker_name

Existing marker

Specifies a marker on the first of two parts connected by


this joint.
Adams/View connects one part at the I marker to the
other at the J marker.

j_marker_name

Existing marker

Specifies a marker on the second of two parts connected


by this joint.
Adams/View connects one part at the I marker to the
other at the J marker.

Extended Definition:
1. Adams/View will not allow you to have two joints with the same full name, so you must provide
a unique name.

constraint 167
constraint modify joint revolute

Normally, entity names are composed of alphabetic, numeric, or '_' (underscore) characters, and
start with an alphabetic or '_' character. They may be any length.
By enclosing the name in double quotes, you may use other printable characters, or start the name
with a numeral. If a name contains characters, or starts with a numeral, you must always quote the
name when entering it.
Note that you can specify the parentage of an entity (e.g. what part "owns" a marker or a geometry
element) when you CREATE it by changing the name. If you enter just the entity name, then the
default parent will be assigned by Adams/View. If you type in the full name, then you may over
ride the default parent. In most cases, when creating an entity, Adams/View will provide a default
name. The default name that Adams/View provides will specify the parentage that it has assumed.
You may, or course, delete this name and use your own. The form of a full name is:
"...._NAME.GRAND_PARENT_NAME.PARENT_NAME.ENTITY_NAME"
The number of levels used varies from case to case and the parentage must exist before an entity
can be assigned to it.
2. When you use the FILE ADAMS_DATA_SET WRITE command, Adams/View writes an
Adams data file for your model. Adams requires that each modeling element be identified by a
unique integer identifier. If you use this parameter to specify a non-zero identifier, Adams/View
will use it in the corresponding statement in the Adams data file.
You may also enter zero as an identifier, either explicitly or by default. The next time you write
an Adams file, Adams/View will replace the zero with a unique, internally-generated identifier.
Adams/View will permanently store this identifier with the element just as if you had entered it
yourself.
Normally, you would let all identifiers default to zero, and Adams/View would generate the
identifiers for you. You are never required to enter a non-zero identifier. You only need to specify
it if, for some reason, you wish to control the Adams file output.
3. Adams/View measures the rotational displacement of the x-axis of the I marker about the
common z-axis of the I and the J markers with respect to the x-axis of the J marker.
If you specify ROTATIONAL_IC, but not ANGULAR_VELOCITY_IC, Adams/View will set
ANGULAR_VELOCITY_IC to zero.
Joint initial conditions impose constraints that are active only during initial conditions analysis
(not at the time of the initial configuration). Adams does not impose initial conditions during
subsequent analyses.
If you impose initial conditions on the joint that are inconsistent with those on a part in the joint,
the initial conditions on the joint have precedence over those on the part. However, if you impose
initial conditions on the joint that are inconsistent with imparted motions on the joint, the initial
conditions as specified by the motion generator have precedence over those here.
4. Adams/View measures the angular velocity of the x-axis of the I marker about the common z-axis
of the I and the J markers with respect to the x-axis of the J marker.
If you specify ANGULAR_VELOCITY_IC, but not ROTATIONAL_IC, Adams/View will set
ROTATIONAL_IC to zero.

168 Adams/View Commands


constraint modify joint revolute

Joint initial conditions impose constraints that are active only during initial conditions analysis
(not at the time of the initial configuration). Adams does not impose initial conditions during
subsequent analyses.
If you impose initial conditions on the joint that are inconsistent with those on a part in the joint,
the initial conditions on the joint have precedence over those on the part. However, if you impose
initial conditions on the joint that are inconsistent with imparted motions on the joint, the initial
conditions as specified by the motion generator have precedence over those here.
5. The I and J markers will be automatically created at this location on the I_PART_NAME and
J_PART_NAME respectively.
By default, you supply Cartesian (x, y, z) coordinates. You may use the 'defaults units
coordinate_system_type =' command to change this convention. For example, selecting
'cylindrical' means you will subsequently be supplying r, theta, and z coordinates.
Adams/View applies your location coordinates in the coordinate system you identify with the
RELATIVE_TO parameter. The default for the RELATIVE_TO parameter is the default
coordinate system. (See the RELATIVE_TO parameter for this command).
6. The I marker is oriented based on the J marker orientation and the requirements of the particular
constraint being created. These markers are created automatically.
Adams/View will orient the coordinate system by starting from the initial coordinate system and
applying three successive rotations. Depending on the convention you have selected, the rotations
may occur about space-fixed or body-fixed axes in any meaningful combination of the x, y, and
z axes.
By default, you supply Euler (body313, or body-fixed z, x, z) angles.
You may change this convention with the 'DEFAULTS UNITS ORIENTATION_TYPE='
command. For example, selecting SPACE123 means you will subsequently be supplying spacefixed x, y, and z angles.
Adams/View applies your orientation angles starting from the coordinate system you identify
with the RELATIVE_TO parameter. The default for the RELATIVE_TO parameter is the default
coordinate system.
7. Adams/View will assign an arbitrary rotation about the axis.
You may enter either one or two locations to direct the axis. If you enter one location, the axis will
point toward the location. If you specify two locations, the axis will be parallel to, and pointing
the same way as, the vector from the first location to the second.
Note that this does not completely dictate the orientation of the coordinate system. Adams/View
will position the coordinate system with an arbitrary rotation about the axis. If you must
completely control the coordinate system orientation, use ORIENTATION or
IN_PLANE_ORIENTATION.
By default, you direct the Z axis of the coordinate system. You may change this convention with
the 'DEFAULTS ORIENT_AXIS_AND_PLANE AXIS_AND_PLANE_SETTING=' command.
For example, selecting either X_AXIS_XY_PLANE or X_AXIS_XZ_PLANE means you will
subsequently be directing the X axis. The plane-convention setting does not affect this parameter.

constraint 169
constraint modify joint revolute

Adams/View applies your location coordinates in the coordinate system you identify with the
RELATIVE_TO parameter. The default for the RELATIVE_TO parameter is the default
coordinate system.
8. For the in_plane_orientation parameter, you may enter either two or three locations. If you enter
two locations, the axis will point toward the first location and the plane will fall on the second. If
you specify three locations, the axis will be parallel to, and pointing the same way as, the vector
from the first location to the second and the plane will be parallel to the plane defined by the three
locations.
By default, you direct the Z axis of the coordinate system and locate the ZX plane. You may use
the 'DEFAULTS ORIENT_AXIS_AND_PLANE AXIS_AND_PLANE_SETTING=' command
to change this convention. For example, selecting X_AXIS_XY_PLANE means you will
subsequently be directing the X axis and locating the XY plane.
Adams/View applies your location coordinates in the coordinate system you identify with the
RELATIVE_TO parameter. The default for the RELATIVE_TO parameter is the default
coordinate system.
9. If the relative_to parameter is not specified, the default coordinate system is used. The default
coordinate system is initially your model, i.e. the global coordinate system. You may change the
default coordinate system using the 'defaults coordinate_system' command.
10. A revolute joint is a single-degree-of-freedom joint that allows rotation of one part with respect
to another about a common axis. For a revolute joint, Adams superimposes the origins of the I and
J markers and keeps their z-axes parallel and co-directed. Relative motion occurs about the
common z-axis. Adams measures the angle of the x-axis of the I marker relative to the x-axis of
the J marker to determine the rotational displacement. Adams measures positive rotation
according to the right-hand rule.
Cautions:
1. No_rotational_ic and no_angular_velocity_ic being set to True is not the same as setting the
value to zero. A zero velocity is not the same as "no" velocity. Therefore, by setting this parameter
to true there is no longer a velocity initial condition for this element.

170 Adams/View Commands


constraint modify joint screw

constraint modify joint screw


Allows the modification of an existing screw joint.
Format:
constraint modify joint screw
joint_name =
new_joint_name =

an existing joint
a new joint

adams_id =

integer

comments =

string

i_marker_name =

an existing marker

j_marker_name =

an existing marker

pitch =

real number

Example:
constraint modify joint screw &
joint_name =

JOINT__1 &

new_joint_name =

JOINT__2 &

adams_id =

2 &

comments =

"comment string" &

i_marker_name =

marker_1 &

j_marker_name =

marker_2 &

pitch =

0.22

Description:
Parameter
joint_name

Value Type
An Existing Joint

Description
Specifies the joint to modify.

new_joint_name A New Joint

Specifies the name of the new joint. You may use this name
later to refer to this joint.

adams_id

Adams_id

Specifies an integer used to identify this element in the


Adams data file.

comments

String

Specifies comments for the object being created or


modified.

constraint 171
constraint modify joint screw

Parameter

Value Type

Description

i_marker_name

An Existing Marker

Specifies a marker on the first of two parts connected by this


joint. Adams/View connects one part at the I marker to the
other at the J marker.

j_marker_name

An Existing Marker

Specifies a marker on the second of two parts connected by


this joint. Adams/View connects one part at the I marker to
the other at the J marker.

pitch

Length

Specifies the pitch of the scew joint.

Extended Definition:
1. For a screw joint, the z-axis of the I marker and the z-axis of the J marker must always be parallel
and co-directed. Although the screw joint does not enforce this parallelism, the chain of parts and
joints that connects the two markers should.
During simulation, the I marker displacement along the J marker z-axis is a function of the relative
angle of the x-axis of the I marker with respect to the x-axis of the J marker. Adams measures a
positive rotation according to the righthand rule. For every full rotation, the displacement of the I
marker along the z-axis of the J marker is equal to the value of the screw pitch. If phi is zero, the
translational displacement may be zero or any multiple of the pitch.
2. You may identify a joint by typing its name or by picking it from the screen. If the joint is not
visible on the screen, you must type the name. You may also find it convenient to type the name
even if the joint is displayed. If you created the joint by reading an Adams data set or graphics
file, the joint name is the letters JOI followed by the Adams data set joint ID number. The name
of Adams JOINT/101 is JOI101, for example. If you created the joint during preprocessing, you
gave it a name at that time. If a joint is available by default, you may identify it by entering its
name only. If it is not, you must enter its full name. To identify a joint under a model, for instance,
you may need to enter the model name as well. For example, you may specify joint 'lower_pivot'
in model 'links' by entering ".links.lower_pivot". You must separate multiple joint names by
commas. If the joint is visible in one of your views, you may identify it by picking on any of the
graphics associated with it. You need not separate multiple joint picks by commas.
3. Normally, entity names like the joint name are composed of alphabetic, numeric, or '_'
(underscore) characters, and start with an alphabetic or '_' character. They may be any length. By
enclosing the name in double quotes, you may use other printable characters, or start the name
with a numeral. If a name contains characters, or starts with a numeral, you must always quote the
name when entering it. Note that you can specify the parentage of an entity (e.g. what part "owns"
a marker or a geometry element) when you CREATE it by changing the name. If you enter just
the entity name, then the default parent will be assigned by Adams/View. If you type in the full
name, then you may over ride the default parent. In most cases, when creating an entity,
Adams/View will provide a default name. The default name that Adams/View provides will
specify the parentage that it has assumed. You may, or course, delete this name and use your own.
The form of a full name is:
"...._NAME.GRAND_PARENT_NAME.PARENT_NAME.ENTITY_NAME"

172 Adams/View Commands


constraint modify joint screw

The number of levels used varies from case to case and the parentage must exist before an entity
can be assigned to it.
4. When you use the FILE ADAMS_DATA_SET WRITE command, Adams/View writes an
Adams data file for your model. Adams requires that each modeling element be identified by a
unique integer identifier. If you use this parameter to specify a non-zero identifier, Adams/View
will use it in the corresponding statement in the Adams data file. You may also enter zero as an
identifier, either explicitly or by default. The next time you write an Adams file, Adams/View will
replace the zero with a unique, internally-generated identifier. Adams/View will permanently
store this identifier with the element just as if you had entered it yourself. Normally, you would
let all identifiers default to zero, and Adams/View would generate the identifiers for you. You are
never required to enter a non-zero identifier. You only need to specify it if, for some reason, you
wish to control the Adams file output.
5. When an Adams/Solver data file (.adm) is read into Adams/View, all comments associated with
a statement (from the end of the previous statement through the end of the current statement) are
stored with the object. Comments in the data file can be associated with model. These comments
must follow the title statement and be followed by the comment 'END OF MODEL
COMMENTS'. This string must be uppercase. When an Adams/Solver data file is written, the
comments for an object are written before the statement corresponding to the object.
6. A screw joint is a five-degree-of-freedom joint that constrains the rotational and translational
displacement of the I marker as it spins about the z-axis of the J marker.
Tips:
1. If you type a "?", Adams/View will list the joints available by default.
2. Use the joint_name parameter to identify the existing joint to affect with this command.
3. Adams/View will not allow you to have two joints with the same full name, so you must provide
a unique name.

constraint 173
constraint modify joint spherical

constraint modify joint spherical


Allows the modification of a spherical joint.
Format:
constraint modify joint spherical
joint_name = existing joint
new_joint_name =

new_joint

adams_id = geom._id
comments = string
i_marker_name = Existing marker
j_marker_name = existing marker
Example:
constraint create joint Spherical &
joint_name = .model_1.JOINT_6 &
new_joint_name =

My_joint &

adams_id = 6 &
i_marker_name = .model_1.PART_2.MARKER_15 &
j_marker_name = .model_1.PART_3.MARKER_16
Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

joint_name

Existing joint name

Specifies the name of an existing joint.

New_joint_name

New joint

Specifies new name of the joint. You may use this name
later to refer to this joint.

adams_id

Integer

Specifies an integer used to identify this element in the


Adams data file.

comments

String

Specifies comments for the object being created or


modified.

i_marker_name

Existing marker

Specifies a marker on the first of two parts connected by


this joint.

j_marker_name

Existing marker

Specifies a marker on the second of two parts connected


by this joint.

174 Adams/View Commands


constraint modify joint spherical

Extended Definition:
1. Adams/View will not allow you to have two joints with the same full name, so you must provide
a unique name.
Normally, entity names are composed of alphabetic, numeric, or '_' (underscore) characters, and
start with an alphabetic or '_' character. They may be any length.
By enclosing the name in double quotes, you may use other printable characters, or start the name
with a numeral. If a name contains characters, or starts with a numeral, you must always quote the
name when entering it.
Note that you can specify the parentage of an entity (e.g. what part "owns" a marker or a geometry
element) when you CREATE it by changing the name. If you enter just the entity name, then the
default parent will be assigned by Adams/View. If you type in the full name, then you may over
ride the default parent. In most cases, when creating an entity, Adams/View will provide a default
name. The default name that Adams/View provides will specify the parentage that it has assumed.
You may, or course, delete this name and use your own. The form of a full name is:
"...._NAME.GRAND_PARENT_NAME.PARENT_NAME.ENTITY_NAME"
The number of levels used varies from case to case and the parentage must exist before an entity
can be assigned to it.
2. When you use the FILE ADAMS_DATA_SET WRITE command, Adams/View writes an
Adams data file for your model. Adams requires that each modeling element be identified by a
unique integer identifier. If you use this parameter to specify a non-zero identifier, Adams/View
will use it in the corresponding statement in the Adams data file.
You may also enter zero as an identifier, either explicitly or by default. The next time you write
an Adams file, Adams/View will replace the zero with a unique, internally-generated identifier.
Adams/View will permanently store this identifier with the element just as if you had entered it
yourself.
Normally, you would let all identifiers default to zero, and Adams/View would generate the
identifiers for you. You are never required to enter a non-zero identifier. You only need to specify
it if, for some reason, you wish to control the Adams file output.
3. A spherical joint is a three-degree-of-freedom joint. While permitting all three rotations, a
spherical joint superimposes the I and the J markers.
Tips:
1. Adams/View connects one part at the I marker to the other at the J marker.

constraint 175
constraint modify joint translational

constraint modify joint translational


Allows the modification of an existing translational joint.
Format:
constraint modify joint translational
joint_name =
new_joint_name =

an existing joint
a new joint name

adams_id =

integer

comments =

string

translational_ic =

length

no_translational_ic =

true

velocity_ic =

real

no_velocity_ic =

true

friction_enabled =

enable_friction

delta_v =

real

maximum_deformation =

real

mu_dyn_trans =

real

mu_stat_trans =

real

max_fric_trans =

real

preload_x =

real

preload_y =

real

height =

real

width =

real

i_part_name =

an existing body

j_part_name =

an existing body

location =

location

orientation =

location

along_axis_orientation =

location

in_plane_orientation =

location

relative_to =

an existing model, part or marker

i_marker_name =

an existing marker

j_marker_name =

an existing marker

176 Adams/View Commands


constraint modify joint translational

Example:
constraint create joint translational &
joint_name =

JOINT__1 &

new_joint_name =

JOINT__2 &

adams_id =

2 &

comments =

"comment string" &

translational_ic =

1.2 &

velocity_ic =

1.4 &

friction_enabled =
delta_v =
maximum_deformation =

preload_only &
1.4 &
0.02 &

mu_dyn_trans =

0.4 &

mu_stat_trans =

0.8 &

max_fric_trans =

0.15 &

preload_x =

1 &

preload_y =

1.2 &

height =

1.5 &

width =

0.8 &

i_part_name =

part_1 &

j_part_name =

part_2 &

location =

10 , 10 , 5 &

orientation =

1 , 2 , 1 &

relative_to =

ground &

i_marker_name =

marker_1 &

j_marker_name =

marker_2

Description:
Parameter

Value Type

joint_name

An Existing Joint

new_joint_name

A New Joint

Description
Specifies the joint to modify. You use this parameter
to identify the existing joint to affect with this
command.

constraint 177
constraint modify joint translational

Parameter

Value Type

Description

adams_id

Adams_id

Specifies an integer used to identify this element in


the Adams data file.

comments

String

Specifies comments for the object being created or


modified.

translational_ic

Length

Specifies the initial translational displacement on a


translational or cylindrical joint.

no_translational_ic

True_only

Specifies that if a "translational" velocity initial


condition has been set, to "UNSET" the
"translational" velocity initial condition for the
specified constraint.

velocity_ic

Velocity

Specifies the initial translational velocity on a


translational or cylindrical joint.

no_velocity_ic

True_only

Specifies that if a VELOCITY_IC has been set via


any means, to "UNSET" the velocity initial
condition.

friction_enabled

Enable_friction

delta_v

Real

maximum_deformation Real
mu_dyn_trans

Real

mu_stat_trans

Real

max_fric_trans

Real

preload_x

Force

preload_y

Force

height

Real

Specify a height for the info window.

width

Real

Specify a width for the info window.

i_part_name

An Existing Body

Specifies the part that is the first of two parts


connected by this joint. Adams/View connects one
part at the I marker to the other at the J marker.
These markers are automatically generated using
this method of joint creation.

j_part_name

An Existing Body

Specifies the part that is the second of two parts


connected by this joint. Adams/View connects one
part at the J marker to the other at the I marker.
These markers are automatically generated using
this method of joint creation.

178 Adams/View Commands


constraint modify joint translational

Parameter

Value Type

Description

location

Location

Specifies the locations to be used to define the


position of a constraint during its creation. The I and
J markers will be automatically created at this
location on the I_PART_NAME and
J_PART_NAME respectively.

orientation

Orientation

Specifies the orientation of the J marker for the


constraint being created using three rotation angles.
The I marker is oriented based on the J marker
orientation and the requirements of the particular
constraint being created. These markers are created
automatically.

along_axis_orientation

Location

Specifies the orientation of a coordinate system (e.g.


marker or part) by directing one of the axes.
Adams/View will assign an arbitrary rotation about
the axis.

in_plane_orientation

Location

Specifies the orientation of a coordinate system (e.g.


marker or part) by directing one of the axes and
locating one of the
coordinate planes.

relative_to

An Existing Model,
Part Or Marker

Specifies the coordinate system that location


coordinates and orientation angles are with respect
to.

i_marker_name

An Existing Marker

Specifies a marker on the first of two parts


connected by this joint. Adams/View connects one
part at the I marker to the other at the J marker.

j_marker_name

An Existing Marker

Specifies a marker on the second of two parts


connected by this joint. Adams/View connects one
part at the I marker to the other at the J marker.

Extended Definition:
1. A translational joint is a single-degree-of-freedom joint that allows translational displacement of
one part relative to another. For a translational joint, Adams keeps all the axes of the I and the J
markers parallel and keeps the origin of the I marker on the z-axis of the J marker so that the two
markers have a common z-axis. To determine the translational displacement of the I marker with
respect to the J marker, Adams measures the origin of the I marker with respect to the origin of
the J marker along their common z-axis.
2. You may identify a joint by typing its name or by picking it from the screen.

constraint 179
constraint modify joint translational

If the joint is not visible on the screen, you must type the name. You may also find it convenient
to type the name even if the joint is displayed. If you created the joint by reading an Adams data
set or graphics file, the joint name is the letters JOI followed by the Adams data set joint ID
number. The name of Adams JOINT/101 is JOI101, for example. If you created the joint during
preprocessing, you gave it a name at that time. If a joint is available by default, you may identify
it by entering its name only. If it is not, you must enter its full name. To identify a joint under a
model, for instance, you may need to enter the model name as well. For example, you may specify
joint 'lower_pivot' in model 'links' by entering ".links.lower_pivot". You must separate multiple
joint names by commas. If the joint is visible in one of your views, you may identify it by picking
on any of the graphics associated with it. You need not separate multiple joint picks by commas.
3. For a translational joint, Adams keeps all the axes of the I and the J markers parallel and keeps
the origin of the I marker on the z-axis of the J marker so that the two markers have a common zaxis. To determine the translational displacement of the I marker with respect to the J marker,
Adams measures the origin of the I marker with respect to the origin of the J marker along their
common z-axis.
4. Normally, entity names like the joint name are composed of alphabetic, numeric, or '_'
(underscore) characters, and start with an alphabetic or '_' character. They may be any length. By
enclosing the name in double quotes, you may use other printable characters, or start the name
with a numeral. If a name contains characters, or starts with a numeral, you must always quote the
name when entering it. Note that you can specify the parentage of an entity (e.g. what part "owns"
a marker or a geometry element) when you CREATE it by changing the name. If you enter just
the entity name, then the default parent will be assigned by Adams/View. If you type in the full
name, then you may over ride the default parent. In most cases, when creating an entity,
Adams/View will provide a default name. The default name that Adams/View provides will
specify the parentage that it has assumed. You may, or course, delete this name and use your own.
The form of a full name is:
"...._NAME.GRAND_PARENT_NAME.PARENT_NAME.ENTITY_NAME"
The number of levels used varies from case to case and the parentage must exist before an entity
can be assigned to it.
5. When you use the FILE ADAMS_DATA_SET WRITE command, Adams/View writes an
Adams data file for your model. Adams requires that each modeling element be identified by a
unique integer identifier. If you use this parameter to specify a non-zero identifier, Adams/View
will use it in the corresponding statement in the Adams data file. You may also enter zero as an
identifier, either explicitly or by default. The next time you write an Adams file,
AdamsAdams/View will replace the zero with a unique, internally-generated identifier.
Adams/View will permanently store this identifier with the element just as if you had entered it
yourself. Normally, you would let all identifiers default to zero, and Adams/View would generate
the identifiers for you. You are never required to enter a non-zero identifier. You only need to
specify it if, for some reason, you wish to control the Adams file output.

180 Adams/View Commands


constraint modify joint translational

6. When an Adams/Solver data file (.adm) is read into Adams/View, all comments associated with
a statement (from the end of the previous statement through the end of the current statement) are
stored with the object. Comments in the data file can be associated with model. These comments
must follow the title statement and be followed by the comment 'END OF MODEL
COMMENTS'. This string must be uppercase. When an Adams/Solver data file is written, the
comments for an object are written before the statement corresponding to the object.
7. Adams/View measures the translational displacement of the origin of the I marker along the
common z-axis of the I and the J markers with respect to the origin of the J marker. If you specify
TRANSLATIONAL_IC, but not VELOCITY_IC, Adams/View will set VELOCITY_IC to zero.
Joint initial conditions impose constraints that are active only during initial conditions analysis
(not at the time of the initial configuration). Adams does not impose initial conditions during
subsequent analyses. If you impose initial conditions on the joint that are inconsistent with those
on a part in the joint, the initial conditions on the joint have precedence over those on the part.
However, if you impose initial conditions on the joint that are inconsistent with imparted motions
on the joint, the initial conditions as specified by the motion generator have precedence over those
here.
8. Setting the no_translational_ic is not the same as setting the value to zero. A zero velocity is not
the same as "no" velocity. Therefore, by setting this parameter to true there is no longer a velocity
initial condition for this element.
9. Adams/View measures the translational velocity of the origin of the I marker along the common
z-axis of the I and the J markers with respect to the origin of the J marker. If you specify
VELOCITY_IC, but not TRANSLATIONAL_IC, Adams/View will set TRANSLATIONAL_IC
to zero. Joint initial conditions impose constraints that are active only during initial conditions
analysis (not at the time of the initial configuration). Adams does not impose initial conditions
during subsequent analyses. If you impose initial conditions on the joint that are inconsistent with
those on a part in the joint, the initial conditions on the joint have precedence over those n the part.
However, if you impose initial conditions on the joint that are inconsistent with imparted motions
on the joint, the initial conditions as specified by the motion generator have precedence over those
here.
10. Setting the no_velocity_ic parameter is not the same as setting the value to zero. A zero velocity
is not the same as "no" velocity. Therefore, by setting this parameter to true there is no longer a
velocity initial condition for this element.
11. The height and the width values should be a real number between 0.0 and 2.0, where 2.0
represents the height of the Adams/View window. Therefore, a value of 1.0 will set the info
window to be one half as high as the Adams/View window.
12. By default, you supply Cartesian (x, y, z) coordinates for the location parameter. You may use the
'defaults units coordinate_system_type =' command to change this convention. For example,
selecting 'cylindrical' means you will subsequently be supplying r, theta, and z coordinates.
Adams/View applies your location coordinates in the coordinate system you identify with the
RELATIVE_TO parameter. The default for the RELATIVE_TO parameter is the default
coordinate system. (See the RELATIVE_TO parameter for this command).

constraint 181
constraint modify joint translational

13. Adams/View will orient the coordinate system by starting from the initial coordinate system and
applying three successive rotations. Depending on the convention you have selected, the rotations
may occur about space-fixed or bodyfixed axes in any meaningful combination of the x, y, and z
axes.
By default, you supply Euler (body313, or body-fixed z, x, z) angles. You may change this
convention with the 'DEFAULTS UNITS ORIENTATION_TYPE=' command. For example,
selecting SPACE123 means you will subsequently be supplying space-fixed x, y, and z angles.
Adams/View applies your orientation angles starting from the coordinate system you identify
with the RELATIVE_TO parameter. The default for the RELATIVE_TO parameter is the default
coordinate system.
14. For the along_axis_orientation parameter you may enter either one or two locations to direct the
axis. If you enter one location, the axis will point toward the location. If you specify two locations,
the axis will be parallel to, and pointing the same way as, the vector from the first location to the
second. Note that this does not completely dictate the orientation of the coordinate system.
Adams/View will osition the coordinate system with an arbitrary rotation about the axis. If you
must completely control the coordinate system orientation, use ORIENTATION or
IN_PLANE_ORIENTATION. By default, you direct the Z axis of the coordinate system.
You may change this convention with the 'DEFAULTS ORIENT_AXIS_AND_PLANE
AXIS_AND_PLANE_SETTING=' command. For example, selecting either
X_AXIS_XY_PLANE or X_AXIS_XZ_PLANE means you will subsequently be directing the X
axis. The plane-convention setting does not affect this parameter. Adams/View applies your
location coordinates in the coordinate system you identify with the RELATIVE_TO parameter.
The default for the RELATIVE_TO parameter is the default coordinate system.
15. For the in_plane_orientation parameter you may enter either two or three locations. If you enter
two locations, the axis will point toward the first location and the plane will fall on the second. If
you specify three locations, the axis will be parallel to, and pointing the same way as, the vector
from the first location to the second and the plane will be parallel to the plane defined by the three
locations. By default, you direct the Z axis of the coordinate system and locate the ZX plane. You
may use the 'DEFAULTS ORIENT_AXIS_AND_PLANE AXIS_AND_PLANE_SETTING='
command to change this convention. For example, selecting X_AXIS_XY_PLANE means you
will subsequently be directing the X axis and locating the XY plane. Adams/View applies your
location coordinates in the coordinate system you identify with the RELATIVE_TO parameter.
The default for the RELATIVE_TO parameter is the default coordinate system.
16. If the relative_to parameter is not specified, the default coordinate system is used. The default
coordinate system is initially your model, i.e. the global coordinate system. You may change the
default coordinate system using the 'defaults coordinate_system' command.
Tips:
1. If you type a "?", Adams/View will list the joints available by default.

182 Adams/View Commands


constraint modify joint universal

constraint modify joint universal


Allows you to modify a universal joint.
Format:
constraint modify joint universal
joint_name= existing joint
new_joint_name =

new joint name

adams_id = geom_id
comments = String
i_marker_name = existing marker
j_marker_name = existing marker
Example:
constraint modify joint universal &
joint_name =

JOINT__2 &

new_joint_name =

MY_JOINT &

adams_id =

4 &

i_marker_name =

MARKER_11 &

j_marker_name =

MARKER_12

Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

joint_name

Existing joint name

Specifies the name of an existing joint.

New_joint_name

New joint name

Specifies a new name for the joint. You may use this name
later to refer to this joint.

adams_id

Integer

Specifies an integer used to identify this element in the


Adams data file.

Comments

String

Specifies comments for the object being created or


modified.

i_marker_name

Existing marker

Specifies a marker on the first of two parts connected by


this joint.

j_marker_name

Existing marker

Specifies a marker on the second of two parts connected


by this joint.

constraint 183
constraint modify joint universal

Extended Definition:
1. Adams/View will not allow you to have two joints with the same full name, so you must provide
a unique name.
Normally, entity names are composed of alphabetic, numeric, or '_' (underscore) characters, and
start with an alphabetic or '_' character. They may be any length.
By enclosing the name in double quotes, you may use other printable characters, or start the name
with a numeral. If a name contains characters, or starts with a numeral, you must always quote the
name when entering it.
Note that you can specify the parentage of an entity (e.g. what part "owns" a marker or a geometry
element) when you CREATE it by changing the name. If you enter just the entity name, then the
default parent will be assigned by Adams/View. If you type in the full name, then you may over
ride the default parent. In most cases, when creating an entity, Adams/View will provide a default
name. The default name that Adams/View provides will specify the parentage that it has assumed.
You may, or course, delete this name and use your own. The form of a full name is:
"...._NAME.GRAND_PARENT_NAME.PARENT_NAME.ENTITY_NAME"
The number of levels used varies from case to case and the parentage must exist before an entity
can be assigned to it.
2. When you use the FILE ADAMS_DATA_SET WRITE command, Adams/View writes an
Adams data file for your model. Adams requires that each modeling element be identified by a
unique integer identifier. If you use this parameter to specify a non-zero identifier, Adams/View
will use it in the corresponding statement in the Adams data file.
You may also enter zero as an identifier, either explicitly or by default. The next time you write
an Adams file, Adams/View will replace the zero with a unique, internally-generated identifier.
Adams/View will permanently store this identifier with the element just as if you had entered it
yourself.
Normally, you would let all identifiers default to zero, and Adams/View would generate the
identifiers for you. You are never required to enter a non-zero identifier. You only need to specify
it if, for some reason, you wish to control the Adams file output system.
3. A universal joint is a joint that allows two degrees of rotational freedom.
For a universal joint, Adams superimposes the origins of I and J and keeps their z-axes
perpendicular, so that they outline the crosspiece of the joint. The origins of the I and the J markers
are at the center of the crosspiece.
Tips:
1. Adams/View connects one part at the I marker to the other at the J marker.

184 Adams/View Commands


constraint modify motion_generator

constraint modify motion_generator


Allows the modifcation of a motion generator in a model.
Format:
constraint modify motion_generator
motion_name = an existing motion
new_motion_name =

new name for the motion

adams_id = geom._id
comments =

string,

joint_name = existing joint


type_of_freedom =

freedom type

i_marker_name = existing marker


j_marker_name =

existing marker

axis = motion_axes
function = function
user_function =
time_derivative =

real
displacement/ velocity/ acceleration

displacement_ic = length
velocity_ic =

velocity

rotational_displacement_ic = angle
rotational_velocity_ic = angular_velocity
Routine =

string

Example:
constraint modify motion_generator &
motion_name = ROT_MOTION &
new_motion_name = ROTATIONAL_MOT &
joint_name = JOINT_1 &
type_of_freedom = rotational &
function = time &
rotational_velocity_ic = 25.9 &
rotational_displacement_ic = 25.4

constraint 185
constraint modify motion_generator

The above command will apply a rotational motion to the specified joint which is a function of time. Its
rotational velocity would be 25.9 and its rotational displacement would be 25.4.
Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

motion_name

Existing motion name

Specifies the name of the motion generator to be


modified.

New_motion_nameAd
ams

New motion

Specifies the new name for the motion. You may


use this name later to refer to this motion
generator.

adams_id

Integer

Specifies an integer used to identify this element


in the Adams data file.

Comments

String

Specifies comments for the object being created


or modified.

joint_name

Existing joint

Specifies the translational, revolute, or


cylindrical joint associated with this entity.
Some entities constrain motion at, or are
otherwise associated with, specific joints. You
use this parameter to identify that joint.

type_of_freedom

Translational/rotational

Specifies translational or a rotational motion if


you attach this motion generator to a cylindrical
joint.

i_marker_name

Existing marker

Specify an existing I marker

j_marker_name

Existing marker

Specify an existing J marker

axis

X/Y/ Z/ B1/ B2/ B3

Allows you to create and modify additional axes


on a plot to effect multiple axis plotting.

function

Function

Specifies an expression or defines and passes


constants to a user-written subroutine to define
the motion.

user_function

Real

Specifies up to 30 values for Adams to pass to a


user-written subroutine.

Routine

String

time_derivative

VELOCITY/DISPLACE
MENT/ACCELERATIO
N

Specifies that the FUNCTION argument defines


the motion displacement, velocity, or
acceleration.

displacement_ic

Length

Specifies the initial displacement of the motion,


when the motion is defined in terms of velocity
or acceleration.

186 Adams/View Commands


constraint modify motion_generator

Parameter
velocity_ic

Value Type
Velocity

Description
Specifies the initial velocity of the motion, when
the motion is defined in terms of acceleration.

rotational_displacemen Angle
t_ic

Specifies the rotational displacement.

rotational_velocity_ic

Specifies the rotational velocity.

Real

Extended Definition:
1. Adams/View will not allow you to have two motion generators with the same full name, so you
must provide a unique name.
Normally, entity names are composed of alphabetic, numeric, or '_' (underscore) characters, and
start with an alphabetic or '_' character. They may be any length.
By enclosing the name in double quotes, you may use other printable characters, or start the name
with a numeral. If a name contains characters, or starts with a numeral, you must always quote the
name when entering it.
Note that you can specify the parentage of an entity (e.g. what part "owns" a marker or a geometry
element) when you CREATE it by changing the name. If you enter just the entity name, then the
default parent will be assigned by Adams/View. If you type in the full name, then you may over
ride the default parent. In most cases, when creating an entity, Adams/View will provide a default
name. The default name that Adams/View provides will specify the parentage that it has assumed.
You may, or course, delete this name and use your own. The form of a full name is:
"...._NAME.GRAND_PARENT_NAME.PARENT_NAME.ENTITY_NAME"
The number of levels used varies from case to case and the parentage must exist before an entity
can be assigned to it.
2. When you use the FILE ADAMS_DATA_SET WRITE command, Adams/View writes an
Adams data file for your model. Adams requires that each modeling element be identified by a
unique integer identifier. If you use this parameter to specify a non-zero identifier, Adams/View
will use it in the corresponding statement in the AdamsAdams data file.
You may also enter zero as an identifier, either explicitly or by default. The next time you write
an Adams file, Adams/View will replace the zero with a unique, internally-generated identifier.
Adams/View will permanently store this identifier with the element just as if you had entered it
yourself.
Normally, you would let all identifiers default to zero, and Adams/View would generate the
identifiers for you. You are never required to enter a non-zero identifier. You only need to specify
it if, for some reason, you wish to control the Adams file output.
3. You may identify a joint by typing its name or by picking it from the screen.
If the joint is not visible on the screen, you must type the name. You may also find it convenient
to type the name even if the joint is displayed.

constraint 187
constraint modify motion_generator

If you created the joint by reading an Adams data set or graphics file, the joint name is the letters
JOI followed by the Adams data set joint ID number. The name of Adams JOINT/101 is JOI101,
for example. If you created the joint during preprocessing, you gave it a name at that time.
If a joint is available by default, you may identify it by entering its name only. If it is not, you must
enter its full name. To identify a joint under a model, for instance, you may need to enter the
model name as well. For example, you may specify joint 'lower_pivot' in model 'links' by entering
".links.lower_pivot". If you type a "?", Adams/View will list the joints available by default.
You must separate multiple joint names by commas.
If the joint is visible in one of your views, you may identify it by picking on any of the graphics
associated with it.
You need not separate multiple joint picks by commas.
4. The type_of_freedom parameter is necessary only when you apply motion to a cylindrical joint.
For a translational joint or a revolute joint, Adams assumes you want translational motion or
rotational motion, respectively.
5. When you create a plot template, Adams/View creates two axes by default, one horizontal and
one vertical. These are the plot's primary axes which Adams/View uses to perform cursor tracking
and to draw the grid. The plot TEMPLATE commands also operate on the plot's primary axes.
Each axis consists of an axis line, tic marks, numbers and a label. Use the axis ATTRIBUTES to
change visibility and color attributes for the axis entities.
To plot a curve against the new axes, specify the axis names when you create the curve.
You can make the new axes the plot's primary axes by modifying the plot's template and
specifying the desired axes as the PRIMARY_HAXIS and PRIMARY_VAXIS. The grid will
then reflect the divisions of the new axes and cursor tracking will reflect the new axes' coordinate
system.
6. The motion must be a function of time only and not a function of the state variables.
Adams/View treats this parameter as a series of literal strings. When you write an Adams data set,
Adams/View writes these strings, just as you enter them here, after the 'FUNCTION=' argument.
If you want to define the motion with an expression, enclose the expression in quotes and enter it
just as you would in the data set. See the Adams User's Manual for information on writing
function expressions. If your expression is longer than 65 characters, you should break it up into
separate strings so it does not extend past the Adams 80-character line-length limit. Adams/View
will write each string on a separate line in the data set.
If you want to define the motion with a user-written subroutine, enter the character string
"USER(r1[,...,r30])", where r1[,...,r30] are the values you want Adams to pass to your user-written
subroutine MOTSUB. If you enter "USER(1.,2.,3.)", for instance, Adams will call your
MOTSUB with values 1, 2, and 3. See the Adams User's Manual for more information on using
MOTSUBs.
7. A MOTION_GENERATOR determines a translational or a rotational motion as a function of
time. In Adams you can apply a motion to a translational, to a revolute, or to a cylindrical joint.
You can define the motion with a FUNCTION expression or with a user-written subroutine.

188 Adams/View Commands


constraint modify motion_generator

You can assign a translational motion at either a translational or a cylindrical joint, and you can
assign a rotational motion at either a revolute or a cylindrical joint. Adams uses the two markers
that specify the joint to define the motion. In other words, Adams controls the rotational or the
translational displacement of the I marker in the joint with respect to the J marker in the joint.
For a translational motion, Adams moves the I marker along the z-axis of the J marker. The J
marker origin represents zero displacement, while the z-axis of the J marker defines the positive
direction. For a rotational motion, Adams rotates the I marker about the z-axis of the J marker.
Positive rotations are positive according to the right-hand rule. The z-axis of the I marker must be
collinear with the z-axis of the J marker at all times. The angle is zero when the x-axis of the I
marker is also collinear with the x-axis of the J marker.

constraint 189
constraint modify primitive_joint inplane

constraint modify primitive_joint inplane


Allows the modification of an existing inplane joint primitive.
Format:
constraint modify primitive_joint inplane
jprim_name =
new_jprim_name =

an existing primitive joint name


a new primitive joint name

adams_id =

integer

comments =

string

i_marker_name =

an existing marker

j_marker_name =

an existing marker

Example:
constraint modify primitive_joint inplane &
jprim_name = JPRIM__1 &
new_jprim_name = JPRIM__2 &
adams_id = 2 &
comments = "comment string" &
i_marker_name = marker_1 &
j_marker_name = marker_2
Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

jprim_name

An Existing
Primitive Joint

Specifies the jprim to modify.

new_jprim_name

A New Primitive
Joint

Specifies the name of the new jprim.

adams_id

Adams_id

Specifies an integer used to identify this element


in the Adams data file.

comments

String

Specifies comments for the object being created


or modified.

190 Adams/View Commands


constraint modify primitive_joint inplane

Parameter

Value Type

Description

i_marker_name

An Existing Marker

Specifies a marker on the first of two parts


connected by this joint.

j_marker_name

An Existing Marker

Specifies a marker on the second of two parts


connected by this joint.

Extended Definition:
1. An inplane joint primitive indicates a five-degree-of-freedom joint primitive that allows both
translational and rotational motion of one part with respect to another.For an inplane primitive,
Adams imposes one translational constraint, which confines the translational motion of the I
marker to the x-y plane of the J marker.
2. You may identify a jprim by typing its name or by picking it from the screen. If the jprim is not
visible on the screen, you must type the name. You may also find it convenient to type the name
even if the jprim is displayed. If you created the jprim by reading an Adams data set or graphics
file, the jprim name is the letters JPR followed by the Adams data set jprim ID number. The name
of Adams JPRIM/101 is JPR101, for example. If you created the jprim during preprocessing, you
gave it a name at that time. If a jprim is available by default, you may identify it by entering its
name only. If it is not, you must enter its full name. To identify a jprim under an analysis, for
instance, you may need to enter the analysis name as well. For example, you may specify jprim
101 from the analysis named test by entering ".test.jpr101". You must separate multiple jprim
names by commas. If the jprim is visible in one of your views, you may identify it by picking on
any of the graphics associated with it. You need not separate multiple jprim picks by commas.
3. Normally, entity names like the jprim_name are composed of alphabetic, numeric, or '_'
(underscore) characters, and start with an alphabetic or '_' character. They may be any length. By
enclosing the name in double quotes, you may use other printable characters, or start the name
with a numeral. If a name contains characters, or starts with a numeral, you must always quote the
name when entering it. Note that you can specify the parentage of an entity (e.g. what part "owns"
a marker or a geometry element) when you CREATE it by changing the name. If you enter just
the entity name, then the default parent will be assigned by Adams/View. If you type in the full
name, then you may over ride the default parent. In most cases, when creating an entity,
Adams/View will provide a default name. The default name that Adams/View provides will
specify the parentage that it has assumed. You may, or course, delete this name and use your own.
The form of a full name is:
"...._NAME.GRAND_PARENT_NAME.PARENT_NAME.ENTITY_NAME"
The number of levels used varies from case to case and the parentage must exist before an entity
can be assigned to it.
4. When you use the FILE ADAMS_DATA_SET WRITE command, Adams/View writes an
Adams data file for your model. Adams requires that each modeling element be identified by a
unique integer identifier. If you use this parameter to specify a non-zero identifier, Adams/View
will use it in the corresponding statement in the Adams data file. You may also enter zero as an
identifier, either explicitly or by default. The next time you write an Adams file, Adams/View will
replace the zero with a unique, internally-generated identifier. Adams/View will permanently

constraint 191
constraint modify primitive_joint inplane

store this identifier with the element just as if you had entered it yourself. Normally, you would
let all identifiers default to zero, and Adams/View would generate the identifiers for you. You are
never required to enter a non-zero identifier. You only need to specify it if, for some reason, you
wish to control the Adams file output.
5. When an Adams/Solver data file (.adm) is read into Adams/View, all comments associated with
a statement (from the end of the previous statement through the end of the current statement) are
stored with the object. Comments in the data file can be associated with model. These comments
must follow the title statement and be followed by the comment 'END OF MODEL
COMMENTS'. This string must be uppercase. When an Adams/Solver data file is written, the
comments for an object are written before the statement corresponding to the object.
Tips:
1. If you type a "?", Adams/View will list the jprims available by default.
2. You use the jprim_name parameter to identify the existing jprim to affect with this command.
3. You may use the newjprim_name later to refer to this jprim. Adams/View will not allow you to
have two jprims with the same full name, so you must provide a unique name.
4. Adams/View connects one part at the I marker to the other at the J marker.

192 Adams/View Commands


constraint modify primitive_joint orientation

constraint modify primitive_joint orientation


Allows the modification of an existing orientation joint primitive.
Format:
constraint modify primitive_joint orientation
jprim_name =
new_jprim_name =

an existing primitive joint name


a new primitive joint name

adams_id =

integer

comments =

string

i_marker_name =

an existing marker

j_marker_name =

an existing marker

Example:
constraint modify primitive_joint orientation &
jprim_name = JPRIM__1 &
new_jprim_name = JPRIM__2 &
adams_id = 2 &
comments = "comment string" &
i_marker_name = marker_1 &
j_marker_name = marker_2
Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

jprim_name

An Existing
Primitive Joint

Specifies the jprim to modify.

new_jprim_name

A New Primitive
Joint

Specifies the name of the new jprim. You may


use this name later to refer to this jprim.

adams_id

Adams_id

Specifies an integer used to identify this element


in the Adams data file.

comments

String

Specifies comments for the object being created


or modified.

constraint 193
constraint modify primitive_joint orientation

Parameter

Value Type

Description

i_marker_name

An Existing Marker

Specifies a marker on the first of two parts


connected by this joint.

j_marker_name

An Existing Marker

Specifies a marker on the second of two parts


connected by this joint.

Extended Definition:
1. An orientation joint primitive indicates a three-degree-of-freedom joint primitive that allows only
translational motion of one part with respect to another. For an orientation primitive, Adams
imposes three rotational constraints to keep the orientation of the I marker identical to the
orientation of the J marker.
2. You may identify a jprim by typing its name or by picking it from the screen. If the jprim is not
visible on the screen, you must type the name. You may also find it convenient to type the name
even if the jprim is displayed. If you created the jprim by reading an Adams data set or graphics
file, the jprim name is the letters JPR followed by the Adams data set jprim ID number. The name
of Adams JPRIM/101 is JPR101, for example. If you created the jprim during preprocessing, you
gave it a name at that time. If a jprim is available by default, you may identify it by entering its
name only. If it is not, you must enter its full name. To identify a jprim under an analysis, for
instance, you may need to enter the analysis name as well. For example, you may specify jprim
101 from the analysis named test by entering ".test.jpr101". You must separate multiple jprim
names by commas. If the jprim is visible in one of your views, you may identify it by picking on
any of the graphics associated with it. You need not separate multiple jprim picks by commas.
3. Normally, entity names like the jprim_name are composed of alphabetic, numeric, or '_'
(underscore) characters, and start with an alphabetic or '_' character. They may be any length. By
enclosing the name in double quotes, you may use other printable characters, or start the name
with a numeral. If a name contains characters, or starts with a numeral, you must always quote the
name when entering it. Note that you can specify the parentage of an entity (e.g. what part "owns"
a marker or a geometry element) when you CREATE it by changing the name. If you enter just
the entity name, then the default parent will be assigned by Adams/View. If you type in the full
name, then you may over ride the default parent. In most cases, when creating an entity,
Adams/View will provide a default name. The default name that Adams/View provides will
specify the parentage that it has assumed. You may, or course, delete this name and use your own.
The form of a full name is:
"...._NAME.GRAND_PARENT_NAME.PARENT_NAME.ENTITY_NAME"
The number of levels used varies from case to case and the parentage must exist before an entity
can be assigned to it.
4. When you use the FILE ADAMS_DATA_SET WRITE command, Adams/View writes an
Adams data file for your model. Adams requires that each modeling element be identified by a
unique integer identifier. If you use this parameter to specify a non-zero identifier, Adams/View
will use it in the corresponding statement in the Adams data file. You may also enter zero as an
identifier, either explicitly or by default. The next time you write an Adams file, Adams/View will
replace the zero with a unique, internally-generated identifier. Adams/View will permanently

194 Adams/View Commands


constraint modify primitive_joint orientation

store this identifier with the element just as if you had entered it yourself. Normally, you would
let all identifiers default to zero, and Adams/View would generate the identifiers for you. You are
never required to enter a non-zero identifier. You only need to specify it if, for some reason, you
wish to control the Adams file output.
5. When an Adams/Solver data file (.adm) is read into Adams/View, all comments associated with
a statement (from the end of the previous statement through the end of the current statement) are
stored with the object. Comments in the data file can be associated with model. These comments
must follow the title statement and be followed by the comment 'END OF MODEL
COMMENTS'. This string must be uppercase. When an Adams/Solver data file is written, the
comments for an object are written before the statement corresponding to the object.
Tips:
1. If you type a "?", Adams/View will list the jprims available by default.
2. You use this parameter to identify the existing jprim to affect with this command.
3. Adams/View will not allow you to have two jprims with the same full name, so you must provide
a unique name.
4. Adams/View connects one part at the I marker to the other at the J marker.

constraint 195
constraint modify primitive_joint parallel_axis

constraint modify primitive_joint parallel_axis


Allows modification of an existing parallel axis joint primitive.
Format:
constraint modify primitive_joint parallel_axis
jprim_name =
new_jprim_name =

an existing primitive joint name


a new primitive joint name

adams_id =

integer

comments =

string

i_marker_name =

an existing marker

j_marker_name =

an existing marker

Example:
constraint modify primitive_joint parallel_axis &
jprim_name = JPRIM__1 &
new_jprim_name = JPRIM__2 &
adams_id = 2 &
comments = "comment string" &
i_marker_name = marker_1 &
j_marker_name = marker_2
Description:
Parameter
jprim_name

Value Type
An Existing
Primitive Joint

Description
Specifies the jprim to modify.

new_jprim_name A New Primitive


Joint

Specifies the name of the new jprim.

adams_id

Adams_id

Specifies an integer used to identify this element in the


Adams data file.

comments

String

Specifies comments for the object being created or


modified.

196 Adams/View Commands


constraint modify primitive_joint parallel_axis

Parameter

Value Type

Description

i_marker_name

An Existing Marker

Specifies a marker on the first of two parts connected by


this joint.

j_marker_name

An Existing Marker

Specifies a marker on the second of two parts connected by


this joint.

Extended Definition:
1. A parallel joint primitive is a four-degree-of-freedom joint primitive that allows both translational
and rotational motion of one part with respect to another. For a parallel axis primitive, Adams
imposes two rotational constraints so that the z-axis of the I marker stays parallel to the z-axis of
the J marker. This primitive permits relative rotation about the common z-axis of I and J and
permits all relative displacements.
2. You may identify a jprim by typing its name or by picking it from the screen. If the jprim is not
visible on the screen, you must type the name. You may also find it convenient to type the name
even if the jprim is displayed. If you created the jprim by reading an Adams data set or graphics
file, the jprim name is the letters JPR followed by the Adams data set jprim ID number. The name
of Adams JPRIM/101 is JPR101, for example. If you created the jprim during preprocessing, you
gave it a name at that time. If a jprim is available by default, you may identify it by entering its
name only. If it is not, you must enter its full name. To identify a jprim under an analysis, for
instance, you may need to enter the analysis name as well. For example, you may specify jprim
101 from the analysis named test by entering ".test.jpr101". You must separate multiple jprim
names by commas. If the jprim is visible in one of your views, you may identify it by picking on
any of the graphics associated with it. You need not separate multiple jprim picks by commas.
3. Normally, entity names like the jprim_name are composed of alphabetic, numeric, or '_'
(underscore) characters, and start with an alphabetic or '_' character. They may be any length. By
enclosing the name in double quotes, you may use other printable characters, or start the name
with a numeral. If a name contains characters, or starts with a numeral, you must always quote the
name when entering it. Note that you can specify the parentage of an entity (e.g. what part "owns"
a marker or a geometry element) when you CREATE it by changing the name. If you enter just
the entity name, then the default parent will be assigned by Adams/View. If you type in the full
name, then you may over ride the default parent. In most cases, when creating an entity,
Adams/View will provide a default name. The default name that Adams/View provides will
specify the parentage that it has assumed. You may, or course, delete this name and use your own.
The form of a full name is:
"...._NAME.GRAND_PARENT_NAME.PARENT_NAME.ENTITY_NAME"
The number of levels used varies from case to case and the parentage must exist before an entity
can be assigned to it.
4. When you use the FILE ADAMS_DATA_SET WRITE command, Adams/View writes an
Adams data file for your model. Adams requires that each modeling element be identified by a
unique integer identifier. If you use this parameter to specify a non-zero identifier, Adams/View
will use it in the corresponding statement in the Adams data file. You may also enter zero as an
identifier, either explicitly or by default. The next time you write an Adams file, Adams/View will

constraint 197
constraint modify primitive_joint parallel_axis

replace the zero with a unique, internally-generated identifier. Adams/View will permanently
store this identifier with the element just as if you had entered it yourself. Normally, you would
let all identifiers default to zero, and Adams/View would generate the identifiers for you. You are
never required to enter a non-zero identifier. You only need to specify it if, for some reason, you
wish to control the Adams file output.
5. When an Adams/Solver data file (.adm) is read into Adams/View, all comments associated with
a statement (from the end of the previous statement through the end of the current statement) are
stored with the object. Comments in the data file can be associated with model. These comments
must follow the title statement and be followed by the comment 'END OF MODEL
COMMENTS'. This string must be uppercase. When an Adams/Solver data file is written, the
comments for an object are written before the statement corresponding to the object.
Tips:
1. If you type a "?", Adams/View will list the jprims available by default.
2. You use the jprim_name parameter to identify the existing jprim to affect with this command.
3. You may use the new_jprim_name later to refer to the jprim. Adams/View will not allow you to
have two jprims with the same full name, so you must provide a unique name.
4. Adams/View connects one part at the I marker to the other at the J marker.

198 Adams/View Commands


constraint modify primitive_joint perpendicular

constraint modify primitive_joint perpendicular


Allows the modifcation of a perpendicular joint primitive.
Format:
Constraint modify primitive_joint perpendicular
jprim_name = existing primitive joint name
new_jprim_name =

new name for existing jprim

adams_id = geom_id
comments = string
i_marker_name = existing marker name
j_marker_name = existing marker name
Example:
constraint modify primitive_joint perpendicular &
jprim_name =

JPRIM__1 &

new_jprim_name =

MY_JPRIM &

i_marker_name =

MARKER_1 &

j_marker_name = MARKER_11
Description:
Parameter
Jprim_name

Value Type
Existing primitive joint
name

Description
Specifies the name of the jprim to be modified.

New_jprim_name New name for jprim

Specifies the name of the new jprim. You may use this
name later to refer to this jprim.

adams_id

Integer

Specifies an integer used to identify this element in the


Adams data file.

Comments

String

Specifies comments for the object being created or


modified.

i_marker_name

Existing marker name

Specifies a marker on the first of two parts connected


by this joint.

j_marker_name

Existing marker name

Specifies a marker on the second of two parts


connected by this joint.

constraint 199
constraint modify primitive_joint perpendicular

Extended Definition:
1. Adams/View will not allow you to have two jprims with the same full name, so you must provide
a unique name.
Normally, entity names are composed of alphabetic, numeric, or '_' (underscore) characters, and
start with an alphabetic or '_' character. They may be any length.
By enclosing the name in double quotes, you may use other printable characters, or start the name
with a numeral. If a name contains characters, or starts with a numeral, you must always quote the
name when entering it.
Note that you can specify the parentage of an entity (e.g. what part "owns" a marker or a geometry
element) when you CREATE it by changing the name. If you enter just the entity name, then the
default parent will be assigned by Adams/View. If you type in the full name, then you may over
ride the default parent. In most cases, when creating an entity, Adams/View will provide a default
name. The default name that Adams/View provides will specify the parentage that it has assumed.
You may, or course, delete this name and use your own. The form of a full name is:
"...._NAME.GRAND_PARENT_NAME.PARENT_NAME.ENTITY_NAME"
The number of levels used varies from case to case and the parentage must exist before an entity
can be assigned to it.
2. When you use the FILE ADAMS_DATA_SET WRITE command, Adams/View writes an
Adams data file for your model. Adams requires that each modeling element be identified by a
unique integer identifier. If you use this parameter to specify a non-zero identifier, Adams/View
will use it in the corresponding statement in the Adams data file.
You may also enter zero as an identifier, either explicitly or by default. The next time you write
an Adams file, Adams/View will replace the zero with a unique, internally-generated identifier.
Adams/View will permanently store this identifier with the element just as if you had entered it
yourself.
Normally, you would let all identifiers default to zero, and Adams/View would generate the
identifiers for you. You are never required to enter a non-zero identifier. You only need to specify
it if, for some reason, you wish to control the Adams file output.
3. A perpendicular joint primitive is a five-degree-of-freedom joint primitive that allows both
translational and rotational motion of one part with respect to another.
For a perpendicular primitive, Adams imposes a single rotational constraint on the I and the J
markers so that their z-axes remain perpendicular. This allows relative rotations about either zaxis, but does not allow any relative rotation in the direction perpendicular to both z-axes.
Tips:
1. Adams/View connects one part at the I marker to the other at the J marker.

200 Adams/View Commands


constraint modify primitive_joint point_point

constraint modify primitive_joint point_point


Allows the modification of an existing point_point joint primitive.
Format:
constraint modify primitive_joint point_point
jprim_name = an existing primitive joint name
new_jprim_name = a new primitive joint name
adams_id = integer
comments = string
i_marker_name = an existing marker
j_marker_name = an existing marker
offset = length
Example:
constraint modify primitive_joint point_point &
jprim_name = JPRIM__1 &
new_jprim_name = JPRIM__2 &
adams_id = 2 &
comments = "comment string" &
i_marker_name = marker_1 &
j_marker_name = marker_2
offset = 2
Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

jprim_name

An Existing Primitive
Joint

Specifies the jprim to modify.

new_jprim_name

A New Primitive Joint

Specifies the name of the new jprim.

adams_id

Adams_id

Specifies an integer used to identify this element in the


Adams data file.

comments

String

Specifies comments for the object being created or


modified.

constraint 201
constraint modify primitive_joint point_point

i_marker_name

An Existing Marker

Specifies a marker on the first of two parts connected


by this joint.

j_marker_name

An Existing Marker

Specifies a marker on the second of two parts


connected by this joint.

offset

Length

Specifies the prescribed distance between the two


points.

Extended Definition:
1. An point_point joint primitive constrains three translational DOF and allows three rotational DOF.
This jprim is diferent from a conventional spherical joint as it allows a constant non-zero distance
between i_marker and j_marker. This is similar to a dummy bar having spherical and hookes joint
at respective ends, but it does not specifically constrain any direction, just the total distance
between I and J.
2. You may identify a jprim by typing its name or by picking it from the screen. If the jprim is not
visible on the screen, you must type the name. You may also find it convenient to type the name
even if the jprim is displayed. If you created the jprim by reading an Adams data set or graphics
file, the jprim name is the letters JPR followed by the Adams data set jprim ID number. The name
of Adams JPRIM/101 is JPR101, for example. If you created the jprim during preprocessing, you
gave it a name at that time. If a jprim is available by default, you may identify it by entering its
name only. If it is not, you must enter its full name. To identify a jprim under an analysis, for
instance, you may need to enter the analysis name as well. For example, you may specify jprim
101 from the analysis named test by entering ".test.jpr101". You must separate multiple jprim
names by commas. If the jprim is visible in one of your views, you may identify it by picking on
any of the graphics associated with it. You need not separate multiple jprim picks by commas.
3. Normally, entity names like the jprim_name are composed of alphabetic, numeric, or '_'
(underscore) characters, and start with an alphabetic or '_' character. They may be any length. By
enclosing the name in double quotes, you may use other printable characters, or start the name
with a numeral. If a name contains characters, or starts with a numeral, you must always quote the
name when entering it. Note that you can specify the parentage of an entity (e.g. what part "owns"
a marker or a geometry element) when you CREATE it by changing the name. If you enter just the
entity name, then the default parent will be assigned by Adams/View. If you type in the full name,
then you may over ride the default parent. In most cases, when creating an entity, Adams/View
will provide a default name. The default name that Adams/View provides will specify the
parentage that it has assumed. You may, or course, delete this name and use your own. The form
of a full name is:
"...._NAME.GRAND_PARENT_NAME.PARENT_NAME.ENTITY_NAME". The number of
levels used varies from case to case and the parentage must exist before an entity can be assigned
to it.
4. When you use the FILE ADAMS_DATA_SET WRITE command, Adams/View writes an Adams
data file for your model. Adams requires that each modeling element be identified by a unique
integer identifier. If you use this parameter to specify a non-zero identifier, Adams/View will use
it in the corresponding statement in the Adams data file. You may also enter zero as an identifier,
either explicitly or by default. The next time you write an Adams file, Adams/View will replace

202 Adams/View Commands


constraint modify primitive_joint point_point

the zero with a unique, internally-generated identifier. Adams/View will permanently store this
identifier with the element just as if you had entered it yourself. Normally, you would let all
identifiers default to zero, and Adams/View would generate the identifiers for you. You are never
required to enter a non-zero identifier. You only need to specify it if, for some reason, you wish
to control the Adams file output.
5. When an Adams/Solver data file (.adm) is read into Adams/View, all comments associated with
a statement (from the end of the previous statement through the end of the current statement) are
stored with the object. Comments in the data file can be associated with model. These comments
must follow the title statement and be followed by the comment 'END OF MODEL COMMENTS'.
This string must be uppercase. When an Adams/Solver data file is written, the comments for an
object are written before the statement corresponding to the object.
Tips:
1. If you type a "?", Adams/View will list the jprims available by default.
2. You use the jprim_name parameter to identify the existing jprim to affect with this command.
3. You may use the newjprim_name later to refer to this jprim. Adams/View will not allow you to
have two jprims with the same full name, so you must provide a unique name.
4. You may use the newjprim_name later to refer to this jprim. Adams/View will not allow you to
have two jprims with the same full name, so you must provide a unique name.

constraint 203
constraint modify user_defined

constraint modify user_defined


Allows the user to modify a USER DEFINED constraint.
Format:
constraint modify user_defined
user_constraint_name = existing user constraint
new_user_constraint_name =
adams_id =

new name for the user constraint


geom._id

comments = string
user_function =

function

Description:
Parameter
user_constraint_name

Value Type
Existing user defined
constraint

Description
Allows the user to modify a USER DEFINED
constraint.

New_user_constraint_na New name for the user


me
defined constraint

Specify the new name for the user defined


constraint.

adams_id

Integer

Specifies an integer used to identify this element


in the Adams data file.

comments

String

Specifies comments for the object being created


or modified.

user_function

Real

Specifies up to 30 values for Adams to pass to a


user-written subroutine.

Extended Definition:
1. When you use the FILE ADAMS_DATA_SET WRITE command, Adams/View writes an
Adams data file for your model. Adams requires that each modeling element be identified by a
unique integer identifier. If you use this parameter to specify a non-zero identifier, Adams/View
will use it in the corresponding statement in the Adams data file.
You may also enter zero as an identifier, either explicitly or by default. The next time you write
an Adams file, Adams/View will replace the zero with a unique, internally-generated identifier.
Adams/View will permanently store this identifier with the element just as if you had entered it
yourself.
Normally, you would let all identifiers default to zero, and Adams/View would generate the
identifiers for you. You are never required to enter a non-zero identifier. You only need to specify
it if, for some reason, you wish to control the Adams file output.

204 Adams/View Commands


constraint modify user_defined

2. A user-defined constraint describes a system constraint as a function of time and as many as thirty
variables. Each of these variables must be the displacement or the velocity of a part. For any part
at any point in time, six displacements define its position, and six velocities define its velocity.
The six displacements are the x, y, and z translations and the three Euler angle rotations. The six
velocities are the x, y, and z translational velocities and the time derivatives of the three Euler
angles. Adams measures all of these displacements and velocities at the origin of the principal
axes with respect to the global coordinate system. A USER DEFINED constraint is only used
when a constraint is needed that is not definable by any of the other constraint types.

contact 1

contact

2 Adams/View Commands
contact copy

contact copy
Allows you to copy an existing contact and creates an identical new contact with a different name, which
is to be specified by the user.
Format:
contact copy
contact_name = An existing contact
new_contact_name = A new contact
Example:
contact copy &
contact_name = contact__1 &
new_contact_name = contact__2
Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

Contact_name

An Existing
Contact

Specifies the contact to be deleted.

New_contact_name

A New Contact Specifies the new contact which will be a copy of the
existing one.

Tips:
1. On typing contact delete followed by a ? in the command window, the option contact_name
= is automatically displayed. If you need to find out the various contacts already present, type ?
once again. This will result in all the existing contact names that can be deleted being displayed
in the command window.

contact 3
contact create

contact create
Allows you to create a contact force between two geometries. You will need to specify the two
parts/geometries/flexible bodies using their marker, geometry or flexible body names.
Format:
contact create
contact_name = a new contact
adams_id = integer
comments = string
i_marker_name = an existing marker
i_geometry_name = an existing geometry
j_geometry_name = an existing geometry
i_flex = an existing flexible body
j_flex = an existing flexible body
i_edge = an existing edge
j_edge = an existing edge
i_edge_index = an existing edge index
j_edge_index = an existing edge index
i_flip_normal = string
j_flip_normal = string
i_flip_geometry_name = existing contact_curve
j_flip_geometry_name = existing contact_curve
geometry_routines = string
stiffness = real
damping = real
dmax = real
exponent = real
penalty = real
restitution_coefficient = real
normal_function = real
normal_routine = string
augmented_lagrangian_formulation = yes/no
coulomb_friction = real

4 Adams/View Commands
contact create

contact create
mu_static = real
mu_dynamic = real
friction_transition_velocity = real
friction_function = real
friction_routine = string
no_friction = true_value
stiction_transition_velocity = real
Example:
contact create &
contact_name = contact__1 &
adams_id = 1 &
comments = "comment string" &
i_marker_name = marker_1 &
j_geometry_name = link_1 &
i_flip_normal = yes &
j_flip_normal = no &
geometry_routines = "routine 1" &
stiffness = 0.12 &
damping = 0.18 &
dmax = 0.11 &
exponent = 0.13 &
augmented_lagrangian_formulation = no &
mu_static = 0.15 &
mu_dynamic = 0.16 &
coulomb_friction = dynamics_only &
friction_transition_velocity = 0.15 &
stiction_transition_velocity = 0.15

contact 5
contact create

Description:
Parameter

Value

Description

contact_name

A New
Contact

Specifies the name of the contact to be created.

adams_id

Integer

If this ID is not entered, Adams/View will automatically


create an Adams ID for the contact.

comments

String

Enters any relevant comments to describe the contact.

i_marker_name

An Existing
Marker

Either the I marker or the I geometry name needs to be


specified to indicate the geometry participating in the
contact.

i_geometry_name

An Existing
Geometry

Specifies the name of the geometry participating in the


contact.

j_geometry_name

An Existing
Geometry

Specifies the name of the other geometry participating in


the contact.

i_flex

An Existing
Flexible Body

Specifies the name of the first flexible body participating in


the contact. This parameter should be used only with
Adams/Solver (C++).

j_flex

An Existing
Flexible Body

Specifies the name of the other flexible body participating


in the contact. This parameter can only exist if the I_flex
parameter is specified and used with Adams/Solver (C++).

i_edge

An Existing
edge on
Flexible Body

Specifies the name of the edge on the first flexible body


participating in the contact. This parameter should be used
only with Adams/Solver C++.

j_edge

An Existing
edge on
Flexible Body

Specifies the name of the edge on the other flexible body


participating in the contact. This parameter can only exist if
the i_edge parameter is specified and used with
Adams/Solver C++.

i_edge_index

An Existing
edge index

Specifies edge index of the first edge participating in the


contact. This parameter can only exist if the i_edge
parameter is specified and used with Adams/Solver C++.

j_edge_index

An Existing
edge index

Specifies edge index of the other edge participating in the


contact. This parameter can only exist if the j_edge
parameter is specified and used with Adams/Solver C++.

i_flip_normal

String

Boolean value, specifying whether the normal is to be


flipped or not. Takes values, Yes or No.

j_flip_normal

String

Boolean value, specifying whether the normal is to be


flipped or not. Takes values, Yes or No.

i_flip_geometry_name

Existing
Specifies the geometry name at which the contact should be
Contact_curve flipped on the I body.

6 Adams/View Commands
contact create

Parameter

Value

Description

j_flip_geometry_name

Existing
Specifies the geometry name at which the contact should be
Contact_curve flipped on the J body.

geometry_routines

String

Takes a string value

stiffness

Real

Specifies a material stiffness that you can use to calculate


the normal force for the impact model.

damping

Real

Used when you specify the IMPACT model for calculating


normal forces. DAMPING defines the damping properties
of the contacting material. You should set the damping
coefficient to about one percent of the stiffness coefficient.
Range: DAMPING >0

dmax

Real

Used when you specify the IMPACT model for calculating


normal forces.
Range: DMAX > 0

exponent

Real

Used when you specify the IMPACT model for calculating


normal forces.
Range: EXPONENT >1

penalty

Real

Used when you specify a restitution model for calculating


normal forces. PENALTY defines the local stiffness
properties between the contacting material.

restitution_coefficient

Real

The coefficient of restitution models the energy loss during


contact. This field is not available when I_flex and J_flex
parameters are specified. Range: 0 <
RESTITUTION_COEFFICIENT < 1

normal_function

Real

Specifies up to thirty user-defined constants to compute the


contact normal force components in a user-defined
subroutine

normal_routine

String

Specifies a library and a user-written subroutine in that


library that calculates the contact normal force.

augmented_lagrangian
_formulation

Boolean

Refines the normal force between two sets of rigid


geometries that are in contact.

coulomb_friction

Real

Models friction effects at the contact locations using the


Coulomb friction model to compute the frictional forces.

mu_static

Real

Specifies the coefficient of friction at a contact point when


the slip velocity is smaller than the
STICTION_TRANSITION_VELOCITY. Range:
MU_STATIC > 0

contact 7
contact create

Parameter

Value

Description

mu_dynamic

Real

Specifies the coefficient of friction at a contact point when


the slip velocity is larger than the
FRICTION_TRANSITION_VELOCITY. Range:0 <
MU_DYNAMIC < MU_STATIC

friction_transition_vel
ocity

Real

Used in the COULOMB_FRICTION model for calculating


frictional forces at the contact locations. Range:
FRICTION_TRANSITION_VELOCITY >
STICTION_TRANSITION_VELOCITY > 0

friction_function

Real

Specifies up to thirty user-defined constants to compute the


contact friction force components in a user-defined
subroutine

friction_routine

String

Specifies a library and a user-written subroutine in that


library that calculates the contact friction force.

no_friction

True

Will take Boolean values of true or false, based on whether


friction is present or not.

stiction_transition_vel
ocity

Real

Used in the COULOMB_FRICTION model for calculating


frictional forces at the contact locations. Range: 0 <
STICTION_TRANSITION_VELOCITY <
FRICTION_TRANSITION_VELOCITY

Extended Definition:
1. In general, the higher the stiffness, the more rigid or hard are the bodies in contact. Also note that
the higher the stiffness, the harder it is for an integrator to solve through the contact event.
2. Parameter dmax defines the penetration at which Adams/Solver turns on full damping.
Adams/Solver uses a cubic STEP function to increase the damping coefficient from zero, at zero
penetration, to full damping when the penetration is dmax. A reasonable value for this parameter
is 0.01 mm. For more information, refer to the IMPACT function.
3. Adams/Solver (FORTRAN) models normal force as a nonlinear spring-damper. If PEN is the
instantaneous penetration between the contacting geometry, Adams/Solver calculates the
contribution of the material stiffness to the instantaneous normal forces as STIFFNESS *
(PENALTY)**EXPONENT. For more information, see the IMPACT function. Exponent should
normally be set to 1.5 or higher.
4. A large value of penalty ensures that the penetration, of one geometry into another, will be small.
Large values, however, will cause numerical integration difficulties. A value of 1E6 is appropriate
for systems modeled in Kg-mm-sec. For more information on how to specify this value, see
Extended Definition.
Range: PENALTY > 0

8 Adams/View Commands
contact create

5. A value of zero for the restitution_coefficient specifies a perfectly plastic contact between the two
colliding bodies. A value of one specifies a perfectly elastic contact. There is no energy loss. The
coefficient of restitution is a function of the two materials that are coming into contact. For
information on material types versus commonly used values of the coefficient of restitution, refer
to the Material Contact Properties table.
6. The augmented_lagrangian_formulation parameter uses iterative refinement to ensure that
penetration between the geometries is minimal. It also ensures that the normal force magnitude is
relatively insensitive to the penalty or stiffness used to model the local material compliance
effects. You can use this formulation only with the POISSON model for normal force.
7. The friction model in CONTACT models dynamic friction, but not stiction. The argument values,
on/off/dynamics_only, specify at run time whether the friction effects are to be included.
8. For information on material types versus commonly used values of the coefficient of static
friction, see the Material Contact Properties table. Excessively large values of mu_static can cause
integration difficulties.
9. For information on material types versus commonly used values of the coefficient of the dynamic
coefficient of friction, see the Material Contact Properties table. Excessively large values of
mu_dynamic can cause integration difficulties.
10. Adams/Solver gradually transitions the coefficient of friction from mu_static to mu_dynamic as
the slip velocity at the contact point increases. When the slip velocity is equal to the value
specified for friction_transition_velocity, the effective coefficient of friction is set to
mu_dynamic. For more details, see Extended Definition.
11. Specifying i_flex and j_flex parameters for Adams/Solver (Fortran) will result in a warning
message that the created contact is no longer compatible with the solver.
12. i_edge and j_edge are the matrices consisting of the nodes of the free edges identified by the edge
index. You have to first, select a flexible body and then you will be asked to pick one of the free
edges generated (more than one free edge can exists) on the flexible body.
13. edge_index is an optional parameter. If you do not specify, it will be calculated internally.
Tips:
1. Small values for FRICTION_TRANSITION_VELOCITY cause the integrator difficulties. You
should specify this value as:
FRICTION_TRANSITION_VELOCITY > 5 * ERROR
where ERROR is the integration error used for the solution. Its default value is 1E-3.

contact 9
contact delete

contact delete
Allows you to delete an existing contact.
Format:
contact delete
contact_name = An existing contact
Example:
contact delete &
contact_name = contact_1
Description:
Parameter
Contact_name

Value Type
An Existing Contact

Description
Specifies the contact to be deleted

Tips:
1. On typing contact delete followed by a ? in the command window, the option contact_name
= is automatically displayed. If you need to find out the various contacts already present, type ?
once again. This will result in all the existing contact names that can be deleted being displayed
on the command window.

10 Adams/View Commands
contact modify

contact modify
Allows you to modify a contact force between two geometries/flexible bodies.
Format:
contact modify
contact_name = existing contact
new_contact_name = a new contact
adams_id = integer
comments = string
i_marker_name = an existing marker
i_geometry_name = an existing geometry
j_geometry_name = an existing geometry
i_flex = an existing flexible body
j_flex = an existing flexible body
i_edge = an existing edge
j_edge = an existing edge
i_edge_index = an existing edge index
j_edge_index = an existing edge index
i_flip_normal = string
j_flip_normal = string
i_flip_geometry_name = existing contact_curve
j_flip_geometry_name = existing contact_curve
geometry_routines = string
stiffness = real
damping = real
dmax = real
exponent = real
penalty = real
restitution_coefficient = real
normal_function = real
normal_routine = string
augmented_lagrangian_formulation = yes/no
coulomb_friction = real

contact 11
contact modify

contact modify
mu_static = real
mu_dynamic = real
friction_transition_velocity = real
friction_function = real
friction_routine = string
no_friction = true_value
stiction_transition_velocity = real
Example:
contact modify &
contact_name = contact__1 &
new_contact_name = contact__2 &
adams_id = 1 &
comments = "comment string" &
i_marker_name = Marker_1 &
j_geometry_name = Link_1 &
i_flip_normal = yes &
j_flip_normal = no &
geometry_routines = "routine 1" &
stiffness = 0.12 &
damping = 0.18 &
dmax = 0.11 &
exponent = 0.13 &
augmented_lagrangian_formulation = no &
mu_static = 0.15 &
mu_dynamic = 0.16 &
coulomb_friction = dynamics_only &
friction_transition_velocity = 0.15 &
stiction_transition_velocity = 0.15

12 Adams/View Commands
contact modify

Description:
Parameter

Value

Description

contact_name

Existing
Contact

Specifies the name of the contact to be created.

new_contact_name

A New
Contact

Specify a new contact name

adams_id

Integer

If this ID is not entered, Adams/View will automatically


create an Adams ID for the contact.

comments

String

Enters any relevant comments to describe the contact.

i_marker_name

An Existing
Marker

Either the I marker or the I geometry name needs to be


specified to indicate the geometry participating in the
contact.

i_geometry_name

An Existing
Geometry

Specifies the name of the geometry participating in the


contact.

j_geometry_name

An Existing
Geometry

Specifies the name of the other geometry participating in


the contact.

i_flex

An Existing
Flexible Body

Specifies the name of the first flexible body participating in


the contact. This parameter should be used only with
Adams/Solver (C++).

j_flex

An Existing
Flexible Body

Specifies the name of the other flexible body participating


in the contact. This parameter can only exist if the I_flex
parameter is specified and used with Adams/Solver (C++).

i_edge

An Existing
edge on
Flexible Body

Specifies the name of the edge on the first flexible body


participating in the contact. This parameter should be used
only with Adams/Solver C++.

j_edge

An Existing
edge on
Flexible Body

Specifies the name of the edge on the other flexible body


participating in the contact. This parameter can only exist if
the i_edge parameter is specified and used with
Adams/Solver C++.

i_edge_index

An Existing
edge index

Specifies edge index of the first edge participating in the


contact. This parameter can only exist if the i_edge
parameter is specified and used with Adams/Solver C++.

j_edge_index

An Existing
edge index

Specifies the edge index of the other edge participating in


the contact. This parameter can only exist if the j_edge
parameter is specified and used with Adams/Solver C++.

i_flip_normal

String

Boolean value, specifying whether the normal is to be


flipped or not. Takes values, Yes or No.

j_flip_normal

String

Boolean value, specifying whether the normal is to be


flipped or not. Takes values, Yes or No.

contact 13
contact modify

Parameter

Value

Description

i_flip_geometry_name

Existing
Specifies the geometry name at which the contact should be
Contact_curve flipped on the I body.

j_flip_geometry_name

Existing
Specifies the geometry name at which the contact should be
Contact_curve flipped on the J body.

geometry_routines

String

Takes a string value

stiffness

Real

Specifies a material stiffness that you can use to calculate


the normal force for the impact model.

damping

Real

Used when you specify the IMPACT model for calculating


normal forces. DAMPING defines the damping properties
of the contacting material. You should set the damping
coefficient to about one percent of the stiffness coefficient.
Range: DAMPING >0

dmax

Real

Used when you specify the IMPACT model for calculating


normal forces.
Range: DMAX > 0

exponent

Real

Used when you specify the IMPACT model for calculating


normal forces.
Range: EXPONENT >1

penalty

Real

Used when you specify a restitution model for calculating


normal forces. PENALTY defines the local stiffness
properties between the contacting material.

restitution_coefficient

Real

The coefficient of restitution models the energy loss during


contact. This field is not available when I_flex and J_flex
parameters are specified. Range: 0 <
RESTITUTION_COEFFICIENT < 1

normal_function

Real

Specifies up to thirty user-defined constants to compute the


contact normal force components in a user-defined
subroutine

normal_routine

String

Specifies a library and a user-written subroutine in that


library that calculates the contact normal force.

augmented_lagrangian
_formulation

Boolean

Refines the normal force between two sets of rigid


geometries that are in contact.

coulomb_friction

Real

Models friction effects at the contact locations using the


Coulomb friction model to compute the frictional forces.

mu_static

Real

Specifies the coefficient of friction at a contact point when


the slip velocity is smaller than the
STICTION_TRANSITION_VELOCITY. Range:
MU_STATIC > 0

14 Adams/View Commands
contact modify

Parameter

Value

Description

mu_dynamic

Real

Specifies the coefficient of friction at a contact point when


the slip velocity is larger than the
FRICTION_TRANSITION_VELOCITY. Range:0 <
MU_DYNAMIC < MU_STATIC

friction_transition_vel
ocity

Real

Used in the COULOMB_FRICTION model for calculating


frictional forces at the contact locations. Range:
FRICTION_TRANSITION_VELOCITY >
STICTION_TRANSITION_VELOCITY > 0

friction_function

Real

Specifies up to thirty user-defined constants to compute the


contact friction force components in a user-defined
subroutine

friction_routine

String

Specifies a library and a user-written subroutine in that


library that calculates the contact friction force.

no_friction

True

Will take Boolean values of true or false, based on whether


friction is present or not.

stiction_transition_vel
ocity

Real

Used in the COULOMB_FRICTION model for calculating


frictional forces at the contact locations. Range: 0 <
STICTION_TRANSITION_VELOCITY <
FRICTION_TRANSITION_VELOCITY

Extended Definition:
1. For solids and curves, you can select more than one geometry as long as the geometry belongs to
the same part. The first geometry is called the I geometry and the second geometry is called the J
geometry. For sphere-to-sphere contacts, you can specify whether the contact should be inside or
outside the sphere.
2. In general, the higher the stiffness, the more rigid or hard are the bodies in contact. Also note that
the higher the stiffness, the harder it is for an integrator to solve through the contact event.
3. Parameter dmax defines the penetration at which Adams/Solver turns on full damping.
Adams/Solver uses a cubic STEP function to increase the damping coefficient from zero, at zero
penetration, to full damping when the penetration is dmax. A reasonable value for this parameter
is 0.01 mm. For more information, refer to the IMPACT function.
4. Adams/Solver (FORTRAN) models normal force as a nonlinear spring-damper. If PEN is the
instantaneous penetration between the contacting geometry, Adams/Solver calculates the
contribution of the material stiffness to the instantaneous normal forces as STIFFNESS *
(PENALTY)**EXPONENT. For more information, see the IMPACT function. Exponent should
normally be set to 1.5 or higher.
5. A large value of PENALTY ensures that the penetration, of one geometry into another, will be
small. Large values, however, will cause numerical integration difficulties. A value of 1E6 is
appropriate for systems modeled in Kg-mm-sec. For more information on how to specify this
value, see Extended Definition. Range: PENALTY > 0

contact 15
contact modify

6. A value of zero for the restitution_coefficient specifies a perfectly plastic contact between the two
colliding bodies. A value of one specifies a perfectly elastic contact. There is no energy loss. The
coefficient of restitution is a function of the two materials that are coming into contact. For
information on material types versus commonly used values of the coefficient of restitution, see
the Material Contact Properties table.
7. The augmented_lagrangian_formulation parameter uses iterative refinement to ensure that
penetration between the geometries is minimal. It also ensures that the normal force magnitude is
relatively insensitive to the penalty or stiffness used to model the local material compliance
effects. You can use this formulation only with the POISSON model for normal force.
8. The friction model in CONTACT models dynamic friction but not stiction. The argument values,
on/off/dynamics_only, specify at run time whether the friction effects are to be included.
9. For information on material types versus commonly used values of the coefficient of static
friction, seethe Material Contact Properties table. Excessively large values of mu_static can cause
integration difficulties.
10. For information on material types versus commonly used values of the coefficient of the dynamic
coefficient of friction, see the Material Contact Properties table. Excessively large values of
mu_dynamic can cause integration difficulties.
11. Adams/Solver gradually transitions the coefficient of friction from mu_static to mu_dynamic as
the slip velocity at the contact point increases. When the slip velocity is equal to the value
specified for friction_transition_velocity, the effective coefficient of friction is set to
mu_dynamic. For more details, see Extended Definition.
12. Specifying i_flex and j_flex parameters for Adams/Solver (FORTRAN) will result in a warning
message that the created contact is no longer compatible with the solver.
13. i_edge and j_edge are the matrices consisting of the nodes of the free edges identified by the edge
index. You have to first, select a flexible body and then you will be asked to pick one of the free
edges generated (more than one free edge can exists) on the flexible body.
14. edge_index is an optional parameter. If you do not specify, it will be calculated internally.
Tips:
1. Small values for FRICTION_TRANSITION_VELOCITY cause difficulties for the integrator .
You should specify this value as:
FRICTION_TRANSITION_VELOCITY > 5 * ERROR
where ERROR is the integration error used for the solution. Its default value is 1E-3.

continue 1

continue
Allows you to skip commands inside the innermost FOR or WHILE loop and continue with the next
iteration of the loop.
When Adams/View encounters a CONTINUE command inside a loop, it skips over the remaining
commands of the loop and goes directly to the END of the innermost loop. Adams/View tests the loop
condition and continues looping if the condition is still valid.
The CONTINUE command affects only the innermost FOR or WHILE loop.
Format:
CONTINUE
Example:
variable create variable_name=ip integer_value=0
while condition=(ip < 5)
variable modify variable_name=ip integer_value=(eval(ip+1))
if condition=(ip == 3)
continue
end
marker create marker_name=(eval("MAR"//ip)) &
location=(eval(ip-1)),0,0
end
variable delete variable_name=ip
In this example, Adams/View creates four markers on the default part: MAR1, MAR2, MAR4, and
MAR5. Adams/View skips MAR3, because when IP evaluates to 3, Adams/View encounters the
CONTINUE command and skips to the END of the WHILE loop.
Results of CONTINUE Example

Name Loc_X Loc_Y Loc_Z


MAR1

0.0

0.0

0.0

MAR2

1.0

0.0

0.0

MAR4

3.0

0.0

0.0

MAR5

4.0

0.0

0.0

contour_plot legend 1

contour_plot legend

2 Adams/View Commands
contour_plot legend create

contour_plot legend create


Allows you to create a legend in the animation dashboard for a contoured plot of deformation,
stress/strain or modal forces while in Adams/Flex, Adams/Vibration or Adams/Durability.
The dashboard in animation mode lets you play and control time and frequency_domain animations,
record them, and view contour and vector plots.
Depending on the Adams product you use to create and simulate your model, you display different types
of data as contour or vector plots: deformations, stress/strain, or modal forces. Contour plots display
scalar data a component at a time, such as a stress. You can select to animate the deformations, modal
forces (MFORCEs), or the stresses and strain acting on the flexible body as contour plots to better
visualize a result that is defined by its position on a body.
For example, when you analyze flexible bodies using Adams/Flex, you can contour deformations using
Adams/View or Adams/PostProcessor.
In the Animation Dashboard - Contour Plots setting, you can set up the options for displaying
contour_plots. For each viewport, you can change the way contour plots display colors and values. Note
that this allows you to display different viewports at the same time but with different color values, which
can be confusing because a color value in one viewport may not be the same as in another.
Format:
contour_plot legend create
legend_name = a new contour_plot legend
animation_name = an existing animation
title= string
placement =

placement_option

minimum_value = real
maximum_value = real
gradients = integer
colors= integer
visibility= on_off
scientific_notation= sci_notation
trailing_zeros = boolean
decimal_places = integer

contour_plot legend 3
contour_plot legend create

Example:
contour_plot legend create &
legend_name= contour_legend__1 &
animation_name = animation_1 &
title = this_is_title &
placement= bottom &
minimum_value = 0.1 &
maximum_value = 10 &
gradients = 10 &
colors = 255 &
visibility = on &
scientific_notation = 10 , 10 &
trailing_zeros = on &
decimal_places = 2
Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

legend_name

A New Contour_plot Legend

Specifies the name of a new contour_plot


legend

animation_name

An Existing Animation

Specifies an existing animation

title

String

Specifies title for the legend

placement

Placement_options

Specifies the placement location of the legend

minimum_value

Real

Specifies the minimum value of the legend

maximum_value

Real

Specifies the maximum value of the legend

gradient

Integer

Specifies the number of gradients for the legend


to be split

colors

Integer

Specifies the number of colors used to display


legend contours

visibility

On_off

Specifies the default visibility of the legend

scientific_notation

Sci_notation

Specifies the exponential form of scientific


notation

4 Adams/View Commands
contour_plot legend create

Parameter

Value Type

Description

trailing_zeros

On_off

Sets the default status for displaying trailing


zeros

decimal_places

Integer

Specifies the number of decimal places to


display legend numbers

Extended Definition:
1. The title name to appear on the top of the legend can be specified by title. The existing animation
for which the contoured plot is to be shown is entered as animation_name. The legend_name
should be specified for creating a new legend.
2. The placement of the legend on the animation window can be on the left, right, top, or bottom,
specified by the parameter, placement.
3. Specify the minimum and maximum numbers for the legend range to be shown.
4. Similarly, the legend can be split into gradients where the number of gradients can be more than
two and less than or equal to 255. The number of colors used to show the contour can be chosen
by the parameter, color, which cannot be more than 255.
5. The default visibility of the legend bar is set to ON or OFF by the parameter visibility.
6. The scientific notation specifies the exponential form for scientific notation.
7. Adams/PostProcessor display zeros after the numbers in the legend, if the trailing_zeros is set
to yes. The number of zeros depends on the number of decimal points you selected for
decimal_places.

contour_plot legend 5
contour_plot legend delete

contour_plot legend delete


Allows you to delete a legend in the animation dashboard for a contoured plot of deformation,
stress/strain or modal forces while in Adams/Flex, Adams/Vibration or Adams/Durability.
This command deletes an existing contour_plot legend.
Format:
contour_plot legend delete
legend_name = an exisitng contour_plot legend
Example:
contour_plot legend delete &
legend_name= contour_legend__1
Description:
Parameter
legend_name

Value Type
An Existing Contour_plot
Legend

Extended Definition:
This command deletes an existing contour_plot legend.

Description
Specifies the name of an existing
contour_plot legend

6 Adams/View Commands
contour_plot legend modify

contour_plot legend modify


Allows you to modify a legend in the animation dashboard for a contoured plot of deformation,
stress/strain or modal forces while in Adams/Flex, Adams/Vibration or Adams/Durability.
The dashboard in animation mode lets you play and control time and frequency_domain animations,
record them, and view contour and vector plots.
Depending on the Adams product you use to create and simulate your model, you display different types
of data as contour or vector plots: deformations, stress/strain, or modal forces. Contour plots display
scalar data, one component at a time, such as a stress. You can select to animate the deformations, modal
forces (MFORCEs), or the stresses and strain acting on the flexible body as contour plots to better
visualize a result that is defined by its position on a body.
For example, when you analyze flexible bodies using Adams/Flex, you can contour deformations using
Adams/View or Adams/PostProcessor.
In the Animation Dashboard - Contour Plots setting, you can set up the options for displaying
contour_plots. For each viewport, you can change the way contour plots display colors and values. Note
that this allows you to display different viewports at the same time but with different color values, which
can be confusing because a color value in one viewport may not be the same as in another.
Format:
contour_plot legend modify
legend_name=
new_legend_name =
title =
placement =

an exisitng contour_plot legend


a new contour_plot legend
string
placement_option

minimum_value =

real

maximum_value =

real

gradients =

integer

colors =

integer

visibility =

on_off

scientific_notation =
trailing_zeros =
decimal_places =

sci_notation
boolean
integer

contour_plot legend 7
contour_plot legend modify

Example:
contour_plot legend modify &
legend_name= contour_legend__1 &
new_legend_name = modified_legend &
title = new_legend &
placement = right &
minimum_value = 0 &
minimum_value = 2.5 &
gradients = 5 &
colors = 10 &
visibility = on &
scientific_notation = 1,2 &
trailing_zeros = on &
decimal_places = 2
Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

legend_name

An Existing Contour_plot Legend Specifies the name of an existing


contour_plot legend

new_legend_name

A New Contour_plot Legend

Specifies a new name for the contour plot


legend

title

String

Specifies title for the legend

placement

Placement_options

Specifies the placement location of the


legend

minimum_value

Real

Specifies the minimum value of the legend

maximum_value

Real

Specifies the maximum value of the legend

gradient

Integer

Specifies the number of gradients for the


legend to be split

colors

Integer

Specifies the number of colors used to


display legend contours

visibility

On_off

Specifies the default visibility of the legend

scientific_notation

Sci_notation

Specifies the exponential form of scientific


notation

8 Adams/View Commands
contour_plot legend modify

Parameter

Value Type

Description

trailing_zeros

On_off

Sets the default status for displaying


trailing zeros

decimal_places

Integer

Specifies the number of decimal places to


display legend numbers

Extended Definition:
1. The title name to appear on the top of the legend can be specified by title. The
new_legend_name, if specified, replaces the existing legend name.
2. The placement of the legend on the animation window can be on the left, right, top, or bottom,
specified by the parameter, placement.
3. Specify the minimum and maximum numbers for the legend range to be shown.
4. Similarly, the legend can be split into gradients where the number of gradients can be more than
two and les than or equal to 255. The number of colors used to show the contour can be chosen
by parameter, color, which cannot be more than 255.
5. The default visibility of the legend bar is set to ON or OFF by the parameter, visibility.
6. The scientific notation specifies the the exponential form for scientific notation.
7. Adams/PostProcessor displays zeros after the numbers in the legend, if the trailing_zeros is set
to yes. The number of zeros depends on the number of decimal points you selected for
decimal_places.

contour_plot legend 9
contour_plot legend reset

contour_plot legend reset


Allows you to modify a legend in the animation dashboard for a contoured plot of deformation,
stress/strain or modal forces while in Adams/Flex, Adams/Vibration or Adams/Durability.
This command reset the legend values based on the flexible bodies in the active view.
The dashboard in animation mode lets you play and control time and frequency_domain animations,
record them, and view contour and vector plots. Depending on the MSC ADAMS product you use to
create and simulate your model, you display different types of data as contour or vector plots:
deformations, stress/strain, or modal forces. Contour plots display scalar data a component at a time, such
as a stress. You can select to animate the deformations, modal forces (MFORCEs), or the stresses and
strain acting on the flexible body as contour plots to better visualize a result that is defined by its position
on a body.
For example, when you analyze flexible bodies using Adams/Flex, you can contour deformations using
Adams/View or Adams/PostProcessor. In the Animation Dashboard - Contour Plots setting, you can set
up the options for displaying contour_plots. For each viewport, you can change the way contour plots
display colors and values. Note that this allows you to display different viewports at the same time but
with different color values, which can be confusing because a color value in one viewport may not be the
same as in another.
Format:
contour_plot legend reset
legend_name =

an exisitng contour_plot legend

Example:
contour_plot legend reset &
legend_name = contour_legend__1
Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

legend_name

An Existing Contour_plot Legend

Specifies the name of an existing contour_plot


legend

Extended Definition:
This command resets the legend values based on the flexible bodies in the active view.

data_element 1

data_element

2 Adams/View Commands
data_element attributes

data_element attributes
Allows the specification of attributes to be set on an individual data_elements or a group of
data_elements.
Format:
data_element attributes
data_element_name = an existing var
visibility = on_off_with_toggle
color = an existing color
active = on_off_no_opinion
dependents_active = on_off_no_opinion
Example:
data_element attributes &
data_element_name = shaft_genstiff &
visibility = on &
color = blue &
active = on &
dependents_active = on
Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

data_element_name

An Existing Var

Specifies an existing data_element.

visibility

On_off_with_toggle

Specifies the visibility of graphic entities.

color

An Existing Color

Specifies the color the modeling entity should be


drawn in.

active

On_off_no_opinion

Set the activation of the element

dependents_active

On_off_no_opinion

Set the activation of the dependants of an element

Extended Definition:
1. You can set the following attributes on a data_element.
VISIBILITY. You may set a data_element's visibility ON, OFF or TOGGLE the current setting.
When you set a data_element's visibility OFF, the data_element will not be drawn.

data_element 3
data_element attributes

When you set a data_element's visibility ON, you allow that data_element to be drawn.
COLOR. You may set the color of a data_element with this parameter.
If an entity does not have a GRAPHICS ATTRIBUTE setting, the value for that GRAPHIC
ATTRIBUTE may be inherited from another entity. INHERITANCE may be either TOP_DOWN
or BOTTOM_UP.
2. BOTTOM_UP and TOP_DOWN refer to the natural hierarchy of the Adams model. The
hierarchy is a tree structure with the model at the apex. Parts exist beneath the model, and markers
exist beneath the parts. If the icon size of the model is set to 0.1, and the default INHERITANCE
is set to TOP_DOWN, then all icons displayed within the model will be displayed at this size.
However, if the icon size of a model is set to 0.1, and then the default INHERITANCE is set to
BOTTOM_UP, then any icons set to a size other than the model's icon size will be displayed at
their own size.
3. You may identify a data_element by typing its name or by picking it from the screen.
Since data_element do not have a geometric position, Adams/View displays data_element icons
at or near the model origin. If the data_element icon is not visible on the screen, you must type
the name. You may also find it convenient to type the name even if the data_element icon is
displayed.
You must separate multiple data_element names by commas.
If the data_element is visible in one of your views, you may identify it by picking on any of the
graphics associated with it.
You need not separate multiple data_element picks by commas.
4. The visibility parameter is used to control whether graphic entities, such as markers, joints, and
parts, are to be drawn in an Adams/View viewport.The legal values for this parameter are: ON,
OFF, and TOGGLE. ON will make the desired entity visible. OFF will make the desired entity
invisible. TOGGLE will take the current state of an entities visibility and reverse it.
5. Adams/View allows you to specify the following colors for modeling entities: BLACK, WHITE,
RED, GREEN, BLUE, CYAN, MAGENTA, YELLOW, and NO_COLOR
Specifying 'NO_COLOR' for a modeling entity, instructs Adams/View to use the default color
for this entity, if there is no color present in its parent modeling entity.
Example 1:
.model -------------------------NO_COLOR
.part ---------------------- RED
.geometry(circle) ------- NO_COLOR
The circle will be RED.
Example 2:
.model -------------------------NO_COLOR
.part ---------------------- RED
.geometry(circle) ------- BLUE
If a parent modeling entity has a color previously specified, that color takes precedence.
Adams/View will issue a warning message about color precedence. The circle will be RED.

4 Adams/View Commands
data_element attributes

Example 3:
.model -------------------------NO_COLOR
.part ---------------------- NO_COLOR
.geometry(circle) ------- BLUE
The circle will be BLUE.
6. When you set ACTIVE=NO, that element is written to the data set as a comment. When you set
the ACTIVE attribute on an object, you are also setting it on the children of the object. If you set
ACTIVE=NO on a part, but wish for a marker on that part to be on, then you must explicitly set
ACTIVE=YES on the marker, after setting activation on the part.
The DEPENDENTS_ACTIVE parameter acts in the same fashion, but sets the ACTIVE attribute
for the dependents, all the way down the dependency chain. For example, if you execute the
following command:
PART ATTRIBUTES PART=PAR1 DEPENDENTS_ACTIVE=NO
Where PAR1 has a marker MAR1 which is the I marker of a joint JOI1 (which has a J marker
MAR2), then JOI1 will be deactivated.
Also, if the joint JOI1 is referenced in a request function, or if the I marker is referenced by a
request, then the request will be deactivated.
Propagation of activation status through groups is as if each element were to have its activation
status changed indvidually.
Elements affected are:
Group
Part
Differential Equation
Marker
Geometry
Constraints
Forces
Data Elements
Output Control

data_element 5
data_element copy

data_element copy
Allows you to create a replica DATA_ELEMENT within the same model.
Format:
data_element copy
data_element_name = an existing data_element
new_data_element_name = a new data_element
Example:
data_element copy &
data_element_name = string__1 &
new_ data_element_name = string__2
Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

data_element_name

An Existing Var

Specifies an existing data_element.

new_data_element_name

A New Var

Specifies the name of the new data_element. You may


use this name later to refer to this data_element.

Extended Definition:
1. The replica DATA_ELEMENT will be identical to the original with the exception of the
DATA_ELEMENT name. DATA_ELEMENTs must have unique names relative to other
DATA_ELEMENTs in a given model. The replica will be completely independent of the
original, and may be modified without effecting the original.
2. Since data_element do not have a geometric position, Adams/View displays data_element
icons at or near the model origin. If the data_element icon is not visible on the screen, you must
type the name. You may also find it convenient to type the name even if the data_element icon
is displayed.
You must separate multiple data_element names by commas.
3. Normally, entity names are composed of alphabetic, numeric, or '_' (underscore) characters, and
start with an alphabetic or '_' character. They may be any length.
By enclosing the name in double quotes, you may use other printable characters, or start the name
with a numeral. If a name contains characters, or starts with a numeral, you must always quote the
name when entering it.

6 Adams/View Commands
data_element copy

Note that you can specify the parentage of an entity (e.g. what part "owns" a marker or a geometry
element) when you CREATE it by changing the name. If you enter just the entity name, then the
default parent will be assigned by Adams/View. If you type in the full name, then you may over
ride the default parent. In most cases, when creating an entity, Adams/View will provide a default
name. The default name that Adams/View provides will specify the parentage that it has
assumed.
You may, or course, delete this name and use your own. The form of a full name is:
"...._NAME.GRAND_PARENT_NAME.PARENT_NAME.ENTITY_NAME"
The number of levels used varies from case to case and the parentage must exist before an entity
can be assigned to it.
Tips:
1. You may reverse this deletion at a later time with an UNDO command.
2. If the data_element is visible in one of your views, you may identify it by picking on any of the
graphics associated with it.
3. You need not separate multiple data_element picks by commas.

data_element 7
data_element create array general_array

data_element create array general_array


Allows you to create a general_array. Creates a one-dimensional array of real numbers that can be
accessed in user-written subroutines. This array is identical in definition to the IC_ARRAY. The
GENERAL_ARRAY has been provided to maintain consistency with the ARRAY available in Adams
version 5.2.1.
Format:
data_element create array general_array
array_name = array_name
adams_id = integer
comments = string
size = integer
numbers = real
Example:
data_element create array general_array
array_name = .model_1.array_1
adams_id = 1
size =

&

&

&
3

&

numbers = 2.1,3.4,5
Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

array_name,

Array name

Specifies the name of the new array. You may use this name later
to refer to this array.

adams_id

Integer

Specifies an integer used to identify this element in the Adams


data file.

comments

String

Specifies comments for the object being created or modified.

Size

Integer

Specifies the size of an array.

numbers

Real

Allows you to enter a one dimensional array of real numbers when


using the IC_ARRAY of the GENERAL_ARRAY. The number of
entries should match the value of the SIZE parameter.

8 Adams/View Commands
data_element create array general_array

Extended Definition:
1. Adams/View will not allow you to have two arrays with the same full name, so you must provide
a unique name.
Normally, entity names are composed of alphabetic, numeric, or '_' (underscore) characters, and
start with an alphabetic or '_' character. They may be any length.
By enclosing the name in double quotes, you may use other printable characters, or start the name
with a numeral. If a name contains characters, or starts with a numeral, you must always quote the
name when entering it.
Note that you can specify the parentage of an entity (e.g. what part "owns" a marker or a geometry
element) when you CREATE it by changing the name. If you enter just the entity name, then the
default parent will be assigned by Adams/View. If you type in the full name, then you may over
ride the default parent. In most cases, when creating an entity, Adams/View will provide a default
name. The default name that Adams/View provides will specify the parentage that it has
assumed.
You may, or course, delete this name and use your own. The form of a full name is:
"...._NAME.GRAND_PARENT_NAME.PARENT_NAME.ENTITY_NAME"
The number of levels used varies from case to case and the parentage must exist before an entity
can be assigned to it.
2. When you use the FILE ADAMS_DATA_SET WRITE command, Adams/View writes an
Adams data file for your model. Adams requires that each modeling element be identified by a
unique integer identifier. If you use this parameter to specify a non-zero identifier, Adams/View
will use it in the corresponding statement in the Adams data file.
You may also enter zero as an identifier, either explicitly or by default. The next time you write
an Adams file, Adams/View will replace the zero with a unique, internally-generated identifier.
Adams/View will permanently store this identifier with the element just as if you had entered it
yourself.
Normally, you would let all identifiers default to zero, and Adams/View would generate the
identifiers for you. You are never required to enter a non-zero identifier. You only need to
specify it if, for some reason, you wish to control the Adams file output.
3. In cases where Adams calculates the SIZE differently from the SIZE that the user supplies, Adams
returns an error or warning message.
For the X_STATE_ARRAYs and Y_OUTPUT_ARRAYs, the corresponding systems modeling
element automatically determines the size of the array and checks it against the ARRAY
command SIZE parameter value (if given).
For the IC_ARRAY, the SIZE parameter is optional and Adams determines the actual size of the
array during parsing, as it counts the NUMBERS values. However, if you provide a value for
SIZE , Adams checks the count for consistency.

data_element 9
data_element create array general_array

The SIZE argument, if used, should match the number of entries in the VARIABLE_NAME
parameter, the NUMBERS parameters, or the size needed for the associated systems element.
Adams/View provides the SIZE parameter mainly for user convenience in model creation (it is
not required). For LINEAR_STATE_EQUATION arrays, the X_STATE_ARRAY size is the
row dimension of the A_STATE_MATRIX, and the Y_OUTPUT_ARRAY size is the row
dimension of the C_OUTPUT_MATRIX or the D_FEEDFORWARD_MATRIX. For
TRANSFER_FUNCTION arrays, the transformation from polynomial ratio type to canonical
state space type internally determines the X_STATE_ARRAY size; the Y_OUTPUT_ARRAY
size is always 1. For GENERAL_STATE_EQUATION arrays, the X_STATE_ARRAY size is
the STATE_EQUATION_COUNT as defined in the matching
GENERAL_STATE_EQUATION definition and Y_OUTPUT_ARRAY size is the
OUTPUT_EQUATION_COUNT, as defined in the same GENERAL_STATE_EQUATION
definition.

10 Adams/View Commands
data_element create array ic_array

data_element create array ic_array


Allows you to create an ic_array. This element creates a one-dimensional array of real numbers that can
be accessed in user-written subroutines. You can use an IC_ARRAY to designate define initial conditions
array for an LINEAR_STATE_EQUATION or GENERAL_STATE_EQUATION. In that case, you
should ensure that the value of the SIZE parameters the same as the X_STATE_ARRAY (state variable)
of the associated LINEAR_STATE_EQUATION or GENERAL_STATE_EQUATION.
Format:
data_element create array ic_array
array_name = array_name
adams_id = integer
comments = string
size = integer
numbers = real
Example:
data_element create array ic_array

&

array_name = .model_1.array_1

&

adams_id = 1

&

size = 3

&

numbers = 2.1,3.4,5
Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

array_name,

Array name

Specifies the name of the new array. You may use this name later to
refer to this array.

adams_id

Integer

Specifies an integer used to identify this element in the Adams data


file.

comments

String

Specifies comments for the object being created or modified.

Size

Integer

numbers

Real

Specifies the size of an array.


Allows you to enter a one dimensional array of real numbers when
using the IC_ARRAY of the GENERAL_ARRAY. The number of
entries should match the value of the SIZE parameter.

data_element 11
data_element create array ic_array

Extended Definition:
1. Adams/View will not allow you to have two arrays with the same full name, so you must provide
a unique name.
Normally, entity names are composed of alphabetic, numeric, or '_' (underscore) characters, and
start with an alphabetic or '_' character. They may be any length.
By enclosing the name in double quotes, you may use other printable characters, or start the name
with a numeral. If a name contains characters, or starts with a numeral, you must always quote the
name when entering it.
Note that you can specify the parentage of an entity (e.g. what part "owns" a marker or a geometry
element) when you CREATE it by changing the name. If you enter just the entity name, then the
default parent will be assigned by Adams/View. If you type in the full name, then you may over
ride the default parent. In most cases, when creating an entity, Adams/View will provide a default
name. The default name that Adams/View provides will specify the parentage that it has
assumed. You may, or course, delete this name and use your own. The form of a full name is:
"...._NAME.GRAND_PARENT_NAME.PARENT_NAME.ENTITY_NAME"
The number of levels used varies from case to case and the parentage must exist before an entity
can be assigned to it.
2. When you use the FILE ADAMS_DATA_SET WRITE command, Adams/View writes an
Adams data file for your model. Adams requires that each modeling element be identified by a
unique integer identifier. If you use this parameter to specify a non-zero identifier, Adams/View
will use it in the corresponding statement in the Adams data file.
You may also enter zero as an identifier, either explicitly or by default. The next time you write
an Adams file, Adams/View will replace the zero with a unique, internally-generated identifier.
Adams/View will permanently store this identifier with the element just as if you had entered it
yourself.
Normally, you would let all identifiers default to zero, and Adams/View would generate the
identifiers for you. You are never required to enter a non-zero identifier. You only need to
specify it if, for some reason, you wish to control the Adams file output.
3. In cases where Adams calculates the SIZE differently from the SIZE that the user supplies, Adams
returns an error or warning message.
For the X_STATE_ARRAYs and Y_OUTPUT_ARRAYs, the corresponding systems modeling
element automatically determines the size of the array and checks it against the ARRAY
command SIZE parameter value (if given).
For the IC_ARRAY, the SIZE parameter is optional and Adams determines the actual size of the
array during parsing, as it counts the NUMBERS values. However, if you provide a value for
SIZE , Adams checks the count for consistency.
The SIZE argument, if used, should match the number of entries in the VARIABLE_NAME
parameter, the NUMBERS parameters, or the size needed for the associated systems element.
Adams/View provides the SIZE parameter mainly for user convenience in model creation (it is
not required). For LINEAR_STATE_EQUATION arrays, the X_STATE_ARRAY size is the
row dimension of the A_STATE_MATRIX, and the Y_OUTPUT_ARRAY size is the row

12 Adams/View Commands
data_element create array ic_array

dimension of the C_OUTPUT_MATRIX or the D_FEEDFORWARD_MATRIX. For


TRANSFER_FUNCTION arrays, the transformation from polynomial ratio type to canonical
state space type internally determines the X_STATE_ARRAY size; the Y_OUTPUT_ARRAY
size is always 1. For GENERAL_STATE_EQUATION arrays, the X_STATE_ARRAY size is
the STATE_EQUATION_COUNT as defined in the matching
GENERAL_STATE_EQUATION definition and Y_OUTPUT_ARRAY size is the
OUTPUT_EQUATION_COUNT, as defined in the same GENERAL_STATE_EQUATION
definition.

data_element 13
data_element create array u_input_array

data_element create array u_input_array


Allows you to create a u_input_array.
Format:
data_element create array u_input_array
array_name = a new array
adams_id = adams_id
comments = string
size = integer
variable_name = an existing variable
Example:
data_element create array u_input_array &
array_name = array__2 &
adams_id =

2 &

comments =

" a new u_input array" &

size = 1 &
variable_name = variable_1
Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

array_name

A New Array

Specifies the name of the new array. You may use this name
later to refer to this array.

adams_id

Adams_id

Specifies an integer used to identify this element in the Adams


data file.

comments

String

Specifies comments for the object being created or modified.

size

Integer

Specifies the size of an array. In cases where Adams


calculates the SIZE differently from the SIZE that the user
supplies, Adams returns an error or warning message.

variable_name An Existing Variable Specifies an existing variable.

14 Adams/View Commands
data_element create array u_input_array

Extended Definition:
1. The U_INPUT_ARRAY command groups together a set of VARIABLE_NAMEs , normally to
define the inputs for a systems element, either LINEAR_STATE_EQUATION,
GENERAL_STATE_EQUATION , or TRANSFER_FUNCTION. When the you create a
U_INPUT_ARRAY, SIZE and VARIABLE_NAME are the only parameters available.
2. Adams/View will not allow you to have two arrays with the same full name, so you must provide
a unique name.
Normally, entity names are composed of alphabetic, numeric, or '_' (underscore) characters, and
start with an alphabetic or '_' character. They may be any length.
By enclosing the name in double quotes, you may use other printable characters, or start the name
with a numeral. If a name contains characters, or starts with a numeral, you must always quote the
name when entering it.
Note that you can specify the parentage of an entity (e.g. what part "owns" a marker or a geometry
element) when you CREATE it by changing the name. If you enter just the entity name, then the
default parent will be assigned by Adams/View. If you type in the full name, then you may over
ride the default parent. In most cases, when creating an entity, Adams/View will provide a default
name. The default name that Adams/View provides will specify the parentage that it has
assumed.
You may, or course, delete this name and use your own. The form of a full name is:
"...._NAME.GRAND_PARENT_NAME.PARENT_NAME.ENTITY_NAME"
The number of levels used varies from case to case and the parentage must exist before an entity
can be assigned to it.
3. When you use the FILE ADAMS_DATA_SET WRITE command, Adams/View writes an
Adams data file for your model. Adams requires that each modeling element be identified by a
unique integer identifier. If you use this parameter to specify a non-zero identifier, Adams/View
will use it in the corresponding statement in the Adams data file.
You may also enter zero as an identifier, either explicitly or by default. The next time you write
an Adams file, Adams/View will replace the zero with a unique, internally-generated identifier.
Adams/View will permanently store this identifier with the element just as if you had entered it
yourself.
Normally, you would let all identifiers default to zero, and Adams/View would generate the
identifiers for you. You are never required to enter a non-zero identifier. You only need to
specify it if, for some reason, you wish to control the Adams file output.
4. When an Adams/Solver data file (.adm) is read into Adams/View, all comments associated with
a statement (from the end of the previous statement through the end of the current statement) are
stored with the object. Comments in the data file can be associated with model.
These comments must follow the title statement and be followed by the comment 'END OF
MODEL COMMENTS'. This string must be uppercase.
When an Adams/Solver data file is written, the comments for an object are written before the
statement corresponding to the object.

data_element 15
data_element create array u_input_array

5. For the X_STATE_ARRAYs and Y_OUTPUT_ARRAYs, the corresponding systems modeling


element automatically determines the size of the array and checks it against the ARRAY
command SIZE parameter value (if given).
For the IC_ARRAY, the SIZE parameter is optional and Adams determines the actual size of the
array during parsing, as it counts the NUMBERS values. However, if you provide a value for
SIZE , Adams checks the count for consistency.
The SIZE argument, if used, should match the number of entries in the VARIABLE_NAME
parameter, the NUMBERS parameters, or the size needed for the associated systems element.
Adams/View provides the SIZE parameter mainly for user convenience in model creation (it is
not required). For LINEAR_STATE_EQUATION arrays, the X_STATE_ARRAY size is the
row dimension of the A_STATE_MATRIX, and the Y_OUTPUT_ARRAY size is the row
dimension of the C_OUTPUT_MATRIX or the D_FEEDFORWARD_MATRIX. For
TRANSFER_FUNCTION arrays, the transformation from polynomial ratio type to canonical
state space type internally determines the X_STATE_ARRAY size; the Y_OUTPUT_ARRAY
size is always 1. For GENERAL_STATE_EQUATION arrays, the X_STATE_ARRAY size is
the STATE_EQUATION_COUNT as defined in the matching
GENERAL_STATE_EQUATION definition and Y_OUTPUT_ARRAY size is the
OUTPUT_EQUATION_COUNT, as defined in the same GENERAL_STATE_EQUATION
definition.
6. You enter variable names as input parameters for array elements (U_INPUT_ARRAY), plant
input and output definitions, and in function expressionsYou may identify a variable by typing
its name or by picking it from the screen.
Since variable do not have a geometric position, Adams/View displays variable icons at or near
the model origin. If the variable icon is not visible on the screen, you must type the name. You
may also find it convenient to type the name even if the variable icon is displayed.
If you created the variable by reading an Adams data set, the variable name is the letters VAR
followed by the Adams data set variable ID number. The name of Adams VARIABLE/101 is
VAR101, for example. If you created the variable during preprocessing, you gave it a name at
that time.
If a variable is owned by the default model, you may identify it by entering its name only. If it is
not, you must enter its full name. To identify a variable under a different model, for instance, you
may need to enter the model name as well. For example, you may specify variable 'fluid_volume'
from model 'hydro' by entering ".hydro.fluid_volume'". If you type a "?", Adams/View will list
the variable available by default.
You must separate multiple variable names by commas.
Tips:
1. If the variable is visible in one of your views, you may identify it by picking on any of the graphics
associated with it.
2. You need not separate multiple variable picks by commas.

16 Adams/View Commands
data_element create array x_state_array

data_element create array x_state_array


Allows you to create an x_state_array.
Format:
data_element create array x_state_array
array_name =

a new array

adams_id = adams_id
comments = string
size = integer
Example:
data_element create array x_state_array &
array_name = array__1 &
adams_id = 1 &
comments = "a new x-state array" &
size =

Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

array_name

A New Array

Specifies the name of the new array. You may use this name
later to refer to this array.

adams_id

Adams_id

Specifies an integer used to identify this element in the Adams


data file.

comments

String

Specifies comments for the object being created or modified.

size

Integer

Specifies the size of an array. In cases where Adams


calculates the SIZE differently from the SIZE that the user
supplies, Adams returns an error or warning message.

Extended Definition:
1. An X_STATE_ARRAY defines a list of state variables (X) associated with system modeling
elements such as GSE , LSE , and TFSISO. To use this array, you must reference the array name
as the state variable array in a system element definition. You can use each X_STATE_ARRAY
with only one systems element in your model. When you define an X_STATE_ARRAY , the
only other parameter is SIZE. When you do not specify SIZE , the associated systems element
automatically sets the size.

data_element 17
data_element create array x_state_array

2. Adams/View will not allow you to have two arrays with the same full name, so you must provide
a unique name.
Normally, entity names are composed of alphabetic, numeric, or '_' (underscore) characters, and
start with an alphabetic or '_' character. They may be any length.
By enclosing the name in double quotes, you may use other printable characters, or start the name
with a numeral. If a name contains characters, or starts with a numeral, you must always quote the
name when entering it.
Note that you can specify the parentage of an entity (e.g. what part "owns" a marker or a geometry
element) when you CREATE it by changing the name. If you enter just the entity name, then the
default parent will be assigned by Adams/View. If you type in the full name, then you may over
ride the default parent. In most cases, when creating an entity, Adams/View will provide a default
name. The default name that Adams/View provides will specify the parentage that it has
assumed. You may, or course, delete this name and use your own. The form of a full name is:
"...._NAME.GRAND_PARENT_NAME.PARENT_NAME.ENTITY_NAME"
The number of levels used varies from case to case and the parentage must exist before an entity
can be assigned to it.
3. When you use the FILE ADAMS_DATA_SET WRITE command, Adams/View
writes an Adams data file for your model. Adams requires that each modeling element be
identified by a unique integer identifier. If you use this parameter to specify a non-zero identifier,
Adams/View will use it in the corresponding statement in the Adams data file.
You may also enter zero as an identifier, either explicitly or by default. The next time you write
an Adams file, Adams/View will replace the zero with a unique, internally-generated identifier.
Adams/View will permanently store this identifier with the element just as if you had entered it
yourself.
Normally, you would let all identifiers default to zero, and Adams/View would generate the
identifiers for you. You are never required to enter a non-zero identifier. You only need to
specify it if, for some reason, you wish to control the Adams file output.
4. When an Adams/Solver data file (.adm) is read into Adams/View, all comments associated with
a statement (from the end of the previous statement through the end of the current statement) are
stored with the object. Comments in the data file can be associated with model.
These comments must follow the title statement and be followed by the comment 'END OF
MODEL COMMENTS'. This string must be uppercase.
When an Adams/Solver data file is written, the comments for an object are written before the
statement corresponding to the object.
5. For the X_STATE_ARRAYs and Y_OUTPUT_ARRAYs, the corresponding systems modeling
element automatically determines the size of the array and checks it against the ARRAY
command SIZE parameter value (if given).
For the IC_ARRAY, the SIZE parameter is optional and Adams determines the actual size of the
array during parsing, as it counts the NUMBERS values. However, if you provide a value for
SIZE , Adams checks the count for consistency.

18 Adams/View Commands
data_element create array x_state_array

The SIZE argument, if used, should match the number of entries in the VARIABLE_NAME
parameter, the NUMBERS parameters, or the size needed for the associated systems element.
Adams/View provides the SIZE parameter mainly for user convenience in model creation (it is
not required). For LINEAR_STATE_EQUATION arrays, the X_STATE_ARRAY size is the
row dimension of the A_STATE_MATRIX, and the Y_OUTPUT_ARRAY size is the row
dimension of the C_OUTPUT_MATRIX or the D_FEEDFORWARD_MATRIX. For
TRANSFER_FUNCTION arrays, the transformation from polynomial ratio type to canonical
state space type internally determines the X_STATE_ARRAY size; the Y_OUTPUT_ARRAY
size is always 1. For GENERAL_STATE_EQUATION arrays, the X_STATE_ARRAY size is
the STATE_EQUATION_COUNT as defined in the matching
GENERAL_STATE_EQUATION definition and Y_OUTPUT_ARRAY size is the
OUTPUT_EQUATION_COUNT, as defined in the same GENERAL_STATE_EQUATION
definition.

data_element 19
data_element create array y_output_array

data_element create array y_output_array


Allows you to create a y_output_array.
Format:
data_element create array y_output_array
array_name = a new array
adams_id = adams_id
comments = string
size = integer
Example:
data_element create array y_output_array &
array_name = array__2 &
adams_id = 2 &
comments = "a new y_output_array" &
size = 1
Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

array_name

A New Array

Specifies the name of the new array. You may use this name later to
refer to this array.

adams_id

Adams_id

Specifies an integer used to identify this element in the Adams data


file.

comments

String

Specifies comments for the object being created or modified.

size

Integer

Specifies the size of an array. In cases where Adams calculates the


SIZE differently from the SIZE that the user supplies, Adams returns
an error or warning message.

Extended Definition:
1. A Y_OUTPUT_ARRAY specifies the output array for a systems element, either a
LINEAR_STATE_EQUATION, GENERAL_STATE_EQUATION, or
TRANSFER_FUNCTION. To use these arrays, the user must reference the array name as the
output array in the system element definition in the model. When you create a

20 Adams/View Commands
data_element create array y_output_array

Y_OUTPUT_ARRAY, SIZE is the only other parameter available. You can use each
Y_OUTPUT_ARRAY with only a single systems element. The SIZE value, if supplied, must be
consistent with the associated systems element. When you do not specify SIZE , the associated
systems element automatically sets it.
2. Adams/View will not allow you to have two arrays with the same full name, so you must provide
a unique name.
Normally, entity names are composed of alphabetic, numeric, or '_' (underscore) characters, and
start with an alphabetic or '_' character. They may be any length.
By enclosing the name in double quotes, you may use other printable characters, or start the name
with a numeral. If a name contains characters, or starts with a numeral, you must always quote the
name when entering it.
Note that you can specify the parentage of an entity (e.g. what part "owns" a marker or a geometry
element) when you CREATE it by changing the name. If you enter just the entity name, then the
default parent will be assigned by Adams/View. If you type in the full name, then you may over
ride the default parent. In most cases, when creating an entity, Adams/View will provide a default
name. The default name that Adams/View provides will specify the parentage that it has
assumed.
You may, or course, delete this name and use your own. The form of a full name is:
"...._NAME.GRAND_PARENT_NAME.PARENT_NAME.ENTITY_NAME"
The number of levels used varies from case to case and the parentage must exist before an entity
can be assigned to it.
3. When you use the FILE ADAMS_DATA_SET WRITE command, Adams/View writes an
Adams data file for your model. Adams requires that each modeling element be identified by a
unique integer identifier. If you use this parameter to specify a non-zero identifier, Adams/View
will use it in the corresponding statement in the Adams data file.
You may also enter zero as an identifier, either explicitly or by default. The next time you write
an Adams file, Adams/View will replace the zero with a unique, internally-generated identifier.
Adams/View will permanently store this identifier with the element just as if you had entered it
yourself.
Normally, you would let all identifiers default to zero, and Adams/View would generate the
identifiers for you. You are never required to enter a non-zero identifier. You only need to
specify it if, for some reason, you wish to control the Adams file output.
4. When an Adams/Solver data file (.adm) is read into Adams/View, all comments associated with
a statement (from the end of the previous statement through the end of the current statement) are
stored with the object. Comments in the data file can be associated with model.
These comments must follow the title statement and be followed by the comment 'END OF
MODEL COMMENTS'. This string must be uppercase.
When an Adams/Solver data file is written, the comments for an object are written before the
statement corresponding to the object.

data_element 21
data_element create array y_output_array

5. For the X_STATE_ARRAYs and Y_OUTPUT_ARRAYs, the corresponding systems modeling


element automatically determines the size of the array and checks it against the ARRAY
command SIZE parameter value (if given).
For the IC_ARRAY, the SIZE parameter is optional and Adams determines the actual size of the
array during parsing, as it counts the NUMBERS values. However, if you provide a value for
SIZE , Adams checks the count for consistency.
The SIZE argument, if used, should match the number of entries in the VARIABLE_NAME
parameter, the NUMBERS parameters, or the size needed for the associated systems element.
Adams/View provides the SIZE parameter mainly for user convenience in model creation (it is
not required). For LINEAR_STATE_EQUATION arrays, the X_STATE_ARRAY size is the
row dimension of the A_STATE_MATRIX, and the Y_OUTPUT_ARRAY size is the row
dimension of the C_OUTPUT_MATRIX or the D_FEEDFORWARD_MATRIX. For
TRANSFER_FUNCTION arrays, the transformation from polynomial ratio type to canonical
state space type internally determines the X_STATE_ARRAY size; the Y_OUTPUT_ARRAY
size is always 1. For GENERAL_STATE_EQUATION arrays, the X_STATE_ARRAY size is
the STATE_EQUATION_COUNT as defined in the matchingGENERAL_STATE_EQUATION
definition and Y_OUTPUT_ARRAY size is the OUTPUT_EQUATION_COUNT, as defined in
the same GENERAL_STATE_EQUATION definition.

22 Adams/View Commands
data_element create curve

data_element create curve


Allows you to create a curve.
Format:
data_element create curve
curve_name =

a new acurve

adams_id =

adams_id

comments =

string

closed =
matrix_name =

boolean
an existing matrix

fit_type =

fit_type

segment_count =

integer

user_function =

real

minimum_parameter =

real

maximum_parameter =

real

Example:
data_element create curve &
curve_name =

curve__1 &

adams_id =

1 &

comments =

"a new curve" &

closed =

yes

&

matrix_name =

biele_selnod &

fit_type =

curve_points &

segment_count =

10

Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

curve_name

A New Acurve

Specifies the name of the new curve. You may use this
name later to refer to this curve.

adams_id

Adams_id

Specifies an integer used to identify this element in the


Adams data file.

data_element 23
data_element create curve

Parameter

Value Type

Description

comments

String

Specifies comments for the object being created or


modified.

closed

Boolean

matrix_name

An Existing Matrix

Specifies the name of an existing MATRIX containing


the data for the curve.

fit_type

Fit_type

Specifies the way the curve is to be fit through the points


contained in the MATRIX.

segment_count

Integer

Specifies the number of polynomial segments Adams


uses for fitting the curve points when FIT_TYPE is set
to CURVE_POINTS.

user_function

Real

Specifies up to 30 values for Adams to pass to a userwritten subroutine.

minimum_parameter

Real

Specifies the minimum value of the curve parameter


only for a user-written curve.

maximum_parameter Real

Specifies the maximum value of the curve parameter


only for a user-written curve.

Specifies if the curve meets at the ends.

Extended Definition:
1. A CURVE element defines a three-dimensional parametric curve that may be referenced by
POINT_CURVE or CURVE_CURVE constraints, a geometry element called a BSPLINE, as
well as by FUNCTION expressions.
The x, y, and z coordinates of a point on a parametric curve are functions of an independent
parameter, u. As u varies from its minimum value to its maximum value, the functions x(u), y(u),
and z(u) sweep out points on the curve. A simple example of a parametric curve is the helix
defined by the following equations:
x = cos(u)
y = sin(u)
z = u
2. Adams/View allows you to create curves in three ways: by entering control points for a uniform
cubic B-spline (FIT_TYPE=CONTROL_POINTS), by entering curve points that Adams will fit
a curve to (FIT_TYPE=CURVE_POINTS), or by writing a CURSUB evaluation subroutine to
compute the curve coordinates and derivatives.
3. A uniform B-spline is a piecewise cubic polynomial spline used in many CAD (computer-aideddesign) applications. A uniform B-spline is defined by control points which form a polygon in
space. The curve starts at the first control point and ends at the last. In between, it is attracted to,
but does not necessarily hit the intermediate control points. Adams parameterizes a B-spline
starting at -1 and ending at +1.
Generally, you will not create control points directly, but will construct the curve in another
application, such as a CAD program, and then transfer the control points to Adams.

24 Adams/View Commands
data_element create curve

4. A more direct way to define the curve is to supply curve points.


Adams will compute a uniform B-spline that will fit the curve points.
Again, Adams parameterizes the curve from -1 to +1. If you specify the number of spline
segments (SEGMENT_COUNT) as three less than the number of curve points, the computed
curve will exactly match the curve points. If you specify fewer segments, Adams will use a leastsquares fit to compute the closest fit to the points. In general, fewer segments give a smoother
curve, but do not come as close to the data points.
5. In order to use a different type of curve, or to model an analytically-defined curve such as the
helix, you may write a CURSUB evaluation subroutine. When providing a CURSUB, you may
also specify MINPAR and MAXPAR to define the limits of the curve. These default to -1 and
+1, respectively.
A curve can be open or closed. A CLOSED curve meets at the ends, connecting the curve at
minimum and maximum parameter values. Note for a closed curve defined by curve points, you
can specify a maximum of 5 segments less that the number of curve points. Note that because
three segments less than the number of curve points are required for an exact fit, a closed curve
will not exactly fit the curve points.
Adams will automatically move a POINT_CURVE or CURVE_CURVE contact point across the
closure of a CLOSED curve, if needed. For instance, you may model a cam profile as a CLOSED
curve, and Adams will allow the follower to move across the closure as the cam rotates.
Adams will stop the simulation if a POINT_CURVE or CURVE_CURVE contact point moves
off the end of curve. You should ensure that the curve defined includes the expected range of
contact.
6. Normally, entity names are composed of alphabetic, numeric, or '_' (underscore) characters, and
start with an alphabetic or '_' character. They may be any length.
By enclosing the name in double quotes, you may use other printable characters, or start the name
with a numeral. If a name contains characters, or starts with a numeral, you must always quote the
name when entering it.
Note that you can specify the parentage of an entity (e.g. what part "owns" a marker or a geometry
element) when you CREATE it by changing the name. If you enter just the entity name, then the
default parent will be assigned by Adams/View. If you type in the full name, then you may over
ride the default parent. In most cases, when creating an entity, Adams/View will provide a default
name. The default name that Adams/View provides will specify the parentage that it has
assumed.
You may, or course, delete this name and use your own. The form of a full name is:
"...._NAME.GRAND_PARENT_NAME.PARENT_NAME.ENTITY_NAME"
The number of levels used varies from case to case and the parentage must exist before an entity
can be assigned to it.
7. When you use the FILE ADAMS_DATA_SET WRITE command, Adams/View writes an
Adams data file for your model. Adams requires that each modeling element be identified by a
unique integer identifier. If you use this parameter to specify a non-zero identifier, Adams/View
will use it in the corresponding statement in the Adams data file.

data_element 25
data_element create curve

You may also enter zero as an identifier, either explicitly or by default. The next time you write
an Adams file, Adams/View will replace the zero with a unique, internally-generated identifier.
Adams/View will permanently store this identifier with the element just as if you had entered it
yourself.
Normally, you would let all identifiers default to zero, and Adams/View would generate the
identifiers for you. You are never required to enter a non-zero identifier. You only need to specify
it if, for some reason, you wish to control the Adams file output.
8. When an Adams/Solver data file (.adm) is read into Adams/View, all comments associated with
a statement (from the end of the previous statement through the end of the current statement) are
stored with the object. Comments in the data file can be associated with model.
These comments must follow the title statement and be followed by the comment 'END OF
MODEL COMMENTS'. This string must be uppercase.
When an Adams/Solver data file is written, the comments for an object are written before the
statement corresponding to the object.
9. If you set the parameter CLOSED to YES and you use the CURVE_POINTS FIT_TYPE,
AdamsAdams will attempt to compute a curve that meets at the ends and has continuous first and
second derivatives across the closure. If you set CLOSED to YES and use the
CONTROL_POINTS FIT_TYPE or a user-defined FUNCTION is specified, you must ensure
that the defined curve meets at the ends and has continuous first and second derivatives across the
closure. During a simulation, Adams will move a POINT_CURVE or CURVE_CURVE contact
point across the closure, if necessary. Any discontinuity could cause integration failure.
By setting CLOSED to NO, you specify that the curve does not meet at the ends. Adams will not
allow a POINT_CURVE or CURVE_CURVE contact point to move beyond the end of the curve.
10. If CONTROL_POINTS is specified, the matrix contains the x, y, and z coordinates of control
points for a uniform B-spline. (Adams uses a uniform knot vector with quadruple multiplicity at
both ends, ensuring that the curve will pass through starting and ending points.)
If CURVE_POINTS is specified, the matrix contains the x, y, and z coordinates of curve points
which the curve will pass through or near.
The matrix should have a row for each point and three columns containing the x, y, and z,
coordinates of the points. You must supply at least four control points or curve points.
You may identify a matrix by typing its name or by picking it from the screen.
Since a matrix does not have a geometric position, Adams/View displays matrix icons at or near
the model origin. If the convenient to type the name even if the matrix icon is displayed.
If you created the matrix by reading an Adams data set or graphics file, the matrix name is the
letters MAT followed by the Adams data set matrix ID number. The name of Adams
MATRIX/101 is MAT101, for example. If you created the matrix during preprocessing, you gave
it a name at that time.
If a matrix is owned by the default model, you may identify it by entering its name only. If it is
not, you must enter its full name.

26 Adams/View Commands
data_element create curve

To identify a matrix under a different model, for instance, you may need to enter the model name
as well. For example, you may specify matrix 'control_points' from model 'road_surface' by
entering ".road_surface.control_points'". If you type a "?", Adams/View will list the matrix
available by default.
You must separate multiple matrix names by commas.
11. If FIT_TYPE=CONTROL_POINTS then the MATRIX contains control points to will not
necessarily pass through the points). Specifically, the matrix contains the x, y, and z coordinates
of control points for a uniform B-spline. (Adams uses a uniform knot vector with quadruple
multiplicity at both ends, ensuring that the curve will pass through starting and ending points.)
If FIT_TYPE=CURVE_POINTS then the MATRIX contains data points on the curve and the
curve will be fit directly through the points (depending on the value of the SEGMENT_COUNT
parameter). Specifically, the matrix contains the x, y, and z coordinates of curve points which the
curve will pass through or near. The matrix should have a row for each point and three columns
containing the x, y, and z, coordinates of the points. You must supply at least four control points
or curve points.
12. Adams will default the segment_count to three segments less than the number of curve points,
which gives an exact fit to the curve points. Specifying fewer segments will result in a smoother
curve, but the curve will not pass exactly through the curve points.
More specifically, if you specify the SEGMENT_COUNT such that the spline segments is three
less than the number of curve points, the computed curve will exactly match the curve points. If
you specify fewer segments, Adams will use a least-squares fit to compute the closest fit to the
points. In general, fewer segments give a smoother curve, but do not come as close to the data
points.
13. Adams uses the minimum_parameter value when drawing a curve graphic. For curves defined by
control points or curve points, the minimum parameter value is always -1.0.
Adams uses the maximum_parameter value when drawing a curve graphic. For curves defined
by control points or curve points, the maximum parameter value is always 1.0.
Cautions:
1. Adams/View will not allow you to have two curves with the same full name, so you must provide
a unique name.
Tips:
1. If the matrix is visible in one of your views, you may identify it by picking on any of the graphics
associated with it.
2. You need not separate multiple matrix picks by commas.
3. See the Adams User's Manual for information on writing user-written subroutines.

data_element 27
data_element create matrix file

data_element create matrix file


Allows you to direct Adams to read a MATRIX definition from a file.
The FILE keyword allows you to read large matrices into Adams using an external file. There is no limit
on the size of an array read from a file.
The first record in the file contains an 80 character header of which the first seven or eight characters are
meaningful. If the first record begins with the characters ADAMSMAT, then the file is assumedto be in
a format used by Adams. If the first record begins with the characters MATRIXx, then the file is assumed
to be in the FSAVE format of the MATRIXx software package. If the first record begins with the
characters MATSAVE, then the file is assumed to be in the MATSAVE format of the MATRIXx software
package.
No other kinds of files are currently supported. However, the ADAMSMAT option is fairly general since
the format for reading in the data is specified within the file. See the section in the Adams Reference
Manual on the MATRIX statement for a description of the file format.
Format:
data_element create matrix file
matrix_name= new matrix
adams_id= integer
comments= string
file_name= string
name_of_matrix_in_file= string
units= string
Example:
data_element create matrix file &
matrix_name= matrix_read_from_file &
adams_id= 12 &
comments= example of a matrix read from a file &
file_name= /home/staff/demo/prob.dat &
name_of_matrix_in_file= trf &
units= string
In the above command, the prob.dat is in the directory, /home/staff/demo, and contains the following
data:
1

28 Adams/View Commands
data_element create matrix file

12345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890
ADAMSMAT Floating platform example
3
TRF
VALK
STL
TRF
FULL
RORDER
4
2
8
( 8F8.5 )
1.36400 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 -3.54600 4.00800 0.00000 0.79900
VALK
FULL
CORDER
3
3
9
( 3F6.3 )
1.970 0.000-3.440
0.000 4.510 6.020
-3.440 6.020 2.110
STL
SPARSE
6
1
4
( 2( 2I5, E14.6 ) )
1
1
0.169805E+02
2
1 -0.230745E+02
4
1
0.016390E+00
5
1 0.011271E+00

The second and third records are read with format I5 and 4(A8,10X), respectively. Then, the first record
of each of the blocks corresponding to the three matrices TRF, VALK, and STL is read with the format
3A8, 3I5, A41. Finally, as can be seen in the copy of the file shown above between the two strings of 80
characters that mark the columns (which, of course, are not part of the file), the single record of data for
the matrix TRF is read with the format 8F8.5; the three records for VALK are read with 3F6.3; and the
two records for STL with 2(2I5,E14.6).
Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

matrix_name

New matrix

Specifies the name of the new matrix.

adams_id

Integer

Specifies an integer used to identify this element in the


Adams data file.

comments

String

Specifies comments for the object being created or


modified.

file_name

String

Specifies the name of a file that contains the values of the


matrix.

name_of_matrix_in_file String

Specifies the name of a MATRIX to be read from the file


identified by the FILE_NAME parameter.

units

Allows you to specify the type of units to be used for this


object.

String

Extended Definition:
1. You may use this name later to refer to this matrix. Adams/View will not allow you to have two
matrices with the same full name, so you must provide a unique name.
Normally, entity names are composed of alphabetic, numeric, or '_' (underscore) characters, and
start with an alphabetic or '_' character. They may be any length.
By enclosing the name in double quotes, you may use other printable characters, or start the name
with a numeral. If a name contains characters, or starts with a numeral, you must always quote the
name when entering it.

data_element 29
data_element create matrix file

Note that you can specify the parentage of an entity (e.g. what part "owns" a marker or a geometry
element) when you CREATE it by changing the name. If you enter just the entity name, then the
default parent will be assigned by Adams/View. If you type in the full name, then you may over
ride the default parent. In most cases, when creating an entity, Adams/View will provide a default
name. The default name that AdamsAdams/View provides will specify the parentage that it has
assumed.
You may, or course, delete this name and use your own. The form of a full name is:
"...._NAME.GRAND_PARENT_NAME.PARENT_NAME.ENTITY_NAME"
The number of levels used varies from case to case and the parentage must exist before an entity
can be assigned to it.
2. When you use the FILE ADAMS_DATA_SET WRITE command, Adams/View writes an
Adams data file for your model. Adams requires that each modeling element be identified by a
unique integer identifier. If you use this parameter to specify a non-zero identifier, Adams/View
will use it in the corresponding statement in the Adams data file.
You may also enter zero as an identifier, either explicitly or by default. The next time you write
an Adams file, Adams/View will replace the zero with a unique, internally-generated identifier.
Adams/View will permanently store this identifier with the element just as if you had entered it
yourself.
Normally, you would let all identifiers default to zero, and Adams/View would generate the
identifiers for you. You are never required to enter a non-zero identifier. You only need to
specify it if, for some reason, you wish to control the Adams file output.
3. The FILE argument may be used to read large matrices into Adams. There is no limit on the size
of an array read from a file.
The proper extension is the default but can be overridden by simply supplying a different
extension.
You do not need to enclose the file name in quotes if it only contains alpha-numeric characters
and starts with a letter. If you want to include other characters, such as a '.' for an extension or '/'
or '[]' for directory paths, you must enclose the name in quotes.
The first record in the file contains an 80 character header of which the first seven or eight
characters are meaningful. If the first record begins with the characters ADAMSMAT, then the
file is assumed to be in a format used by Adams. If the first record begins with the characters
MATRIXx, then the file is assumed to be in the FSAVE format of the MATRIXx software
package. If the first record begins with the characters MATSAVE, then the file is assumed to be
in the MATSAVE format of the MATRIXx software package.
Note that the three specifications for the format of the data file are case sensitive. Capital letters
and a lower case x must be used to make a selection.
No other kinds of files are currently supported. However, the ADAMSMAT option is fairly
general since the format for reading in the data is specified within the file. See the section in the
Adams Reference Manual on the MATRIX statement for a description of the file format.

30 Adams/View Commands
data_element create matrix file

4. All three kinds of files, ADAMSMAT, MATRIXx, and MATSAVE, can contain data for more
than one matrix. The NAME_OF_MATRIX_IN_FILE parameter is used to select a particular
matrix from a file even if the file contains only one MATRIX. You must create additional
MATRIX elements in your Adams/View model if multiple matrices are to be read from the same
file.

data_element 31
data_element create matrix full

data_element create matrix full


Allows you to create a FULL MATRIX.
The MATRIX to be defined is FULL therefore, the VALUES parameter specifies all of the M times N
entries in the matrix. The sequence of the values depends on the value of the INPUT_ORDER parameter.
If BY_ROW is specified, you enter the values row-by-row. If BY_COLUMN is specified, you enter the
values column-by-column.
Format:
data_element create matrix full
matrix_name= new matrix
adams_id= integer
comments= string
row_count= integer
column_count= integer
values= real
result_set_component_names= existing component
input_order= matrix_input_order
units= string
Example:
If you want to enter the following matrix of values in full format:

data_element create matrix full &


matrix_name = matrix_1 &
comments = "matrix example in full format" &
row_count = 4 &
column_count = 2 &
values = 1.364,0.000,0.000,0.000,-3.546,4.008,0.000,0.7999 &
input_order = by_column

32 Adams/View Commands
data_element create matrix full

Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

matrix_name

Matrix name

Specifies the name of the new matrix. You


may use this name later to refer to this matrix.

adams_id

Integer

Specifies an integer used to identify this


element in the Adams data file.

comments

String

Specifies comments for the object being


created or modified.

row_count

Integer

Specifies the number of rows (M) in the


matrix.Used in the definition of a full matrix.

column_count

Integer

Specifies the number of columns (N) in the


matrix used in the definition of a full matrix.

values

Real

Specifies the real number values that you enter


to populate a FULL MATRIX.

result_set_component_names Existing component

You can only use a result set component as


matrix values using full format and entering all
the values stored in the result set component.

input_order

By_column,by_row

Specifies the order the values that you input


will appear in for a FULL MATRIX format (all
of the M by N entries will be specific numeric
values

units

String

Allows you to specify the type of units to be


used for this object.

Extended Definition:
1. A data element matrix is a general M x N array that can be a rectangular or square twodimensional matrix or a row or column matrix. You can enter the data in:
Full format - You list all the M x N values or specify the results of a simulation (result set
components).
Sparse format - You list the row position, column position, and value for only nonzero entry
values.
External file - Enter a file containing a matrix.
If one-third or more of the entries in a matrix are nonzero, we recommend that you use full format
since it takes less time to create. If the matrix is mostly empty and entering each nonzero entry's
row position, column position, and value takes less time than entering all of the values, you should
use the sparse format.
2. Adams/View will not allow you to have two matrices with the same full name, so you must
provide a unique name.

data_element 33
data_element create matrix full

Normally, entity names are composed of alphabetic, numeric, or '_' (underscore) characters, and
start with an alphabetic or '_' character. They may be any length.
By enclosing the name in double quotes, you may use other printable characters, or start the name
with a numeral. If a name contains characters, or starts with a numeral, you must always quote the
name when entering it.
Note that you can specify the parentage of an entity (e.g. what part "owns" a marker or a geometry
element) when you CREATE it by changing the name. If you enter just the entity name, then the
default parent will be assigned by Adams/View. If you type in the full name, then you may over
ride the default parent. In most cases, when creating an entity, Adams/View will provide a
default name. The default name that Adams/View provides will specify the parentage that it has
assumed.
You may, or course, delete this name and use your own. The form of a full name is:
"...._NAME.GRAND_PARENT_NAME.PARENT_NAME.ENTITY_NAME"
The number of levels used varies from case to case and the parentage must exist before an entity
can be assigned to it.
3. The MATRIX to be defined is FULL therefore, the VALUES parameter specifies all of the M
times N entries in the matrix. The sequence of the values depends on the value of the
INPUT_ORDER parameter. If BY_ROW is specified, you enter the values row-by-row.
If BY_COLUMN is specified, you enter the values column-by-column.
4. A result set is a basic set of state variable data that Adams/Solver calculates during a simulation.
Adams/Solver outputs the data at each simulation output step. A component of a result set is a
time series of a particular quantity (for example, the x displacement of a part or the y torque in a
joint).
5. The input_order parameter can take two values:
a. BY_ROW indicates the values are listed by row in the VALUES parameter (i.e. starting with
the first row and proceeding to the second, and so on until the entire matrix is completely
defined).
b. BY_COLUMN indicates the values are listed by column (i.e. starting with the first column
and proceeding to the second, and so on).
Default value is BY_COLUMN
3. Since this object can be used in a variety of contexts, Adams/View can not determine what type
of units it should have. By telling Adams/View what the unit type for this object is Adams/View
can perform the proper conversions on the values you specify.

34 Adams/View Commands
data_element create matrix sparse

data_element create matrix sparse


Allows you to create a SPARSE MATRIX.
The MATRIX to be defined is SPARSE therefore, the VALUES parameter specifies only the entries that
may be non zero. That is, all entries in the M by N array not assigned values by the ROW_INDEX,
COLUMN_INDEX, and VALUES parameters are assumed to be equal to zero in ADAMS. Therefore,
the kth entry in the VALUES parameter is assigned to the row identified by the kth entry in
ROW_INDEX and to the column identified by the kth entry in COLUMN_INDEX for k=1,2,...,n.
Format:
data_element create matrix sparse
matrix_name= New Sparse matrix
adams_id= integer
comments= String
row_index= integer
column_index= integer
values= real
units= String
Example:
data_element create matrix sparse &
matrix_name = MATRIX__1 &
row_index = 2,3 &
column_index = 1,1 &
values = 3.456,4.567
This will create a matrix will looks like the following:
0.000, 0.000 ,0.000
3.456, 0.000, 0.000
4.567, 0.000, 0.000

data_element 35
data_element create matrix sparse

Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

matrix_name

Matrix_name

Specifies the name of the new matrix.

adams_id

Integer

Specifies an integer used to identify this element in the ADAMS data


file.

Comments

String

Specifies comments for the object being created or modified.

row_index

Integer

Specifies the row position of each of the N entries in the VALUES


parameter for a SPARSE MATRIX.

column_inde
x

Integer

Specifies the column position of each of the M entries in the VALUES


parameter for a SPARSE MATRIX.

Values

Real

Specifies the real number values that you enter to populate a SPARSE
MATRIX.

units

String

Allows you to specify the type of units to be used for this object.

Extended Definition:
1. ADAMS/View will not allow you to have two matrices with the same full name, so you must
provide a unique name.
Normally, entity names are composed of alphabetic, numeric, or '_' (underscore) characters, and
start with an alphabetic or '_' character. They may be any length.
By enclosing the name in double quotes, you may use other printable characters, or start the name
with a numeral. If a name contains characters, or starts with a numeral, you must always quote the
name when entering it.
Note that you can specify the parentage of an entity (e.g. what part "owns" a marker or a geometry
element) when you CREATE it by changing the name. If you enter just the entity name, then the
default parent will be assigned by ADAMS/View. If you type in the full name, then you may over
ride the default parent. In most cases, when creating an entity, ADAMS/View will provide a
default name. The default name that ADAMS/View provides will specify the parentage that it
has assumed. You may, or course, delete this name and use your own. The form of a full name is:
"...._NAME.GRAND_PARENT_NAME.PARENT_NAME.ENTITY_NAME"
The number of levels used varies from case to case and the parentage must exist before an entity
can be assigned to it.
2. When an ADAMS/Solver data file (.adm) is read into ADAMS/View, all comments associated
with a statement (from the end of the previous statement through the end of the current statement)
are stored with the object. Comments in the data file can be associated with model. These
comments must follow the title statement and be followed by the comment 'END OF MODEL
COMMENTS'. This string must be uppercase.
When an ADAMS/Solver data file is written, the comments for an object are written before the
statement corresponding to the object.

36 Adams/View Commands
data_element create matrix sparse

3. For each non-zero value in the SPARSE MATRIX each entry for this parameter defines to the
position in the matrix of the corresponding entry in the VALUES parameter. For example, the
third value entered for the ROW_INDEX parameter defines what matrix row the third value
entered for the VALUES parameter is located on.
4. For each non-zero value in the SPARSE MATRIX each entry for this parameter defines to the
position in the matrix of the corresponding entry in the VALUES parameter. For example, the
forth value entered for the COLUMN_INDEX parameter defines what matrix column the forth
value entered for the VALUES parameter is located on.
5. The MATRIX to be defined is SPARSE therefore, the VALUES parameter specifies only the
entries that may be non zero. That is, all entries in the M by N array not assigned values by the
ROW_INDEX, COLUMN_INDEX, and VALUES parameters are assumed to be equal to zero in
ADAMS. Therefore, the kth entry in the VALUES parameter is assigned to the row identified by
the kth entry in ROW_INDEX and to the column identified by the kth entry in
COLUMN_INDEX for k=1,2,...,n.

data_element 37
data_element create plant input

data_element create plant input


Allows you to create a PLANT INPUT element.
Format:
data_element create plant input
plant_input_name = a new pinput
adams_id = adams_id
comments = string
variable_name = an existing variable
Example:
data_element create plant input &
plant_input_name = pinput__1 &
plant_input_name = pinput__1 &
adams_id = 1 &
comments = " a new plant input" &
variable_name = variable_1
Description:
:

Parameter

Value Type

Description

plant_input_name

A New Pinput

Specifies the name of the new plant_input. You may use


this name later to refer to this plant_input.

adams_id

Adams_id

Specifies an integer used to identify this element in the


Adams data file.

comments

String

Specifies comments for the object being created or


modified.

variable_name

An Existing Variable Specifies an existing variable.

38 Adams/View Commands
data_element create plant input

Extended Definition:
1. A PLANT INPUT element, along with a PLANT OUTPUT element, is required by the Adams
LINEAR/STATEMAT analysis.
\

Note:

This analysis can be requested in Adams/View through the use of the


ADAMS_COMMAND_FILE parameter with the analysis SUBMIT command. Use the
"ACF" button on the text editor and select the GENERATE_STATE_MATRIX option.
You will finally use a panel to select the PLANT INPUTs, PLANT OUTPUTs, and the
format that the state matrices should be generated in
A PLANT INPUT defines a set of inputs to the mechanical system and PLANT OUTPUT defines
the set of measured outputs from the system. The LINEAR/STATEMAT analysis linearizes the
system equations to the following form:
{x}= [A] {x} + [B] {u}
{y}= [C] {x} + [D] {u}
where x is the linearized system state, u is the system inputs defined by the PLANT INPUT
element, and y is the system outputs defined by the PLANT OUTPUT element. This form is
commonly referred to as the state space form of the system equations in control theory. Adams
outputs the A, B, C, and D matrices for use in a control-system design or any other linear system
analysis software.
When you run an analysis type other than LINEAR/STATEMAT , the PLANT INPUT element
acts only as a pointer to the list of the specified VARIABLEs.

2. Both FUNCTION expressions and user-written subroutines can access the PLANT INPUT
information. FUNCTION expressions access the values by using the internal Adams function
PINVAL(i1 ,i2) where i1 specifies the PLANT INPUT name , and i2 specifies the i2-th
VARIABLE in the PLANT INPUT statement list. Note that i2 is not the name of the
VARIABLE.
User-written subroutines call the subroutine SYSFNC to access single elements of the PLANT
INPUT list and call the subroutine SYSARY to access all values for a PLANT INPUT.
3. Normally, entity names are composed of alphabetic, numeric, or '_' (underscore) characters, and
start with an alphabetic or '_' character. They may be any length.
By enclosing the name in double quotes, you may use other printable characters, or start the name
with a numeral. If a name contains characters, or starts with a numeral, you must always quote the
name when entering it.
Note that you can specify the parentage of an entity (e.g. what part "owns" a marker or a geometry
element) when you CREATE it by changing the name. If you enter just the entity name, then the
default parent will be assigned by Adams/View. If you type in the full name, then you may over
ride the default parent. In most cases, when creating an entity, Adams/View will provide a default
name. The default name that Adams/View provides will specify the parentage that it has
assumed. You may, or course, delete this name and use your own. The form of a full name is:
"...._NAME.GRAND_PARENT_NAME.PARENT_NAME.ENTITY_NAME"

data_element 39
data_element create plant input

The number of levels used varies from case to case and the parentage must exist before an entity
can be assigned to it.
4. When you use the FILE ADAMS_DATA_SET WRITE command, Adams/View writes an
Adams data file for your model. Adams requires that each modeling element be identified by a
unique integer identifier. If you use this parameter to specify a non-zero identifier, Adams/View
will use it in the corresponding statement in the Adams data file.
You may also enter zero as an identifier, either explicitly or by default. The next time you write
an Adams file, Adams/View will replace the zero with a unique, internally-generated identifier.
Adams/View will permanently store this identifier with the element just as if you had entered it
yourself.
Normally, you would let all identifiers default to zero, and Adams/View would generate the
identifiers for you. You are never required to enter a non-zero identifier. You only need to
specify it if, for some reason, you wish to control the Adams file output.
5. When an Adams/Solver data file (.adm) is read into Adams/View, all comments associated with
a statement (from the end of the previous statement through the end of the current statement) are
stored with the object. Comments in the data file can be associated with model.
These comments must follow the title statement and be followed by the comment 'END OF
MODEL COMMENTS'. This string must be uppercase.
When an Adams/Solver data file is written, the comments for an object are written before the
statement corresponding to the object.
6. You enter variable names as input parameters for array elements (U_INPUT_ARRAY), plant
input and output definitions, and in function expressions
You may identify a variable by typing its name or by picking it from the screen.
Since variable do not have a geometric position, Adams/View displays variable icons at or near
the model origin. If the variable icon is not visible on the screen, you must type the name. You
may also find it convenient to type the name even if the variable icon is displayed.
If you created the variable by reading an Adams data set, the variable name is the letters VAR
followed by the Adams data set variable ID number. The name of Adams VARIABLE/101 is
VAR101, for example. If you created the variable during preprocessing, you gave it a name at
that time.
If a variable is owned by the default model, you may identify it by entering its name only. If it is
not, you must enter its full name.
To identify a variable under a different model, for instance, you may need to enter the model name
as well. For example, you may specify variable 'fluid_volume' from model 'hydro' by entering
".hydro.fluid_volume'". If you type a "?", Adams/View will list the variable available by default.
You must separate multiple variable names by commas.
Cautions:
1. Adams/View will not allow you to have two plant_inputs with the same full name, so you must
provide a unique name.

40 Adams/View Commands
data_element create plant input

Tips:
1. If the variable is visible in one of your views, you may identify it by picking on any of the graphics
associated with it.
2. You need not separate multiple variable picks by commas.

data_element 41
data_element create plant output

data_element create plant output


Allows you to create a PLANT OUTPUT element.
Format:
data_element create plant output
plant_output_name = a new poutput
adams_id =

adams_id

comments = string
variable_name = an existing variable
Example:
data_element create plant output &
plant_output_name = poutput__1 &
adams_id = 1 &
comments = "a new plant output element" &
variable_name = variable_1
Description:
:

Parameter

Value Type

Description

plant_output_name

A New Poutput

Specifies the name of the new plant_output. You may use


this name later to refer to this plant_output.

adams_id

ADAMS_ID

Specifies an integer used to identify this element in the


Adams data file.

comments

String

Specifies comments for the object being created or modified.

variable_name

An Existing
Variable

Specifies an existing variable.

42 Adams/View Commands
data_element create plant output

Extended Definition:
1. A PLANT OUTPUT element, along with a PLANT INPUT element, is required by the Adams
LINEAR/STATEMAT analysis.
Note:

This analysis can be requested in Adams/View through the use of the


ADAMS_COMMAND_FILE parameter with the analysis SUBMIT command. Use the
"ACF" button on the text editor and select the GENERATE_STATE_MATRIX option.
You will finally use a panel to select the PLANT INPUTs, PLANT OUTPUTs, and the
format that the state matrices should be generated in
PLANT OUTPUT defines the set of measured outputs from the mechanical system and PLANT
INPUT defines a set of inputs to the mechanical system. The LINEAR command linearizes the
system equations to the following form:
{x}= [A] {x} + [B] {u}
{y}= [C] {x} + [D] {u}
where x is the linearized system state (X_STATE_ARRAY), u is the system inputs defined by the
PLANT INPUT element (U_INPUT_ARRAY), and y is the system outputs defined by the
PLANT OUTPUT element (Y_OUTPUT_ARRAY). This form is commonly referred to as the
state space form of the system equations in control theory. Adams outputs the A, B, C, and D
matrices (i.e. A_STATE_MATRIX, B_INPUT_MATRIX, C_OUTPUT_MATRIX, and
D_FEEDFORWARD_MATRIX) for use in a control-system design or any other linear system
analysis software.
When the user runs an analysis type other than LINEAR , the PLANT OUTPUT element acts
only as a pointer to the list of VARIABLE specified.

2. Both FUNCTION expressions and user-written subroutines can access the PLANT OUTPUT
element. FUNCTION expressions access the values by using the internal Adams function
POUVAL(i1 ,i2) where i1 specifies the PLANT OUTPUT name , and i2 specifies the i2-th
VARIABLE entry in the PLANT INPUT parameter list. Note that i2 is not the name of the
VARIABLE.
User-written subroutines access single elements of the PLANT OUTPUT list and call the
subroutine SYSFNC to access all values for a PLANT OUTPUT by calling the subroutine
SYSARY.
3. Normally, entity names are composed of alphabetic, numeric, or '_' (underscore) characters, and
start with an alphabetic or '_' character. They may be any length.
By enclosing the name in double quotes, you may use other printable characters, or start the name
with a numeral. If a name contains characters, or starts with a numeral, you must always quote the
name when entering it.

data_element 43
data_element create plant output

Note that you can specify the parentage of an entity (e.g. what part "owns" a marker or a geometry
element) when you CREATE it by changing the name. If you enter just the entity name, then the
default parent will be assigned by Adams/View. If you type in the full name, then you may over
ride the default parent. In most cases, when creating an entity, Adams/View will provide a default
name. The default name that Adams/View provides will specify the parentage that it has
assumed.
You may, or course, delete this name and use your own. The form of a full name is:
"...._NAME.GRAND_PARENT_NAME.PARENT_NAME.ENTITY_NAME"
The number of levels used varies from case to case and the parentage must exist before an entity
can be assigned to it.
4. When you use the FILE ADAMS_DATA_SET WRITE command, Adams/View writes an
Adams data file for your model. Adams requires that each modeling element be identified by a
unique integer identifier. If you use this parameter to specify a non-zero identifier, Adams/View
will use it in the corresponding statement in the Adams data file.
You may also enter zero as an identifier, either explicitly or by default. The next time you write
an Adams file, Adams/View will replace the zero with a unique, internally-generated identifier.
Adams/View will permanently store this identifier with the element just as if you had entered it
yourself.
Normally, you would let all identifiers default to zero, and Adams/View would generate the
identifiers for you. You are never required to enter a non-zero identifier. You only need to
specify it
if, for some reason, you wish to control the Adams file output.
5. When an Adams/Solver data file (.adm) is read into Adams/View, all comments associated with
a statement (from the end of the previous statement through the end of the current statement) are
stored with the object. Comments in the data file can be associated with model.
These comments must follow the title statement and be followed by the comment 'END OF
MODEL COMMENTS'. This string must be uppercase.
When an Adams/Solver data file is written, the comments for an object are written before the
statement corresponding to the object.
6. You enter variable names as input parameters for array elements (U_INPUT_ARRAY), plant
input and output definitions, and in function expressions
You may identify a variable by typing its name or by picking it from the screen.
Since variable do not have a geometric osition, Adams/View displays variable icons at or near the
model origin. If the variable icon is not visible on the screen, you must type the name. You may
also find it convenient to type the name even if the variable icon is displayed.
If you created the variable by reading an Adams data set, the variable name is the letters VAR
followed by the Adams data set variable ID number. The name of Adams VARIABLE/101 is
VAR101, for example. If you created the variable during preprocessing, you gave it a name at
that time.

44 Adams/View Commands
data_element create plant output

If a variable is owned by the default model, you may identify it by entering its name only. If it
is not, you must enter its full name.
To identify a variable under a different model, for instance, you may need to enter the model name
as well. For example, you may specify variable 'fluid_volume' from model 'hydro' by entering
".hydro.fluid_volume'". If you type a "?", Adams/View will list the variable available by default.
You must separate multiple variable names by commas.
Cautions:
1. Adams/View will not allow you to have two plant_outputs with the same full name, so you must
provide a unique name.
Tips:
1. If the variable is visible in one of your views, you may identify it by picking on any of the graphics
associated with it.
2. You need not separate multiple variable picks by commas.

data_element 45
data_element create plant state

data_element create plant state


Allows you to create a PLANT STATE element.
Format:
data_element create plant state
plant_state_name =

a new plant state

adams_id = adams_id
comments = string
variable_name = an existing variable
Example:
data_element create plant state &
plant_state_name = pstate__1 &
adams_id = 1 &
comments = "a new plant state element " &
variable_name = variable_1
Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

plant_state_name

A New Plant State Specifies the name of the new plant_state. You may use this
name later to refer to this plant_state.

adams_id

Adams_id

Specifies an integer used to identify this element in the Adams


data file.

comments

String

Specifies comments for the object being created or modified.

variable_name

An Existing
Variable

Specifies an existing variable.

Extended Definition:
1. Normally, entity names are composed of alphabetic, numeric, or '_' (underscore) characters, and
start with an alphabetic or '_' character. They may be any length.
By enclosing the name in double quotes, you may use other printable characters, or start the name
with a numeral. If a name contains characters, or starts with a numeral, you must always quote the
name when entering it.

46 Adams/View Commands
data_element create plant state

Note that you can specify the parentage of an entity (e.g. what part "owns" a marker or a geometry
element) when you CREATE it by changing the name. If you enter just the entity name, then the
default parent will be assigned by Adams/View. If you type in the full name, then you may over
ride the default parent. In most cases, when creating an entity, Adams/View will provide a default
name. The default name that Adams/View provides will specify the parentage that it has
assumed. You may, or course, delete this name and use your own. The form of a full name is:
"...._NAME.GRAND_PARENT_NAME.PARENT_NAME.ENTITY_NAME"
The number of levels used varies from case to case and the parentage must exist before an entity
can be assigned to it.
2. When you use the FILE ADAMS_DATA_SET WRITE command, Adams/View writes an
Adams data file for your model. Adams requires that each modeling element be identified by a
unique integer identifier. If you use this parameter to specify a non-zero identifier, Adams/View
will use it in the corresponding statement in the Adams data file.
You may also enter zero as an identifier, either explicitly or by default. The next time you write
an Adams file, Adams/View will replace the zero with a unique, internally-generated identifier.
Adams/View will permanently store this identifier with the element just as if you had entered it
yourself.
Normally, you would let all identifiers default to zero, and Adams/View would generate the
identifiers for you. You are never required to enter a non-zero identifier. You only need to
specify it if, for some reason, you wish to control the Adams file output.
3. When an Adams/Solver data file (.adm) is read into Adams/View, all comments associated with
a statement (from the end of the previous statement through the end of the current statement) are
stored with the object. Comments in the data file can be associated with model.
These comments must follow the title statement and be followed by the comment 'END OF
MODEL COMMENTS'. This string must be uppercase.
When an Adams/Solver data file is written, the comments for an object are written before the
statement corresponding to the object.
4. You enter variable names as input parameters for array elements (U_INPUT_ARRAY), plant
input and output definitions, and in function expressions You may identify a variable by typing
its name or by picking it from the screen.
Since variable do not have a geometric position, Adams/View displays variable icons at or near
the model origin. If the variable icon is not visible on the screen, you must type the name. You
may also find it convenient to type the name even if the variable icon is displayed.
If you created the variable by reading an Adams data set, the variable name is the letters VAR
followed by the Adams data set variable ID number. The name of Adams VARIABLE/101 is
VAR101, for example. If you created the variable during preprocessing, you gave it a name at
that time.
If a variable is owned by the default model, you may identify it by entering its name only. If it
is not, you must enter its full name.

data_element 47
data_element create plant state

To identify a variable under a different model, for instance, you may need to enter the model name
as well. For example, you may specify variable 'fluid_volume' from model 'hydro' by entering
".hydro.fluid_volume'". If you type a "?", Adams/View will list the variable available by default.
You must separate multiple variable names by commas.
Cautions:
1. Adams/View will not allow you to have two plant_states with the same full name, so you must
provide a unique name.
Tips:
1. If the variable is visible in one of your views, you may identify it by picking on any of the graphics
associated with it.
2. You need not separate multiple variable picks by commas.

48 Adams/View Commands
data_element create spline

data_element create spline


Allows for creation of the spline object.
Format:
data_element create spline
spline_name = a new spline
adams_id = adams_id
comments = string
x_result_set_component_name = an existing component
x = real
y_result_set_component_name = an existing component
y=

real

z_result_set_component_name = an existing component


z = real
linear_extrapolate = boolean
units = string
file_name = string
Example:
data_element create spline &
spline_name = spline__1 &
adams_id = 2 &
comments = "a new spline" &
linear_extrapolate = yes &
units = mm &
file_name = "c:\spline.txt"
Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

spline_name

A New Spline

Specifies the name of the new spline. You may


use this name later to refer to this spline.

adams_id

Adams_id

Specifies an integer used to identify this element


in the Adams data file.

data_element 49
data_element create spline

Parameter

Value Type

Description

comments

String

Specifies comments for the object being created


or modified.

x_result_set_component_name

An Existing
Component

Specifies the result set component containing


values for the spline X (independent) variable.

Real

y_result_set_component_name

An Existing
Component

Real

z_result_set_component_name

An Existing
Component

Real

linear_extrapolate

Boolean

units

String

file_name

String

Specifies the result set component containing


values for the spline Y (dependent) variable.
Specifies the result set component containing
values for the spline Z (independent) variable.

Allows you to specify the type of units to be used


for this object.

Extended Definition:
1. A spline interpolates between discrete data for a user-provided function or a utility subroutine
called by a user-written subroutine.
You use the spline to provide one or two independent variables and one dependent variable for
each data point you want to enter. Adams uses curve fitting techniques to interpolate between data
points to create a continuous function. If the spline data has one independent variable, Adams uses
a cubic polynomial to interpolate between points.
If the spline data has two independent variables, Adams first uses a cubic interpolation method to
interpolate between points of the first independent variable and then uses a linear method to
interpolate between curves of the second independent variable.
2. To use the discrete data input with a spline, you must write either a function expression that
includes one of the two Adams spline functions (AKISPL function and CUBSPL function) or a
user-written subroutine that calls one of the two spline utility subroutines (AKISPL subroutine
and CUBSPL subroutine).
3. These spline functions and utility subroutines use two different interpolation methods. The
AKISPL function and the AKISPL subroutine use the Akima method of interpolation. The Akima
method is a local cubic curve fitting technique. The CUBSPL function and the CUBSPL
subroutine use the traditional cubic method of interpolation. The traditional cubic method is a
global cubic curve fitting technique.

50 Adams/View Commands
data_element create spline

Both the Akima method and the traditional cubic method use cubic polynomials to interpolate
values that fall between two adjacent points on a curve. Both provide closer approximations than
other curve fitting techniques (for example, Lagrange polynomials, difference tables, and Fourier
series). For data with two independent variables, Adams uses a linear interpolation technique to
interpolate values that fall between curves.
4. If you have created a spline in Adams/View, you may wish to plot the data points or the
interpolated curve to verify that you entered the data correctly and that the spline interpolates
smoothly. To do this, first use the 'NUMERIC_RESULTS CREATE SPLINE' command to create
a result set from the spline. This result set will contain components composed of the spline data
points. You can then plot the result set (i.e. the spline data points) with the XY_PLOTS
command. You may also use the 'NUMERIC_RESULTS CREATE INTERPOLATION'
command to interpolate more points from the data-point result set, and then plot those.The
Adams/View CUBIC and AKIMA interpolation options use the same methods as the Adams
CUBSPL and AKISPL functions, respectively.
5. Normally, entity names are composed of alphabetic, numeric, or '_' (underscore) characters, and
start with an alphabetic or '_' character. They may be any length.
By enclosing the name in double quotes, you may use other printable characters, or start the name
with a numeral. If a name contains characters, or starts with a numeral, you must always quote the
name when entering it.
Note that you can specify the parentage of an entity (e.g. what part "owns" a marker or a geometry
element) when you CREATE it by changing the name. If you enter just the entity name, then the
default parent will be assigned by Adams/View. If you type in the full name, then you may over
ride the default parent. In most cases, when creating an entity, Adams/View will provide a default
name. The default name that Adams/View provides will specify the parentage that it has
assumed.
You may, or course, delete this name and use your own. The form of a full name is:
"...._NAME.GRAND_PARENT_NAME.PARENT_NAME.ENTITY_NAME"
The number of levels used varies from case to case and the parentage must exist before an entity
can be assigned to it.
6. When you use the FILE ADAMS_DATA_SET WRITE command, Adams/View writes an
Adams data file for your model. Adams requires that each modeling element be identified by a
unique integer identifier. If you use this parameter to specify a non-zero identifier, Adams/View
will use it in the corresponding statement in the Adams data file.
You may also enter zero as an identifier, either explicitly or by default. The next time you write
an Adams file, Adams/View will replace the zero with a unique, internally-generated identifier.
Adams/View will permanently store this identifier with the element just as if you had entered it
yourself.
Normally, you would let all identifiers default to zero, and Adams/View would generate the
identifiers for you. You are never required to enter a non-zero identifier. You only need to
specify it if, for some reason, you wish to control the Adams file output.

data_element 51
data_element create spline

7. When an Adams/Solver data file (.adm) is read into Adams/View, all comments associated with
a statement (from the end of the previous statement through the end of the current statement) are
stored with the object. Comments in the data file can be associated with model.
These comments must follow the title statement and be followed by the comment 'END OF
MODEL COMMENTS'. This string must be uppercase.
When an Adams/Solver data file is written, the comments for an object are written before the
statement corresponding to the object.
8. You must supply a Y value corresponding to each combination of X and Z values. First list the
component with values for each X value at the first Z value, then the component with values for
each X value at the second Z value, and so on.
9. Since this object can be used in a variety ov contexts, AdamsAdams/View can not determine what
type of units it should have. By telling Adams/View what the unit type for this object is
Adams/View can preform the proper conversions on the values you specify.
Cautions:
1. Adams/View will not allow you to have two splines with the same full name, so you must provide
a unique name.

52 Adams/View Commands
data_element create string

data_element create string


Allows you to create a character string.
Format:
data_element create string
string_name = a new astring
adams_id = adams_id
comments = string
string = string
Example:
data_element create string &
string_name = string__1 &
adams_id = 1 &
comments = " a new string" &
string = "sample string"
Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

string_name A New Astring Specifies the name of the new string. You may use this name later to
refer to this string.
adams_id

Adams_id

Specifies an integer used to identify this element in the Adams data


file.

comments

String

Specifies comments for the object being created or modified.

string

String

A STRING element defines a character string that may be referred to


later in the execution of Adams.

Extended Definition:
1. A STRING element defines a character string that may be referred to later in the execution of
Adams. The character string cannot be broken and continued on the following line; however, the
STRING element can be longer than a single line. A GTSTRG subroutine can be used to retrieve
this character string in a user-written subroutine.
2. Normally, entity names are composed of alphabetic, numeric, or '_' (underscore) characters, and
start with an alphabetic or '_' character. They may be any length.

data_element 53
data_element create string

By enclosing the name in double quotes, you may use other printable characters, or start the name
with a numeral. If a name contains characters, or starts with a numeral, you must always quote the
name when entering it.
Note that you can specify the parentage of an entity (e.g. what part "owns" a marker or a geometry
element) when you CREATE it by changing the name. If you enter just the entity name, then the
default parent will be assigned by Adams/View. If you type in the full name, then you may over
ride the default parent. In most cases, when creating an entity, Adams/View will provide a default
name. The default name that Adams/View provides will specify the parentage that it has
assumed.
You may, or course, delete this name and use your own. The form of a full name is:
"...._NAME.GRAND_PARENT_NAME.PARENT_NAME.ENTITY_NAME"
The number of levels used varies from case to case and the parentage must exist before an entity
can be assigned to it.
3. When you use the FILE ADAMS_DATA_SET WRITE command, Adams/View writes an
Adams data file for your model. Adams requires that each modeling element be identified by a
unique integer identifier. If you use this parameter to specify a non-zero identifier, Adams/View
will use it in the corresponding statement in the Adams data file.
You may also enter zero as an identifier, either explicitly or by default. The next time you write
an Adams file, Adams/View will replace the zero with a unique, internally-generated identifier.
Adams/View will permanently store this identifier with the element just as if you had entered it
yourself.
Normally, you would let all identifiers default to zero, and Adams/View would generate the
identifiers for you. You are never required to enter a non-zero identifier. You only need to
specify it if, for some reason, you wish to control the Adams file output.
4. When an Adams/Solver data file (.adm) is read into Adams/View, all comments associated with
a statement (from the end of the previous statement through the end of the current statement) are
stored with the object. Comments in the data file can be associated with model.
These comments must follow the title statement and be followed by the comment 'END OF
MODEL COMMENTS'. This string must be uppercase.
When an Adams/Solver data file is written, the comments for an object are written before the
statement corresponding to the object.
5. The character string cannot be broken and continued on the following line; however, the STRING
element can be longer than a single line. An Adams interactive STRING command can be used
to alter or review this character string. A GTSTRG subroutine can be used to retrieve this
character string in a user-written subroutine.
Cautions:
1. Adams/View will not allow you to have two strings with the same full name, so you must provide
a unique name.

54 Adams/View Commands
data_element create variable

data_element create variable


Allows you to create a variable.
Format:
data_element create variable
variable_name = a new solvar
adams_id = adams_id
comments = string
initial_condition = real
function = function
user_function =

real

routine = string
Example:
data_element create variable &
variable_name = variable__10 &
adams_id = 5 &
comments = "comment string" &
initial_condition = 0.121 &
function = cos( 10 )
Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

variable_name

A New Solvar

Specifies the name of the new variable. You may use this name
later to refer to this variable.

adams_id

Adams_id

Specifies an integer used to identify this element in the Adams


data file.

comments

String

Specifies comments for the object being created or modified.

initial_condition

Real

Specifies the initial value of the user_defined differential


variable and, optionally, an approximate value of the initial time
derivative.

function

Function

Specifies the function expression definition that is used to


compute the value of this variable.

data_element 55
data_element create variable

Parameter

Value Type

user_function

Real

routine

String

Description
Specifies up to 30 values for Adams to pass to a user-written
subroutine.

Extended Definition:
1. You create VARIABLEs to define scalar algebraic equations for independent use, or as part of
the PLANT INPUT, PLANT OUTPUT, or ARRAY elements. The computed value of the
VARIABLE may depend on almost any Adams system variable. Note that you cannot access
reaction forces from user defined, POINT_CURVE, and CURVE_CURVE constraints (Adams
UCONs, PTCV, CVCV statements). You can define the computed value of a VARIABLE by
either writing a FUNCTION expression in the model or by calling a VARSUB user-written
subroutine. The Adams Reference Manual chapter on "Function Expressions," discusses the
attributes of FUNCTION expressions, and the chapter on "Subroutines," discusses user-written
subroutines and accessible utility subroutines.
2. FUNCTION expressions and user-written subroutines can access the computed value of the
VARIABLE with the Adams/View function VARVAL(variable_name) to represent the value,
where variable_name specifies the name you gave the VARIABLE when it was created. Userwritten subroutines access single VARIABLE statement values by calling the subroutine
SYSFNC.
Caution should be used when defining VARIABLEs that are dependent on other VARIABLEs or
on Adams/View elements that contains functions. If a defined system of equations does not have
a stable solution, convergence may fail for the entire Adams model. The following example refers
to this type of VARIABLE statement:
VARIABLE/1, FUNCTION= VARVAL(1)+1
When looked at as an algebraic equation, it looks like the following:
V=V+1.
However, when Adams tries to solve this equation using the Newton-Raphson iteration, the
solution diverges and a message appears on the screen indicating that the solution has failed to
converge.
3. Adams/View will not allow you to have two variables with the same full name, so you must
provide a unique name.
Normally, entity names are composed of alphabetic, numeric, or '_' (underscore) characters, and
start with an alphabetic or '_' character. They may be any length.
By enclosing the name in double quotes, you may use other printable characters, or start the name
with a numeral. If a name contains characters, or starts with a numeral, you must always quote the
name when entering it.

56 Adams/View Commands
data_element create variable

Note that you can specify the parentage of an entity (e.g. what part "owns" a marker or a geometry
element) when you CREATE it by changing the name. If you enter just the entity name, then the
default parent will be assigned by Adams/View. If you type in the full name, then you may over
ride the default parent. In most cases, when creating an entity, Adams/View will provide a default
name. The default name that Adams/View provides will specify the parentage that it has
assumed.
You may, or course, delete this name and use your own. The form of a full name is:
"...._NAME.GRAND_PARENT_NAME.PARENT_NAME.ENTITY_NAME"
The number of levels used varies from case to case and the parentage must exist before an entity
can be assigned to it.
4. When you use the FILE ADAMS_DATA_SET WRITE command, Adams/View writes an
Adams data file for your model. Adams requires that each modeling element be identified by a
unique integer identifier. If you use this parameter to specify a non-zero identifier, Adams/View
will use it in the corresponding statement in the Adams data file.
You may also enter zero as an identifier, either explicitly or by default. The next time you write
an Adams file, Adams/View will replace the zero with a unique, internally-generated identifier.
Adams/View will permanently store this identifier with the element just as if you had entered it
yourself.
Normally, you would let all identifiers default to zero, and Adams/View would generate the
identifiers for you. You are never required to enter a non-zero identifier. You only need to
specify it if, for some reason, you wish to control the Adams file output.
5. When an Adams/Solver data file (.adm) is read into AdamsAdams/View, all comments
associated with a statement (from the end of the previous statement through the end of the current
statement) are stored with the object. Comments in the data file can be associated with model.
These comments must follow the title statement and be followed by the comment 'END OF
MODEL COMMENTS'. This string must be uppercase.
When an Adams/Solver data file is written, the comments for an object are written before the
statement corresponding to the object.
6. The first value is the value of the user- defined variable at the start of the simulation. If you have
entered an implicit equation, the second value may also need to be specified, which is an
approximate value of the time derivative of the user-defined variable at the start of the simulation.
Adams may adjust the value of the time derivative when it performs an initial conditions analysis.
Entering an initial value for the time derivative may help Adams converge to an initial
conditions solution. If you enter an explicit equation, you do not need to supply the second value
since Adams can compute the initial time derivative directly from the equation.
7. To enter a function expression you enter a series of quoted strings.
The easiest way to enter a function expression in Adams/View is to use the text editor in
combination with the function builder. To invoke the text editor for entering a function
expression, highlight the function field and then either pick the "EDIT" button at the top of the
panel or type a ^t (control-t). The Adams/View "function builder" is discussed below.

data_element 57
data_element create variable

The syntactical correctness of a function expression can be investigated by using the "VERIFY"
button at the upper right of the text editor. If there is a syntax error, a message is printed and the
cursor is put near the problem. Proper unit consistency is not checked during function expression
verification.
Tips:
1. See the Adams User's Manual for information on writing user-written subroutines.

58 Adams/View Commands
data_element delete

data_element delete
Allows you to delete an existing DATA_ELEMENT.
Format:
data_element delete
data_element_name = an existing data_element
Example:
data_element delete &
data_element_name =

string__1

Description:
Parameter
data_element_name

Value Type

Description

An Existing Var Specifies an existing data_element.

Extended Definition:
1. You must enter the name of the DATA_ELEMENT you wish to delete by either picking it from
the screen or specifying the full name.
2. Since data_element do not have a geometric position, Adams/View displays data_element icons
at or near the model origin. If the data_element icon is not visible on the screen, you must type
the name. You may also find it convenient to type the name even if the data_element icon is
displayed.
You must separate multiple data_element names by commas.
Tips:
1. You may reverse this deletion at a later time with an UNDO command.
2. If the data_element is visible in one of your views, you may identify it by picking on any of the
graphics associated with it.
3. You need not separate multiple data_element picks by commas.

data_element 59
data_element modify array general_array

data_element modify array general_array


Allows you to modify a general_array.
Modifies a one-dimensional array of real numbers that can be accessed in user-written subroutines. This
array is identical in definition to the IC_ARRAY. The GENERAL_ARRAY has been provided to
maintain consistency with the ARRAY available in Adams version 5.2.1.
Format:
data_element modify array general_array
array_name = array_name
new_array_name = new array_name
adams_id = integer
comments = string
size = integer
numbers = real
Example:
data_element modify array general_array
array_name = .model_1.array_1

&

&

new_array_name = .model.real_array_1 &


adams_id = 1 &
size = 3 &
numbers = 2.1,3.4,5
Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

array_name,

Array name

Specifies the name of the array to be modified.

new_array_name

Array name

Specifies the new name of the array. You may use this name later
to refer to this array.

adams_id

Integer

Specifies an integer used to identify this element in the Adams


data file.

comments

String

Specifies comments for the object being created or modified.

60 Adams/View Commands
data_element modify array general_array

Parameter

Value Type

Description

Size

Integer

Specifies the size of an array.

numbers

Real

Allows you to enter a one dimensional array of real numbers


when using the IC_ARRAY of the GENERAL_ARRAY. The
number of entries should match the value of the SIZE parameter.

Extended Definition:
1. Adams/View will not allow you to have two arrays with the same full name, so you must provide
a unique name.
Normally, entity names are composed of alphabetic, numeric, or '_' (underscore) characters, and
start with an alphabetic or '_' character. They may be any length.
By enclosing the name in double quotes, you may use other printable characters, or start the name
with a numeral. If a name contains characters, or starts with a numeral, you must always quote the
name when entering it.
Note that you can specify the parentage of an entity (e.g. what part "owns" a marker or a geometry
element) when you CREATE it by changing the name. If you enter just the entity name, then the
default parent will be assigned by Adams/View. If you type in the full name, then you may over
ride the default parent. In most cases, when creating an entity, Adams/View will provide a default
name. The default name that Adams/View provides will specify the parentage that it has
assumed.
You may, or course, delete this name and use your own. The form of a full name is:
"...._NAME.GRAND_PARENT_NAME.PARENT_NAME.ENTITY_NAME"
The number of levels used varies from case to case and the parentage must exist before an entity
can be assigned to it.
2. When you use the FILE ADAMS_DATA_SET WRITE command, Adams/View writes an
Adams data file for your model. Adams requires that each modeling element be identified by a
unique integer identifier. If you use this parameter to specify a non-zero identifier, Adams/View
will use it in the corresponding statement in the Adams data file.
You may also enter zero as an identifier, either explicitly or by default. The next time you write
an Adams file, Adams/View will replace the zero with a unique, internally-generated identifier.
Adams/View will permanently store this identifier with the element just as if you had entered it
yourself.
Normally, you would let all identifiers default to zero, and Adams/View would generate the
identifiers for you. You are never required to enter a non-zero identifier. You only need to
specify it if, for some reason, you wish to control the Adams file output.
3. In cases where Adams calculates the SIZE differently from the SIZE that the user supplies, Adams
returns an error or warning message.
For the X_STATE_ARRAYs and Y_OUTPUT_ARRAYs, the corresponding systems modeling
element automatically determines the size of the array and checks it against the ARRAY
command SIZE parameter value (if given).

data_element 61
data_element modify array general_array

For the IC_ARRAY, the SIZE parameter is optional and Adams determines the actual size of the
array during parsing, as it counts the NUMBERS values. However, if you provide a value for
SIZE , Adams checks the count for consistency.
The SIZE argument, if used, should match the number of entries in the VARIABLE_NAME
parameter, the NUMBERS parameters, or the size needed for the associated systems element.
Adams/View provides the SIZE parameter mainly for user convenience in model creation (it is
not required). For LINEAR_STATE_EQUATION arrays, the X_STATE_ARRAY size is the
row dimension of the A_STATE_MATRIX, and the Y_OUTPUT_ARRAY size is the row
dimension of the C_OUTPUT_MATRIX or the D_FEEDFORWARD_MATRIX. For
TRANSFER_FUNCTION arrays, the transformation from polynomial ratio type to canonical
state space type internally determines the X_STATE_ARRAY size; the Y_OUTPUT_ARRAY
size is always 1. For GENERAL_STATE_EQUATION arrays, the X_STATE_ARRAY size is
the STATE_EQUATION_COUNT as defined in the matching
GENERAL_STATE_EQUATION definition and Y_OUTPUT_ARRAY size is the
OUTPUT_EQUATION_COUNT, as defined in the same GENERAL_STATE_EQUATION
definition.

62 Adams/View Commands
data_element modify array ic_array

data_element modify array ic_array


Allows you to modify an ic_array.
This element creates a one-dimensional array of real numbers that can be accessed in user-written
subroutines. You can use an IC_ARRAY to designate define initial conditions array for an
LINEAR_STATE_EQUATION or GENERAL_STATE_EQUATION. In that case, you should ensure
that the value of the SIZE parameters the same as the X_STATE_ARRAY (state variable) of the
associated LINEAR_STATE_EQUATION or GENERAL_STATE_EQUATION.
Format:
data_element modify array ic_array
array_name= array_name
new_array_name = new array_name
adams_id= integer
comments= string
size= integer
numbers= real
Example:
data_element modify array ic_array

&

array_name = .model_1.array_1

&

new_array_name = .model.real_array_1 &


adams_id = 1 &
size = 3 &
numbers = 2.1,3.4,5.9
Description:
Parameter
array_name

Value Type
Array name

Description
Specifies the name of the array that has to be modified.

new_array_name New Array name Specify the new name for the array. You may use this name later
to refer to this array.
adams_id

Integer

Specifies an integer used to identify this element in the


ADAMS data file.

comments

String

Specifies comments for the object being created or modified.

data_element 63
data_element modify array ic_array

Parameter

Value Type

Size

Integer

numbers

Real

Description
Specifies the size of an array.
Allows you to enter a one dimensional array of real numbers
when using the IC_ARRAY of the GENERAL_ARRAY. The
number of entries should match the value of the SIZE
parameter.

Extended Definition:
1. Adams/View will not allow you to have two arrays with the same full name, so you must provide
a unique name.
Normally, entity names are composed of alphabetic, numeric, or '_' (underscore) characters, and
start with an alphabetic or '_' character. They may be any length.
By enclosing the name in double quotes, you may use other printable characters, or start the name
with a numeral. If a name contains characters, or starts with a numeral, you must always quote the
name when entering it.
Note that you can specify the parentage of an entity (e.g. what part "owns" a marker or a geometry
element) when you CREATE it by changing the name. If you enter just the entity name, then the
default parent will be assigned by Adams/View. If you type in the full name, then you may over
ride the default parent. In most cases, when creating an entity, Adams/View will provide a default
name. The default name that Adams/View provides will specify the parentage that it has
assumed.
You may, or course, delete this name and use your own. The form of a full name is:
"...._NAME.GRAND_PARENT_NAME.PARENT_NAME.ENTITY_NAME"
The number of levels used varies from case to case and the parentage must exist before an entity
can be assigned to it.
2. When you use the FILE ADAMS_DATA_SET WRITE command, Adams/View writes an
ADAMS data file for your model. ADAMS requires that each modeling element be identified by
a unique integer identifier. If you use this parameter to specify a non-zero identifier, Adams/View
will use it in the corresponding statement in the ADAMS data file.
You may also enter zero as an identifier, either explicitly or by default. The next time you write
an ADAMS file, Adams/View will replace the zero with a unique, internally-generated identifier.
Adams/View will permanently store this identifier with the element just as if you had entered it
yourself.
Normally, you would let all identifiers default to zero, and Adams/View would generate the
identifiers for you. You are never required to enter a non-zero identifier. You only need to
specify it if, for some reason, you wish to control the ADAMS file output.
3. In cases where ADAMS calculates the SIZE differently from the SIZE that the user supplies,
ADAMS returns an error or warning message.

64 Adams/View Commands
data_element modify array ic_array

For the X_STATE_ARRAYs and Y_OUTPUT_ARRAYs, the corresponding systems modeling


element automatically determines the size of the array and checks it against the ARRAY
command SIZE parameter value (if given).
For the IC_ARRAY, the SIZE parameter is optional and ADAMS determines the actual size of
the array during parsing, as it counts the NUMBERS values. However, if you provide a value for
SIZE , ADAMS checks the count for consistency.
The SIZE argument, if used, should match the number of entries in the VARIABLE_NAME
parameter, the NUMBERS parameters, or the size needed for the associated systems element.
Adams/View provides the SIZE parameter mainly for user convenience in model creation (it is
not required). For LINEAR_STATE_EQUATION arrays, the X_STATE_ARRAY size is the
row dimension of the A_STATE_MATRIX, and the Y_OUTPUT_ARRAY size is the row
dimension of the C_OUTPUT_MATRIX or the D_FEEDFORWARD_MATRIX. For
TRANSFER_FUNCTION arrays, the transformation from polynomial ratio type to canonical
state space type internally determines the X_STATE_ARRAY size; the Y_OUTPUT_ARRAY
size is always 1. For GENERAL_STATE_EQUATION arrays, the X_STATE_ARRAY size is
the STATE_EQUATION_COUNT as defined in the matching
GENERAL_STATE_EQUATION definition and Y_OUTPUT_ARRAY size is the
OUTPUT_EQUATION_COUNT, as defined in the same GENERAL_STATE_EQUATION
definition.

data_element 65
data_element modify array u_input_array

data_element modify array u_input_array


Allows you to modify an existing u_input_array.
Format:
data_element modify array u_input_array
array_name = an existing array
new_array_name =

a new array

adams_id = adams_id
comments = string
size = integer
variable_name = an existing variable
Example:
data_element modify array u_input_array &
array_name = array__1 &
new_array_name

= array__2 &

adams_id = 2 &
comments = " a modified u_input array" &
size = 1 &
variable_name = variable_1
Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

array_name

An Existing Array Specifies the name of an existing array.

new_array_name

A New Array

Specifies the name of the new array. You may use this
name later to refer to this array.

adams_id

Adams_id

Specifies an integer used to identify this element in the


Adams data file.

comments

String

Specifies comments for the object being created or


modified.

66 Adams/View Commands
data_element modify array u_input_array

Parameter

Value Type

Description

size

Integer

Specifies the size of an array. In cases where Adams


calculates the SIZE differently from the SIZE that the
user supplies, Adams returns an error or warning
message.

variable_name

An Existing
Variable

Specifies an existing variable.

Extended Definition:
1. The U_INPUT_ARRAY command groups together a set of VARIABLE_NAMEs , normally to
define the inputs for a systems element, either LINEAR_STATE_EQUATION,
GENERAL_STATE_EQUATION , or TRANSFER_FUNCTION. When the you create a
U_INPUT_ARRAY, SIZE and VARIABLE_NAME are the only parameters available.
2. Adams/View will not allow you to have two arrays with the same full name, so you must provide
a unique name.
Normally, entity names are composed of alphabetic, numeric, or '_' (underscore) characters, and
start with an alphabetic or '_' character. They may be any length.
By enclosing the name in double quotes, you may use other printable characters, or start the name
with a numeral. If a name contains characters, or starts with a numeral, you must always quote the
name when entering it.
Note that you can specify the parentage of an entity (e.g. what part "owns" a marker or a geometry
element) when you CREATE it by changing the name. If you enter just the entity name, then the
default parent will be assigned by Adams/View. If you type in the full name, then you may over
ride the default parent. In most cases, when creating an entity, Adams/View will provide a default
name. The default name that Adams/View provides will specify the parentage that it has
assumed.
You may, or course, delete this name and use your own. The form of a full name is:
"...._NAME.GRAND_PARENT_NAME.PARENT_NAME.ENTITY_NAME"
The number of levels used varies from case to case and the parentage must exist before an entity
can be assigned to it.
3. When you use the FILE ADAMS_DATA_SET WRITE command, Adams/View writes an
Adams data file for your model. Adams requires that each modeling element be identified by a
unique integer identifier. If you use this parameter to specify a non-zero identifier, Adams/View
will use it in the corresponding statement in the Adams data file.
You may also enter zero as an identifier, either explicitly or by default. The next time you write
an Adams file, Adams/View will replace the zero with a unique, internally-generated identifier.
Adams/View will permanently store this identifier with the element just as if you had entered it
yourself.

data_element 67
data_element modify array u_input_array

Normally, you would let all identifiers default to zero, and Adams/View would generate the
identifiers for you. You are never required to enter a non-zero identifier. You only need to
specify it if, for some reason, you wish to control the Adams file output.
4. When an Adams/Solver data file (.adm) is read into Adams/View, all comments associated with
a statement (from the end of the previous statement through the end of the current statement) are
stored with the object. Comments in the data file can be associated with model.
These comments must follow the title statement and be followed by the comment 'END OF
MODEL COMMENTS'. This string must be uppercase.
When an Adams/Solver data file is written, the comments for an object are written before the
statement corresponding to the object.
5. For the X_STATE_ARRAYs and Y_OUTPUT_ARRAYs, the corresponding systems modeling
element automatically determines the size of the array and checks it against the ARRAY
command SIZE parameter value (if given). For the IC_ARRAY, the SIZE parameter is optional
and Adams determines the actual size of the array during parsing, as it counts the NUMBERS
values. However, if you provide a value for SIZE , Adams checks the count for consistency.
The SIZE argument, if used, should match the number of entries in the VARIABLE_NAME
parameter, the NUMBERS parameters, or the size needed for the associated systems element.
Adams/View provides the SIZE parameter mainly for user convenience in model creation (it is
not required). For LINEAR_STATE_EQUATION arrays, the X_STATE_ARRAY size is the
row dimension of the A_STATE_MATRIX, and the Y_OUTPUT_ARRAY size is the row
dimension of the C_OUTPUT_MATRIX or the D_FEEDFORWARD_MATRIX. For
TRANSFER_FUNCTION arrays, the transformation from polynomial ratio type to canonical
state space type internally determines the X_STATE_ARRAY size; the Y_OUTPUT_ARRAY
size is always 1. For GENERAL_STATE_EQUATION arrays, the X_STATE_ARRAY size is
the STATE_EQUATION_COUNT as defined in the matching
GENERAL_STATE_EQUATION definition and Y_OUTPUT_ARRAY size is the
OUTPUT_EQUATION_COUNT, as defined in the same GENERAL_STATE_EQUATION
definition.
6. You enter variable names as input parameters for array elements (U_INPUT_ARRAY), plant
input and output definitions, and in function expressions
You may identify a variable by typing its name or by picking it from the screen.
Since variable do not have a geometric position, Adams/View displays variable icons at or near
the model origin. If the variable icon is not visible on the screen, you must type the name. You
may also find it convenient to type the name even if the variable icon is displayed.
If you created the variable by reading an Adams data set, the variable name is the letters VAR
followed by the Adams data set variable ID number. The name of Adams VARIABLE/101 is
VAR101, for example. If you created the variable during preprocessing, you gave it a name at
that time.
If a variable is owned by the default model, you may identify it by entering its name only. If it
is not, you must enter its full name.

68 Adams/View Commands
data_element modify array u_input_array

To identify a variable under a different model, for instance, you may need to enter the model name
as well. For example, you may specify variable 'fluid_volume' from model 'hydro' by entering
".hydro.fluid_volume'". If you type a "?", Adams/View will list the variable available by default.
You must separate multiple variable names by commas.
Tips:
1. If the variable is visible in one of your views, you may identify it by picking on any of the graphics
associated with it.
2. You need not separate multiple variable picks by commas.

data_element 69
data_element modify array x_state_array

data_element modify array x_state_array


Allows you to modify an existing x_state_array.
Format:
data_element modify array x_state_array
new_array_name = an existing array
array_name = a new array
adams_id = adams_id
comments = string
size = integer
Example:
data_element modify array x_state_array &
array_name = array__1 &
adams_id = 1 &
comments = "modified x-state array" &
size = 4
Description:
::

Parameter
array_name

Value Type

Description

An Existing Array Specifies the name of an existing array

new_array_name A New Array

Specifies the name of the new array. You may use this name
later to refer to this array.

adams_id

Adams_id

Specifies an integer used to identify this element in the Adams


data file.

comments

String

Specifies comments for the object being created or modified.

size

Integer

Specifies the size of an array. In cases where Adams calculates


the SIZE differently from the SIZE that the user supplies,
Adams returns an error or warning message.

70 Adams/View Commands
data_element modify array x_state_array

Extended Definition:
1. An X_STATE_ARRAY defines a list of state variables (X) associated with system modeling
elements such as GSE , LSE , and TFSISO. To use this array, you must reference the array name
as the state variable array in a system element definition. You can use each X_STATE_ARRAY
with only one systems element in your model. When you define an X_STATE_ARRAY , the
only other parameter is SIZE. When you do not specify SIZE , the associated systems element
automatically sets the size.
2. Adams/View will not allow you to have two arrays with the same full name, so you must provide
a unique name.
Normally, entity names are composed of alphabetic, numeric, or '_' (underscore) characters, and
start with an alphabetic or '_' character. They may be any length.
By enclosing the name in double quotes, you may use other printable characters, or start the name
with a numeral. If a name contains characters, or starts with a numeral, you must always quote the
name when entering it.
Note that you can specify the parentage of an entity (e.g. what part "owns" a marker or a geometry
element) when you CREATE it by changing the name. If you enter just the entity name, then the
default parent will be assigned by Adams/View. If you type in the full name, then you may over
ride the default parent. In most cases, when creating an entity, Adams/View will provide a default
name. The default name that Adams/View provides will specify the parentage that it has
assumed.
You may, or course, delete this name and use your own. The form of a full name is:
"...._NAME.GRAND_PARENT_NAME.PARENT_NAME.ENTITY_NAME"
The number of levels used varies from case to case and the parentage must exist before an entity
can be assigned to it.
3. When you use the FILE ADAMS_DATA_SET WRITE command, Adams/View writes an
Adams data file for your model. Adams requires that each modeling element be identified by a
unique integer identifier. If you use this parameter to specify a non-zero identifier, Adams/View
will use it in the corresponding statement in the Adams data file.
You may also enter zero as an identifier, either explicitly or by default. The next time you write
an Adams file, Adams/View will replace the zero with a unique, internally-generated identifier.
Adams/View will permanently store this identifier with the element just as if you had entered it
yourself.
Normally, you would let all identifiers default to zero, and Adams/View would generate the
identifiers for you. You are never required to enter a non-zero identifier. You only need to
specify it if, for some reason, you wish to control the Adams file output.
4. When an Adams/Solver data file (.adm) is read into Adams/View, all comments associated with
a statement (from the end of the previous statement through the end of the current statement) are
stored with the object. Comments in the data file can be associated with model.
These comments must follow the title statement and be followed by the comment 'END OF
MODEL COMMENTS'. This string must be uppercase.

data_element 71
data_element modify array x_state_array

When an Adams/Solver data file is written, the comments for an object are written before the
statement corresponding to the object.
5. For the X_STATE_ARRAYs and Y_OUTPUT_ARRAYs, the corresponding systems modeling
element automatically determines the size of the array and checks it against the ARRAY
command SIZE parameter value (if given).
For the IC_ARRAY, the SIZE parameter is optional and Adams determines the actual size of the
array during parsing, as it counts the NUMBERS values. However, if you provide a value for
SIZE , Adams checks the count for consistency.
The SIZE argument, if used, should match the number of entries in the VARIABLE_NAME
parameter, the NUMBERS parameters, or the size needed for the associated systems element.
Adams/View provides the SIZE parameter mainly for user convenience in model creation (it is
not required). For LINEAR_STATE_EQUATION arrays, the X_STATE_ARRAY size is the
row dimension of the A_STATE_MATRIX, and the Y_OUTPUT_ARRAY size is the row
dimension of the C_OUTPUT_MATRIX or the D_FEEDFORWARD_MATRIX. For
TRANSFER_FUNCTION arrays, the transformation from polynomial ratio type to canonical
state space type internally determines the X_STATE_ARRAY size; the Y_OUTPUT_ARRAY
size is always 1. For GENERAL_STATE_EQUATION arrays, the X_STATE_ARRAY size is
the STATE_EQUATION_COUNT as defined in the matching ENERAL_STATE_EQUATION
definition and Y_OUTPUT_ARRAY size is the OUTPUT_EQUATION_COUNT, as defined in
the same GENERAL_STATE_EQUATION definition.

72 Adams/View Commands
data_element modify array y_output_array

data_element modify array y_output_array


Allows you to modify an existing y_output_array.
Format:
data_element modify array y_output_array
array_name = an existing array
new_array_name = a new array
adams_id = adams_id
comments = string
size =

integer

Example:
data_element modify array y_output_array &
array_name = array__1 &
new_array_name = array__2 &
adams_id =

2 &

comments = "a modified y_output_array" &


size = 2
Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

array_name

An Existing Array Specifies the name of an existing array.

new_array_name

A New Array

Specifies the name of the new array. You may use this name
later to refer to this array.

adams_id

Adams_id

Specifies an integer used to identify this element in the Adams


data file.

comments

String

Specifies comments for the object being created or modified.

size

Integer

Specifies the size of an array. In cases where Adams


calculates the SIZE differently from the SIZE that the user
supplies, Adams returns an error or warning message.

data_element 73
data_element modify array y_output_array

Extended Definition:
1. A Y_OUTPUT_ARRAY specifies the output array for a systems element, either a
LINEAR_STATE_EQUATION, GENERAL_STATE_EQUATION, or
TRANSFER_FUNCTION. To use these arrays, the user must reference the array name as the
output array in the system element definition in the model. When you create a
Y_OUTPUT_ARRAY, SIZE is the only other parameter available. You can use each
Y_OUTPUT_ARRAY with only a single systems element. The SIZE value, if supplied, must be
consistent with the associated systems element. When you do not specify SIZE , the associated
systems element automatically sets it.
2. Adams/View will not allow you to have two arrays with the same full name, so you must provide
a unique name.
Normally, entity names are composed of alphabetic, numeric, or '_' (underscore) characters, and
start with an alphabetic or '_' character. They may be any length.
By enclosing the name in double quotes, you may use other printable characters, or start the name
with a numeral. If a name contains characters, or starts with a numeral, you must always quote the
name when entering it.
Note that you can specify the parentage of an entity (e.g. what part "owns" a marker or a geometry
element) when you CREATE it by changing the name. If you enter just the entity name, then the
default parent will be assigned by Adams/View. If you type in the full name, then you may over
ride the default parent. In most cases, when creating an entity, Adams/View will provide a default
name. The default name that Adams/View provides will specify the parentage that it has
assumed.
You may, or course, delete this name and use your own. The form of a full name is:
"...._NAME.GRAND_PARENT_NAME.PARENT_NAME.ENTITY_NAME"
The number of levels used varies from case to case and the parentage must exist before an entity
can be assigned to it.
3. When you use the FILE ADAMS_DATA_SET WRITE command, Adams/View writes an
Adams data file for your model. Adams requires that each modeling element be identified by a
unique integer identifier. If you use this parameter to specify a non-zero identifier, Adams/View
will use it in the corresponding statement in the Adams data file.
You may also enter zero as an identifier, either explicitly or by default. The next time you write
an Adams file, Adams/View will replace the zero with a unique, internally-generated identifier.
Adams/View will permanently store this identifier with the element just as if you had entered it
yourself.
Normally, you would let all identifiers default to zero, and Adams/View would generate the
identifiers for you. You are never required to enter a non-zero identifier. You only need to
specify it if, for some reason, you wish to control the Adams file output.
4. When an Adams/Solver data file (.adm) is read into Adams/View, all comments associated with
a statement (from the end of the previous statement through the end of the current statement) are
stored with the object. Comments in the data file can be associated with model.

74 Adams/View Commands
data_element modify array y_output_array

These comments must follow the title statement and be followed by the comment 'END OF
MODEL COMMENTS'. This string must be uppercase.
When an Adams/Solver data file is written, the comments for an object are written before the
statement corresponding to the object.
5. For the X_STATE_ARRAYs and Y_OUTPUT_ARRAYs, the corresponding systems modeling
element automatically determines the size of the array and checks it against the ARRAY
command SIZE parameter value (if given).
For the IC_ARRAY, the SIZE parameter is optional and Adams determines the actual size of the
array during parsing, as it counts the NUMBERS values. However, if you provide a value for
SIZE , Adams checks the count for consistency.
The SIZE argument, if used, should match the number of entries in the VARIABLE_NAME
parameter, the NUMBERS parameters, or the size needed for the associated systems element.
Adams/View provides the SIZE parameter mainly for user convenience in model creation (it is
not required). For LINEAR_STATE_EQUATION arrays, the X_STATE_ARRAY size is the
row dimension of the A_STATE_MATRIX, and the Y_OUTPUT_ARRAY size is the row
dimension of the C_OUTPUT_MATRIX or the D_FEEDFORWARD_MATRIX. For
TRANSFER_FUNCTION arrays, the transformation from polynomial ratio type to canonical
state space type internally determines the X_STATE_ARRAY size; the Y_OUTPUT_ARRAY
size is always 1. For GENERAL_STATE_EQUATION arrays, the X_STATE_ARRAY size is
the STATE_EQUATION_COUNT as defined in the matching
GENERAL_STATE_EQUATION definition and Y_OUTPUT_ARRAY size is the
OUTPUT_EQUATION_COUNT, as defined in the same GENERAL_STATE_EQUATION
definition.

data_element 75
data_element modify curve

data_element modify curve


Allows you to modify an existing curve.
Format:
data_element modify curve
curve_name = an existing curve
new_curve_name = a new acurve
adams_id = adams_id
comments = string
closed =

boolean

matrix_name = an existing matrix


fit_type =

fit_type

segment_count = integer
user_function = real
minimum_parameter = real
maximum_parameter = real
Example:
data_element modify curve &
curve_name = curve__1 &
new_curve_name = curve__2 &
adams_id = 1 &
comments = "a modified curve" &
closed = yes &
matrix_name = biele_selnod &
fit_type = curve_points &
segment_count = 10

76 Adams/View Commands
data_element modify curve

Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

curve_name

An Existing Curve Specifies an existing curve object

new_curve_name

A New Acurve

Specifies the name of the new curve. You may use this
name later to refer to this curve.

adams_id

Adams_id

Specifies an integer used to identify this element in the


Adams data file.

comments

String

Specifies comments for the object being created or


modified.

closed

Boolean

Specifies if the curve meets at the ends.

matrix_name

An Existing
Matrix

Specifies the name of an existing MATRIX containing


the data for the curve.

fit_type

Fit_type

Specifies the way the curve is to be fit through the points


contained in the MATRIX.

segment_count

Integer

Specifies the number of polynomial segments Adams


uses for fitting the curve points when FIT_TYPE is set to
CURVE_POINTS.

user_function

Real

Specifies up to 30 values for Adams to pass to a userwritten subroutine.

minimum_parameter

Real

Specifies the minimum value of the curve parameter


only for a user-written curve.

maximum_parameter

Real

Specifies the maximum value of the curve parameter


only for a user-written curve.

Extended Definition:
1. A CURVE element defines a three-dimensional parametric curve that may be referenced by
POINT_CURVE or CURVE_CURVE constraints, a geometry element called a BSPLINE, as
well as by FUNCTION expressions.
The x, y, and z coordinates of a point on a parametric curve are functions of an independent
parameter, u. As u varies from its minimum value to its maximum value, the functions x(u), y(u),
and z(u) sweep out points on the curve. A simple example of a parametric curve is the helix
defined by the following equations:
x = cos(u)
y = sin(u)
z = u
2. Adams/View allows you to create curves in three ways: by entering control points for a uniform
cubic B-spline (FIT_TYPE=CONTROL_POINTS), by entering curve points that Adams will fit
a curve to (FIT_TYPE=CURVE_POINTS), or by writing a CURSUB evaluation subroutine to
compute the curve coordinates and derivatives.

data_element 77
data_element modify curve

3. A uniform B-spline is a piecewise cubic polynomial spline used in many CAD (computer-aideddesign) applications. A uniform B-spline is defined by control points which form a polygon in
space. The curve starts at the first control point and ends at the last. In between, it is attracted to,
but does not necessarily hit the intermediate control points. Adams parameterizes a B-spline
starting at -1 and ending at +1.
Generally, you will not create control points directly, but will construct the curve in another
application, such as a CAD program, and then transfer the control points to Adams.
4. A more direct way to define the curve is to supply curve points.
Adams will compute a uniform B-spline that will fit the curve points.
Again, Adams parameterizes the curve from -1 to +1. If you specify the number of spline
segments (SEGMENT_COUNT) as three less than the number of curve points, the computed
curve will exactly match the curve points. If you specify fewer segments, Adams will use a leastsquares fit to compute the closest fit to the points. In general, fewer segments give a smoother
curve, but do not come as close to the data points.
5. In order to use a different type of curve, or to model an analytically-defined curve such as the
helix, you may write a CURSUB evaluation subroutine. When providing a CURSUB, you may
also specify MINPAR and MAXPAR to define the limits of the curve. These default to -1 and
+1, respectively.
A curve can be open or closed. A CLOSED curve meets at the ends, connecting the curve at
minimum and maximum parameter values. Note for a closed curve defined by curve points, you
can specify a maximum of 5 segments less that the number of curve points. Note that because
three segments less than the number of curve points are required for an exact fit, a closed curve
will not exactly fit the curve points.
Adams will automatically move a POINT_CURVE or CURVE_CURVE contact point across the
closure of a CLOSED curve, if needed. For instance, you may model a cam profile as a CLOSED
curve, and Adams will allow the follower to move across the closure as the cam rotates.
Adams will stop the simulation if a POINT_CURVE or CURVE_CURVE contact point moves
off the end of curve. You should ensure that the curve defined includes the expected range of
contact.
6. Normally, entity names are composed of alphabetic, numeric, or '_' (underscore) characters, and
start with an alphabetic or '_' character. They may be any length.
By enclosing the name in double quotes, you may use other printable characters, or start the name
with a numeral. If a name contains characters, or starts with a numeral, you must always quote the
name when entering it.
Note that you can specify the parentage of an entity (e.g. what part "owns" a marker or a geometry
element) when you CREATE it by changing the name. If you enter just the entity name, then the
default parent will be assigned by Adams/View. If you type in the full name, then you may over
ride the default parent. In most cases, when creating an entity, Adams/View will provide a default
name. The default name that Adams/View provides will specify the parentage that it has
assumed.
You may, or course, delete this name and use your own. The form of a full name is:

78 Adams/View Commands
data_element modify curve

"...._NAME.GRAND_PARENT_NAME.PARENT_NAME.ENTITY_NAME"
The number of levels used varies from case to case and the parentage must exist before an entity
can be assigned to it.
7. When you use the FILE ADAMS_DATA_SET WRITE command, Adams/View writes an
Adams data file for your model. Adams requires that each modeling element be identified by a
unique integer identifier. If you use this parameter to specify a non-zero identifier, Adams/View
will use it in the corresponding statement in the Adams data file.
You may also enter zero as an identifier, either explicitly or by default. The next time you write
an Adams file, Adams/View will replace the zero with a unique, internally-generated identifier.
Adams/View will permanently store this identifier with the element just as if you had entered it
yourself.
Normally, you would let all identifiers default to zero, and Adams/View would generate the
identifiers for you. You are never required to enter a non-zero identifier. You only need to
specify it if, for some reason, you wish to control the Adams file output.
8. When an Adams/Solver data file (.adm) is read into Adams/View,all comments associated with a
statement (from the end of the previous statement through the end of the current statement) are
stored with the object. Comments in the data file can be associated with model.
These comments must follow the title statement and be followed by the comment 'END OF
MODEL COMMENTS'. This string must be uppercase.
When an Adams/Solver data file is written, the comments for an object are written before the
statement corresponding to the object.
9. If you set the parameter CLOSED to YES and you use the CURVE_POINTS FIT_TYPE, Adams
will attempt to compute a curve that meets at the ends and has continuous first and second
derivatives across the closure. If you set CLOSED to YES and use the CONTROL_POINTS
FIT_TYPE or a user-defined FUNCTION is specified, you must ensure that the defined curve
meets at the ends and has continuous first and second derivatives across the closure. During a
simulation, Adams will move a POINT_CURVE or CURVE_CURVE contact point across the
closure, if necessary. Any discontinuity could cause integration failure.
By setting CLOSED to NO, you specify that the curve does not meet at the ends. Adams will not
allow a POINT_CURVE or CURVE_CURVE contact point to move beyond the end of the curve.
10. If CONTROL_POINTS is specified, the matrix contains the x, y, and z coordinates of control
points for a uniform B-spline. (Adams uses a uniform knot vector with quadruple multiplicity at
both ends, ensuring that the curve will pass through starting and ending points.)
If CURVE_POINTS is specified, the matrix contains the x, y, and z coordinates of curve points
which the curve will pass through or near.
The matrix should have a row for each point and three columns containing the x, y, and z,
coordinates of the points. You must supply at least four control points or curve points.
You may identify a matrix by typing its name or by picking it from the screen.
Since a matrix does not have a geometric position, Adams/View displays matrix icons at or near
the model origin. If the matrix icon is not visible on the screen, you must type the name. You
may also find it convenient to type the name even if the matrix icon is displayed.

data_element 79
data_element modify curve

If you created the matrix by reading an Adams data set or graphics file, the matrix name is the
letters MAT followed by the Adams data set matrix ID number. The name of Adams
MATRIX/101 is MAT101, for example. If you created the matrix during preprocessing, you gave
it a name at that time.
If a matrix is owned by the default model, you may identify it by entering its name only. If it is
not, you must enter its full name.
To identify a matrix under a different model, for instance, you may need to enter the model name
as well. For example, you may specify matrix 'control_points' from model 'road_surface' by
entering ".road_surface.control_points'". If you type a "?", Adams/View will list the matrix
available by default.
You must separate multiple matrix names by commas.
11. If FIT_TYPE=CONTROL_POINTS then the MATRIX contains control points to define a
uniform B-spline based on cubic polynomials (i.e. the curve will not necessarily pass through the
points). Specifically, the matrix contains the x, y, and z coordinates of control points for a uniform
B-spline. (Adams uses a uniform knot vector with quadruple multiplicity at both ends, ensuring
that the curve will pass through starting and ending points.)
If FIT_TYPE=CURVE_POINTS then the MATRIX contains data points on the curve and the
curve will be fit directly through the points (depending on the value of the SEGMENT_COUNT
parameter). Specifically, the matrix contains the x, y, and z coordinates of curve points which the
curve will pass through or near. The matrix should have a row for each point and three columns
containing the x, y, and z, coordinates of the points. You must supply at least four control points
or curve points.
12. Adams will default the segment_count to three segments less than the number of curve points,
which gives an exact fit to the curve points. Specifying fewer segments will result in a smoother
curve, but the curve will not pass exactly through the curve points.
More specifically, if you specify the SEGMENT_COUNT such that the spline segments is three
less than the number of curve points, the computed curve will exactly match the curve points. If
you specify fewer segments, Adams will use a least-squares fit to compute the closest fit to the
points. In general, fewer segments give a smoother curve, but do not come as close to the data
points.
13. Adams uses the minimum_parameter value when drawing a curve graphic. For curves defined by
control points or curve points, the minimum parameter value is always -1.0.
Adams uses the maximum_parameter value when drawing a curve graphic. For curves defined
by control points or curve points, the maximum parameter value is always 1.0.
Cautions:
1. Adams/View will not allow you to have two curves with the same full name, so you must provide
a unique name.
Tips:
1. If the matrix is visible in one of your views, you may identify it by picking on any of the graphics
associated with it.

80 Adams/View Commands
data_element modify curve

2. You need not separate multiple matrix picks by commas.


3. See the Adams User's Manual for information on writing user-written subroutines.

data_element 81
data_element modify matrix file

data_element modify matrix file


Allows you to modify the name of the MATRIX or FILE_NAME which Adams is to read.
The FILE keyword allows you to read large matrices into Adams using an external file. There is no limit
on the size of an array read from a file.
The first record in the file contains an 80 character header of which the first seven or eight characters are
meaningful. If the first record begins with the characters ADAMSMAT, then the file is assumed to be in
a format used by Adams. If the first record begins with the characters MATRIXx, then the file is assumed
to be in the FSAVE format of the MATRIXx software package. If the first record begins with the
characters MATSAVE, then the file is assumed to be in the MATSAVE format of the MATRIXx software
package.
No other kinds of files are currently supported. However, the ADAMSMAT option is fairly general since
the format for reading in the data is specified within the file. See the section in the Adams Reference
Manual on the MATRIX statement for a description of the file format.
Format:
data_element modify matrix file
matrix_name= existing matrix
new_matrix_name = new matrix name
adams_id= integer
comments= string
file_name= string
name_of_matrix_in_file= string
units= string
Example:
:

data_element modify matrix file &


matrix_name= MATRIX_READ_FROM_FILE &
adams_id= 12 &
comments= Example of a matrix read from a file &
file_name= /home/staff/demo/prob.dat &
name_of_matrix_in_file= VALK &
Units= String
In the above command, the prob.dat is in the directory, /home/staff/demo, and contains the following
data:

82 Adams/View Commands
data_element modify matrix file

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
12345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890
ADAMSMAT Floating platform example
3
TRF
VALK
STL
TRF
FULL
RORDER
4
2
8
( 8F8.5 )
1.36400 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 -3.54600 4.00800 0.00000 0.79900
VALK
FULL
CORDER
3
3
9
( 3F6.3 )
1.970 0.000-3.440
0.000 4.510 6.020
-3.440 6.020 2.110
STL
SPARSE
6
1
4
( 2( 2I5, E14.6 ) )
1
1
0.169805E+02
2
1 -0.230745E+02
4
1
0.016390E+00
5
1 0.011271E+00

The second and third records are read with format I5 and 4(A8,10X), respectively. Then, the first record
of each of the blocks corresponding to the three matrices TRF, VALK, and STL is read with the format
3A8, 3I5, A41. Finally, as can be seen in the copy of the file shown above between the two strings of 80
characters that mark the columns (which, of course, are not part of the file), the single record of data for
the matrix TRF is read with the format 8F8.5; the three records for VALK are read with 3F6.3; and the
two records for STL with 2(2I5,E14.6).
Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

matrix_name

Existing matrix

Specifies the name of the existing matrix.

New_matrix_name

New matrix name

Specifies the new name of the matrix.

adams_id

Integer

Specifies an integer used to identify this element in


the Adams data file.

comments

String

Specifies comments for the object being created or


modified.

file_name

String

Specifies the name of a file that contains the values


of the matrix.

name_of_matrix_in_file

String

Specifies the name of a MATRIX to be read from


the file identified by the FILE_NAME parameter.

units

String

Allows you to specify the type of units to be used for


this object.

Extended Definition:
1. You may use this name later to refer to this matrix. Adams/View will not allow you to have two
matrices with the same full name, so you must provide a unique name.
Normally, entity names are composed of alphabetic, numeric, or '_' (underscore) characters, and
start with an alphabetic or '_' character. They may be any length.
By enclosing the name in double quotes, you may use other printable characters, or start the name
with a numeral. If a name contains characters, or starts with a numeral, you must always quote the
name when entering it.

data_element 83
data_element modify matrix file

Note that you can specify the parentage of an entity (e.g. what part "owns" a marker or a geometry
element) when you CREATE it by changing the name. If you enter just the entity name, then the
default parent will be assigned by Adams/View. If you type in the full name, then you may over
ride the default parent. In most cases, when creating an entity, Adams/View will provide a default
name. The default name that Adams/View provides will specify the parentage that it has
assumed.
You may, or course, delete this name and use your own. The form of a full name is:
"...._NAME.GRAND_PARENT_NAME.PARENT_NAME.ENTITY_NAME"
The number of levels used varies from case to case and the parentage must exist before an entity
can be assigned to it.
2. When you use the FILE ADAMS_DATA_SET WRITE command, Adams/View writes an
Adams data file for your model. Adams requires that each modeling element be identified by a
unique integer identifier. If you use this parameter to specify a non-zero identifier, Adams/View
will use it in the corresponding statement in the Adams data file.
You may also enter zero as an identifier, either explicitly or by default. The next time you write
an Adams file, Adams/View will replace the zero with a unique, internally-generated identifier.
Adams/View will permanently store this identifier with the element just as if you had entered it
yourself.
Normally, you would let all identifiers default to zero, and Adams/View would generate the
identifiers for you. You are never required to enter a non-zero identifier. You only need to
specify it if, for some reason, you wish to control the Adams file output.
3. The FILE argument may be used to read large matrices into Adams. There is no limit on the size
of an array read from a file.
The proper extension is the default but can be overridden by simply supplying a different
extension.
You do not need to enclose the file name in quotes if it only contains alpha-numeric characters
and starts with a letter. If you want to include other characters, such as a '.' for an extension or '/'
or '[]' for directory paths, you must enclose the name in quotes.
The first record in the file contains an 80 character header of which the first seven or eight
characters are meaningful. If the first record begins with the characters ADAMSMAT, then the
file is assumed to be in a format used by Adams. If the first record begins with the characters
MATRIXx, then the file is assumed to be in the FSAVE format of the MATRIXx software
package. If the first record begins with the characters MATSAVE, then the file is assumed to be
in the MATSAVE format of the MATRIXx software package.
Note that the three specifications for the format of the data file are case sensitive. Capital letters
and a lower case x must be used to make a selection.
No other kinds of files are currently supported. However, the ADAMSMAT option is fairly
general since the format for reading in the data is specified within the file. See the section in the
Adams Reference Manual on the MATRIX statement for a description of the file format.

84 Adams/View Commands
data_element modify matrix file

4. All three kinds of files, ADAMSMAT, MATRIXx, and MATSAVE, can contain data for more
than one matrix. The NAME_OF_MATRIX_IN_FILE parameter is used to select a particular
matrix from a file even if the file contains only one MATRIX. You must create additional
MATRIX elements in your Adams/View model if multiple matrices are to be read from the same
file.

data_element 85
data_element modify matrix full

data_element modify matrix full


Allows you to modify an existing FULL MATRIX.
The MATRIX to be defined is FULL therefore, the VALUES parameter specifies all of the M times N
entries in the matrix. The sequence of the values depends on the value of the INPUT_ORDER parameter.
If BY_ROW is specified, you enter the values row-by-row. If BY_COLUMN is specified, you enter the
values column-by-column.
Format:
data_element modify matrix full
matrix_name= existing matrix
new_matrix_name = new name for the matrix
adams_id= integer
comments= string
row_count= integer
column_count= integer
values= real
result_set_component_names= existing component
input_order= matrix_input_order
units= string
Example:
If you want to modify the following matrix of values in full format such that the second row second
column will have value 1.200 instead of 0.000 then you can use the following commands:

data_element modify matrix full &


matrix_name = matrix_1 &
comments = "matrix example in full format" &
row_count = 4 &
column_count = 2 &

86 Adams/View Commands
data_element modify matrix full

data_element modify matrix full &


values = 1.364,0.000,0.000,1.200,-3.546,4.008,0.000,0.7999 &
input_order = by_column
Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

matrix_name

Matrix name

Specifies the name of the existing matrix.

New_matrix_name

New name for the


matrix

Specifies the name of the new matrix. You


may use this name later to refer to this
matrix.

adams_id

Integer

Specifies an integer used to identify this


element in the Adams data file.

comments

String

Specifies comments for the object being


created or modified.

row_count

Integer

Specifies the number of rows (M) in the


matrix used in the definition of a full
matrix.

column_count

Integer

Specifies the number of columns (N) in the


matrix used in the definition of a full
matrix.

value

Real

Specifies the real number values that you


enter to populate a FULL MATRIX.

result_set_component_names

Existing component

You can only use a result set component as


matrix values using full format and
entering all the values stored in the result
set component.

input_order

By_column,by_row

Specifies the order the values that you input


will appear in for a FULL MATRIX format
(all of the M by N entries will be specific
numeric values

units

String

Allows you to specify the type of units to be


used for this object.

Extended Definition:
1. A data element matrix is a general M x N array that can be a rectangular or square twodimensional matrix or a row or column matrix. You can enter the data in:
Full format - You list all the M x N values or specify the results of a simulation (result set

components).

data_element 87
data_element modify matrix full

Sparse format - You list the row position, column position, and value for only nonzero entry

values.
External file - Enter a file containing a matrix.

If one-third or more of the entries in a matrix are nonzero, we recommend that you use full format
since it takes less time to create. If the matrix is mostly empty and entering each nonzero entry's
row position, column position, and value takes less time than entering all of the values, you should
use the sparse format.
2. Adams/View will not allow you to have two matrices with the same full name, so you must
provide a unique name.
Normally, entity names are composed of alphabetic, numeric, or '_' (underscore) characters, and
start with an alphabetic or '_' character. They may be any length.
By enclosing the name in double quotes, you may use other printable characters, or start the name
with a numeral. If a name contains characters, or starts with a numeral, you must always quote the
name when entering it.
Note that you can specify the parentage of an entity (e.g. what part "owns" a marker or a geometry
element) when you CREATE it by changing the name. If you enter just the entity name, then the
default parent will be assigned by Adams/View. If you type in the full name, then you may over
ride the default parent. In most cases, when creating an entity, Adams/View will provide a
default name. The default name that Adams/View provides will specify the parentage that it has
assumed.
You may, or course, delete this name and use your own. The form of a full name is:
"...._NAME.GRAND_PARENT_NAME.PARENT_NAME.ENTITY_NAME"
The number of levels used varies from case to case and the parentage must exist before an entity
can be assigned to it.
3. The MATRIX to be defined is FULL therefore, the VALUES parameter specifies all of the M
times N entries in the matrix. The sequence of the values depends on the value of the
INPUT_ORDER parameter. If BY_ROW is specified, you enter the values row-by-row.
If BY_COLUMN is specified, you enter the values column-by-column.
4. A result set is a basic set of state variable data that Adams/Solver calculates during a simulation.
Adams/Solver outputs the data at each simulation output step. A component of a result set is a
time series of a particular quantity (for example, the x displacement of a part or the y torque in a
joint).
5. The input_order parameter can take two values:
a. BY_ROW indicates the values are listed by row in the VALUES parameter (i.e. starting with
the first row and proceeding to the second, and so on until the entire matrix is completely
defined).
b. BY_COLUMN indicates the values are listed by column (i.e. starting with the first column
and proceeding to the second, and so on).
Default value is BY_COLUMN

88 Adams/View Commands
data_element modify matrix full

3. Since this object can be used in a variety of contexts, Adams/View can not determine what type
of units it should have. By telling Adams/View what the unit type for this object is Adams/View
can perform the proper conversions on the values you specify.

data_element 89
data_element modify matrix sparse

data_element modify matrix sparse


Allows you to modify a SPARSE MATRIX.
The MATRIX to be defined is SPARSE therefore, the VALUES parameter specifies only the entries that
may be non zero. That is, all entries in the M by N array not assigned values by the ROW_INDEX,
COLUMN_INDEX, and VALUES parameters are assumed to be equal to zero in Adams. Therefore, the
kth entry in the VALUES parameter is assigned to the row identified by the kth entry in ROW_INDEX
and to the column identified by the kth entry in COLUMN_INDEX for k=1,2,...,n.
Format:
data_element modify matrix sparse
matrix_name= existing sparse matrix
new_matrix_name= new name for the matrix
new_matrix_name = new name for the matrix
adams_id= integer
comments= string
row_index= integer
column_index= integer
values= real
units= string
Example:
data_element modify matrix sparse &
matrix_name = matrix__1 &
new_matrix_name = sparse_matrix_ex &
row_index = 2,3 &
column_index = 1,1 &
values = 3.456,4.567
Description:
Parameter
matrix_name,

Value Type
Matrix_name

Description
Specifies the name of the matrix to modify.

New_matrix_name New matrix_name Specifies the new name of the matrix.

90 Adams/View Commands
data_element modify matrix sparse

Parameter

Value Type

Description

adams_id,

Integer

Specifies an integer used to identify this element in the


Adams data file.

Comments

String

Specifies comments for the object being created or


modified.

row_index,

Integer

Specifies the row position of each of the N entries in the


VALUES parameter for a SPARSE MATRIX.

column_index

Integer

Specifies the column position of each of the M entries in the


VALUES parameter for a SPARSE MATRIX.

Values

Real

Specifies the real number values that you enter to populate


a SPARSE MATRIX.

units

String

Allows you to specify the type of units to be used for this


object.

Extended Definition:
1. Adams/View will not allow you to have two matrices with the same full name, so you must
provide a unique name.
Normally, entity names are composed of alphabetic, numeric, or '_' (underscore) characters, and
start with an alphabetic or '_' character. They may be any length.
By enclosing the name in double quotes, you may use other printable characters, or start the name
with a numeral. If a name contains characters, or starts with a numeral, you must always quote the
name when entering it.
Note that you can specify the parentage of an entity (e.g. what part "owns" a marker or a geometry
element) when you CREATE it by changing the name. If you enter just the entity name, then the
default parent will be assigned by Adams/View. If you type in the full name, then you may over
ride the default parent. In most cases, when creating an entity, Adams/View will provide a default
name. The default name that Adams/View provides will specify the parentage that it has
assumed.
You may, or course, delete this name and use your own. The form of a full name is:
"...._NAME.GRAND_PARENT_NAME.PARENT_NAME.ENTITY_NAME"
The number of levels used varies from case to case and the parentage must exist before an entity
can be assigned to it.
2. When an Adams/Solver data file (.adm) is read into Adams/View, all comments associated with
a statement (from the end of the previous statement through the end of the current statement) are
stored with the object. Comments in the data file can be associated with model.
These comments must follow the title statement and be followed by the comment 'END OF
MODEL COMMENTS'. This string must be uppercase.
When an Adams/Solver data file is written, the comments for an object are written before the
statement corresponding to the object.

data_element 91
data_element modify matrix sparse

3. For each non-zero value in the SPARSE MATRIX each entry for this parameter defines to the
position in the matrix of the corresponding entry in the VALUES parameter. For example, the
third value entered for the ROW_INDEX parameter defines what matrix row the third value
entered for the VALUES parameter is located on.
4. For each non-zero value in the SPARSE MATRIX each entry for this parameter defines to the
position in the matrix of the corresponding entry in the VALUES parameter. For example, the
forth value entered for the COLUMN_INDEX parameter defines what matrix column the forth
value entered for the VALUES parameter is located on.
5. The MATRIX to be defined is SPARSE therefore, the VALUES parameter specifies only the
entries that may be non zero. That is, all entries in the M by N array not assigned values by the
ROW_INDEX, COLUMN_INDEX, and VALUES parameters are assumed to be equal to zero in
Adams. Therefore, the kth entry in the VALUES parameter is assigned to the row identified by
the kth entry in ROW_INDEX and to the column identified by the kth entry in
COLUMN_INDEX for k=1,2,...,n.

92 Adams/View Commands
data_element modify plant input

data_element modify plant input


Allows you to modify an existing PLANT INPUT element.
Format:
data_element modify plant input
plant_input_name = an existing pinput
new_plant_input_name = a new pinput
adams_id = adams_id
comments = string
variable_name = an existing variable
Example:
data_element modify plant input &
plant_input_name = pinput__1 &
new_plant_input_name = pinput__2 &
adams_id = 1 &
comments = " a modified plant input" &
variable_name = variable_1
Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

plant_input_name

An Existing Pinput Specifies the name of an existing plant_input.

new_plant_input_name

A New Pinput

Specifies the name of the new plant_input. You may


use this name later to refer to this plant_input.

adams_id

Adams_id

Specifies an integer used to identify this element in


the Adams data file.

comments

String

Specifies comments for the object being created or


modified.

variable_name

An Existing
Variable

Specifies an existing variable.

data_element 93
data_element modify plant input

Extended Definition:
1. A PLANT INPUT element, along with a PLANT OUTPUT element, is required by the Adams
LINEAR/STATEMAT analysis.
Note:

This analysis can be requested in Adams/View through the use of the


ADAMS_COMMAND_FILE parameter with the analysis SUBMIT command. Use the
"ACF" button on the text editor and select the GENERATE_STATE_MATRIX option.
You will finally use a panel to select the PLANT INPUTs, PLANT OUTPUTs, and the
format that the state matrices should be generated in
A PLANT INPUT defines a set of inputs to the mechanical system and PLANT OUTPUT defines
the set of measured outputs from the system. The LINEAR/STATEMAT analysis linearizes the
system equations to the following form:
{x}= [A] {x} + [B] {u}
{y}= [C] {x} + [D] {u}
where x is the linearized system state, u is the system inputs defined by the PLANT INPUT
element, and y is the system outputs defined by the PLANT OUTPUT element. This form is
commonly referred to as the state space form of the system equations in control theory. Adams
outputs the A, B, C, and D matrices for use in a control-system design or any other linear system
analysis software.
When you run an analysis type other than LINEAR/STATEMAT , the PLANT INPUT element
acts only as a pointer to the list of the specified VARIABLEs.

2. Both FUNCTION expressions and user-written subroutines can access the PLANT INPUT
information. FUNCTION expressions access the values by using the internal Adams function
PINVAL(i1 ,i2) where i1 specifies the PLANT INPUT name , and i2 specifies the i2-th
VARIABLE in the PLANT INPUT statement list. Note that i2 is not the name of the
VARIABLE.
User-written subroutines call the subroutine SYSFNC to access single elements of the PLANT
INPUT list and call the subroutine SYSARY to access all values for a PLANT INPUT.
3. Normally, entity names are composed of alphabetic, numeric, or '_' (underscore) characters, and
start with an alphabetic or '_' character. They may be any length.
By enclosing the name in double quotes, you may use other printable characters, or start the name
with a numeral. If a name contains characters, or starts with a numeral, you must always quote the
name when entering it.
Note that you can specify the parentage of an entity (e.g. what part "owns" a marker or a geometry
element) when you CREATE it by changing the name. If you enter just the entity name, then the
default parent will be assigned by Adams/View. If you type in the full name, then you may over
ride the default parent. In most cases, when creating an entity, Adams/View will provide a default
name. The default name that Adams/View provides will specify the parentage that it has
assumed.
You may, or course, delete this name and use your own. The form of a full name is:

94 Adams/View Commands
data_element modify plant input

"...._NAME.GRAND_PARENT_NAME.PARENT_NAME.ENTITY_NAME"
The number of levels used varies from case to case and the parentage must exist before an entity
can be assigned to it.
4. When you use the FILE ADAMS_DATA_SET WRITE command, Adams/View writes an
Adams data file for your model. Adams requires that each modeling element be identified by a
unique integer identifier. If you use this parameter to specify a non-zero identifier, Adams/View
will use it in the corresponding statement in the Adams data file.
You may also enter zero as an identifier, either explicitly or by default. The next time you write
an Adams file, Adams/View will replace the zero with a unique, internally-generated identifier.
Adams/View will permanently store this identifier with the element just as if you had entered it
yourself.
Normally, you would let all identifiers default to zero, and Adams/View would generate the
identifiers for you. You are never required to enter a non-zero identifier. You only need to
specify it if, for some reason, you wish to control the Adams file output.
5. When an Adams/Solver data file (.adm) is read into Adams/View, all comments associated with
a statement (from the end of the previous statement through the end of the current statement) are
stored with the object. Comments in the data file can be associated with model.
These comments must follow the title statement and be followed by the comment 'END OF
MODEL COMMENTS'. This string must be uppercase.
When an Adams/Solver data file is written, the comments for an object are written before the
statement corresponding to the object.
6. You enter variable names as input parameters for array elements (U_INPUT_ARRAY), plant
input and output definitions, and in function expressions
You may identify a variable by typing its name or by picking it from the screen.
Since variable do not have a geometric position, Adams/View displays variable icons at or near
the model origin. If the variable icon is not visible on the screen, you must type the name. You
may also find it convenient to type the name even if the variable icon is displayed.
If you created the variable by reading an Adams data set, the variable name is the letters VAR
followed by the Adams data set variable ID number. The name of Adams VARIABLE/101 is
VAR101, for example. If you created the variable during preprocessing, you gave it a name at
that time.
If a variable is owned by the default model, you may identify it by entering its name only. If it is
not, you must enter its full name.
To identify a variable under a different model, for instance, you may need to enter the model name
as well. For example, you may specify variable 'fluid_volume' from model 'hydro' by entering
".hydro.fluid_volume'". If you type a "?", Adams/View will list the variable available by default.
You must separate multiple variable names by commas.

data_element 95
data_element modify plant input

Cautions:
1. Adams/View will not allow you to have two plant_inputs with the same full name, so you must
provide a unique name.
Tips:
1. If the variable is visible in one of your views, you may identify it by picking on any of the graphics
associated with it.
2. You need not separate multiple variable picks by commas.

96 Adams/View Commands
data_element modify plant output

data_element modify plant output


Allows you to modify an existing PLANT OUTPUT element.
Format:
data_element modify plant output
plant_output_name=
new_plant_output_name =

an existing poutput
a new poutput

adams_id =

adams_id

comments =

string

variable_name =

an existing variable

Example:
data_element modify plant output &
plant_output_name =

poutput__1 &

new_plant_output_name =

poutput__2 &

adams_id =

1 &

comments =

"a modified plant output element " &

variable_name =

variable_1

Description:
Parameter
plant_output_name

Value Type
An Existing
Poutput

Description
Specifies the name of an existing plant_output.

new_plant_output_name A New Poutput

Specifies the name of the new plant_output. You may


use this name later to refer to this plant_output.

adams_id

Adams_id

Specifies an integer used to identify this element in the


Adams data file.

comments

String

Specifies comments for the object being created or


modified.

variable_name

An Existing
Variable

Specifies an existing variable.

data_element 97
data_element modify plant output

Extended Definition:
1. A PLANT OUTPUT element, along with a PLANT INPUT element, is required by the Adams
LINEAR/STATEMAT analysis.
Note:

This analysis can be requested in Adams/View through the use of the


ADAMS_COMMAND_FILE parameter with the analysis SUBMIT command. Use the
"ACF" button on the text editor and select the GENERATE_STATE_MATRIX option.
You will finally use a panel to select the PLANT INPUTs, PLANT OUTPUTs, and the
format that the state matrices should be generated in
PLANT OUTPUT defines the set of measured outputs from the mechanical system and PLANT
INPUT defines a set of inputs to the mechanical system. The LINEAR command linearizes the
system equations to the following form:
{x}= [A] {x} + [B] {u}
{y}= [C] {x} + [D] {u}
where x is the linearized system state (X_STATE_ARRAY), u is the system inputs defined by the
PLANT INPUT element (U_INPUT_ARRAY), and y is the system outputs defined by the
PLANT OUTPUT element (Y_OUTPUT_ARRAY). This form is commonly referred to as the
state space form of the system equations in control theory. Adams outputs the A, B, C, and D
matrices (i.e. A_STATE_MATRIX, B_INPUT_MATRIX, C_OUTPUT_MATRIX, and
D_FEEDFORWARD_MATRIX) for use in a control-system design or any other linear system
analysis software.
When the user runs an analysis type other than LINEAR , the PLANT OUTPUT element acts only
as a pointer to the list of VARIABLE specified.

2. Both FUNCTION expressions and user-written subroutines can access the PLANT OUTPUT
element. FUNCTION expressions access the values by using the internal Adams function
POUVAL(i1 ,i2) where i1 specifies the PLANT OUTPUT name , and i2 specifies the i2-th
VARIABLE entry in the PLANT INPUT parameter list. Note that i2 is not the name of the
VARIABLE.
User-written subroutines access single elements of the PLANT OUTPUT list and call the
subroutine SYSFNC to access all values for a PLANT OUTPUT by calling the subroutine
SYSARY.
3. Normally, entity names are composed of alphabetic, numeric, or '_' (underscore) characters, and
start with an alphabetic or '_' character. They may be any length.
By enclosing the name in double quotes, you may use other printable characters, or start the name
with a numeral. If a name contains characters, or starts with a numeral, you must always quote the
name when entering it.

98 Adams/View Commands
data_element modify plant output

Note that you can specify the parentage of an entity (e.g. what part "owns" a marker or a geometry
element) when you CREATE it by changing the name. If you enter just the entity name, then the
default parent will be assigned by Adams/View. If you type in the full name, then you may over
ride the default parent. In most cases, when creating an entity, Adams/View will provide a default
name. The default name that Adams/View provides will specify the parentage that it has
assumed.
You may, or course, delete this name and use your own. The form of a full name is:
"...._NAME.GRAND_PARENT_NAME.PARENT_NAME.ENTITY_NAME"
The number of levels used varies from case to case and the parentage must exist before an entity
can be assigned to it.
4. When you use the FILE ADAMS_DATA_SET WRITE command, Adams/View writes an
Adams data file for your model. Adams requires that each modeling element be identified by a
unique integer identifier. If you use this parameter to specify a non-zero identifier, Adams/View
will use it in the corresponding statement in the Adams data file.
You may also enter zero as an identifier, either explicitly or by default. The next time you write
an Adams file, Adams/View will replace the zero with a unique, internally-generated identifier.
Adams/View will permanently store this identifier with the element just as if you had entered it
yourself.
Normally, you would let all identifiers default to zero, and Adams/View would generate the
identifiers for you. You are never required to enter a non-zero identifier. You only need to
specify it if, for some reason, you wish to control the Adams file output.
5. When an Adams/Solver data file (.adm) is read into Adams/View, all comments associated with
a statement (from the end of the previous statement through the end of the current statement) are
stored with the object. Comments in the data file can be associated with model.
These comments must follow the title statement and be followed by the comment 'END OF
MODEL COMMENTS'. This string must be uppercase.
When an Adams/Solver data file is written, the comments for an object are written before the
statement corresponding to the object.
6. You enter variable names as input parameters for array elements (U_INPUT_ARRAY), plant
input and output definitions, and in function expressions
You may identify a variable by typing its name or by picking it from the screen.
Since variable do not have a geometric position, Adams/View displays variable icons at or near
the model origin. If the variable icon is not visible on the screen, you must type the name. You
may also find it convenient to type the name even if the variable icon is displayed.
If you created the variable by reading an Adams data set, the variable name is the letters VAR
followed by the Adams data set variable ID number. The name of Adams VARIABLE/101 is
VAR101, for example. If you created the variable during preprocessing, you gave it a name at
that time.

data_element 99
data_element modify plant output

If a variable is owned by the default model, you may identify it by entering its name only. If it is
not, you must enter its full name.To identify a variable under a different model, for instance, you
may need to enter the model name as well. For example, you may specify variable 'fluid_volume'
from model 'hydro' by entering ".hydro.fluid_volume'". If you type a "?", Adams/View will list
the variable available by default.
You must separate multiple variable names by commas.
Cautions:
1. Adams/View will not allow you to have two plant_outputs with the same full name, so you must
provide a unique name.
Tips:
1. If the variable is visible in one of your views, you may identify it by picking on any of the graphics
associated with it.
2. You need not separate multiple variable picks by commas.

100 Adams/View Commands


data_element modify plant state

data_element modify plant state


Allows you to modify an existing PLANT STATE element.
Format:
data_element modify plant state
adams_id = adams_id
comments = string
variable_name = an existing variable
plant_state_name = a new plant state
Example:
data_element modify plant state &
plant_state_name = pstate__1 &
adams_id = 1 &
comments = "a modified plant state element " &
variable_name = variable_1
Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

plant_state_name

An Existing Plant
State

Specifies the name of an existing plant_state.

new_plant_state_name

A New Plant State Specifies the name of the new plant_state. You may
use this name later to refer to this plant_state.

adams_id

Adams_id

Specifies an integer used to identify this element in the


Adams data file.

comments

String

Specifies comments for the object being created or


modified.

variable_name

An Existing
Variable

Specifies an existing variable.

Extended Definition:
1. Normally, entity names are composed of alphabetic, numeric, or '_' (underscore) characters, and
start with an alphabetic or '_' character. They may be any length.

data_element 101
data_element modify plant state

By enclosing the name in double quotes, you may use other printable characters, or start the name
with a numeral. If a name contains characters, or starts with a numeral, you must always quote the
name when entering it.
Note that you can specify the parentage of an entity (e.g. what part "owns" a marker or a geometry
element) when you CREATE it by changing the name. If you enter just the entity name, then the
default parent will be assigned by Adams/View. If you type in the full name, then you may over
ride the default parent. In most cases, when creating an entity, Adams/View will provide a default
name. The default name that Adams/View provides will specify the parentage that it has
assumed.
You may, or course, delete this name and use your own. The form of a full name is:
"...._NAME.GRAND_PARENT_NAME.PARENT_NAME.ENTITY_NAME"
The number of levels used varies from case to case and the parentage must exist before an entity
can be assigned to it.
2. When you use the FILE ADAMS_DATA_SET WRITE command, Adams/View writes an
Adams data file for your model. Adams requires that each modeling element be identified by a
unique integer identifier. If you use this parameter to specify a non-zero identifier, Adams/View
will use it in the corresponding statement in the Adams data file.
You may also enter zero as an identifier, either explicitly or by default. The next time you write
an Adams file, Adams/View will replace the zero with a unique, internally-generated identifier.
Adams/View will permanently store this identifier with the element just as if you had entered it
yourself.
Normally, you would let all identifiers default to zero, and Adams/View would generate the
identifiers for you. You are never required to enter a non-zero identifier. You only need to
specify it if, for some reason, you wish to control the Adams file output.
3. When an Adams/Solver data file (.adm) is read into Adams/View, all comments associated with
a statement (from the end of the previous statement through the end of the current statement) are
stored with the object. Comments in the data file can be associated with model.
These comments must follow the title statement and be followed by the comment 'END OF
MODEL COMMENTS'. This string must be uppercase.
When an Adams/Solver data file is written, the comments for an object are written before the
statement corresponding to the object.
4. You enter variable names as input parameters for array elements (U_INPUT_ARRAY), plant
input and output definitions, and in function expressions
You may identify a variable by typing its name or by picking it from the screen.
Since variable do not have a geometric position, Adams/View displays variable icons at or near
the model origin. If the variable icon is not visible on the screen, you must type the name. You
may also find it convenient to type the name even if the variable icon is displayed.
If you created the variable by reading an Adams data set, the variable name is the letters VAR
followed by the Adams data set variable ID number. The name of Adams VARIABLE/101 is
VAR101, for example. If you created the variable during preprocessing, you gave it a name at
that time.

102 Adams/View Commands


data_element modify plant state

If a variable is owned by the default model, you may identify it by entering its name only. If it
is not, you must enter its full name.
To identify a variable under a different model, for instance, you may need to enter the model name
as well. For example, you may specify variable 'fluid_volume' from model 'hydro' by entering
".hydro.fluid_volume'". If you type a "?", Adams/View will list the variable available by default.
You must separate multiple variable names by commas.
Cautions:
1. Adams/View will not allow you to have two plant_states with the same full name, so you must
provide a unique name.
Tips:
1. if the variable is visible in one of your views, you may identify it by picking on any of the graphics
associated with it.
2. You need not separate multiple variable picks by commas.

data_element 103
data_element modify spline

data_element modify spline


Allows for modification of an existing spline object.
Format:
data_element modify spline
spline_name = an existing spline
new_spline_name = a new spline
adams_id = adams_id
comments = string
x_result_set_component_name = an existing component
x = real
y_result_set_component_name =

an existing component

y = real
z_result_set_component_name = an existing component
z=
linear_extrapolate =
units =

real
boolean
string

file_name = string
Example:
data_element modify spline &
spline_name =

spline__1 &

new_spline_name = spline__2 &


adams_id = 2 &
comments = "a modified spline" &
linear_extrapolate = yes &
units = mm &
file_name = "c:\spline.txt"

104 Adams/View Commands


data_element modify spline

Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

spline_name

An Existing
Spline

Specifies the name of the an existing spline

new_spline_name

A New Spline

Specifies the name of the new spline. You may use this
name later to refer to this spline.

adams_id

Adams_id

Specifies an integer used to identify this element in the


Adams data file.

comments

String

Specifies comments for the object being created or


modified.

x_result_set_compone
nt_name

An Existing
Component

Specifies the result set component containing values for


the spline X (independent) variable.

Real

y_result_set_compone
nt_name

An Existing
Component

Real

z_result_set_compone
nt_name

An Existing
Component

Real

linear_extrapolate

Boolean

units

String

file_name

String

Specifies the result set component containing values for


the spline Y (dependent) variable.
Specifies the result set component containing values for
the spline Z (independent) variable.

Allows you to specify the type of units to be used for this


object.

Extended Definition:
1. A spline interpolates between discrete data for a user-provided function or a utility subroutine
called by a user-written subroutine.
You use the spline to provide one or two independent variables and one dependent variable for
each data point you want to enter. Adams uses curve fitting techniques to interpolate between data
points to create a continuous function. If the spline data has one independent variable, Adams uses
a cubic polynomial to interpolate between points.
If the spline data has two independent variables, Adams first uses a cubic interpolation method to
interpolate between points of the first independent variable and then uses a linear method to
interpolate between curves of the second independent variable.
2. To use the discrete data input with a spline, you must write either a function expression that
includes one of the two Adams spline functions (AKISPL function and CUBSPL function) or a
user-written subroutine that calls one of the two spline utility subroutines (AKISPL subroutine
and CUBSPL subroutine).

data_element 105
data_element modify spline

3. These spline functions and utility subroutines use two different interpolation methods. The
AKISPL function and the AKISPL subroutine use the Akima method of interpolation. The Akima
method is a local cubic curve fitting technique. The CUBSPL function and the CUBSPL
subroutine use the traditional cubic method of interpolation. The traditional cubic method is a
global cubic curve fitting technique.
Both the Akima method and the traditional cubic method use cubic polynomials to interpolate
values that fall between two adjacent points on a curve. Both provide closer approximations than
other curve fitting techniques (for example, Lagrange polynomials, difference tables, and Fourier
series). For data with two independent variables, Adams uses a linear interpolation technique to
interpolate values that fall between curves.
4. If you have created a spline in Adams/View, you may wish to plot the data points or the
interpolated curve to verify that you entered the data correctly and that the spline interpolates
smoothly. To do this, first use the 'NUMERIC_RESULTS CREATE SPLINE' command to create
a result set from the spline. This result set will contain components composed of the spline data
points. You can then plot the result set (i.e. the spline data points) with the XY_PLOTS
command. You may also use the 'NUMERIC_RESULTS CREATE INTERPOLATION'
command to interpolate more points from the data-point result set, and then plot those. The
Adams/View CUBIC and AKIMA interpolation options use the same methods as the Adams
CUBSPL and AKISPL functions, respectively.
5. Normally, entity names are composed of alphabetic, numeric, or '_' (underscore) characters, and
start with an alphabetic or '_' character. They may be any length.
By enclosing the name in double quotes, you may use other printable characters, or start the name
with a numeral. If a name contains characters, or starts with a numeral, you must always quote the
name when entering it.
Note that you can specify the parentage of an entity (e.g. what part "owns" a marker or a geometry
element) when you CREATE it by changing the name. If you enter just the entity name, then the
default parent will be assigned by Adams/View. If you type in the full name, then you may over
ride the default parent. In most cases, when creating an entity, Adams/View will provide a default
name. The default name that Adams/View provides will specify the parentage that it has
assumed.
You may, or course, delete this name and use your own. The form of a full name is:
"...._NAME.GRAND_PARENT_NAME.PARENT_NAME.ENTITY_NAME"
The number of levels used varies from case to case and the parentage must exist before an entity
can be assigned to it.
6. . When you use the FILE ADAMS_DATA_SET WRITE command, Adams/View writes an
Adams data file for your model. Adams requires that each modeling element be identified by a
unique integer identifier. If you use this parameter to specify a non-zero identifier, Adams/View
will use it in the corresponding statement in the Adams data file.
You may also enter zero as an identifier, either explicitly or by default. The next time you write
an Adams file, Adams/View will replace the zero with a unique, internally-generated identifier.
Adams/View will permanently store this identifier with the element just as if you had entered it
yourself.

106 Adams/View Commands


data_element modify spline

Normally, you would let all identifiers default to zero, and Adams/View would generate the
identifiers for you. You are never required to enter a non-zero identifier. You only need to
specify it if, for some reason, you wish to control the Adams file output.
7. When an Adams/Solver data file (.adm) is read into Adams/View, all comments associated with
a statement (from the end of the previous statement through the end of the current statement) are
stored with the object. Comments in the data file can be associated with model.
These comments must follow the title statement and be followed by the comment 'END OF
MODEL COMMENTS'. This string must be uppercase.
When an Adams/Solver data file is written, the comments for an object are written before the
statement corresponding to the object.
8. You must supply a Y value corresponding to each combination of X and Z values. First list the
component with values for each X value at the first Z value, then the component with values for
each X value at the second Z value, and so on.
9. Since this object can be used in a variety ov contexts, Adams/View can not determine what type
of units it should have. By telling Adams/View what the unit type for this object is Adams/View
can preform the proper conversions on the values you specify.
Cautions:
1. Adams/View will not allow you to have two splines with the same full name, so you must provide
a unique name.

data_element 107
data_element modify string

data_element modify string


Allows you to modify an existing character string.
Format:
data_element modify string
string_name = an existing astring
new_string_name = a new astring
adams_id = adams_id
comments =

string

string = string
Example:
data_element modify string &
string_name = string__1 &
string_name = string__2 &
adams_id = 1 &
comments = " a modified string" &
string =

"sample string modified"

Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

string_name

An Existing Astring

Specifies the name of an existing string.

new_string_name

A New Astring

Specifies the name of the new string. You may use this
name later to refer to this string.

adams_id

Adams_id

Specifies an integer used to identify this element in the


Adams data file.

comments

Strings

Specifies comments for the object being created or


modified.

string

Strings

A STRING element defines a character string that may be


referred to later in the execution of Adams.

108 Adams/View Commands


data_element modify string

Extended Definition:
1. A STRING element defines a character string that may be referred to later in the execution of
Adams. The character string cannot be broken and continued on the following line; however, the
STRING element can be longer than a single line. A GTSTRG subroutine can be used to retrieve
this character string in a user-written subroutine.
2. Normally, entity names are composed of alphabetic, numeric, or '_' (underscore) characters, and
start with an alphabetic or '_' character. They may be any length.
By enclosing the name in double quotes, you may use other printable characters, or start the name
with a numeral. If a name contains characters, or starts with a numeral, you must always quote the
name when entering it.
Note that you can specify the parentage of an entity (e.g. what part "owns" a marker or a geometry
element) when you CREATE it by changing the name. If you enter just the entity name, then the
default parent will be assigned by Adams/View. If you type in the full name, then you may over
ride the default parent. In most cases, when creating an entity, Adams/View will provide a default
name. The default name that Adams/View provides will specify the parentage that it has
assumed.
You may, or course, delete this name and use your own. The form of a full name is:
"...._NAME.GRAND_PARENT_NAME.PARENT_NAME.ENTITY_NAME"
The number of levels used varies from case to case and the parentage must exist before an entity
can be assigned to it.
3. When you use the FILE ADAMS_DATA_SET WRITE command, Adams/View writes an
Adams data file for your model. Adams requires that each modeling element be identified by a
unique integer identifier. If you use this parameter to specify a non-zero identifier, Adams/View
will use it in the corresponding statement in the Adams data file.
You may also enter zero as an identifier, either explicitly or by default. The next time you write
an Adams file, Adams/View will replace the zero with a unique, internally-generated identifier.
Adams/View will permanently store this identifier with the element just as if you had entered it
yourself.
Normally, you would let all identifiers default to zero, and Adams/View would generate the
identifiers for you. You are never required to enter a non-zero identifier. You only need to
specify it if, for some reason, you wish to control the Adams file output.
4. When an Adams/Solver data file (.adm) is read into Adams/View, all comments associated with
a statement (from the end of the previous statement through the end of the current statement) are
stored with the object. Comments in the data file can be associated with model.
These comments must follow the title statement and be followed by the comment 'END OF
MODEL COMMENTS'. This string must be uppercase.
When an Adams/Solver data file is written, the comments for an object are written before the
statement corresponding to the object.

data_element 109
data_element modify string

5. The character string cannot be broken and continued on the following line; however, the STRING
element can be longer than a single line. An Adams interactive STRING command can be used
to alter or review this character string. A GTSTRG subroutine can be used to retrieve this
character string in a user-written subroutine.
Cautions:
1. Adams/View will not allow you to have two strings with the same full name, so you must provide
a unique name.

110 Adams/View Commands


data_element modify variable

data_element modify variable


Allows you to modify an existing variable.
Format:
data_element modify variable
variable_name=
new_variable_name=
adams_id=
comments =
initial_condition =
function =
user_function =
routine =

an existing solvar
a new solvar
adams_id
string
real
function
real
string

Example:
data_element modify variable &
variable_name= variable__10 &
adams_id= 5 &
comments = "comment string" &
initial_condition = 0.121 &
function = cos( 10 )
Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

variable_name

An Existing
Solvar

Specifies the name of an existing variable

new_variable_name

A New Solvar

Specifies the name of the new variable. You may use this
name later to refer to this variable.

adams_id

Adams_id

Specifies an integer used to identify this element in the


Adams data file.

comments

String

Specifies comments for the object being created or


modified.

data_element 111
data_element modify variable

Parameter

Value Type

Description

initial_condition

Real

Specifies the initial value of the user_defined differential


variable and, optionally, an approximate value of the
initial time derivative.

function

Function

Specifies the function expression definition that is used to


compute the value of this variable.

user_function

Real

Specifies up to 30 values for Adams to pass to a userwritten subroutine.

routine

String

Extended Definition:
1. You create VARIABLEs to define scalar algebraic equations for independent use, or as part of
the PLANT INPUT, PLANT OUTPUT, or ARRAY elements. The computed value of the
VARIABLE may depend on almost any Adams system variable. Note that you cannot access
reaction forces from user defined, POINT_CURVE, and CURVE_CURVE constraints (Adams
UCONs, PTCV, CVCV statements). You can define the computed value of a VARIABLE by
either writing a FUNCTION expression in the model or by calling a VARSUB user-written
subroutine. The Adams Reference Manual chapter on "Function Expressions," discusses the
attributes of FUNCTION expressions, and the chapter on "Subroutines," discusses user-written
subroutines and accessible utility subroutines.
2. FUNCTION expressions and user-written subroutines can access the computed value of the
VARIABLE with the Adams/View function VARVAL(variable_name) to represent the value,
where variable_name specifies the name you gave the VARIABLE when it was created.
User-written subroutines access single VARIABLE statement values by calling the subroutine
SYSFNC.
Caution should be used when defining VARIABLEs that are dependent on other VARIABLEs or
on Adams/View elements that contains functions. If a defined system of equations does not have
a stable solution, convergence may fail for the entire Adams model. The following example refers
to this type of VARIABLE statement:
VARIABLE/1, FUNCTION= VARVAL(1)+1
When looked at as an algebraic equation, it looks like the following:
V=V+1.
However, when Adams tries to solve this equation using the Newton-Raphson iteration, the
solution diverges and a message appears on the screen indicating that the solution has failed to
converge.
3. Adams/View will not allow you to have two variables with the same full name, so you must
provide a unique name.
Normally, entity names are composed of alphabetic, numeric, or '_' (underscore) characters, and
start with an alphabetic or '_' character. They may be any length.

112 Adams/View Commands


data_element modify variable

By enclosing the name in double quotes, you may use other printable characters, or start the name
with a numeral. If a name contains characters, or starts with a numeral, you must always quote the
name when entering it.
Note that you can specify the parentage of an entity (e.g. what part "owns" a marker or a geometry
element) when you CREATE it by changing the name. If you enter just the entity name, then the
default parent will be assigned by Adams/View. If you type in the full name, then you may over
ride the default parent. In most cases, when creating an entity, Adams/View will provide a default
name. The default name that Adams/View provides will specify the parentage that it has
assumed.
You may, or course, delete this name and use your own. The form of a full name is:
"...._NAME.GRAND_PARENT_NAME.PARENT_NAME.ENTITY_NAME"
The number of levels used varies from case to case and the parentage must exist before an entity
can be assigned to it.
4. When you use the FILE ADAMS_DATA_SET WRITE command, Adams/View writes an
Adams data file for your model. Adams requires that each modeling element be identified by a
unique integer identifier. If you use this parameter to specify a non-zero identifier, Adams/View
will use it in the corresponding statement in the Adams data file.
You may also enter zero as an identifier, either explicitly or by default. The next time you write
an Adams file, Adams/View will replace the zero with a unique, internally-generated identifier.
Adams/View will permanently store this identifier with the element just as if you had entered it
yourself.
Normally, you would let all identifiers default to zero, and Adams/View would generate the
identifiers for you. You are never required to enter a non-zero identifier. You only need to
specify it if, for some reason, you wish to control the Adams file output.
5. When an Adams/Solver data file (.adm) is read into Adams/View, all comments associated with
a statement (from the end of the previous statement through the end of the current statement) are
stored with the object. Comments in the data file can be associated with model.
These comments must follow the title statement and be followed by the comment 'END OF
MODEL COMMENTS'. This string must be uppercase.
When an Adams/Solver data file is written, the comments for an object are written before the
statement corresponding to the object.
6. The first value is the value of the user- defined variable at the start of the simulation. If you have
entered an implicit equation, the second value may also need to be specified, which is an
approximate value of the time derivative of the user-defined variable at the start of the simulation.
Adams may adjust the value of the time derivative when it performs an initial conditions analysis.
Entering an initial value for the time derivative may help Adams converge to an initial conditions
solution. If you enter an explicit equation, you do not need to supply the second value since
Adams can compute the initial time derivative directly from the equation.
7. To enter a function expression you enter a series of quoted strings.

data_element 113
data_element modify variable

The easiest way to enter a function expression in Adams/View is to use the text editor in
combination with the function builder. To invoke the text editor for entering a function
expression, highlight the function field and then either pick the "EDIT" button at the top of the
panel or type a ^t (control-t). The Adams/View "function builder" is discussed below.
The syntactical correctness of a function expression can be investigated by using the "VERIFY"
button at the upper right of the text editor. If there is a syntax error, a message is printed and the
cursor is put near the problem.Proper unit consistency is not checked during function expression
verification.
Tips:
1. See the Adams User's Manual for information on writing user-written subroutines.

defaults 1

defaults

2 Adams/View Commands
defaults adams_output

defaults adams_output
The ADAMS_OUTPUT command is used to set parameters that control the organization and statement
format of Adams datasets written by VIEW.
Format:
defaults adams_output
statement_order= statement_order
arguments_per_line= argument_count
text_case= text_case
indent_spaces= integer
write_default_values= on/off
scientific_notation= integer
trailing_zeros= on/off
decimal_places= integer
zero_threshold= real
round_off= on/off
significant_figures= integer
Example:
Defaults adams_output &
statement_order= markers_with_parts &
arguments_per_line= single
This statement specifies that in the dataset markers are written as a group after the part to which they
belong. Graphics that belong to a single part are written after the markers for that part, and graphics that
connect one or more parts are written after all the parts are written. Also only one argument will be
written in one line as shown below.
PART/1 , QG = 0.5, 0, 0 , REULER = 0D, 90D, 0D , MASS = 1.2
MARKER/101 , PART = 1 , QP = -0.5, 0, 0

defaults 3
defaults adams_output

Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

statement_order

Markers_with_parts,
Markers_where_used,
As_found_in_file

This controls the organization of the statements


within the dataset.

arguments_per_line

Single/multiple

This controls how many arguments are written on


each line of an Adams dataset statement. The default
is a single argument per line.

text_case

Upper/lower/mixed

This controls the case of the text written for the


statement's keywords and parameters.

indent_spaces

Integer

This controls the number of spaces after the comma


in column one used to indent a continuation line of a
statement.

write_default_values On/off

This controls whether or not arguments that have


default values are written explicitly into the dataset.
The default is that the arguments with default values
are not written into the datset.

scientific_notation

Integer

This controls the lower and upper powers of ten


where the format for real numbers switches from a
fixed point format to scientific notation.

trailing_zeros

On/off

This controls whether or not trailing zeros are


printed for real numbers.

decimal_places

Integer

This controls how many places are written after the


decimal point for real numbers. The default value is
ten decimal places.

zero_threshold

Real

This specifies the threshold value for numbers being


written to an Adams data set.

round_off

On/off

This turns the round off feature for real numbers on


or off. The actual numbers of places retained during
rounding off is controlled by the
SIGNIFICANT_FIGURES argument.

significant_figures

Integer

This controls how many significant figures of a real


number are retained during round off when it is
enabled by setting the value of the ROUND_OFF
argument to ON.

active_only

On/off

4 Adams/View Commands
defaults adams_output

Extended Definition:
1. The default for statement order is AS_FOUND_IN_FILE, unless the model was originally created
in view, in which case the default is MARKERS_WITH_PARTS. Note that the order of the
arguments within a statement are written in a fixed order.
AS_FOUND_IN_FILE
The order of the statements in the original dataset is maintained when the model is written back
to a dataset. Any new statements added to the original model are written after all the original
statements, and both sections are labelled to indicate which statements came from the original
dataset and which statements are new.
MARKERS_WITH_PARTS
Markers are written as a group after the part to which they belong. Graphics that belong to a single
part are written after the markers for that part, and graphics that connect one or more parts are
written after all the parts are written.
Statements of the same type, such as JOINTs, JPRIMs, BUSHINGs, etc., are written as a group,
in order of ascending Adams id number.
In general, statements are written before other statements that depend on them. For example,
markers are written before the joints that use them, joints are written before any couplers that
connect them, etc.
MARKERS_WHERE_USED
Markers are written immediately after certain types of statements that depend on the existance of
those markers. The types of statements for which this is done is as follows:
BEAM BUSHING FIELD SFORCE SPRINGDAMPER VFORCE VTORQUE GFORCE
NFORCE JOINT JPRIM REQUEST MREQUEST CVCV PTCV
If a marker is not used by any of these statements, it is written after the part to which it belongs.
Graphics that belong to a single part are written after the markers for that part, and graphics that
connect one or more parts are written after all the parts are written.
Statements of the same type, such as JOINTs, JPRIMs, BUSHINGs, etc., are written as a group,
in order of ascending Adams id number.
In general, the order in which the different types of statements are written into the dataset is
similar to the order used in View 1.0 and 6.0.
2. For the arguments_per_line parameter,there are 2 choices:
SINGLE
Write only one argument and its values for each line of the statement. An example of how this
would look is as follows:
PART/1 , QG = 0.5, 0, 0 , REULER = 0D, 90D, 0D , MASS = 1.2
MARKER/101 , PART = 1 , QP = -0.5, 0, 0
MULTIPLE
Write as many arguments and their values that will fit within 80 columns for each line of the
statement. An example of how this would look is as follows:

defaults 5
defaults adams_output

PART/1, QG = 0.5, 0, 0, REULER = 0D, 90D, 0D, MASS = 1.2


MARKER/101, PART = 1, QP = -0.5, 0, 0
3. The text_case parameter does not affect comments, function expressions, titles, or filenames that
are used as values of arguments. The default is UPPER.
UPPER Text for keywords and parameters in the dataset are written in upper case.

LOWER Text for keywords and parameters in the dataset are written in lower case.

MIXED Text for keywords and parameters in the dataset are written in mixed case. The first

character of each word is in upper case, and the remaining characters are in lower case.
The text case control will not affect certain types of string valued arguments. They following
arguments will be written into the dataset the way they are stored in the database.
TIRE:
TPF and RDF RESULTS:
COMMENT MATRIX:
FILE and NAME MADATA:
COMMENT STRING:
STRING REQUEST:
TITLE, COMMENT, FUNCTION, and F1 to F8 MREQUEST:
COMMENT UCON:
FUNCTION MOTION:
FUNCTION FIELD:
FUNCTION SFORCE:
FUNCTION GFORCE:
FUNCTION VFORCE:
FUNCTION VTORQUE:
FUNCTION VARIABLE:
FUNCTION CURVE:
FUNCTION DIFF:
FUNCTION GSE:
FUNCTION SENSOR:
FUNCTION

4. The allowed values for indent_spaces are between zero and four spaces. Five or more spaces
would make the subsequent text on the line a comment. The default is one space.
The text for function expressions is not indented for continuation lines. It is assumed that the user
will add any leading spaces that they wish for indentation. Any indentation added by the dataset
writer would interfer with the the user's, often used to show nesting of IF functions. The argument
list for a user function will be indented if it requires more than one line.
The values of an argument that has multiple string values separated by colons will be preceded by
a comma and indented if it has to be placed on a continuation line. This applies to the
PART/EXACT and COUPLER/TYPE arguments. The exception is the REQUEST/TITLE
argument that doesn't allow imbedded blanks. This will be preceded by a comma, but not
indented.
5. The default values are -4 and 5, meaning that any number less than or equal to 1.0E-04 or greater
than or equal to 1.0E+05 will be written in scientific notation.
6. When enabled, all the digits after the decimal point will be printed, whether they are zero or not.
When disabled, any zeros at the end of the fractional part of the number will be dropped, leaving
the last digit as a non-zero digit.
7. If a number has an absolute value smaller than the zero threshold value, the it will be written out
as zero. This value is independent of units.
8. The default for significant_figures parameter is to use ten significant figures.
This number is distinct from the number of places actually printed for a real number, controlled
by the DECIMAL_PLACES argument.
9. The values assigned to the parameters will remain in effect until reassigned or the end of program
execution.

6 Adams/View Commands
defaults analysis

defaults analysis
The DEFAULTS ANALYSIS command assigns a value to ANALYSIS_NAME which will be used as the
default for subsequent commands.
This default value is reset when a new file is read. Each time the file is read in (.GRA, .REQ, or .RES)
the ANALYSIS_NAME is set to the file name minus the extension (any preceding path is also stripped
off).
Format:
defaults analysis
defaults analysis analysis_name= existing_analysis
Example:
defaults analysis &
defaults analysis analysis_name = my_analysis
Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

Analysis_name Existing analysis This parameter specifies the name of an analysis name.
Extended Definition:
1. When Adams/View reads a graphics file (.GRA), a request file (.REQ), or a results file (.RES)
an analysis name is created. By default, the name of the analysis is the file name excluding the
extension.
Adams/View requires that Adams simulations have unique names and the default name of an
analysis may be overridden when reading the file(s) using the file_name parameter. When
referring to an analysis name that already exists quotes are not necessary. When processing any
command that requires an analysis name the system will default to the default analysis name. The
default analysis name is set to the last analysis file read in (.GRA, .REQ, .RES, or all three). To
change the default analysis name without reading in an analysis file use the "defaults analysis"
command.
Cautions:
1. Default name of an analysis may be overridden when reading the file(s) using the file_name
parameter.

defaults 7
defaults attributes

defaults attributes
This command allows you to specify the GRAPHIC ATTRIBUTES INHERITANCE algorithm used by
Adams/View.
Format:
defaults attributes
inheritance =

up_down

icon_visibility =

on/off

size_of_icons =

real number

grid_visibility =

on/off

endcap_visibility = on/ off


spacing_for_grid =

real number

screen_font =

font name

postscript_font =

font name

dimming_factor =

real number

Example:
defaults attributes &
inheritance =
icon_visibility =
size_of_icons =
grid_visibility =

bottom_up &
on &
0.2 &
on &

endcap_visibility =

off &

spacing_for_grid =

0.2 &

screen_font =
postscript_font=
dimming_factor=

"--Arial-Normal " &


times_roman &
0.2

Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

inheritance

Up_down

Specifies the graphics attributes INHERITANCE


algorithm to be used by Adams/View.

icon_visibility

On_off

Specifies whether or not to display icons.

8 Adams/View Commands
defaults attributes

Parameter

Value Type

Description

size_of_icons

Length

Allows you to specify the size the Adams/View icons


will appear.

grid_visibility

On_off_with_toggle2

The GRID_VISIBILITY parameter provides control


over the visibility of the grid in all views.

endcap_visibility

On_off_with_toggle2

spacing_for_grid

Length

The SPACING_FOR_GRID parameter provides


control over the spacing between the individual grid
points for all views.

screen_font

String

This parameter controls the device dependent font to be


used when drawing any bitmapped text on the screen.

postscript_font

Postscript_fonts

This parameter controls the font to be used when


drawing any bitmapped text for a hardcopy output.

dimming_factor

Real

Sets the level of dimming desired for objects which


have been deactivated via the ACTIVE attribute.

Extended Definition:
1. GRAPHIC ATTRIBUTES may be applied to almost any entity that may be created in
Adams/VIEW. If an entity does not have a GRAPHICS ATTRIBUTE setting, the value for that
GRAPHIC ATTRIBUTE may be inherited from another entity.
2. The rules of INHERITANCE are either TOP_DOWN or BOTTOM_UP. This means that the
attributes are assumed from the children up to the parents (i.e. BOTTOM_UP), or, from the
parents down to the children (i.e. TOP_DOWN). For example, in
INHERITANCE=BOTTOM_UP, if the visibility of a marker is set on, it will override the
visibility of the markers parent part when the part visibility is set to off. Also, in
INHERITANCE=TOP_DOWN, if the color of a part is set to red, it will override the color set for
a green marker and the marker will appear red.
3. GRAPHICS ATTRIBUTES include color, visibility, name visibility, render mode, and icon size.
4. Turning the default icon visibility off will result in no icons being displayed, even if they are set
to ON individually. If the default icon visibility is OFF, the visibility of each icon will be
determined by the visibility on that ICON.
5. If you set ICON_SIZE at the model level or at the lower modeling levels of part, marker,
constraint, and force, that values will take precedence.
6. If the visibility of the grid is set for a particular view with the VIEW MANAGE MODIFY
GRID_VISIBILITY command, that setting will be used instead of the default setting. To specify
that the default grid visibility is to be used, enter the command VIEW MANAGE MODIFY
GRID_VISIBILITY=NO_OPINION

defaults 9
defaults attributes

7. If the spacing of the grid is set for a particular view with the VIEW MANAGE MODIFY
SPACING_FOR_GRID command, that setting will be used instead of the default setting. To
specify that the default grid visibility is to be used, enter the command VIEW MANAGE
MODIFY SPACING_FOR_GRID=0
8. Using question mark help (typing a '?' or selecting the ? button) for this parameter will display a
list of the available fonts. This parameter does not control the type of font that will be used for
hardcopy output. See the POSTSCRIPT_FONT parameter for information on controlling fonts
for hardcopy output.
9. A zero value for the dimming factor will make the objects black, while a dimming factor of 1.0
will cause deactivated objects to appear the same color as active objects.

10 Adams/View Commands
defaults command_file

defaults command_file
The DEFAULTS COMMAND_FILE command is used to specify what happens when an error is
encountered while reading a command file.
Format:
defaults command_file
on_error =

error_action

echo_commands =

on.off

update_screen =

on/off

Example:
defaults command_file &
on_error =

continue_command &

echo_commands =

on &

update_screen =

on

Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

echo_commands

On_off

Specifies whether or not Adams/View will echo commands while


executing command files.

update_screen

On_off

Specifies whether Adams/View will update the screen while


executing command files.

Extended Definition:
1. The three legal values for the on_error parameter are CONTINUE_COMMAND,
IGNORE_COMMAND, and ABORT_FILE. CONTINUE_COMMAND continues processing
the line as if it were typed interactively. This can be dangerous if there is no correction later on
the line, since the parser will keep issuing errors until a correction is made. The errors may
continue beyond the end of the line, even to the end of the file, if carriage-returns are invalid.
CONTINUE_COMMAND should only be used if the command file is a literal recording of your
key strokes, complete with backspaces, or other corrections, after mistakes.
IGNORE_COMMAND ignores the line the error was found on, and starts processing the next line
as a new command. The parser can usually recover and execute subsequent commands in the file.

defaults 11
defaults command_file

If subsequent commands depend on the results of the invalid command, however, they may fail
or give unexpected results. ABORT_FILE immediately closes all the command files and returns
to interactive input. This is the most conservative setting, since it guarantees subsequent
commands will cause no further errors or unexpected results.
IGNORE_COMMAND is the default action.
2. If you select ON, for the echo_commands, the default, the commands will scroll through the
Dialog area and will be recorded as comments in the log file. If you select OFF, the commands
will not be displayed or logged. As a result, the command file will execute more quickly, and the
log file will be smaller.
3. For the update_screen parameter, if you select ON, the default, Adams/View will update the
display after each command. If ECHO_COMMANDS is ON, you will see commands scrolling
through the Dialog area. If the command file changes the displayed geometry or plots, you will
see the display change as the commands are executed. If you select OFF, the display will not be
updated until the command file is finished executing. You will only see the final result. If the
command file normally generates many screen updates, especially of solid or shaded views,
selecting OFF will make it execute more quickly.
Tips:
1. The ON_ERROR parameter is useful to set modes for debugging command files.

12 Adams/View Commands
defaults coordinate_system

defaults coordinate_system
Allows you to select the coordinate system that location coordinates and orientation angles are with
respect to by default.
Format:
defaults coordinate_system
default_coordinate_system=

an existing model, part or marker

Example:
defaults coordinate_system &
default_coordinate_system =

ground

Description:
Parameter

Value Type

default_coordinate_system

An Existing Model,
Part Or Marker

Description
Specifies the coordinate system that location
coordinates and orientation angles are with
respect to by default.

Extended Definition:
1. You may also change this default by using the RELATIVE_TO parameter on commands that take
location and orientation parameters. If you do not use the RELATIVE_TO parameter,
Adams/View assumes the coordinates and angles you enter are in the default coordinate system.
2. Initially, the default is the model, which is the global coordinate system. This is true for orienting
markers as well as parts. Note that this is different than Adams, where markers are specified
relative to the part, not the global system.
3. You use this command to change the default to any model, part, or marker.
Choosing any model as the default is the same as using global coordinates. By choosing a part or
marker, you may enter locations and orientations relative to that part or marker.
4. If you select a part as the default coordinate system, you then enter marker coordinates relative to
that part, just as in Adams. You can locate other parts relative to that part, as well, or choose a
marker to locate from.
Tips:
1. You may also change the default_coordinate_system by using the RELATIVE_TO parameter on
commands that take location and orientation parameters.

defaults 13
defaults expert_fields

defaults expert_fields
Control the displaying of expert fields on panels.
Format:
defaults expert_fields
expert_mode =

on/off

Example:
defaults expert_fields &
expert_mode =

off

Description:
Parameter
expert_mode

Value Type
ON_OFF

Description
This parameter controls the global default for displaying expert
fields on panels.

Extended Definition:
1. The DEFAULTS command is used set various parameters of the system. The values assigned to
these parameters will be the default for commands that use them throughout the system.Some of
these parameters are not allowed to default in every case where they are used. If this is true the
user is informed.
2. When expert_mode is on, all panel fields are displayed. When expert_mode is off, any panel fields
that are designated as expert fields will not be initially displayed. They may be displayed by
selecting the MORE button that is in the lower right corner of the panel.

14 Adams/View Commands
defaults force_graphics

defaults force_graphics
This command sets the defaults for the display of force graphics during an animation.
Format:
defaults force_graphics
force_scale = real
torque_scale = real
display_text = boolean
decimal_places = integer
display_wireframe = boolean
always_in_front = boolean
Example:
defaults force_graphics &
force_scale =

1.5 &

torque_scale =

2.5 &

decimal_places =
always_in_front =
display_text =

3 &
no &
yes

Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

force_scale

Real

Specify the default size of the force scale to be used for the force
graphics.

torque_scale

Real

Specify the default size of the torque scale to be used for the force
graphics

display_text

Yes/No

Specify whether text has to be displayed by default in the force


graphics

decimal_places

Integer

Specify how many places are written after the decimal point for
force graphics text. The default value is 4.

defaults 15
defaults force_graphics

Parameter

Value Type

Description

display_wireframe Yes/No

Specify whether wireframe has to be displayed by default in the


force graphics

always_in_front

Specify if you want Adams/View to show force graphics in the


foreground of the model so model geometry does not obscure
them.

Yes/No

Extended Definition:
1. The scale value will have a multiplicative effect on the current size of the force graphics. For
example, a scale value of 0.25 will make the force graphics appear one-fourth as large. A scale
value of 2.0 will make the force graphics appear twice as large.

16 Adams/View Commands
defaults hardcopy

defaults hardcopy
Allows the user to send screen output to hard copy file.
Format:
defaults hardcopy
paper_type= hardcopy paper
orientation = hardcopy_orientation
send_to_printer= boolean
file_name= string
print_command=

string

black_and_white_graphics= boolean
black_and_white_plot= boolean
language= hardcopy_language
image_height= real
image_width= real
Example:
defaults hardcopy &
paper_type = a1 &
orientation= portrait &
file_name = printtofile
Description:
Parameter
paper_type

Value Type
Default/ Eight_by_eleven/
A0/ A1/ A2/ A3/ A4/ B5/

Description
Specify the kind of default paper type to be
used.

B/ C/ D/ E/ F
orientation

Landscape/ Portrait

send_to_printer

Yes/no

file_name

String

print_command

String

Specify the default orientation to be used.


Specifies the name of the file that is to be
read, written, or executed.

defaults 17
defaults hardcopy

Parameter

Value Type

Description

black_and_white_graph
ics

Yes/no

Specifies if black and white graphics is


required.

black_and_white_plot

Yes/no

Specifies if black and white plot is required.

Language

Hpgl/ Postscript/
The LANGUAGE parameter is used to
Windows_native/ Bmp/ Xpm/ specify plotting language is to be used for
Jpg/ Tiff/ Png
the image sent to a hardcopy file.

image_height

Real

Specify the default image height

image_width

Real

Specify the default image width

Include_toolbars

Yes/no

Extended Definition:
1. You do not need to enclose the file name in quotes if it only contains alpha-numeric characters
and starts with a letter. If you want to include other characters, such as a '.' for an extension or '/'
or '[]' for directory paths, you must enclose the name in quotes.
2. There are three legal values for this parameter: POSTSCRIPT, HPGL, and PICT. The
POSTSCRIPT value will cause the image to be written in color compatible postscript. If an
explicit filename is provided with an extension of '.eps', then the image will be written in
encapsulated postscript. The HPGL (Hewlett Packard Graphics Language(tm)) value will cause
the image to be written in color compatible HPGL. The PICT value will cause the image to be
written out as an Extended Format Version 2 PICT file, which is readable by many Macintosh
programs. The resulting file should be printable on any device supporting those languages.
The LANGUAGE parameter is optional and if not entered, will be set to POSTSCRIPT.
3. The proper extensionof a file_name is the default but can be overridden by simply supplying a
different extension.
Cautions:
1. Care should be taken when performing a hardcopy. The choice of draw modes in the view
(wireframe, solid, shaded, set in the view manage modify command or from the control panel)
will have impact on the image sent to the hard copy file. If solid or shaded mode is "on" in the
desired view, some graphics may "seem" to disappear. This happens if the image of an entity is
such that the edges of the shaded entity obscured the shaded or filled area. To avoid this use
wireframe draw mode or assure "facet" interiors are visible before the hardcopy is attempted. The
choice of background colors can have a similar effect.
Tips:
1. The user may specify the view_name to be sent to the desired hardcopy file name. The
FILE_NAME parameter provides a means to specify the name of the hardcopy file the screen
image(s) selected by the user will be written to. The FILE_NAME is an optional parameter and
if not entered, a default name will be constructed. If entered file name must be enclosed in quotes.

18 Adams/View Commands
defaults hardcopy

2. The ORIENTATION parameter is used to specify how to orient the image sent to a hardcopy file.
There are two legal values for this parameter: LANDSCAPE and PORTRAIT.
3. The LANGUAGE parameter is used to specify plotting language is to be used for the image sent
to a hardcopy file. There are two legal values for this parameter: POSTSCRIPT and HPGL.

defaults 19
default lights

default lights
This command sets the default settings for the lighting.
You can enhance the quality and realism of your animations by using focused lighting that comes from
different directions, and define the angle of that lighting (how far it is from the centerline). You can think
of this as if you were swinging a light boom across your model.
Format:
Default lights
Light =

top_left, top, top_right, left, center, right,


bottom_left, bottom, bottom_right

Enable_light=

boolean

Example:
Default lights &
Light =
Enable_light =

top_right &
yes

Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

Light

top_left, top, top_right, left, center, right, bottom_left,


bottom, bottom_right

Defines the angle of the lighting.

Enable_light

Yes/No

Turns the light on or off

Extended Definition:
1. Following are the various angles that can be used to define the lighting:
Figure 1

A. Top_left sets the light from upper left corner top as illustrated in the example
below.

20 Adams/View Commands
default lights

Figure 2

B. Top sets the light from the top as illustrated in the example below.

Figure 3

C. Top_right sets the light from the top right as illustrated in the example
below

defaults 21
default lights

Figure 4

D. left sets the light from the left as illustrated in the example below.

Figure 5

E. Right sets the light from the right as illustrated in the example below.

22 Adams/View Commands
default lights

Figure 6

F. BOTTOM_LEFT sets the light from the bottom left as illustrated in the
example below.

Figure 7

F. BOTTOM sets the light from the bottom as illustrated in the example below.

defaults 23
default lights

Figure 8

G. BOTTOM_RIGHT sets the light from the bottom right as illustrated in the
example below.

24 Adams/View Commands
defaults model

defaults model
The defaults model command is used to set the location the parser uses when it is validating some
object name (that is marker, joint, and so on) when the user does not start at the root node.
Format:
defaults model
model_name = existing model
part_name = existing part
flexible_body_name = existing flex body
point_mass_name =
marker_name =

existing point mass


existing marker

joint_name = existing joint,


geometry_name = existing geometry
Example:
defaults model &
model_name =
part_name =
marker_name =

model_1 &
cam_part &
marker_1

Description:
Parameter

Value Type

Description

model_name

Existing model

Specifies an existing model

part_name

Existing part

Specifies an existing part

flexible_body_name

Existing flex body

Specifies the name of a flexible body

point_mass_name

Existing point mass

Specifies an existing point_mass

marker_name

Existing marker

Specifies an existing marker

join