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Demineralized Water Treatment Plant

Systems of Filtering Water

i) Aeration
ii) Fe-Mn Removal Filter
iii) Multimedia Filter
iv) Activated Carbon Filter
v) Reverse Osmosis (RO) Filter
vi) Decarbonation
vii) Ion Exchange

Common impurities found in fresh water:





Free Mineral

Chemical Formula

Difficulties Caused
imparts unsightly
appearance to water;
non-expressed in analysis as deposits in water lines,
process equipment, etc.;
interferes with most
process uses
chief source of scale in
heat exchange equipment,
calcium and magnesium
boilers, pipe lines, etc.;
salts, expressed as CaCO3
forms curds with soap,
interferes with dyeing, etc.
foam and carryover of
solids with steam;
bicarbonate(HCO3 ),
embrittlement of boiler
2carbonate (CO3 ), and
steel; bicarbonate and
hydroxide (OH ), expressed carbonate produce CO2 in
as CaCO3
steam, a source of
corrosion in condensate
H2SO4 , HCI. etc., expressed corrosion

Means of Treatment

coagulation, settling,
and filtration

internal boiler water
treatment; surface active
lime and lime-soda
softening; acid
treatment; hydrogen
zeolite softening;
dealkalization by anion
neutralization with

Carbon Dioxide








as CaCO3

Hydrogen ion concentration


corrosion in water lines,

particularly steam and
condensate lines
pH varies according to
acidic or alkaline solids in
water; most natural waters
have a pH of 6.0-8.0
adds to solids content of
water, but in itself is not
usually significant,
combines with calcium to
form calcium sulfate scale

aeration, deaeration,
neutralization with
pH can be increased by
alkalies and decreased
by acids
reverse osmosis,

Cl -

adds to solids content and

increases corrosive
character of water

reverse osmosis,


high concentrations cause

methemoglobinemia in
infants; useful for control
of boiler metal

reverse osmosis,




adsorption with
cause of mottled enamel in
magnesium hydroxide,
teeth; also used for control
calcium phosphate, or
of dental decay: not usually
bone black; alum
significant industrially
adds to solids content of
water: when combined
with OH-, causes corrosion
in boilers under certain

reverse osmosis,

scale in boilers and cooling

water systems; insoluble
turbine blade deposits due
to silica vaporization

hot and warm process

removal by magnesium
salts; adsorption by
highly basic anion
exchange resins, in
conjunction with
reverse osmosis,

















Total Solids


discolors water on
precipitation; source of
deposits in water lines,
boilers. etc.; interferes with
dyeing, tanning,
papermaking, etc.
same as iron
usually present as a result
of floc carryover from
clarifier; can cause
deposits in cooling systems
and contribute to complex
boiler scales
corrosion of water lines,
heat exchange equipment,
boilers, return lines, etc.
cause of "rotten egg" odor;
corrosion of copper and
zinc alloys by formation of
complex soluble ion
refers to total amount of
dissolved matter,
determined by evaporation;
high concentrations are
objectionable because of
process interference and as
a cause of foaming in
refers to the measure of
undissolved matter,
gravimetrically; deposits in
heat exchange equipment,
boilers, water lines, etc.
refers to the sum of
dissolved and suspended
solids, determined

aeration; coagulation
and filtration; lime
softening; cation
exchange; contact
filtration; surface active
agents for iron retention
same as iron

improved clarifier and

filter operation

deaeration; sodium
sulfite; corrosion
aeration; chlorination;
highly basic anion
cation exchange with
hydrogen zeolite;
chlorination; deaeration
lime softening and
cation exchange by
hydrogen zeolite;
reverse osmosis,

subsidence; filtration,
usually preceded by
coagulation and settling

see "Dissolved Solids"

and "Suspended Solids"

Different process of Treatment:

Aeration is a unit process in which air and water are brought into intimate contact. Turbulence
increases the aeration of flowing streams. The contact time and the ratio of air to water must be
sufficient for effective removal of the unwanted gas.
Aeration as a water treatment practice is used for the following operations:
1. carbon dioxide reduction (decarbonation)
2. oxidation of iron and manganese found in many well waters (oxidation tower)
3. ammonia and hydrogen sulfide reduction (stripping)
Aeration is also an effective method of bacteria control.
METHODS OF AERATION: Two general methods may be used:
1. Water-fall aerator: Through the use of spray nozzles, the water is broken up into small droplets
or a thin film to enhance countercurrent air contact.
2. Air diffusion method of aeration: air is diffused into a receiving vessel containing countercurrent flowing water, creating very small air bubbles. This ensures good air-water contact for
"scrubbing" of undesirable gases from the water.

Iron and Manganese Removal

Iron and manganese in well waters occur as soluble ferrous and manganous bicarbonates. In the
aeration process, the water is saturated with oxygen to promote the following reactions:









4Fe(OH)3 -

+ O2


= 2MnO2


4CO2 -

carbon dioxide



The oxidation products, ferric hydroxide and manganese dioxide, are insoluble. After aeration,
they are removed by clarification or filtration.

Fe-Mn Removal Filter

Quartz sand, silica sand, anthracite coal, garnet, magnetite, and other materials may be used as
filtration media. Silica sand and anthracite are the most commonly used types. When silica is not
suitable anthracite is usually used.

Multimedia filter
Multimedia filter also called as mechanical filter is composed of deep-bed system with multi
layers of media in the tank. The major media to be applied in the system of sand and anthracite.
The lightest and coarsest material is located at the top layer of bed for the removal of the largest
suspended particles, while the heaviest and finest one is located at the bottom layer of bed to
remove smaller one present in the source water.
The sand usually acts as a form of chemical treatment that, when in contact with soluble iron in
water, reduced the iron from the soluble form to an insoluble form that will precipitate out out of
solution. The anthracite then can filter both the precipitated iron out of the solution as well as
other entrained particles that have entered the water source.
Multi-Media Filtration is often used to
Reduce the level of turbidity caused by particulate matter that is suspended in incoming
process feed water from a surface or well.
Prevent larger particulate matter from fouling downstream filtration components
Prevent suspended particulate matter, such as clay, silt, ferric iron, and oxidized
manganese or sulfur, from passing downstream.
The combination of anthracite and sand together can remove a majority of suspended particles
greater than 10 microns in size. After treatment, the SDI is reduced and the turbidity reaches less
than 3 from 20. The systems require backwashing to remove the accumulated contamination of
suspended particles and rinsed by down flow clean filtered water before use in order to extend
bed life.

Activated Carbon Filters

Activated carbon (AC) is a natural material derived from bituminous coal, lignite, wood, coconut
shell etc., activated by steam and other means. Activated carbon surface properties are both
hydrophobic and oleophilic. Carbon is a substance that has a long history of being used to

absorb impurities and is perhaps the most powerful absorbent known to man. One pound of
carbon contains a surface area of roughly 125 acres and can absorb literally thousands of
different chemicals. Activated carbon is carbon which has a slight electro-positive charge added
to it, making it even more attractive to chemicals and impurities.

The Reverse Osmosis Process:

The Reverse Osmosis Process uses a semi-permeable membrane to separate and remove
dissolved solids, organics, pyrogens, submicron colloidal matter, viruses and bacteria from water.
The process is called 'Reverse" osmosis since it requires pressure to force water across a
membrane, leaving impurities to pass to a waste stream. Reverse osmosis (RO) is capable of
removing 95-99% of total dissolved solids (TDS) and 99% of all bacteria, thus providing safe,
purified water.
Reverse Osmosis (RO) operates on the same principal as the semi-permeable membranes present
in every living cell. RO Membranes are permeable only to water molecules, and under pressure,
split a feed water stream into two parts; purified water, called permeate, and the rejected
contaminants, called concentrate. Due to the fact that water fed into an RO is split into two paths,
an RO, unlike other conventional water treatment technologies, may be described in terms of its
efficiency in Recovery of purified water from a contaminated feed water stream.

Ion exchange

Ion exchange is an exchange of ions between two electrolytes or between an electrolyte solution and a
complex. In most cases the term is used to denote the processes of purification, separation, and
decontamination of aqueous and other ion-containing solutions with solid polymeric or mineralic 'ion
Typical ion exchangers are ion exchange resins (functionalized porous or gel polymer), zeolites,
montmorillonite, clay, and soil humus. Ion exchangers are either cation exchangers that exchange
positively charged ions (cations) or anion exchangers that exchange negatively charged ions (anions).
There are also amphoteric exchangers that are able to exchange both cations and anions simultaneously.
However, the simultaneous exchange of cations and anions can be more efficiently performed in mixed
beds that contain a mixture of anion and cation exchange resins, or passing the treated solution through
several different ion exchange materials.

Opeation of Backwash/Acid Cleaning/Regeneration of the Filters:

Periodic washing of filters is necessary for the removal of accumulated solids. Inadequate
cleaning permits the formation of permanent clumps, gradually decreasing filter capacity. If
fouling is severe, the media must be cleaned chemically or replaced.

MMF is also requires Backwashing. The aim of BW to make the sand and anthracite becoming
loose and the suspended matter adhere to the sand and anthracite is rinsed out. Therefore the
MMF returns to a normal condition.
The MMF runtime is designed 12-24 hours (it is varies with different raw water & process
condition). When pressure difference reaches to 0.05 MPa the backwash should be proceeded.
The BW time depends on the discharge turbidity of outlet (become less than 1) and duration not
less than 5 minutes. After BW rinse the filter about 20 mins by the flow rate is 30 m 3/h when the
turbidity of outlet become less than 1.

ACF is also requires Backwashing. After 168 hours continuous design running time and pressure
difference reaches to 0.05 MPa the backwash should be proceeded. The BW time depends on the
discharge turbidity of outlet (become less than 1) and duration 10 minutes at least.
After BW rinse the filter about 20 mins by the flow rate is 50 m3/h when the turbidity of outlet
become less than 1.It is noted that Air wash is also be performed by roots blower for MMF &
ACF before Backwash.

Acid Cleaning of RO system

In normal Operation, the membrane can become fouled by mineral scale, biological matter,
colloidal particles and insoluble organics constituents. Membrane should be cleaned when one or
more of the below mentioned parameters are applicable:

The normalized permeat flow drops 10%

The normalized salt passage increases 5-10%

The normalized pressure drop ( feed pressure minus concentrate pressure) increases 1015%

Citric acid is an organic acid that is often used for removal of calcium carbonate scale and iron
hydroxide. Citric acid is not very effective at removing phosphate salts such as calcium and iron

phosphates. It can not be used to dissolve sulphate scales or silica, and is inefective for biofilm
0.5 % by w of HCl useful for the removing of inorganic scale and metal oxide or hydroxides.
NaOH 0.1% w and Na-DoDecyl sulphate (SDS) 0.03% w useful for the removal of biofilm,
fungi, mold, slime
NaOH 0.1% w useful for the removal of polymerized silica.
Regeneration of Mixed Bed