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CO2

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CO2 Corrosion
CO2 Information
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http://octane.nmt.edu/waterquality/corrosion/CO2.aspx

CO2 Information
Carbondioxidesystemsareoneofthemostcommonenvironmentsintheoilfield
industrywherecorrosionoccurs.Carbondioxideformsaweakacidknownas
carbonicacid(H2 CO3 )inwater,arelativelyslowreaction.However,CO2 corrosion
ratesaregreaterthantheeffectofcarbonicacidalone.Cathodicdepolarizationmay
occur,andotherattackmechanismsmayalsobeatwork.Thepresenceofsaltsis
relativelyunimportant.
CorrosionratesinaCO2 systemcanreachveryhighlevels(thousandsofmilsper
year),butitcanbeeffectivelyinhibited.VelocityeffectsareveryimportantintheCO2
systemturbulenceisoftenacriticalfactorinpushingasweetsystemintoacorrosive
regime.Thisisbecauseiteitherpreventsformationorremovesaprotectiveiron
carbonate(siderite)scale.
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CO2

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Conditionsfavoringtheformationoftheprotectiveironcarbonatescaleareelevated
temperature,increasedpH(bicarbonatewaters)andlackofturbulence.Magnetite
scalesarealsoformedinCO2 systems,andcorrosionproductscalesoftenconsistof
layersormixturesofsideriteandmagnetite.
ThemaximumconcentrationofdissolvedCO2 inwateris800ppm.WhenCO2 is
present,themostcommonformsofcorrosionincludeuniformcorrosion,pitting
corrosion,wormholeattack,galvanicringwormcorrosion,heataffectedcorrosion,
mesaattack,raindropcorrosion,erosioncorrosion,andcorrosionfatigue.The
presenceofcarbondioxideusuallymeansnoH2 embrittlement.Formoreonthe
theoryandmechanismsforeachcorrosiontype,gotothetheorypages
CO2 corrosionproductsincludeironcarbonate(siderite,FeCO3 ),Ironoxide,and
magnetite.Corrosionproductcolorsmaybegreen,tan,orbrowntoblack.
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WhereFound
Asstatedbefore,CO2 corrosionisoneofthemostcommonenvironmentswhere
corrosionoccurs,andexistsalmosteverywhere.
AreaswhereCO2 corrosionismostcommonincludeflowingwells,gascondensate
wells,areaswherewatercondenses,tanksfilledwithCO2 ,saturatedproducedwater
andflowlines,whicharegenerallycorrodedataslowerratebecauseoflower
temperaturesandpressures.Formoreinformationonspecificequipmentcorrosion
issues,refertotheequipmentpages.
CO2 corrosionisenhancedinthepresenceofbothoxygenandorganicacids,which
canacttodissolveironcarbonatescaleandpreventfurtherscaling.
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Prevention/Mitigation
ToreduceorpreventcorrosioninanCO2 environment:
DrillingpHcontrolwithcausticsoda
Producingwellscorrosioninhibitors
Flowlinescontinuouscorrosioninhibitorinjection
Predictionofcorrosion
InsweetgaswellswithapHof7orless,
aCO2 partialpressureof30psiusuallyindicatescorrosion.
aCO2 partialpressureof730psimayindicatecorrosion.
aCO2 partialpressureof7psiisusuallyconsiderednoncorrosive.
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PicturesClickonthumbnailtoseelargerpicture

UniformCorrosion

http://octane.nmt.edu/waterquality/corrosion/CO2.aspx

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PittingCorrosionshowingwormholeattackpattern,
wherepitsareinterconnected.

Galvanicringwormcorrosion,oftenoccurringfourtosix
inchesfromtheupset,wherecarbonparticleshave
beenspheroidized.

Heataffectedzone(HAZ)corrosionisatypeof
galvaniccorrosionwhichoccursalongaweldseam.

Raindropattackoccursingascondensatewells.In
areas,watercondensesonthemetalsurface,causing
deeppitswithtails.

CO2 corrosioninflowingenvironments

MesaattackisaformofCO2corrosionthatoccursin
flowingenvironments,andoccurswhereaprotective
ironcarbonatecoatingiswornawayinareas.

ErosionCorrosion,orflowenhancedcorrosion,usually
occursinareaswherethediameterofthepipeor
directionofflowischanging.Severemetallosscan
quicklyoccur.

Corrosionduetofatigueoccursinareasofcyclic
stresses.Hereweseefatiguecorrosioninadrillpipe.

http://octane.nmt.edu/waterquality/corrosion/CO2.aspx

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PETROLEUMRECOVERYRESEARCHCENTER,SOCORRO,NM87801

http://octane.nmt.edu/waterquality/corrosion/CO2.aspx

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