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Cooling System Calculation Sheet

A sample calculation form demonstrating the step-by-step procedure for


calculating the suitability of a fan-radiator combination is given in chart
(a)
Radiator Flow Evaluation (Refer chart (c))
Purpose To describe the required equipment and the method to
determine de-aeration capability, draw down limits, system capacity, fill
rate, and the expansion space of a cooling system.
1. Equipment Required:
A.
Sight glass (es) sized to fit the engine water outlet
connection(s). Optional: A sight glass to fit the fill line, the line
from the radiator top tank to the suction side of the water pump.
B.
A temperature-measuring device for engine water outlet
temperature.
C.
A pressure gauge scaled from 0-60 psi (0-414 kPa) to measure
engine water pressure.
D.

A standard engine thermostat.

2. Instrumentation Method:
A.
Install sight glass (es) in the engine water outlet
connection(s)
B.
Install the temperature-measuring device in the system where it
can sense engine water outlet temperature, i.e., thermostat housing,
water outlet connection, etc.
C.

(Optional)
Install sight glass in the fill line. Do not change the length
or routing of the fill line when installing the sight glass or its
function may be affected.
D.
Install the pressure gauge in a cylinder block water passage on
the discharge side of the water pump.
(1)
On in-line engines at the rear of the block on the exhaust side
of the engine.
(2)
On Vee engines on either bank at the water header cover
plates.
E.
Corrosion resistor must be shut off or disconnected from the
system to prevent coloring of the water.
3. Test Method:
A.

Water must be clear to detect fine air in the system.

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B.
Completely drain the system and remove and clean the sight glass
(es) to remove any discoloration accumulated during the flushing
process.
When draining the system, care must be taken to assure complete
drainage of the cylinder block, oil cooler, lower radiator hoses, etc.
If necessary, remove hose connections, etc., to accomplish this.
C.
Fill the system with water at the required fill rate until the
fill neck overflows. The required fill rate is the rate required to
fill the system within the minimum time listed on the Engine Data
Sheet but not less than the minimum fill rate also listed. The fill
rate may be monitored by a flow meter or by flowing water into a
container and recording the time required. Flow should be adjusted via
valving to obtain proper rate.
Do not replace the fill cap. This prevents pressurizing the
system, making it easier to observe air in the sight glasses. If a
coolant recovery system is installed, this will render it inoperative,
which is necessary in order to conduct the following tests.
D.

De-aeration Test Method

(1)
Start Engine. (If cylinders block water pressure does not
register in 15 seconds, shut engine down immediately and check for
cause.)
(2)
Run engine at governed speed, no load. Water temperature should
be increased as rapidly as possible. If the radiator is not equipped
with shutters, it should be blocked with cardboard or similar
material.
The thermostat(s) should open shortly. Since there is air in the
system, a marked increase in water flow is visible in the sight glass
when this happens. Note temperature that thermostat(s) open and
record. The water temperature should be maintained between 180 and
190o F (82 and 88 oC for the duration of the run.
(3)
Check sight glass (es) for presence of air every 5 minutes and
record observation.
A flashlight or similar light source should be used to aid in
detecting air. Fine air bubbles otherwise invisible can sometimes be
detected by directing the light beam obliquely to the sight glass. For
purposes of standardization, air size should be described as follows:
Large Air Very large down to BB size. BB(Big Bubble)
Fine Air BB size to pinpoint size.
Clear Traces of pinpoint air to perfectly clear.
Record the time from first start of engine to clear system.
(4)
When the system is clear as observed through the engine water
outlet sight glass (es), add water to the base of the fill neck (up to
but not including the expansion space) and record amount added, to

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nearest 1/4 quart (.24 L). This amount is the volume not filled at
initial fill.
E. Determination of Draw down
With engine running at governed speed no load, water should be
drawn off at a coolant pressure point into a container. At first sign
of air in the engine water outlet glass (es), the drain line should be
closed.
The amount drawn off should be measured to the nearest 1/4 quart
(.24 L) and recorded.
Radiator Ambient Clearance (Refer chart (b))
Radiators are to be sized for ambient temperature configuration, which
are defined as follows:
Limiting Ambient Temperature (LAT) = (Designed Top tank Temperature Observed Top tank
Temperature) + Ambient temperature oC

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Chart (a)
AIR FLOW MEASUREMENT ACROSS ROC:
Engine:

Sl. no :

Fan size:
Engine Speed:

Low Idle:

Fan Speed:
Anemometer: Make-

RADIATOR CORE

OILCOOLER CORE

Core area: Core length X Core width


Average Velocity Across Radiator

m/sec

Average Velocity Across Oil cooler

m/sec

Core Area of Radiator in

m2

Core Area of Oil cooler in

m2

Total Air flow Across Radiator

m3/sec

Total Air flow Across Oil cooler

m3/sec

CFM

CFM

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Chart (b)
COOLING TRIALS
Engine:

Slno:

Fan size:
Engine Speed: High Idle:

low Idle:

Fan Speed:
Note:

#REF!

Engine Thermostat blocked.


Started at:
Sl
no

Time

Engine
rpm

Fan
rpm

Radiator Temp. O C
In
Out

AMB
o
C

Oil Cooler In o C
In
Out

RADIATOR
LAT o C

OIL COOLER
LAT o C

1
2
3
4
5

Stopped at:

Avg:

Limiting Ambient Temperature (LAT) = (Designed Top tank Temperature Observed Top tank
Temperature) + Ambient temperature oC

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Chart (c)

DE-AERATION & DRAW DOWN TEST

Engine Model:

Rating

Sl. no

Cooling Fan

Size

Type

Radiator Sl.no.
Test Date:
Trial
Water Fill rate

LPM

1st Fill time

SEC

1st Fill Volume

LTR

1st Fill Volume Minimum Desired

LTR

>90 of Total System Capacity

Start time
Time @ First Bubble @ Glass tube
Engine water temperature

DEG C

Engine speed

RPM

Time @ Random Bubbles


Time @ Disappearance of Bubbles
De-aeration Time

MIN

<25 MINUTES

Water Pump Inlet Pressure

INCH of H2O

Water Flow rate

GPM

2nd Fill Volume

LTR

Total System Capacity

LTR

Draw down Volume - Measured

LTR

14%

Draw down Volume - Minimum Desired

LTR

>11% of System Capacity


>2nd Fill Volume

Note:
Engine fitted with Regular (Normal) thermostat
Test conducted with Radiator cap open
Glass tube fitted @ Water pump suction line

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