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CHAPTER-1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 COMPOSITE MATERIALS


The possibility of using composite materials for load bearing applications in future
supersonic transport aircraft, where the service temperatures are likely to fall in the range 120
- 150C, has created a need for data on materials at these elevated temperatures. Undetected
impact damage may lead to catastrophic failure and hence determining the ultimate strength
after impact is essential for the safe landing. Elevated temperatures impacts are expected near
the engine of the passenger aircrafts like advanced Airbus series where higher exposure to
composite materials are planned for the fuel economy. Boeing has established a new level of
composites penetration in civil airliners with its 50% plastic B787 Dreamliner. However,
Europes Airbus Industry looks set to trump even this, albeit by a narrow margin, since its
new A350 XWB (extra wide body), now in gestation, is advertised as being some 53%
plastic. Practically the entire A350 wing is a largely composite assembly, though with ribs,
internal frames and certain other sub-structures of metal. The wings beam strength derives
from a central wing box in which two full-spars from the forward and rear faces of the box.
The spars have to be of carbon composite, both for weight saving and so that their coefficient
of thermal expansion matches that of the wings carbon composite outer envelope.

1.2 OBJECTIVE OF THE WORK

To estimate the Residual Strength of CFRP composite laminates subjected to flexural


load at elevated temperatures.

To study the nature and extent of damage due to temperature effect from the Acoustic
emission parameters.

1.3 CARBON FIBRE REINFORCED PLASTIC (CFRP)


The dominant carbon fibres in current use (typically Toray T700) have a tensile
modulus of about 230GPa, a tensile strength of around 5000MPaand a strain-to-failure of 2%.

Unidirectional composites produced from them in either an epoxy or vinyl-ester matrix have
the following typical properties:
Longitudinal tensile modulus: 155165GPa
Longitudinal tensile strength: 25003000MPa
Elongation at break: 1.21.3%
Carbon fibres are available which will give a tensile modulus of about250GPa in a
unidirectional composite, comparing very favourably with steel at about 210GPa. However,
as this composite is unidirectional, it has extremely low modulus in the transverse direction.
The principal attributes of carbon fibre composites are their very high specific stiffness (the
ratio of modulus/density), excellent fatigue and environmental resistance. Currently there are
various pultruded CFRP plates available commercially for plate bonding applications. The
pultruded plates used in the ROBUST Project, as well as the plates manufactured with
prepreg materials, possessed a modulus of about 130GPa and a strength of
1500MPa.Pultruded plates now available from other sources typically exploit fibers with
superior properties such as Toray T700, resulting in composites with the properties shown
above. A financial penalty has to be paid for materials exhibiting properties significantly in
excess of these; the strain-to-failure of composites made with them will also be reduced
significantly.
Carbon and graphite have substantial capability as reinforcing fibers, with great
flexibility in the properties that can be provided. Primary characteristics for reinforcing fibers
in polymer matrix composites are high stiffness and strength. The fibers must maintain these
characteristics in hostile environments such as elevated temperatures, exposure to common
solvents and fluids, and environmental moisture. To be used as part of a primary structure
material it should also be available as continuous fiber. These characteristics and
requirements have substantial implications for the physical, chemical and mechanical
properties of the fiber, which in turn implies processing and acceptance parameters.
Interest in carbon fibers for structural materials was initiated in the late 1950s when
synthesized rayons in textile form were carbonized to produce carbon fibers for high
temperature missile applications. One of the first distinctions to be made is the difference
between carbon and graphite fibers, although the terms are frequently used interchangeably.
Background information for these differences is contained in the following sections. The
primary purpose of making this distinction here is to alert the reader that users may mean
different things when referring to graphite versus carbon fibers.

Carbon and graphite fibers are both based on graphene (hexagonal) layer networks
present in carbon. If the graphene layers or planes stack with three dimensional orders the
material is defined as graphite. Usually extended time and temperature processing is required
to form this order, making graphite fibers more expensive. Because the bonding between
planes is weak, disorder frequently occurs such that only the two dimensional ordering within
the layers is present. This material is defined as carbon. With this distinction made, it should
be understood that while some differences are implied, there is not a single condition which
strictly separates carbon from graphite fibers, and even graphite fibers retain some disorder in
their structure

1.4 EPOXY
The term epoxy is a general description of a family of polymers which are based on
molecules that contain epoxide groups. An epoxide group is an oxirane structure, a threemember ring with one oxygen and two carbon atoms. Epoxies are polymerizable
thermosetting resins containing one or more epoxide groups curable by reaction with amines,
acids, amides, alcohols, phenols, acid anhydrides, or mercaptans. The polymers are available
in a variety of viscosities from liquid to solid.
Epoxies are used widely in resins for prepregs and structural adhesives. The
advantages of epoxies are high strength and modulus, low levels of volatiles, excellent
adhesion, low shrinkage, good chemical resistance, and ease of processing. Their major
disadvantages are brittleness and the reduction of properties in the presence of moisture. The
processing or curing of epoxies is slower than polyester resins. The cost of the resin is also
higher than the polyesters. Processing techniques include autoclave molding, filament
winding, press molding, vacuum bag molding, resin transfer molding, and pultrusion. Curing
temperatures vary from room temperature to approximately 350F (180C). The most
common cure temperatures range between 250 and 350F (120 and 180C). The use
temperatures of the cured structure will also vary with the cure temperature. Higher
temperature cures generally yield greater temperature resistance. Cure pressures are generally
considered as low pressure molding from vacuum to approximately 100 psi (700 kPa).

1.5 LOW VELOCITY IMPACT


Although Fibre-reinforced composite materials such as CFRP is finding increasing
use in a wide range of both low and high technology engineering applications. Composite
materials do, however, suffer some serious limitations. Perhaps the most significant amongst

these is their response to localized impact loading such as that imparted by a dropped tool or
runway debris. In recent years many research programmes have been undertaken in an
attempt to better understand the impact response of these materials. The majority of this work
has been undertaken on continuous fibre, high performance composites since these materials
are finding increasing use in the design of a large number of civil and military aircraft, i.e., in
circumstances where the consequences of impact are likely to be most serious.
In composites, however, the ability to undergo plastic deformation is extremely
limited with the result that energy is frequently absorbed in creating large areas of fracture
with ensuing reductions in both strength and stiffness. Furthermore, the prediction of the post
impact load-bearing capability of a damaged composite structure is more difficult than for
metals since the damage zone is generally complex in nature and consequently very difficult
to characterize. When subjected to low velocity impact loading, fibre reinforced composite
materials such as CFRP are capable of absorbing and dissipating large amounts of energy in a
wide variety of elastic and fracture processes. Up to the point of initial fracture most of the
incident energy of the projectile is absorbed by the elastic response of the structure. The
ability to absorb energy elastically is dependent upon a large number of parameters including
the mechanical properties of both the fibres and the matrix, the fibre/matrix interfacial
strength, the velocity of impinging projectile and the size of the structural component.
The problem is further complicated by the lack of existing standards or established
testing techniques for impact of composite materials. Much of the work published in the
literature has been conducted on purpose-built machines using convenient specimen
geometries. As a result, a direct comparison between different material systems is often very
difficult and immediate conclusions are sometimes hard to draw.
Machines currently used for simulating
the low velocity impact response of composite
materials

include

the

Charpy

and

Izod

pendulums, the falling weight fixtures such as


the Gardner and drop dart tests as well as
hydraulic machines designed to perform both inplane and out-of-plane testing at velocities up to
10 m/s. In this study, drop dart method is
used.The manner in which composite materials
respond to impact loading and dissipate the

incident kinetic energy of the projectile is very different to that of metals. For low and
intermediate incident energies, metals absorb energy through elastic and plastic deformation;
its consequences on the load carrying capability of the component are usually small. At high
incident impact energies target perforation may occur and the passage of the impactor will
generally result cracking. Although such damage will degrade the load-bearing ability of the
structure, its effects can generally be predicted using fracture mechanics principles.

1.6 ACOUSTIC EMISSION (AE)


AE (Acoustic Emission) is considered quite unique among the Non-Destructive
Testing methods. In contrast to other NDT methods, however, AET is usually applied during
loading, while most others are applied before or after loading of a structure. The statement
that AE is a NDT method is certainly true if a material is tested under a working load without
any additional load. On the other hand, AE is often used to detect a failure at a very early
stage, long before a structure completely fails. A more dominant attribute to distinguish the
different NDT techniques is addressing the way the technique is applied and sort of
information that can be obtained. The ultrasound method, for example, is able to detect the
geometric shape of a defect in a specimen using an artificially generated source signal and a
receiver, whereas the AET detects the elastic waves radiated by a growing fracture.
Therefore, the acoustic emission (AE) method should be considered to be a passive non
destructive technique, because it usually identifies defects only while they develop during the
test.

1.6.1 ADVANTAGES OF AE
An advantage of AE techniques, compared to other non-destructive testing
techniques, is that damage processes in materials being tested can be observed during the
entire load history, without any disturbance to the specimen. Ultrasonic analysis techniques,
for instance, have to be applied in conjunction with scanning techniques to detect a defect.
They usually require stopping the loading of a structure.
In contrast, AE studies require under favourable conditions only a few sensors being
able to monitor the AE activity of a structure, provided there are sufficiently strong signals to
cross a threshold called trigger level. The sensors can be fixed to the surface of the specimen
for the duration of the test and do not have to be moved for scanning the whole structure

point by point. Access to both sides of an object, which is necessary for all throughtransmission methods, is not required in AE.

1.7 DYNAMIC MECHANICAL ANALYSER (DMA)


Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) provides an excellent means of characterizing
the properties of polymeric materials, such as elastomer, fibers, composites, thermosets and
thermoplastics. The technique offers the highest inherent sensitivity of any of the thermal
analytical techniques for the detection of weak transitions. DMA provides useful information
on the stiffness and damping or energy absorbing properties of materials as a function of both
temperature and time (frequency).
At temperature below the glass transition temperature, a composite behaves like a
glassy material. At high temperatures, the composite behaves like a viscoelastic material. The
glass transition is often used to identify the temperature range of the glass to viscoelastic
transition.

1.8 IMPORTANCE OF THE PROJECT


1. The composite laminates have low resistance under dynamic loading, particularly
impact loading, which are induced in these materials by created during production,
repair, maintenance, impacts of minor and major objects like runway debris, bird strikes,
dropping tools. These damages can significantly reduce their mechanical properties
2. Moreover the Barely Visible Impact Damage (BVID) caused by low velocity impact (up
to 10m/s) severely reduces the structural integrity of the component.
3. During impact composite can only absorb energy through elastic deformation and
through different damage mechanism such as:
Matrix cracking (ii) De-lamination (iii) Fiber breakage

CHAPTER -2

2.1 LITERATURE REVIEW ON TEMPERATURE EFFECT & IMPACT


[1] Zimmerman, R. S. and Adams, D. F., Impact performance of various reinforced
composites as a function of temperature. In Proceedings of 32nd Int. SAMPE Symposium,
Anaheim, CA, 1987, pp. 1461-1471. This work focus on the impact performance as a
function of temperature. In high-velocity impact study on cross-ply laminates of polyethylene
fibre/epoxy matrix system, it was found that the damage initiation energy doubled when the
temperature was increased from -50C to 100C. In contrast, laminates containing plain
weave fabrics showed very little influence of temperature on the total impact energy required
for complete penetration of the specimen.
[2] Amin Salehi-Khojin, et al, The role of temperature on impact properties of
Kevlar/fiberglass composite laminates, Composites: Part B 37 (2006) 593602. To
determine the energy absorption, impact (8,15,25 J) is carried out at the temperature range of
-50C to 120C.At low energy impact, increasing in temperature results decreases in crack at
the back surface and so that at high temperature crack disappear. At intermediate impact,
increasing in temperature results increase in delamination due to interlaminate bond degrade.
[3] Kwang-Hee I et al, Effects of temperature on impact damages in CFRP composite
laminates. Composite Part B 2001;32:66982. This work focuses on the experimental study
of effect of temperature on impact damages in CFRP. The low or high temperature conditions
also affect the impact behaviours of composite structures. There are a few studies interested
in the impact response of composite materials for various temperature conditions in the
literature, especially, the Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) composites may be
exposed to low or high temperatures, such as air at - 73C to 80C or the space at - 140C to
120C. the influence of temperature variations (30C to 120C ) on matrix cracking and
interfacial delamination damage of CF/epoxy and CF/PEEK composites subjected to impact
loading at low and high temperatures were investigated. It was observed that there is a linear
relation between impact energy and delamination area with change of temperature.

[4] Amal A.M.Badawy, Impact behaviour of glass fibers reinforced composite laminates at
different temperatures,Ain Shams Engineering Journal (2012). The Impact behaviour of
glass 21 fibers reinforced composite laminates investigated at different temperatures and
reported that more impact damaged area was induced in specimens impacted at lower
temperatures than those at higher temperatures. In general, the failure characteristic changed
from fiber pull-out to fiber breakage with increasing the exposure temperature.
[5] Semih Benli and Onur Sayman,The Effects of temperature and thermal stresses on
impact damage in laminated composites, Mathematical and Computational Applications,
Vol. 16, No. 2, pp. 392-403, 2011. Association for Scientific Research. This work focuses
on the experimental study of the effect of temperature on the impact damages on laminated
composites. The results obtained from both thermal stress analyses and impact tests show that
the contribution of thermal stresses to impact damage increases with decreasing temperature
and therefore, the stresses at low temperatures have a significant effect on the impact damage
and impact parameters of unidirectional laminated composites. Besides, it is seen that testing
19 temperature and stacking sequence of the laminated composites have Considerable effects
on impact parameters, specific energy values and damage areas.
[6] B. Alcock, N.O. Cabrera, et al, Effect of temperature and strain rate on the impact
performance on Recyclable All-polypropylene composites. Composites: Part B 39 (2008)
537 547. To determine the energy absorption, impact is carried out at the temperature range
of -50C to 120C and by varying the velocity. The plates produced at the compaction
pressure of 4MPa and temperature of 140C yields, balanced combination of good
mechanical properties & good 20 falling weight performance. The effect of increasing the
impact temperature is much less than increasing the impact speed from 1 to 10 m/s. At -10C,
polypropylene gives lower strain to failure and lower resistance to crack propagation. When
glass transition temperature reached, sudden decrease in modulus with increase in
temperature.
[7] Gomez-del Ro T et al,Damage in CFRPs due to low velocity impact at low
temperature. Composite Part B 2005;36:4150. This work focuses on the experimental study
on damage in CFRP due to low velocity and low temperature impact. The response of carbon
fiber-reinforced epoxy matrix (CFRP) laminates examined at low impact velocity and in low
temperature (at the temperature range of 20 to -150C) conditions. Their results showed the

influence of temperature, ply reinforcement architecture and stacking sequence on the


mechanical behaviour of the CFRP laminates subjected to low velocity impulsive loads.
[8] Samuel I. Ibekwe, et al Impact and post impact response of laminated beams at low
temperatures, Composite Structures 79 (2007) 1217. To determine the energy absorption,
impact is carried out at the temperature range of -50C to 175C and by varying the velocity
form 0.61 to 36.6 m/s. Results shows that specimen impacted at low temperature absorbs
more energy and create more damage than specimen impacted at high temperatures. Damage
area for the unidirectional is larger than cross ply, since cross ply resist low velocity impact.
[9] Lopez-Puente J et al, The effect of low temperatures on the intermediate and high
velocity impact response of CFRPs. Composite Part B 2002; 33:55966. This work focuses
on the effect of low temperature on the CFRP for the intermediate and high velocity impact.
Here the specimens has been analysed for the influence of low temperature (at temperatures
ranging from 25C to -150C) on the damage produced on CFRPs by intermediate and high
velocity impacts. The experimental results showed a clear dependence of damage on
temperature, impact velocity and the type of the laminate.
[10] S. Sanchez-Saez et al, Static behavior of CFRPs at low temperatures, Composites:
Part B 33 (2002) 383390. Their result shows that CFRP with two different stacking (cross
ply and quasi isotropic) has reduction of strength as the temperature decrease in both tensile
and the flexural conditions. Both laminates shows the ultimate tensile strength decreases with
the temperature. At room temperature matrix fails first. As the temperature decreases fiber
debond from the matrix.
[11] S. Snchez-Sez et al Analysis of the dynamic flexural behaviour of composite beams
at low temperature, Composites Science and Technology, Volume 67, Issues 1112,
September 2007, Pages 26162632. In this study, the dynamic flexural behaviour at low
temperatures of beams of three carbon/epoxy laminates is evaluated, analysing the influence
of temperature on the mechanical strength, stiffness and absorbed energy until failure. Three
point bending tests were performed under dynamic conditions at three different temperatures
(20 C, 60 C and 150 C), and the results were compared with those found under static
conditions at the same temperatures. Both the mechanical strength and the absorbed energy

decreased when the temperature diminished in all the laminates. No significant influence of
temperature was noted on the effective flexural modulus.

[12] MaheshV.Hosurm et al, Low-velocity impact response of carbon/epoxy laminates


subjected to colddry and coldmoist conditioning, Composite Structures 79 (2007) 300
311.Results shows that for the specimen subjected to cold-dry conditioning observed to be
having improved response for all energy levels than room temperature. Cold-moist
conditioning specimen exhibits ductility and withstand high peak loads.

2.2 LITERATURE REVIEW ON ACOUSTIC EMISSION


[13] Mahesh V. Hosur et al, Low-Velocity Impact Response of Carbon/Epoxy Laminates
Subjected to Temperature and Moisture Conditioning,Proceedings of the Fifteenth
International Offshore and Polar Engineering conference June 19-24,2005. Woven
carbon/epoxy laminates were subjected to low-velocity impact loading at energy levels of 15,
30 and 45J. Samples were subjected to different temperature and moisture conditioning
before subjecting to impact loading that included cold-dry, cold-moist, heat-dry, thermal
cycling and hygrothermal. Impact parameters like peak load, absorbed energy, time to peak
load and energy at peak load were evaluated and compared. Ensuing damage was measured
on the impact surface as well as the back surface. In general, samples subjected to
conditioning exhibited better impact behavior in terms of the impact parameters and lower
damage sizes as compared to that of room temperature samples.
[14] J.M. Berthelot,J and Rhazi, Acoustic emission in carbon fibre composites,
Composites Science and Technology Volume 37, Issue 4, 1990, Pages 411428. Acoustic
emission analyses have been performed on carbon fibre-epoxy composites in order to
correlate acoustic activity with well-defined fracture processes. Different types of laminates
were studied to discriminate the basic processes of fracture within the laminates. Test
specimens were subjected to three-point flexural tests so as to separate fracture initiation and
propagation. Acoustic emission signals were recorded by digital techniques for off-line
analysis. Results show that during fracture initiation, high amplitude signals are correlated
with fracture processes controlled by fibre rupture, and low amplitude signals with matrix

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fracture. For laminates characterized by major fracture propagation, acoustic emission is


generated by the processes induced by the friction of the fracture surfaces created. This
acoustic activity, associated with abnormally long duration and high amplitude signals,
exceeds the emission generated by the fracture processes themselves.

[15] Igor Maria De Rosa et al, Post-impact static and cyclic flexural characterisation of
hemp fibre reinforced laminates, Composites: Part B xxx (2011) xxxxxx. The suitability for
use of plant fibre composites after an impact event is still an open issue in literature. In this
work, hemp fibre reinforced laminates have been subjected to cyclic flexural tests following
falling weight impact at 12, 16 and 20 J. At these energies, still quite far from penetration,
which was at about 40 J, damage starts to be increasingly apparent on both laminate surfaces.
Post-impact flexural tests have been monitored using acoustic emission. Laminates with a
sufficiently strong fibre matrix interface have been obtained, as revealed from the impact
hysteresis cycles and electron microscopy damage characterisation. However, a quite
significant decrease of flexural properties and an increase of unrecoverable deformation after
cyclical loading were also revealed with growing impact energies, in particular passing from
12 to 16 J.
[16] Qing-Qing Ni and Eiichi Jinen , Fracture behaviour and acoustic emission in bending
tests on single-fiber composites, Engineering Fracture Mechanics Volume 56, Issue 6, April
1997, Pages 779791, 793796. The bending fracture mechanisms and interfacial behavior of
single-fiber composites (s.f.c.) with different fiber surface treatments and embedded fiber
positions were investigated in three-point bending with simultaneous acoustic emission
monitoring. Microfractures occurring at fiber breakages were examined by AE parameters
and observations by a polarized microscope. As a result, it was found that AE signals in a
bulk resin specimen were almost not detected, while many AE events were monitored in the
s.f.c. bending specimens. The number of AE events was in good agreement with the number
of fiber breakages, except for specimens with an embedded fiber near the compressive
surface. Using AE parameters, especially the peak frequency and its power energy obtained
by a power spectrum analysis, failure modes can be identified. A transition of failure mode
from fiber break accompanied by a matrix crack and debonding to buckling is observed when
the stress in the embedded fiber changes from tension to compression.

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[17] C. Santiuste et al,Residual flexural strength after low-velocity impact in


glass/polyestercomposite beams, Composite Structures, Volume 92, issue 1 (January, 2010),
p. 25-30. This work focuses on an experimental study of flexural after impact behavior of
glass/polyester composite beams. The influence of impact energy, beam width, and impactor
nose geometry on the residual flexural strength was evaluated. Two widths of plain woven
laminate specimens were selected. For each specimen width, the geometries of two impactor
noses (Charpy and hemispherical) were chosen to carry out impact tests using a three point
bending device, so that four different test configurations were executed. The residual flexural
strength of damaged specimens, evaluated by quasi static three point bending tests, was found
to depend on the extent of the damage, so that the residual flexural strength was lower in the
specimens in which the damage reached the edges of the beam. For this reason, the residual
strength was lower in specimens impacted with a Charpy nose impactor than in the specimens
impacted with a hemispherical nose impactor. Analogously, the narrower specimens
presented lower residual flexural strength than did the wider ones.
[18] Igor M. De Rosa et al Post-impact damage characterization of hybrid configurations of
jute/glass polyester laminates using acoustic emission and IR thermography,Composites
Science and Technology Volume 69, Issues 78, June 2009, Pages 11421150. In this work,
residual post-impact properties of two configurations of E-glass/jute hybrid laminates are
characterized, both manufactured using a total fibre volume of 50 2% (14 glass fiber layers
+ 4 jute fiber layers). T-laminates included a core obtained by multiple layers of jute between
two Eglass fibre reinforced skins, whilst in Q-laminates single layers of jute fibers were
intercalated at different levels between E-glass fibre reinforced layers. All laminates were
impacted at five levels of energy, from 5 to 15 J, and then subjected to post-impact flexural
tests. The results suggest that T hybrids perform better at low impact energies (up to 10 J),
which do not damage significantly the laminate core. In contrast, Q hybrids are better suited
to withstand extensive damage produced by higher impact energies (12.5 and 15 J), in that
they allow a more effective redistribution of impact damage in the structure. This was
confirmed by acoustic emission (AE) monitoring during flexural loading, which offered
indications on the maximum stress laminates can undergo after impact damage. Pulse IR
thermography yielded information on their mode of failure by visualizing impact-damaged
areas.

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[19] Carlo Santulli, Post-impact damage characterisation on natural fibre reinforced


composites using acoustic emission, NDT & E International Volume 34, Issue 8, December
23 2001, Pages 531536. The present study aims to characterize damage due to low velocity
impact on jute fibre reinforced polyester composites. To attain this goal, a number of post
impact mechanical tests have been carried out, including tensile tests, three-point bending and
indentation, using either a staircase or a continuous loading program. On all these tests
acoustic emission activity (AE) was monitored. The results, compared with damage observed
under an optical microscope, show that AE is able to perform a reliable measurement of the
level of damage also, on a natural fibre reinforced laminate. The main limitations of this
study are owing to the rather low ultimate stress of the material and to the need to apply a
loading to evaluate the damage produced by the impact event.

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CHAPTER - 3
EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
3.1 FABRICATION OF TEST SPECIMENS
3.1.1 MATERIAL USED
CFRP

- Unidirectional Carbon Mat

Epoxy Resin

- LY 556 standard

Hardener

- HY 951 standard

Orientation

- [(00/900 /900/00]3

3.1.2 PREPARATION OF CFRP MAT

Carbon fibers of dimension 500x500mm are cut from the big roll.

12 such carbon fibers are required for preparing a CFRP laminate.

The weight of all the 12 carbon fibers is measured using an electronic weighing
machine.

3.1.3 PREPARATION OF EPOXY RESIN

Epoxy resin equal in weight to that of fiber is weighed and taken separately.

The 1/10th epoxy weight amount hardener is added to the resin.

Then epoxy resin and hardener is mixed thoroughly.

3.1.4 PREPARATION OF UNIDIRECTIONAL CFRP LAMINATES


3.1.4 (a) VACUUM BAG MOULDING PROCESS
For the presented study the vacuum bag moulding process was used.
The manufacturing procedure is as follows:
1. Calculate the number of plies needed to form the laminate of required thickness
(allowance should be made for resin content).
2. Cut the reinforcement (in the present case, the glass and carbon fabric) sheets to
required sizes depending on number of samples needed.
3. Weigh the material.
4. Prepare the matrix (resin-hardener-catalyst-accelerometer-curing-adhesion) mixture.

14

5. Cut the consumables of required size.


a) Peel ply: Peel ply is a Nylon base woven fabric used in the advance composite
industry. Peel plies are placed against the surface of the laminate where rough
surface is required. Normally peel plies leaves the woven impression on the surface
ensuring roughness of the laminate. Peel ply has porous and weave structure which
absorbs the excess resin during curing. It is also used to ensure dirt less, and noncontaminated surface for secondary bonding or painting. There are different ranges
of peel plies available as per different range of curing temperature.
b) Release film: This is a thin plastic with equally spaced perforation and which has
been treated so it wont bond to the laminate. It is highly stretchable so it can
confirm to complex geometries. The perforations might be like pin-pricks, or they
might be small holes which are punched out. The spacing can also vary from two
inches to eight inches. Spacing is chosen based on the amount of resin that needs o
be bled out: wet layups can use close spacing: prepreg manufacturers can
recommend spacing for their particular products: and net-resin systems of course
use imperforated release films.
c) Bleeder: Bleeder is a thick, felt-like cloth. Its purpose is to absorb the excess resin.
d) Breather: This providing a continuous air path for pulling the vacuum. If the bag
wrinkles against the hard laminate, it will trap air. The breather prevents this from
happening. The breather must be thick enough so that it doesnt become fully
saturated with resin. A thick breather is also desirable to keep resin from coming in
contact with the bag or get sucked by the vacuum pump.
e) Bagging Film: It is relatively thick plastic layer which forms the top layer. The
edges of this film are stuck to the tool surface using an industrial sealant. Care
should be taken that there are no leaks.
6. Clean the tool surface with an industrial solvent
7. Apply resin on to the tool surface.
8. Place the peel plies on the resin wetted area and again resin.
9. Place the cut reinforcement ply and apply resin
10. Repeat until all the plies are placed.
11. On the last ply, apply resin and place the peel ply.
12. Cover the above lay-up with the release film.
13. Place the bleeder over the release film.
14. Place the breather cloth over the bleeder.

15

15. Cover the entire setup with the bagging film and seal the end with an industrial
sealant.
16. Connect the vacuum pump for a period of 5 hours.

3.1.5 (a) FABRICATED CFRP LAMINATE


Fabricated specimen of dimension 500x500mm is given below,

Fig. 3.1 Fabricated CFRP Laminate


3.1.5 (b) PREPARATION OF CFRP SPECIMEN
As per the ASTM standard D 790-03 for flexural testing (3-point loading),
Depth - 4.5 mm
Span

- 120 mm

Width - 25 mm
Over hanging at each end (10%span) - 15 mm

Fig 3.2 Flexural Specimen


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So the Required flexural specimen dimension calculated as 150 x 25 x 4.5 mm as per the
ASTM standard. After the 500500 mm laminates preparation, specimens are cut by water jet
cutting as per the dimensions.

3.2. DYNAMIC MECHANICAL ANALYSIS- Tg IDENTIFICATION


Dynamic mechanical analysis of CFRP was performed with DMA (50N 01dB
Metravib) with a dual cantilever mode at a fixed frequency of 1 Hz. The heating rate was
5C/min. Before each measurement, the DMA instrument was calibrated to have the correct
clamp position and clamp compliance. The specimen dimensions were 80 mm 10 mm 4.5
mm. The DMA experiments were carried out in the temperature range from 30 to 180C.
At temperature below the glass transition temperature, a composite behaves like a
glassy material. At high temperatures, the composite behaves like a viscoelastic material. The
glass transition is often used to identify the temperature range of the glass to viscoelastic
transition.

SPECIFICATION OF DMA
Name

: DMA 50N 01dB Metravib

High force

: 50N

Frequency

: 1E-5 to 200Hz

Temperature : -150C to 600C

Fig. 3.3 DMA 50N 01dB Metravib

The material was heated from 30C to 190C with the heating rate of 5C/min for
epoxy carbon fiber composites. The applied constant frequency was 0.5 Hz and the material
were tested using Dual Cantilever Method.

17

3.3 IMPACT TEST


Impact testing is testing an objects ability to resist high-rate loading. An impact test
is a test for determining the energy absorbed in fracturing a test piece at high velocity. The
effect of the impact by a foreign object on the structure is to predict the structures dynamic
response to such an impact. Predictions are made using mathematic model that appropriately
accounts for the motion of the target and the local deformations in the area surrounding
impact point. Repeated impacts caused very quick damage accumulation.
Prepared specimens were tested using a drop weight impact testing machine.

3.3 (a) SPECIFICATIONS OF IMPACT TESTING MACHINE


Model Name : Fractovis plus 7526
Manufacturer: CEAST
Fractovis plus is a falling weight impact tester used for instrumented and noninstrumented test on plates, film specimens and tri-dimensional part according to the
requirements prescribed in the standard ASTM D 790-03 and other equivalent standards.

3.4 (a) Striker View

3.4 (b) Specimen Holder

18

TEST CONDITIONS:
Sample size

: 150254.5mm

Impact velocity

: 2.5 m/s

Clamping Force

: 500 N

Striker (Tub) Size

: 15mm (Hemispherical-diameter)

Operating Temperature

: 30C (Ambient Temperature), 60C, 90C and 120C

Drop weight testing can serve the following purposes:


(i)

To establish quantitatively the effects of stacking sequence, fibre surface


treatment, variations in fibre volume fraction and processing and environmental
variables on the damage resistance of a particular composite laminate to a
concentrated drop-weight impact force or energy.

(ii)

To compare quantitatively the relative values of the damage resistance parameters


for composite materials with different constituents. The damage response
parameters can include dent depth, damage dimensions, and through thickness
locations.

3.4. FLEXURAL TEST


Three types of tests are used to calculate the flexural strength of a material. They are

Biaxial Bending

Three Point Bending

Four Point Bending

Three point bending are predominantly used. In this project work three point bending is
conducted to find the residual strength of the composite material.
Three Point Bending:
In three point bending the sample is placed between to metal supports. A load is
applied at the centre of the sample. Using modern mechanical instron a sample can be three
point bended to failure or stopped after a particular end condition is met. This end condition
could be based on the deflection or load. The load is generally applied at the centre. In this
project work three point bending is conducted to find the residual strength of the composite
material.

19

Fig 3.5 Flexural Testing (Three point bending) with AE Sensor


In order to study the effect of temperature on the residual strength in normal and post
impacted specimens the following procedure is followed:

The Specimens are mounted on the TINIUS OLSEN 100kU Universal Testing
Machine.

The crosshead speed was maintained at a rate of 0.25 mm/min

Then the specimens are subjected to flexural loading under acoustic emission
monitoring using an 8-channel Acoustic Emission setup supplied by Physical
Acoustics Corporation.

3.5 ACOUSTIC EMISSION (AE) TECHNIQUES


When load is applied to a material or structure, small local failures occur which are
accompanied by the release of stored elastic energy in the form of stress waves. By using
appropriate instrumentation, these stress waves can be detected, recorded and processed to
provide information about the failures and to locate their origins. The acoustic emission
(AE) technique involves the detection of elastic acoustic (mostly ultrasonic) energy which is
released by the materials undergoing deformation and fracture processes. Figure 2.22 shows
a schematic diagram of AE operation. The stress waves travel from the source to the sensor
which receives all direct as well as reflected signals. To detect and process the low level
events, it is necessary to use high gain analogue electronics. The received signals may be
recorded for remote or delayed analysis and for storage. There are many different types of

20

sound sources that an AE monitoring system can detect, including crack initiation and
propagation, chemical reaction such as corrosion, micro dynamic events such as twinning,
phase transformations and dislocation movement. The sensors cannot detect a crack that is
not propagating, nor determine the size of cracks. However, with adequate stimuli, AE
techniques can be used to monitor the behaviour of materials in real time and to locate these
emission

sources.

In addition, AE techniques are capable of monitoring the entire system at the same
time, identifying the major failure mechanisms. Major disadvantages include the requirement
for stress, chemical activity or other stimuli to generate the acoustic emission events. Because
of this requirement, stabilised non-moving cracks cannot be detected. This technique has
been extensively used in the proof testing of pressure vessels and beams made with glass
fibre composites; to detect moisture and corrosion in honeycomb sandwich structures; and to
monitor and characterise the damage growth mechanisms in CFRPs under cyclic loading. The
AE technique has also been successfully applied to monitor fibre breakage during the three
point bending tests of CFRPs containing carbon fibres. The AE signals corresponding to fibre
fracture were separated from those due to matrix cracking based on the fast Fourier
Transform (FFT) analysis, and thereby the fibre-matrix bond strength were measured.
Although many attempts have been made to distinguish different failure modes in
CFRPs, interpretation of the results has entailed difficulties arising from the complexity of
the failure processes. This was because many different modes of damage occurred on the
micro- and macro-scales, and at the same time they interacted with each other. It was possible
to distinguish the failure modes by grouping received AE signals according to the energy
level. It was proposed that fibre breakage generated high amplitude events (90100 dB);
matrix plastic deformation and cracking caused primarily midrange amplitude events (6590

21

dB); and low amplitude events (4065dB) were caused by interfacial de-bonding and the
fretting among the existing fracture surfaces.

3.5 (a) AE PARAMETERS AND THEIR DESCRIPTION:

Fig. 3.6 AE Signals


Acoustic Emission: Elastic waves generated by the rapid release of energy from
sources within a material.
Event: A local material change giving rise to acoustic emission.
Hit Data Set: The set of numbers representing signal features and other information,
stored as a result of hit.
Event Data Set: The set of numbers used to describe an event pursuant
Rise Time: The time from an AE signals first threshold crossing to its peak.
Counts: The number of times the AE signal crosses the detection threshold. Also
known as ring down counts, threshold crossing counts.
Energy: The total elastic energy (in the wave) released by an acoustic emission event.
Duration: The time for which an AE signal crosses the threshold first time and for
the last time.
Amplitude: The largest voltage peak in the AE signal waveform; customarily
expressed in decibels relative to 1 microvolt at the preamplifier input.
Peak Definition Time: The function of peak definition time is to enable
determination of the time of true peak of the AE waveform.

22

PDT =

Distance between the sensor


Hit Definition Time: The function of Hit Definition Time is to enable the system to
determine the end of the hit, close out the measurement processes and store the
measured attributes of the signal.
Hit Lockout Time: The function of Hit Lockout time is to inhibit the measurement of
reflections and late arriving parts of the AE signal.

3.5 (b) WAVE VELOCITY STUDY:

Velocity study involves finding out the velocity with which the wave travels in the
test structure.
Initially the sensors are fixed at two locations in the specimen.
High vacuum grease is applied on the sensor and then fixed using tape.
The distances between the two sensors are measured.
Velocity study is done using Hsu-Nielson source (pencil lead break).
The test is performed at various locations within the sensors.
Then the velocity is calculated using the formula,

Velocity =


Time interval at which signal is detected

From the calculations, it has been observed that the wave velocity for the used
material is 4500 mm/s
Peak Definition Time (PDT) can be calculated by

PDT =

Distance between the sensor


80mm

PDT = 4500 mm /s = 0.01777s

23

Table 3.1 AE Hardware Settings


ACOUSTIC EMISSION (AE WIN) SOFTWARE SETTINGS
SAMPLING RATE

3 MSPS

PRE-AMPLIFIER GAIN

40DB

THRESHOLD DETECTION

45DB

TYPE OF SENSOR

R 15 D PAC

COUPLANT

HIGH VACCUMM GREASE

PEAK DEFINITION TIME

17s

HIT DEFINITION TIME

150s

HIT LOCK OUT TIME

300s

Monitoring of AE signals generated from flexural test is done by an acquisition system.

The signals were detected using two R15 D piezoelectric transducers, which are
attached to the specimen surface using high vacuum grease as a couplant and fastened
by tape.

The signals from the transducer passed through PAC 2/4/6 G/A pre-amplifier before
reaching the main unit.

Wave velocity test is performed on the specimen and wave velocity is calculated.

The wave velocity of UD CFRP composite is found to be approximately 4500 m/s

Next the sensors are connected to the 8-channel AE data acquisition system.

UTM is switched ON and the flexural load is applied.

Various AE parameters such as Amplitude, Counts, Energy, Rise, and Duration are
recorded during the test. Then the datas are proceed for wave analysis.

24

CHAPTER-4
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
4.1 INTRODUCTION
To investigate the effect of temperature on the specimens, the post and pre impacted
specimens were subjected to the flexural testing and Acoustic emission monitoring. The
results were discussed as follows.

4.2 DMA RESULTS


The CFRP specimen is subjected to the Dynamic Mechanical Analysis, to identify the
glass transition temperature. Glass transition temperature is the temperature value at which
the sudden drop in the stiffness of the specimen occurs. This was useful in identifying the
range of temperature need to be gone for impact.

Fig.4.1 Temperature (T), Storage Modulus (E'), Tan delta vs Time


From the fig.4.1, it is observed that the Storage Modulus (E') of the specimen drops
nearly 158C and it can be considered as a glass transition temperature for the specimen. The

25

impact test at elevated temperature was being carried out between the glass transition
temperature value.

4.3 IMPACT TEST RESULTS


Impact test was carried out for unidirectional cross ply specimens at the elevated
temperatures (30C, 60C, 90C and 90C) using Fractovis impact machine at a constant
velocity of 2.5 m/s. A minimum of 3 specimens were tested under each testing condition. The
Parameters like Peak force, Total Energy, Deformation, and Velocity with respect to time
were noted down.
Table 4.1 Impact Test Results
TEMPERATURE

PEAK FORCE

PEAK ENERGY

DEFORMATION

(C)

(N)

(J)

(mm)

1572.853

3.859

1.000

1406.870

4.114

1.443

1740.060

3.825

0.790

1000.795

4.501

1.871

977.521

4.551

1.794

1143.503

4.472

1.574

848.287

4.979

2.789

973.846

4.760

2.529

889.936

4.744

2.127

842.775

5.183

3.946

866.049

5.217

2.566

861.149

5.161

3.769

30

60

90

120

26

4.4 TOTAL ENERGY VS TIME


The total energy absorbed by the specimen over a period of time has been recorded and the
plot has been made.

Fig 4.2 Total energy vs Time


4.5 CONTACT FORCE VS TIME

Fig 4.3 Contact Force vs Time

Energy-Time traces for CFRP specimens subjected to impact at elevated temperature


are illustrated in the fig 4.2. It shows the variation of energy with respect to the time. As the
temperature increases the energy absorbed by the specimen also increases. It clearly shows
that the energy progressively grows until the maximum displacement is reached (the

27

maximum energy level is equal to the initial kinetic energy of the impactor) then energy
progressively decreases until the impactor detaches until the impactor detaches from the
plate. It is reasonable to suppose that from this point to the end of the test specimen does not
dissipate energy any further, only releasing the residual part of the elastic energy stored
during the penetration of the impactor.
Contact Force -Time traces for CFRP specimens subjected to impact at elevated
temperature are illustrated in the fig 4.3. It shows that the temperature increases with the
contact force. The overall curves can be approximately divided in to two parts at the
maximum impact force. The first part is predominantly related to damage initiation. There is
a linear increase of force with the time at the start of loading, indicating the purely elastic
response of the specimen and no damage is expected to occur if the impact loading is
terminated at this stage. The second part is mainly associated with damage propagation in
which the force has a monotonically decrease with increasing the time.

4.6 TOTAL ENERGY VS TEMPERATURE

Energy vs Temperature
6
5

Energy (J)

4
3
2
1
0
0

20

40

60

80

Temperature (C)

4.4 Energy vs Temperature

28

100

120

140

4.7 CONTACT FORCE VS TEMPERATURE

Contact Force vs Temperature


600

Contact Force (MPa)

500
400
300
200
100
0
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

Temperature (C)

4.5 Contact Force vs Temperature

Fig 4.4 shows that the absorbed energy increases with increases in temperature.
Absorbed energy is inversely proportional to residual strength. Hence the residual strength
decreases.
Fig 4.5 shows that the ultimate force decreases with increase in temperature. The
percentage reduction in contact force subjected to impact at 60C, 90C and 120C, when
compared with impacted specimen at ambient temperature were 23.08, 32.16 and 40.24%
respectively.

4.8 FLEXURAL TEST RESULTS


The residual strength of impact specimen was calculated by subjected it to three point
bending test. In three point bending bending test, a specimen was subjected to load at where
the drop weight impact tested which is normally mid span of the specimen and maximum
load was obtained for non impact and repeated impacted composite laminate. And the datas
like stress, strain, flexural modulus, force and deformation values were obtained. Ultimate
strength and the flexural modulus can be calculated using the formula,

29

=
=

----------(1)

3
2 2

-----------(2)

4 3

Where,

= Stress in outer fibres at midpoint, (MPa)


= Flexural modulus of elasticity, (MPa)
P = Load at a given point on the load deflection curve, (N)
L = Support span, (mm)
b = Width of test beam, (mm)
d = Depth of test beam, (mm)
m = The gradient (i.e., slope) of the initial straight-line portion of the load deflection curve,
(P/D), (N/mm)

Table - 2

ULTIMATE FORCE

ULTIMATE STRENGTH

(N)

(MPa)

Normal Specimen

654.280

230.6833

Impacted at 30C

478.840

178.5367

Impacted at 60C

368.323

133.2633

Impacted at 90C

324.850

122.5267

Impacted at 120C

286.135

109.9600

TEMPERATURE

30

4.9 STRESS VS STRAIN

4.6 Stress vs Strain

Stress - Strain curve for post and pre impacted specimen are illustrated in the figure
4.6. Flexural strength decreases as the temperature of the impacted specimen increases. This
trend observed in the specimens impacted at elevated temperature (30 C, 60C, 90 &
120C) and non-impacted specimen.

4.10 FLEXURAL STRENGTH VS TEMPERATURE

Ultimate Stress vs Temperature

Ultimate Stress (Mpa)

250
200
150
100

2.5 m/s

50
0
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

Temperature (C)

4.7 Flexural Strength vs Temperature (Present Evaluation)

31

Ultimate Strength vs Temperature


Ultimate Strength (MPa)

700
600
500
400
300

1.5 m/s

200

2 m/s

100
0
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

Temperature (C)
Fig 4.8 Comparison of the Ultimate strength variation with temperature reported here
and Anand Shankars Report.
Figure 4.7 represents the variation of the flexural strength as a function of
temperature. It can be seen that the flexural strength presents a slight reduction from ambient
temperature up to 120C. Even though the flexural strength varies with temperature, the
reduction in flexural strength is less when compared with ambient temperature. The
percentage reduction in specimen subjected to impact at 30, 60, 90 and 120C temperature
with respect to non-impact specimen are 27, 45.45, 50.94 and 55.022 % respectively. For
temperatures to 120C, the failure mode was similar to that observed at ambient temperature:
delamination and tensile rupture of the fibres without any clear visual influence of resin
softening and decomposition. For temperature equal to and above 158C, the tensile rupture
of the fibres was somewhat affected by resin softening and decomposition: in fact, although
failure was also governed by the fibres tensile strength, it was possible to identify a high
volume of broken and tensioned loose fibres prior to failure.
Fig. 4.8 represents the variation of the flexural strength with respect to temperature. It
clearly shows that the Flexural Strength increases as the temperature increases and drops at
90C. From these two results, we can clearly understand that the Strength decreases with
impact velocity irrespective of thickness.

32

4.11 ACOUSTIC EMISSION RESULTS


From the AE data it is possible to detect the failure modes in the specimen. The AE
data parameters such as amplitude, peak frequency, duration and time were obtained.
Amplitude and duration graphs were plotted against time for all the three category specimens
impacted at different temperature. Similarly Peak Frequency and Cumulative counts graphs
were plotted. Based on the peak frequency, amplitudes and duration ranges, the different
failure modes can be characterized.

4.12 CUMULATIVE COUNT, PEAK FREQUENCY VS TIME


From the AE data acquired during three point flexural test, Time vs. Peak frequency and
cumulative counts were plotted for all the specimens.

Three ranges of frequency have been observed from the plot as 75 kHz to 155 kHz,
158 kHz to 200 and above 205 kHz.

The frequency range from 75 kHz to 155 kHz corresponds to Matrix failure.

The frequency range from 158 kHz to 200 kHz corresponds to De-lamination.

The frequency range above 205 kHz corresponds to Fibre breakage.

4.13 AE PLOTS
The plots of Amplitude, duration vs. Time & Peak Frequency, Cumulative Counts vs.
Time have been compared between the normal and temperature impacted specimens.

4.14 TIME VS PEAK FREQUENCY AND CUMULATIVE COUNTS NON IMPACTED SPECIMEN

4.9 Time vs Peak Frequency and Cumulative Counts Non-impact

33

4.15 TIME vs PEAK FREQUENCY AND CUMULATIVE COUNTS


AMBIENT (30C) IMPACTED

4.10 Time vs Peak Frequency and Cumulative Counts impacted at 30C

4.16 TIME VS PEAK FREQUENCY AND CUMULATIVE COUNTS


IMPACTED AT 60C

4.11 Time vs Peak Frequency and Cumulative Counts impacted at 60C

34

4.17 TIME VS PEAK FREQUENCY AND CUMULATIVE COUNTS


IMPACTED AT 90C

4.12 Time vs Peak Frequency and Cumulative Counts impacted at 90C

4.18 TIME vs PEAK FREQUENCY AND CUMULATIVE COUNTS


IMPACTED AT 120C

4. 13 Time vs Peak Frequency and Cumulative Counts impacted at 120C

35

Table - 3
FAILURE PERCENTAGE
TEMPERATURE
Matrix
Cracking

De-lamination

Fiber breakage

Normal (Non Impacted)

93.856

0.502

5.54

Ambient (30C)

98.06

0.165

0.75

(60C)

98.57

0.114

0.65

(90C)

98.70

0.065

0.90

(120C)

98.89

0.260

0.65

AE RESULTS
From AE data acquired,

Three ranges of frequency have been observed from the plot as 75 kHz to 155 kHz,
158 kHz to 200 and above 205 kHz.

The frequency range from 75 kHz to 155 kHz corresponds to Matrix failure.

The frequency range from 158 kHz to 200 kHz corresponds to De-lamination.

The frequency range above 205 kHz corresponds to Fibre breakage.

36

SUMMARY

The percentage reduction in flexural strength at 60C, 90C, 120C with respect to
ambient condition is found to be less.

The residual strength of the specimens impacted at a velocity of 2.5 m/s at elevated
temperature is slightly lower than the ambient impacted specimen. The trend of slightly
decreasing in strength of the specimens as impact temperature increases observed.

When the impact temperature reaches near the glass transition temperature, the
specimens absorb higher energy even though it deforms higher. And the drop in residual
strength also observed. A further investigation has to do at the near glass transition
temperature effect in the next phase of the project.

Three ranges of frequencies have been observed from the Acoustic Emission results.

A further investigation is required to characterize the effect of temperature in AE


parameters and the Frequency range.

37

FUTURE WORK

1. Conduct the test on CFRP laminates by varying the thickness, to identify the exact
range of failure frequencies.
2. Conduct the impact at further different range of temperatures and flexural testing.
3. Investigate the temperature effect at near glass transition temperature.
4. Conduct Ultrasonic C scan over the impacted specimens, to identify the damage
propagation due to impact at elevated temperature.

38

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40