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TELUGU

GRAMMAR.

SECOND EDITION.

WORKS PUBLISHED BY MR BROWN.

A Grammar of the Telugu Language. First Edition, 1840. Second edition, 1857.
English-Telugu Dictionary.
Telugu-English Dictionary.
Dictionary of Mixed Telugu, and the language used in business.
Telugu Reader -. being a first book in the language : with English Translation,
Grammatical Analysis, and Little Lexicon.
English Irregular Verbs explained in Telugu.
Telugu and English Dialogues, with Grammatical Analysis. These have also
been printed in Tamil : and in Kannadi.
The Vakyavali, or Exercises in Idioms : English and Telugu. This has also
been translated into Hindustani.
Telugu Disputations on Tillage business.
NOTEThe above hooks are all that the learner requires. The volume of
Histories must be added, when complete.
The Verses of Vemana : with an English Version. Printed in 1829.
Essay on Telugu Literature.
Zillah Dictionary ; a Glossary in the English Character.
The Proverbs of Solomon and the Book of Psalms : in Sanscrit metre :
reprinted in the Telegu character from the Calcutta edition.
Three Treatises on Mirasi Bight, by Ellis, Blackburne and Munro.
The Tale of Nala : and the Adventures of Harischandra ; in Telugu metre.
The Tales of Nala and of Savitri in Sanscrit : from the Mahabharat.
Cyolic Tables of Hindu and Musulman Chronology.
An Ephemeris, shewing the corresponding dates according to the English,
Hindu (Telugu, Tamil, and Malayalam) and Mahomedan Calendars from
A.D. 1751 until 1850, with Table of events : and explanatory Preface, 600
pages royal octavo.
Memoirs of Hyder Ali Bahadar, and his son Tippoo Sultan, translated from
Marata into English.

LEFT READY FOR PUBLICATION.


Telugu Histories and Tales, with "a Translation : being a continuation of the
Reader.
A Telugu Translation of the Holy Bible.
The Book of Common Prayer, in Telugu.
Shasan' A'nus'asan Icam ; Chronological Tables, of Indian History : in Telugu.
The Hitopadesa, in Sanscrit, with explanatory notes in Telugu.
Various volumes for the School Book Society.
Editions of Telugu Poems, with commentaries and Indexes.

GRAMMAR

OF THE

TELUGU

LANGUAGE

BY

CHARLES

PHILIP

BROWN,

Late of the Madras Civil Service, Teluou Translator to Government


Member of the late College Board,
Author of the Teluou Dictionart, and other works.

SECOND EDITION:
Much Enlarged and Improved.

MADRAS:

PRINTED AT THE CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE SOCIETY'S PRESS,


AND SOLD IN LONDON BY
WH. H. ALLEN AND CO., 7, LEADENHALL STREET.
1857.

flHBI.!OTfflECA|
RKGIA

PREFACE.

The English Government of Madras extends over various Hindu


nations, each of which has its peculiar language. At the date of
the Musulman invasion, eight centuries ago, while Canute ruled
Britain, the Telugu, Karnataca (Carnatic), and Tamil countries
were ruled by "Karnataca Razulu," Kings of the Carnatic, who
took the title Tribhuvana Chacravarti (or Trailokya Malla), as
" Lords of the Three Realms," in which these three languages
were spoken. The last of these princes, named Betteda Raya,
quitted the Jaina sect, and becoming a worshipper of Vishnu
(in A.D. MCXI., about the time of Henry the First of England),
took the title Betteda Vishnu Vardhana. He patronized the
Bramhans, and in his days the first part of the Mahabharat
(their sacred book) was translated from Sanscrit into Kannadi,
Telugu, and Tamil metre. That work is to this day read in every
village throughout the country. The earliest poems and philo
logical treatises (now somewhat antiquated) are believed to have
been written in the days of this raja. Actuated by a zeal for their
hierarchy, the Bramhans of former ages translated this "Iliad
of India," and also the Ramayan and Bhagavat, into every
language.
About the time when, in England, Queen Elizabeth's reign
began, the Telugus were ruled by Krishna Riiyalu, who patro
nized literature ; and the most eminent of the poets have sung his
praises. But the Musulman power had gradually increased until
about A.D. 1580, when the Telugus were finally conquered. From
that time the languages of the three countries became more and
more infested with foreign words ; the literature was, as far as
possible, crushed ; and yet to this day every work of merit sur
vives : these may be seen in a library which I collected, and pre
sented to the Literary Society of Madras. It will, I hope, long
remain in the College Library, although, while I write, the College
has been dissolved.
C. P. Brown's Telugu Grammar ; Second Edition.

ii

PREFACE.

The Musulman rulers strove to make their subjects learn Per


sian and Hindustani, but with little success : and the fewHindus who managed to learn Hindustani (which they never could
pronounce aright) altered its syntax, and hence arose the lan
guage called Dakhini, which gives the words a peculiar arrange
ment.
Each language of Southern India has (like English) a poetical
dialect, which uses the entire vocabulary ; and a colloquial style,
which requires only.about one-fourth of the phrases. Some have
fancied that the poets use a separate vocabulary ; but this is not
the case. To exemplify this in English : the words " Horse,
courser, steed, nag, palfrey, hunter, pony, barb, jade, hack, bay,
roan, grey""To think, reflect, consider, ponder, muse, weigh"
are all one; but the Hindti, understanding the first word alone,
may fancy the rest obsolete, merely because they are not used in
ordinary life.
While the language used in the poets is uniform, local dialects of
Telugu vary ; and we may be able to speak that of Kadapa, while
unable to understand that of Raja-mahendra-varam, or Condapilli,
or Visakha-patnam. But, for the purposes of mere tuition, now
that the " Reader" is printed, a native of any part of the Telugu
country will suffice for a tutor : indeed at Chittoor, and even at
Tanjaur and Trichinapali, in the heart of the Tamil country, I met
with Telugu bramhans who were excellent assistants. But, while
young in the study, we should, as soon as possible, get rid of a
tutor who can speak English : such a munshi is apt to neglect
teaching, while he eagerly learns English from his pupil. In
hiring servants, also, though such as talk English abound, we
should early obtain such as will speak to us in Telugu. After we
speak the language correctly, it is an indulgence to those around
us to converse with them in English, for this benefits them.
Hindu grammarians, like those of China, neglect the colloquial
dialect, which they suppose is already known to the student, and
teach only the poetical peculiarities. They are willing to aid our
studies, either in Telugu poetry or in Sanscrit ; they are reluctant
to teach us the language of common business : but unless we first
surmount this, the lowest step (which natives attain untaught)
how can we climb to the highest ? A shrewd critic has observed,

PREFACE.

iii

that " those who explain the poets have in all ages fallen into one
common error : they have illustrated and magnified themselves
first, and have given less thought to the work in hand."* The
same want ofjudgment is evident in the course which native tutors
recommend. Instead ofordinary dialogues, tales, trials, letters, and
histories, Telugu assistants counsel us to read the venerated Srj
Bhagavat(as a pious act), and the prose Telugu Ramayan, one or two
books of the Mahabharat, the Sanscrit vocabulary by Amara, the
versified set of Telugu synonymes called Andhra-Bhasha-Bhushanam, or the treatises on grammar written by Nannaiia Bhatta
and Appa Cavi.f Happily for me I never read one of these books
until I had already (about the age of twenty-seven) acquired a
command of the spoken Telugu.
I will mention some of the poems which seem profitable to the
proficient. He may begin with a perusal of the verses of Vemana.
These are useful as teaching a variety of common expressions.
Such a series of verses is called a Satacam, or Anthology. A few
of these little volumes are the works of accurate poets: others are
merely juvenile essays. Next he should read the Lila, written in
(dwipada,) couplets, and the Chenna Basava Puranam, which is
written in " padya-cavyam," or stanzas. These two are disagreeable
to Bramhans, as being heretical. He may then proceed to the four
different poems on Harischandra's adventures, quoted in the
dictionary as HK, HN, UH, and HD. He may then read the
Abhimanya Dwipada and the adventures of Kalapurna, finishing
with the Dasavatara Charitra and the Pancha Tantram. These
poems have all been carefully edited, and fitted with elaborate
commentaries framed in Telugu under my directions. Silly prose
abridgements of the Pancha Tantram, and of the Vicramarca
Tales have long been read by students, but are unprofitable.
Some who have not studied Hindu books speak of them as
licentious ; but there is more vice in Ovid's Metamorphoses, in
Congreve's plays, and in Lesage's romances, than will easily be
found in all Hindu literature.
* Huet, Preface to his Delphin edition of Virgil.
t These unprofitable books are still, in 1856, taught to native pupils in the
Madias University.

iv

PREFACE.

Our learned assistants will disapprove the course of reading I


have marked out: they zealously recommend books (especially
the Bhagavat) which would soon discourage the student. A perusal
of the volumes they venerate is considered an act of homage to the
gods, conferring merit on the teacher and on the learner. But the
Bramhans are excellent instructors, patient, humble, and admi
rably skilful. Until I had studied the poems with them for seven
years, I did not perceive how perfect they are in learning.
Students were formerly examined, at the Madras College, in a
manner not quite fair. The papers laid before them were new,
never before seen. This was done, I believe, by the native
examiners, who are fond of tormenting the aspirant. In the Telugu
Dialogues, Reader, Wars of the Rajas, Tales, and Village Dispu
tations, I have endeavoured to furnish a series of exercises and
examination papers for every grade. The student ought, I think
to be examined in these books alone, until he has completely
mastered them; and afterwards he should read Vemana.
Native tutors urge us first to learn the very subjects which I
have placed at the end of the work. The native method is
followed by Mr. A. D. Campbell, in his " Teloogoo Grammar,"
an accurate, though very imperfect work, too intricate to aid the
beginner. Mr. Campbell died in London, on the 23rd April,
1857.
Some absurdities, very dear to native tutors, call for notice,
because they obstruct the progress of the learner. The alphabet,
if counted in one way, contains so many letters, and if counted in
another way, so many ; certain letters are Sanscrit, and others are
Telugu; some being common. These idle refinements furnish
themes for wrangling. The verbs, also, are put through useless
forms, thus ; 'pamputa' To send, and ' cheyuta', To do, make
the passives pampabaduta, and cheya-baduta ; the causals being
'pampinpi', ' cheyingu' and the middle * pampu-co' ' chesu-co.'
Thus far is useful, but the tutors next propose fanciful forms
which never occur, such as ' pampin^u-co-baduta. When we
object that such phrases are never heard, the absurd answer is that
they are possible. In the alphabet, too, every native tutor is apt
to teach combinations of letters, such as lkha, sba, vpha, yra, khpa;
and when we have acquired them, we find we have taken fruitless

PREFACE.

trouble, for these never occur. But the art of tormenting is


carried to its highest pitch in teaching prosody ; for they would
gladly keep us at work for two years in learning as much as an
English tutor would teach in a fortnight. We ask for grain :
they give it us on the condition that we will, with it, submit to eat
the straw. Their memory is well exercised, their judgment is
fettered; and they counsel us to learn, as they do, long vocabularies
by rote, whereas by reading the poets we can easily acquire an
ample stock of all the words that are in use. Such unwise counsels
have disheartened many a student; while others, more submissive,
have stored their memories with all the tutor prescribed, and yel
remained unable to use the language.
Telugu has been called the Italian of India. In the poems, and
as spoken in retired villages, it may merit this name ; but, like
Italian, it has some rough and rude dialects, more or less mixed
with foreign languages. In another point there is a resemblance.
Learned men of Rome or Naples, who know English, prefer
writing in English, because, according to the refined Della
Cbusca rules, they cannot write Indian faultlessly. In like
manner the learned Telugus of our days find a difficulty in writing
correct ordinary prose, because, however well it may be composed,
critics cavil at many expressions or modes of spelling. After some
study, I found it best to neglect their refinements, but to imitate
their example closely in speaking and writing. The models I have
given in the Reader of a simple natural style will enable the learner
to judge for himself.
Many years have passed since the first edition of this Grammar
was printed. In that period I have re-composed nearly every page;
particularly attending to the remarks made by students.
Let not the beginner be alarmed at the size of this Grammar.
There is very little to be learnt by heart. The grammar terminates
with the tenth book,* page 291. He should read it so as to be able
to find such rules as are required whenever they are wanted, and
few of these seem hard to remember.
Some have urged me to simplify the grammar, by rectifying
* The first book has heen already reprinted in large octavo, with improve
ments, and prefixed to the Dictionary.

PREFACE.
irregularities. But innovations can only be made by poets ; and
even such as they make do not always become current. My
province was merely to observe, record, arrange, and explain facts,
and to produce quotations in proof of my statements. A few years
ago I was shown a manuscript Grammar, which was professedly
an improvement of that I first published; but in reading it I found
that the author had merely inserted all that I had rejected, and
excluded such rules as were new, restoring the arrangement which
I disapproved.
Failing health having obliged me to return to England while
this work was in the press, the latter pages contain some errors ;
but there are none which will impede the progress of the student.*
If, in the arrangement of the rules, I have taken a new course,
it is because my great object has been to facilitate self-instruction,
making the learner independent of oral aid. " Every man (says
Parkhurst, in the Preface to his Greek Dictionary), who has
thought much upon so curious and extensive a subject as grammar,
may justly claim some indulgence to his own notions, and be allowed
his own peculiar method of communicating them to others." This
discretion may be profitably exercised when we have to examine
principles which are well understood by the commonalty, but
are obscured by refinements invented by the learned.
Our earliest English Grammars were arranged on the Latin
system; and the oldest grammatical treatises on Telugu were con
structed on the Sanscrit plan, though the two languages are radi
cally different. The native grammarians of the present day are
fond of the expression that " Sanscrit is the mother ;" but this does
not allude to its origin; it merely denotes dependance, because we
cannot speak Telugu without using Sanscrit words.
Some learned or half-learned natives find fault with the arrange
ment I introduced. Hitherto every path was overgrown with gay
weeds of pedantry, w7hich I have cleared away. While preparing
a second edition, I have been exhorted to replace some of the
riddles which they venerate, and which, in their eyes, render the
science mysterious. But it is to be observed that the learned
* In London I prepared the preface and sent it printed to Madras ; but the
packet was not received, and I therefore re-printed it, with some improvements.

PREFACE.

vii

have passed over in silence many points which called for clear
elucidation.
Some have wished me to exclude all notices of errors and
blemishes in style ; but how is the sailor to shun shoals and sands
unless they are pointed out in the chart? The poet (in 2 Henry IV.,
act 4, scene 4) observes that
" The prince but studies his companions
Like a strange tongue ; wherein to gain the language,
'Tis needful that the most immodest word
Be look'd upon, and learn'd: which once attain'd,
Your highness knows, comes to no further use
But to be known and hated."
Unless we read their books, and have daily communications with
the Hindus, what insight can we obtain into the minds of the people ?
We have no intercourse with them in society : we live among
them, as oil upon water, without mingling.* Many an English
man has been acquainted with the natives for years, while remaining
entirely ignorant of the peculiarities of the Hindu character.
Missionaries seek and enjoy greater facilities ; and such as have
studied the poems acknowledge that books are the best guides to an
acquaintance with the mind of the people. Some have severely
judged the Hindus from the stories contained in Sanscrit poems ;
but these are obsolete, and widely different from modern traits of
character. In like manner the prejudices of Hindus regarding
ourselves, can only be removed by a course of English reading.
We are well aware that an Englishman residing in France,
Spain or Germany, must become acquainted with the favourite
volumes of Rousseau, Calderon, or Goethe, before he can converse
idiomatically, or enter into the feelings of those around him. And
experience proves that the true key to those modes of thought, and
peculiarities of expression which in India occur daily, can be
found only in the classics of India.
* This was written before the Sepoy mutiny broke out in 1857.

STAATSniDLIOTHKK
I MUCNCHENv

CONTENTS OF GRAMMAR.
BOOK FIRST.
On Orthography p. 1. Alphabet 6. Vowels 8. Forms of initial
vowels in Dictionary and in use 18. Consonants 19. On Sunna
and Half Sunna 28. Caution to native tutors 32. Dialects 33.
Accent 34. Mode of enunciation 35. Contractions used in writing
36. On Coromandel 36. Majors and Minors 39. Numerals 40.
On Softening Initials 41. On lengthening final vowels 43. Elision
44. Changes in the last syllable, *&>|<S 45. On Terminations
in NI and NU 46. On uncertainty in spelling 47. On 'Termi
nations in a) Sj, 47.
BOOK SECOND.
On the Noun 49. First Declension 51. $J&^, s&>o3sr'o)
Second Declension 53. Xi^sSn.
^o-g5S 54. &!S8&3 54. 8$sfa> 55.
Third Declension 56. First class
57. Other nouns
58.
sS-P^- 59.
Second class 'a* 5$^ &c. 60.
Third class
&c. 62.
Fourth class
&c. 62. Neuter Numerals 63.
Fifth class tctom &c. 64.
Sixth class 'Spk 64.
Seventh fT[& 65.
Eighth -5-e 65.
Same plural used for two nouns/ 66. Foreign words 66.
BOOK THIRD.
Pronouns 68. Of First person 68. Second 69. Third person
69. Adjective Pronouns 74. Defective nouns 76. Adjectives 79.

CONTENTS.
BOOK FOURTH.
On the Verb 81. Principal parts 83. Radical forms 84. Silent
Roots 84. Infinitive forms 85. Participles 86. Tenses 87. "Rules
of Formation." Formation of the Negative verb 93.
First Conjugation 94. *So^)t>.
s$)^)tj 97. f**J 100. rfrii 103. Middle Voice *So^)"jSofc>
105.

108. Passive voice sfr6^ 111.


114. "fc>,
117. ?ew<o4> 120. ET'eMfci "Can." 123. ~$&>, Can. 123.

-jSooyj Can. 123. Second Conjugation 124. &cs&>fc>, -csok,


r*dSio*j &c. 127. Roots 127. ^o&)^> 128. t*rcKMk> 131.
133. sSocssojAj must, should, ought 135.
Third Conjugation 136. "mOtShj forming the root in CA "2>o<5
136. II Verbs which form it in VA as rwKfcfc, ^ewS, Tt
ew'&, "K*S &c- 137. Ill Verbs which use OA or VA, at plea
sure: as
-&d^ or -8d*^ 137. IV Verbs which use 9a
or pa at pleasure : as s&^pfj or Jfcp^osS 138. V. Irregulars, as
sj-iS^,
&c. which have a monosyllabic Root 139.
Specimen of regular verbs. Conjugation of ^o-Efci> to rear 139.
ribjjpiS>*a to pardon 141. j66oLo-eS>4j to try 144.
to
come 147. s^*j to give 149.
sS-^, W-Co^ 151. iS^-a^,
"?-&^, TSFTSitj 152. General Rule for all the Conjugations on
formation of Participles 152. Passive verb 153. *Jfc*J, sSoabw
S>*J to be sent.
On change of Conjugation 154. Middle voice 154. in
as a&o^jr'ffiiJ.
Causal voice in Incu as ^Jo&o-Soij to have it sent 155. "5"*
makes "s^i&ij 156. a&X)t> makes
156. Irregular
verbs causal 157. Conjugation of Causals a&ofcotfcij to have it
sent 159. Compound Tenses 160.
BOOK FIFTH.
On Syntax 165. Arrangement of words 166. Words understood
not expressed 166. On Brief expressions, 166. On Softening

CONTENTS.
Initial Consonants 169. Conjunctions 169. On the Emphatic affixes
A' E 0' 172. Changes in the first syllable 177. Elision of M.
178. Druta words 179. Cala words 180.
BOOK SIXTH.
Adjectives 181. Feminine affixes 184. Comparative and Super
lative 184. On Plurals 187. On Pritchett's Telugu New Testa
ment 188. Syntax of the Cases of the Noun. Nominative 192.
Combination of Nouns and Pronouns 193. Genitive 198. Dative
199. Accusative 200. Vocative 202. Ablative 203. Instrumental
206. Locative 206. Compound Nouns 207. Bulesregarding Proper
names 209. On Pronouns 213.
BOOK SEVENTH.
Syntax of the verb 219. Table of principal parts of Verbs
220. Syntax of the Verb 224. On Yes and No 225. On Kadu
and Ledu 226. On the Infinitive 228. in TA, DAMU, DI.
Monosyllabic verbs 230. The Boot in A. 231. and GA. On Sunna
optionally inserted as Banga, Kaluganga 232. On the Infinitive
in U 234. On Irregular Verbal Nouns 235. On the Negative
Verbal in MI 239. On Verbs 239. in INCUTA, IMPUTA and
ILLUTA. Syntax of Causal Verbs 240. On the Middle Voice
242.
BOOK EIGHTH.
On Participles 247. On the Present Participle 250. Od the
Past Participle 250. On the Compound Negative Tenses 251.
On the Past Belative Participle 252. On the Belative Aorist
Participle 253. On the Negative Participle " AKA" 255. On the
Negative Belative Participle in NI 256. On the Conditional Aorist
257. On the Imperative 259.
BOOK NINTH.
Syntax of the Tenses. The Aorist*261. The present Tense 267.
Future Tense 268. The Past Tense 269. On the Poetical Dia
lect 271. On Orthography 272. On Impersonal Verbs 273. De.
fectives 275. On the form used in prayer 275.

CONTENTS.
BOOK TENTH.
On certain Verbs used as Auxiliaries 276. On the formation
of Verbs from Nouns 278. On Keiteration 278. On Participles
284. On (Anucaranamu) Adverbial Particles 286. On some words
used Idiomatically 289. On Kules for finding words in the Dic
tionary 291.
BOOK ELEVENTH.
On Prosody 293. On the drawling style of reading 295. On
Feet 295. Feet having two syllables in each 297. On the Uni
form Metres 297. The Canda Padyam 301. On the Telugu chang
ing Metres 305. On the Dwipada 310. On some unusual Metres
311. On Musical Metres 315. On the Kagada Metre 316. On
the Dandacam 319. On the Taruvaja, Utsaha, and Accara 320.
On Ehyme 323.
CHAPTEB TWELFTH.
On Etymology 325. On Druta words 326. On Cala words 328.
On Softening Initial Consonants in Poetry 330. On Contraction
in Poetry 332. On Elision and change of Vowels 333. On some
Contractions 338. On Sanscrit Elision and Permutation 339.
Permutation of Vowels 340. Exceptions and Anomalies 341. Coa
lition of -Consonants 342. Mutations of Sibilants 342. Mutation
of g Visargah 342. On Compound Words 343.
APPENDIX.
On Arithmetical Marks 346. On Divisions of Measures 350.
Measures of Length 353. Points of the Compass 354. On Ety
mology. Tatsamamu 355. Tadbhavamu 356. On Desyamu, Gramyamu 357. On some abbreviations 358. Examination Questions
359.

FIRST INDEX.

OF TELUGU WOEDS NOTICED.


6vssrS ^ ^sSwoo 305.
2j, ecn>) as in
341.
oJo,S 182.
M & 280.
<iafc 285.
^e>CO 285.
>jt> 285.
Wtf^exXo 25, 182, 357.
&&o-f> 172.
e>*2k 271.
P 284.
&SX> 73, 285.
Wf&rt5"I 286288.
>?> 285.
esjab^tfs&o 8, 232, 323.
5>gj0, WocoSP 118.
*J&**lf 266.
fcSo1l 258.
ess^S^ 284.
a.So, 52, 53.
eo" 258.
Lj$sSn>ew 15.
wtfo<Sb 232, 272, 320, 358. L-&)i> 277.
roaa&sgs&o 301.
W-es-eS- Aye aye, 285.
69-,
S That, this, which 73.
x"os 296.
K-cp 285.
fkjSj. 29, 272, 296, 331.
?Ce> 255, 269.
69-tfg
304.
S'T'S'ws&dooISO, 334, 256, 325 '
285.
(Ofc> 285.
329.
lo*3S 285.
SwXbii 120, 275.
$o^KresSe 306.
T 230233.
7T" 86.
81*3 285.
<fejsfc ^)c& 83.
-A-oif^ 319.
^dje^e' 298.
226.
TVf> 172.
320.

woi> page 284.


to~i>, 284.
tsoS 284.
fcJOe^PcJfisSbs5 324.
Woe> there 73, 218.
r sSsti&o 320322.

FIRST INDEX.
"5"*w43 233.
^a^Ksio 307.
ijB?S 319.
bSo5g> 296.
oltfsS 254.
Sj^jSo4js Sx> 277.
r*fai> 84, 103, 105, 277.
r^oa 285.
Upsfc^i&D 357.
ffo(X-r3 5S<uo 306, 321.
tfossrsfc-e 299.
OiSjL 290.
^coag 289.
riesojS^SciSi 240.
so#r :s 319
EJOeJ^!S 7.
di^BosSa 51, 335, 355.
SSS^sSsSw 51,356.
$f>sSx> 286.
j^Jfe 52.
tfe$ 312.
c&sS 320.
Wtzr>& 336.
-ySb^ew 83.
^flo 72.
SSSeu 213.
Tfttfci&a 357.
174, 175, 179,
234, 256, 325, 329.
310.
?5 See English Index, in N.
jSjSjdfic ^cSfisfca 266.
iSrfb^-otfrto 288.
iSoiXocfi, fJ^ewfc 289.

P the conjunction 170


fDCgs5j585cp>j$Ssa 267.
?>jS> 63, 190.
>, the conjunction 169.
-SaSxfck, 7s?& 123, 277.
SSotf^sSaS 314.
3jfc> 83, 153, 224, 247, 276.
&p 289.
tSSo&ew 331.
^yxsSeSsSsew 319.
in>to "^^ew 338.
inexi 76, 190.
BS'gS'&fl 203.
trSosfc 8, 30, 31.
S-o-^fcisSo 337.
<grj^*j 112. note
luotr'sSM 54. 56.
~S> 290.
t,ir5s,tfsi 209, 341.
s^aJSoi3b*j ill. note
234, 276.
^TT-ifsSo 288.
298, 324.
\^fcsS>Q 307, 315.
j&oe8 311.
s&tie^tio 312.
sfc^ 300.
s&8, sfcQj&jL 172, 286.
and sS>5j*F 39, 190.
191, 332.
s6**J 289.
sSr*F>P 313.
Jv> (as TfSto, "3o) 239, 283.

FIEST INDEX.
a final, dropped 332, 323.
j&cf&^J) 248.
<sfiO 297, 298, 315.
cs5Jk*7rjS sS 319.
as a conjunction 171,
S3jf_ 50, 198, 210.
8, 24.
tfiftf 305, 316.
Sr8 350.
TPS 259.
TT>\SoXoa 171.
cp 135.

*r*So 62, 68, 73, 214.


3$"J 50.
a^g 342.
2_e"Sx>e) 358.
.

-tpstor'ea 332.
e>gj 296.
d6lTr8r 315, 316.
226.
StfiSj&a 296, 320.
sStS^fc) 276.
Sgsi* 347, 348.
rfefafa) 6.
o
tfe>cs&>&i, e>j&i>, tfe*iS8 127,
135, 277.

t",

26, 27, 126.


249, 289.
-pokti-V^Jste 319.
l6o$ 35, 44, 339.
358.
l6s^sS 343, 207209.
jee^^sSw 330, 331.
ygn.oa\iaeS 300.
5**5 286.
^j6s;j^sS 308.
8, 232, 323.
*r|SJr>^ 358.
#r*S<jXtfeM 306.
311.
s^ot6<*&*iS 297, 321.
sS*asS*a 286.
^^sS 295.

END O ' TELUGU INDEX.

SECOND

INDEX,

OF ENGLISH WORDS USED IN THE GRAMMAR.

A (the article) howexpressed,7, 8.


A, " Root in A " 230, 233.
A, elided, 334.
A, final, broad. 43.
A, E, O, accents affixed, 172,
173.
A', I', E', (prefixed), that, this,
which, 75.
A, I, U, affixed, 334, 337.
Ablative, 203, 207.
Able, (can, cannot), 120, 121,*
269, 277.
Accent, 34, 33.
Accusative, 200.
Action, gestures, 167.
Adjective, 79, 181.
Adjective pronouns, 74.
Adverb, 76, 77, 79, 86, 131,
132, 167, 233, 280.
Adverbial particles, 286.
Affected refinements, 100, 162,
164.
Alliteration, 314, 344.
Anomalous forms, 271.
Antiquated forms, 268.
Aorist, 82, 152, 261.
Aphorisms of grammar, 266.
Arabian nights, 29.
Arabic, 6f?, 67, 84.
Arithmetic, 246.
Article 75, 279.
Assuredly, 282, 283.
Auxiliary Verbs, 273, 274, 276.
Ballad metre, 318.

Belly, Body, 216, 290.


Bible Translation, 188.
Books that merit publication ;
(see Preface).
Cala words, 334, 180, 256, 325
329.
Campbell, 326
Can, cannot, 120, 121, 269, 277.
Cases of Nouns, 49, 50.
Causal voice, 155, 1 58, 240, 241 .
Cerebrals, 7.
Change of consonants, 41, 330,
331.
Change of vowels, 333.
Circle, 28, 29, 232, 272, 320.
Comparative and Superlative
79, 181, 340.
Compass, 213.
Compound nouns and pronouns,
193, 207, 210, 343.
Compound tenses, 160, 162, 163.
Conditional Aorist, 257.
Conjugations, 81 ; verbs can
change from one conjuga
tion into another, 82, 154.
Conjunctions, 169, 187.
Consonants softened, 169, 41
331.
Contraction in spelling, 338, 79,
note ; in writing, 36, 39 ;
in verbs, 267, 269, 270, 273,
in verse, 176.
Conversational forms, 218.
Courtesy, 97.

SECOND INDEX.

Declensions, 49, 51, First, 51, Have, 224. .


52; Second, 52; Third, 56; He (translated by Man), 214.
of Sanscrit nouns, 76; of Hebrew, 84, 168, 278.
Hindustani, 244.
adverbs, 76, 77, 78, 79.
Honorific forms, 218.
Defective nouns, 76.
Hymns, 319, 323.
Defective verbs, 274, 275.
I and I' (vowel finals), 47, 48.
Defilement, 5.
Idiom, 278, 289.
Dentals, 33.
If, or when, 257.
Dialects, 33.
Imitatives, 286288.
Doubt, 283.
Druta, 174, 175, 179, 234, 256, Imperative, 259.
325329.
Impersonals, 200, 273.
E' final, 43, 172, 173, 174, 175. Imprecation, 234.
Elision, 44, 333, 339.
Inchoative forms, 276.
Emphasis, 43, 170, 172, 173, Inelegancies, 267, 268.
176, 177.
Infinitives, 54, 85, 86, 94, 105.
English spoken, 6S.
228, 234.
Enunciation, 5, 35.
Inflection, 50.
Etymology, 325, 354.
Initials changeable, 7, 41, 43, 44,
Exclamations, 286.
169, 344.
Father, 290.
Instrumental case, 49, 56.
Fictitious phrases used by pe
Intercourse with the people, 2D4
dants, 162, 164.
Interjections, 286, 275.
Final vowels, 43.
Interrogation, 43.
Fit, possible, 277.
Intransitives, 224.
Flattery, 212.
Irregular (an
objectionabl
Foreign words, 66, 67,68, 81 , 82.
phrase), nouns, 235 ; verb?,
Future, 268.
113.
Gender, 334.
Kala words, 174, 256.
Genitive, 50, 198.
Kannadi, 82, note, 322
Gentleman, 215.
Labials, 7.
Gentoo, a wrong name, 13.
Laconic phraseology, 167, 168.
Gerunds, 218.
Learned men, 42.
Gestures, 167.
Letters, (epistles), 212.
Go, 268.
Literature, (see the Preface).
Greek, 95.
Locative case, 49, 281, 282.
H (visargah), 342.
Lord's Prayer, 260.
Hard sounds, 6.
M; elision of this letter, 178,340.

SECOND INDEX.
M, MU, final, 45, 178, 322, 323,
334.
Mahat and Amahat,39, 190, 191 .
Man, how translated, 214, 217.
Manners, 5, 69.
Measures, 350, 351, 353.
Melodies, 305, 316, 321.
Metrical feet, 295, 296, 306.
MI. Negative Verbal noun, 239,
283.
Middle Voice, 154, 242246.
Mind, 216.
Monosyllabic Imperatives, 231.
Multiplication table 191.
Musical metres, 315, 318, 319.
Must, ought, should, 277.
N : shapes of this letter, 239.
N : final in nouns, 201.
N : final in verbs, 85, 95, 163,
268 269.
N, optional (adesa). 96, foot, 194.
N, inserted to prevent elision,
333.
N, inserted in the verb, 232, 267,
270.
N, inserted for the sake of metre,
272.
N, dropped, even in the middle
of verbs, 112.
Names, proper, 209, 213.
Neuter verbs, 224.
Nasals, 8, 30 ; (see circle.)
Negative, 93, 95, 162, 163, 239,
251, 283.
NI. or NU. conjunctions, 169,
170.
No. 225-228, 275. Never, &c,
216.

xi

Nominative case, 50, 192, used


adverbially, 280, 281.
Numerals, 40.
O, (short), 17.
O, (the sign of doubt), 172,
173
Omission of words, 168.
"One" is omitted, 168.
Optative or Precatory forms,
266.
Paddy, (rice), 190.
Pagoda, (a coin), 347, 348.
Palatals, 7.
Particles, 284, 286, 288.
Participles, 86, 94, 247-257, the
present p.I|250,negative251,
past relative p. || 252, 353,
reiterated, 283.
Passive verb, 83, 153, 224, 247.
Past tense, 269, used for the
present, 270.
Pedantry, 295. See in Preface,
People, 214, 217.
Permutation of vowels 333, of
initials, 18.
Persons of the verb, how named,
83.
Plurals, 97, 187192.
Poetical dialect, 325, 327,
spelling, 30, 271 , in the verb,
113, 114.
Points of the compass, 213, 254.
Politeness 69, 97, 182, 218.
Positively, 282, 283.
Postpositions, 51.
Potential f ms, 261.
Prayer, 234, 259, 260, 275.
Precatory forms, 234.

xii

SECOND INDEX.

Prepositions, 51.
Present, habitual or occasional,
267, used for future, 268.
Pretence, 282.
Pronunciation 22, 212.
Pronouns, 68, 193, 213.
Proper names, 209, 213.
Prosody, 295320.
PureTelugu, 25, 182.
Quantity, 295.
Question, 43.
R, shapes of this letter, 3; dis
putes regarding it, 24 ; ob
solete, 24, 25, 258 ; inserted,
345.
Reading, 295, 306.
Reciprocal or reflective verb, 243
245.
Reiteration, 278.
Relations, 290.
Relative pronouns, 218.
Rhyme, 298, 314, 315, 323, 344.
Roots, 83, 84. Root in A, 230,
233.
Rules, antiquated 266.
Rupee, 346350.
Rustic forms of the verb, 159.
S. On this letter, 26, 27, 126.
Sanscrit, 5, 239, 339.
Scriptures, translated, 188, 189.
Self, 246.
Semicircle, 28,29,232, 272,320.
Senior and j unior, 21 1 , 215, 290.
Shall and will, 269.
Silent consonants, 296.
Soft sounds, 6.
Softening initials, 41, 169, 330,
344.

Sounds hard and soft, 6.


Spelling 47, 126, 217, 330, note.
Spittle, 5, 182, 218.
Subjunctive, 261.
Sumati, 254.
Sunna, (see circle).
Superlatives, 280, 281.
Syntax, 165.
Tadbhava and Tatsama, 335,
355, 356.
Take, 246.
Telugu, Tenugu, 13.
Tenses, 82, 87, 152, 160.
Therein, thereby, thereto, 72.
Thou, 215
Though, although, 252.
Tone in reading, 5, 295.
Transitive, 224.
Tutor, advice to a, 32.
U, final, 333, 336.
Uncertainty, 283.
V is changed into W, or even is
slurred, 95.
Verb, 81 ; voices, 83. verbs are
quoted in the preterite form,
83, 84; some are formed
from nouns, 278, in incuta,
239.
Verbals, 54, 86, 235 ; negative
in MI., 239, 283.
Vocative, 202.
Vowels, 333.
Vulgar forms, 56, 115, 357.
Welsh initials changeable, 344.
Woman, in pronouns, 215, 217.
Y, inserted, 333.
Yes and No, 225-228.
Z, or J, 21.

ERRATA AND ADDENDA.

Page 57. The nouns ^o^Oaa a wife, rtfrasSw a clerk, iS^X**


an actor, and OoJCkoKo (not 80?CjS which would be wrong)
are declined in the same manner : the genitive being the same
as the nominative.
73. scSo is used for 'man' or 'person' as here shewn. But
is never used in such compounds. Thus: J&oGwefc 'a good
man-.' but 'this good man' is -&^oQsrfc. So in the feminine
6*-"3s that woman, -8i3> this woman: but 'this old woman' is
-S*fco !>-"&>.
p 82. 1. 18 read "Thus from ^dtk" 'to do' 'to make' comes
the past. p|| x3 'having done or made,'
p. 85. 1. 15 read "Bought wood."
102. foot : read ' Palnati. p. 331.'
111. foot. The initials here used are explained in page 358.
116. line 3. 'q. v.' denotes a reference to this word in the
Dictionary.
120. line 11. The mark denotes that these shapes are pe
culiar to poetry,
p. 178. 1. 16 erase ^'B'ofloij'gJSew.
182. 1. 1 read, "may drop MU""fine cloth." line 12 read
" foul" 1. 18 read " cloth ; and so on."
183. 1. 23 erase "(lime)." line 24 read "Telaga" line 27 read
184. 1. 15 read "W-ew forms the." line 27 read, "JToTi or
S"rfj., than, added."
185. 1. 3 read, "meaning, she is."
186. foot note "Regarding Sanscrit comparatives and superlatives,
see page 340."

ERRATA.
192, 1.
203. 1.
207. 1.
215. 1.
216. 1,
247. 1.
marks (

13 read "let him go," not 'let I go,'


29 read, Bf.
29 read "uniting several"
"the signs ,of case."
28 read " <^5$8 to whom ?"
2 read "(incorrectly rendered
^o&)."
2. 3 and in page 255 line 14 and page 260, erase the
).

254. 1. 26 read "meddling with quarrels."


260. 1. 3 read " a series of imperatives."
261. note; read ' arx alta' 'thou would'st still.' 'And in Ovid's
Metam' fulva colre.
265, 1. 13 for "W. I" read 'Vishnu Puran.'
271. The . quotation from Plutarch should be placed at the head
of the page, as a mottop. 273. 1. 9 read " and yet is used in Spenser."line 30 read
"by the present; equivalent."
274. 1. 1 read, " il ne."
278. lines 6 and 9 erase "(2. W. 580" and ' (2 W)."
282. line 15 'erase "(ADC 484)."
283. 1. 27 read "(in MI, see page 239)."
290. line 2. Instead of '121122,' read '216.'
291. 1. 7 read "words are easily found."
296. lines 28 and 29 "read Maecenas," " Ymetto."
297. 1. 16 read "denotes the
yati or pause."
298. 1. 20 read ^whatever :\ should.'
302. 1. 27 read J tacitaque.'
310. 1. 14 read 'pedantry.'
314. After line 12 place 'a new Title : " On RHYME." line
33 read " Alliteration :and."
317. line 6 for ^234 read ' page'^Oe.'
318. line 22 erase "TT
where are."
319. read "On the XO&Si&a DANDACAMU."

ERRATA.
320. line 2 Instead of 8853b read ^ff^s&).
322. line 20 read * an additional short syllable.'
323. note. For ' Assonants' read ' Asonantes.'
324. 1. 24 read ' dictionary are.'
325. 1. 2 and 3 read ' formulas.'
326. 1. 14 ' Here, &c.' must be erased.
327. 1. 7 read (A, see page 343). 1. 23 read
+
cfc + ffc, sir-acgs+ffc, sJr^ + ffc Sr*^ + ;S. And in line 30,
a+g-, ss'assb+e-.
Note : The Table of Verbs (p. 220, 221, 222, 223) should, in
a future edition, be placed before the rule for the first Conju
gation : which at present is in page 94.

THE GRAMMAR
OF THE
TELUGU LANGUAGE.

BOOK FIRSTOn Oethogeaphy.


The Teltjgu language is written from left to right, like English :
and the best writing is upright : or sloping a little, (unlike Eng
lish) towards the left. The words are in general pronounced, (as
in Greek) precisely as they are spelt : thus the ear is a sufficient
guide in orthography. In the round hand used in books every
letter stands separate as in printing. In running hand the letters
are shaped differently, and are combined, as in English ; the words
not being divided from each other. To render the alphabet easy it
will be requisite first to explain the principles on which it proceeds.
Many letters have two forms : one appears in the alphabet as a
capital or primary, and the other is secondary. Thus C5, Sj> 6l,
are the alphabetical or capital forms of the vowels A, 1, 17, which
are respectively called WfiSo, scs^ao, feT'o'o, Acaram, Icaram,
and TJcaram ; because caram is equivalent to letter.
Thus the consonants
X, vS, are Ka, Ga, Cha ; the mark %^
aboTC each being the Talacattu or sign of A. , J\,
are Ki, G i,
and Chi : and So, K>,
are Ku, Gu, Chu. With this last
vowel \), the
talacattu is retained, though it is not pronounced.
The letters if, X, >, have as secondary shapes, (j, (-3, and
which are written under the line. Thus
akka,
agga, and
i5^ acca : which last is pronounced atsa, or as azza would be
Bounded in Italian.

TELUGTT GEAMMAB.

The talacattu, or A, is thus attached to most letters. Thus


Ea, 5 da,
ta ; but some letters write
talacattu and
) gudi, separately. Thus ft sa, si, pa,
pi.
Ten consonants never use the sign talacattu : for it is sounded
though not written. These are 3) kha, St gna, 2S ja, 23 za, gf- jna,
<i> ta, C3 na, &} ba, O la, e*3 ra. Excepting these, it is not the
custom to writi any letter, even in the alphabet, without the
talacattu. In modern printings the Kannadi (or " Cannarese")
types
ft are used ; which remove all doubt.
The mark I called
jada, or
ottu, or
vottu, is a
breathing, and being placed under some letters, makes them aspi
rates. Thus i) Bi, ) Di, zx> Bu, )0 Du, are not aspirated. But
2^1 Bhi, Dhi, Jpo Bhu, (3 Dhu, have the aspirate sound.
A circle, o, is in some places used for N or M. Thus osJ is
anta, *o is amba, j6o^)4j is pamputa ' to send.' The circle
(called
sunna) is usually formed like the English letter o.
Thus tsox'o is angam ; but, for the sake of clearness, the form O
is frequently used in this grammar.
As certain consonants have the vowel A " inherent" so the
consonant cJ5o ya (of which ^ is the second form) has the vowel
I, inherent. Eor if written without
the letter OXj is i or yi.
Thus d^=xo is po-yi (pronounced po-i) ' having gone.' "3<* veyyi
(ve-i) ' a thousand.'
cheyyi (che-i) ' the hand.'
The mark is called 6?e"o dTrgham ; and is the common
name for broad a. Thus S"Ttffe^E"o kakara-dTrgham signifies
(IT ka) the consonant k with a added.
As I is inherent in y, coct~d is yi ; sounded as I in machine, or
ee in seen.
The letter a 3 is called WTffo acaram or ' letter A' as in
Amelia ; but the sign *S a is called
talacattu or crest.
The letter 0) I is called =}"S'"tfo i-caram : but the^s^re g) 1, is
called
gudi ' a whirl.' The letter 6s U is called & Vtf o Ucaram : but the sign \) is called
commu ' a horn.'

ORTHOGRAPHY.

Instead of T" So caram, the word $o twain (a word likeness


as dkatS^o stoutness, HoSoiS^o heaviness) is sometimes used. Thus
these three vowels are at pleasure called **#o,
atwam, itwam, and utwam.
If two consonants meet, one is written without a vowel, under
aa
a
the other. Thus (5|_ n c, nacca 'a fox.'
cue, kukka 'a dog.'
c
c
e
a
'"m5*" b 1 mu, ballemu ' a spear.' Ko^_t5i gu r mu gurramu ' a
1
r
horse.' Here we see that B ai is written without the vowel a ; and
GU
has the vowel a written above it, but not pronounced.
In JfoUftio the mark l_ is R and comes between gu and ram. This
mark shaped l__ or ^ > is called iTr't^sSS crara vadi.
The letter v. j is used in writing : but in printing it is more
convenient to use the ancient forms [_ or J) thus (Jf or ^ kra.
This form is used in inscriptions on some ancient temples ; and is
retained in many manuscripts, both Telugu and Cannadi.
The letter that stands on the line is pronounced first ; then the
one, or two, under it. Then the vowel above. Thus (^} is pra :
o I
and iftipi s, stri, a woman, also written 9(3~ ; that is, fj si with
^t
V^fV
r
ai
o t and
r beneath. Thus also ^isL) s s that is, Sastri,
t
' a learned man. '
r
Sometimes a consonant is marked as " silent ;" no vowel being
attached to it. The silent mark called *^> pollu is cr~ or ~
added to the top of the letter instead of a vowel. Thus
pridhac (i. e. separately,a part.) Here the mark written above k
shows that it is silent. Thus also O is the letter La ; but by ad
ding this sign it becomes
as in the word S~ hal ; meaning a
consonant. So &-<5~~ ach (t. e. a vowel). Thus e5 ta becomes
cS~ as in the word wsSV*5~ avasJt ' unexpectedly.' The letter

TELUGU GKAMMAK.

sa becomes V as in the word "ies^T tejas ' lustre.' Thus "6 or


pa becomes fo as fir ap i. e. water. These are Sanscrit words,
and rarely occur in the free dialect.
The letter ^ Na assumes the form T~ as in the word owoi^r"
intan 'in the house;' er*!e>r" lopalan ' within.'
This mark is called T*tfr*to nacara-pollu.
The letter
K, when followed by another consonant adds it
a
beneath, as in the word area f tf_ ar or sometimes changes places
c
a
a a
with it and assumes the form E~ thus fc55"r- acr. So J^o Dh r m,
m
ft ft
ft ft
dharmam, may also be written ijJs&e-o, dh m r m. So ^J* c r
t
ft ft
ft
carta ' a lord' may be written 5"Ss- c t r. Thus ^T^o p r m
uv
a
purvam ' formerly' may be written ^rss e~o, p v r m. Either way
u
the pronunciation is the same.
This mark is called fc^S" gilaca (literally a rattle,) from a fancied
resemblance in shape) or more usually sSo^eftaS" valapala gilaka,
which means, " the gilaca on the right hand," i. e. placed beyond
the letter.
The letters of the alphabet appear very numerous, but the rea
son is that a separate character is used for each sound, instead of
using the same letter with two or three different sounds, as hap
pens in English.
The consonants also are multiplied and have such a variety of
forms, because they use a separate shape for each variety of sound.
T has one form and Th another ; K has one form and Kh another.
And this happens also in the Greek alphabet.
This spelling is easy ; as the letters when correctly pronounced,
never deviate from the sound given in the alphabet.
But a difficulty (felt by those who have advanced far) arises
from the liberty of spelling the same word in various wavs.

ORTHOGRAPHY.

The student should provide himself with the edition, latelyprinted in the Telugu character, of the Sanscrit Bhagavad GTtS.
This will furnish a good key to the character if he already knows
the Sanscrit alphabet.
When we have occasion to write Hindu or Mahometan names
in English letters, too great precision would he pedantic. It is
usual to write Bramin for Brahman, or Bramhan : and Rajahmundry for Rajamahendra-varam.
When a letter is written under the line it is usually larger than
if written on the line.
It is not the custom to separate the words. Thus a paragraph
looks as if it was all one word. But in printing it will be found
easy to separate words, as is done in English.
The mark | is used as a comma ; and || as a period. The com
ma is used at the end of each line in poetry except the last which
is marked with the period.
In some Telugu printing, the English comma, semicolon, pe
riod and other stops have been introduced with good effect.
A letter is called &<&*ti&a axaram. An aspirated letter is called
&J*&.tfsS or ffii&J5x> likewise means a syllable. Thus
strl ' a woman' is considered to be S"T1S-o'jS c axaram, a mo
nosyllable : lit. one letter.
Unless thoroughly acquainted with the principles of spelling
and the variations therein allowed, we shall not be able to find
words in the dictionary. The reader must therefore pardon what
he may consider a tedious degree of preciseness regarding ortho
graphy.
The vowels cannot be correctly pronounced without opening the
mouth wide, looking up, and using a loud tone. Natives complain that
the English mumble their words.*
The learner should write the letters on a slate, in a large flou
rishing style : this is the easiest method of attaining fluency in writ
ing.
The native tutors also complain that English pupils touch their mouths with
their hands : and then defile books with hands thus dirtied. Hindus hold spittle
in abomination. We should respect their prejudices, and treat them kindly.

TELUGF GRAMMAR.
THE ALPHABET.

a
(or

O" a

Vowels.
4 1

gI

u)

HS

(or e n)

"if or OO 10

SO ai

Class 1st.
2nd.
3rd.
4th.
5th.

Consonants ; (in five classes.J


g ca
4) kha
X ga cfo gha
^ cha ^ chha 88 ja
Givjha
&> ta
5f tha
& da ^ dha
eMa
<*> tha
da $ dha
pa
^, pha
eo ba {{J bha

06 ya
S*

?a

SCOT5 ru

^a

ra
SS. sha

^e

Q
^e

27 au.

O la
-j6 sa

la
Kr ha

;$

3t gna.
gf- Jna.
C3 na (hard.)
$ na (soft.)
ma.

va.

iSx xa.

The dots placed under the letters t ^h d dh n I and s denote that


these letters are sounded hard. They are sometimes marked with
accents, as I' t'h d' d'h n' 1' and s'.

o -o 3

Numerals.
# _ Z o~, 7 orr no, oo-dfo.

123456789
9 10
1850.
The numerals three and seven are perpetually confounded in ma
nuscript.
The first 25 consonants are arranged in sets (called 5SSj&> vargamu) having five letters in each : and on arranging these in five lines,
we shall observe that the first and third letter in each line, are sim
ple : but the second and fourth are aspirated. For the sake of dis
tinction the consonants that stand in the first column, being ?T,x<5,
eJ, ^5, &c, are called *t>sS. hard : and Kf 2S,
C5, Ks, &c., in
the third column are called $8$ soft. Thus G is the soft sound of
k ; and P is the hard sound of B.

ALPHABET.

In some places a hard initial is softened : that is, T changes into


D ; or P into B, &c. Thus eJs&^ifc Tammudu ' a younger brother'
changes into SsSv^sfii dammudu, r*Q&> p5vuta ' to go' becomes
tf^iJ bovuta,
' to fall' becomes fc>bi> baduta, and 5"e)otfi4j
caluguta ' to be' becomes Xew&ti galuguta. But a soft letter is
never changed into a hard one.
The expressions dentals, palatals, labials, &c, which are used in
Sanscrit Grammar are needless here : or belong only to the rules
(at the close of the volume) regarding Sanscrit words.
In expressing the sounds in English letters, the spelling used in
the works of Colebrooke, Jones, Wilson, and Wilkins is the most
convenient.
The rules for spelling, which Native grammarians inculcate, are te
diously minute, and widely different from those used in ordinary
writing ; which they consider beneath their notice ; giving rules lor
the poetical dialect alone. Accordingly their rules are of little use to
a foreigner ; and my object being to assist the foreigner, the present
grammar is so constructed as to meet his wants : the rules for the
poetical dialect are therefore removed from the beginning to the end
of the grammar. Indeed, we need notice no rules of permutation but
those requisite for finding words in the dictionary.
The alphabet exhibits the capitals or first forms. The secondary
form of ^j) a being
this is added to the consonants. In some
grammars all the consonants are exhibited without vowels attached :
but it seems useless to give forms that are not in use.
Six consonants cpo,
^ 5$^ ^ r5 gha, pa, pha, sha, sa,
ha, use this sign, as here shewn, above the letter; but written with
out touching it. If they were joined, the letter itself would change ;
thus, } -ft are pa, sa ; but S$
are va, na.
The sound of 3 A is that used in about, around. Thus the name
wejS'jSotf is pronounced Alacananda.
Nala, the name of a cer
tain prince, is sounded like the Latin Nulla. oJ^8 Han, a name
of Vishnu, is pronounced like the English word hurry. ttsAVS^tf
Amara cosha (the title of a Dictionary) is written Ummuru Koshu
by those who prefer that mode of spelling.
In common writing, the letters often take other shapes. Thus

TELUGU GRAMMAE.

over the letters g, eJ, , , ka, ta, ki, ti, we often see the vowel
written without touching the consonant.
The nasals are placed at the ends of those classes in the alphabet
to which they belong.
All the nasal letters may be changed into O sunna (the sign or
contraction for N or M) either when they are followed by a conso
nant or when they are final. Thus l^Colfo grandham * a book'
would according to Sanscrit rule be written \X |S ; and Wotfo
angam ' the body' would be written 3*5.
Regarding Telugu words also, instead of 8^ kinda, the spelling
in use is otf. The sound remains unaltered.
In the Devanagari alphabet, as exhibited in Wilson's Sanscrit
Dictionary, the appropriate nasal is retained ; but in Telugu, as in
common Devanagari or Bangali writing, the dot or circlet is substi
tuted. Thus fc?e>sptf<S> alancaram (ornament) is written "fOT'So
which form alone is intelligible. This occasionally alters the place
of a word in the dictionary.
ON SPELLING.THE VOWELS.
If a word borrowed from Sanscrit ends in a long vowel, this is
generally shortened.
cala. becomes 5"? cala ; and ~&i> Devi be
comes ~&S> Devi. Monosyllables, as (Sji, sri and
strl retain the long
vowel.*
The long (or broad) a t?" is sounded as in the English words half,
hard, laugh. "5*8 tata, 1 grandfather' is sounded as the English pro
nounce Tartar. sriJ mala ' a word' like the English ' Martyr.'
In $9-o[$o A'ndhra (the learned name for Telugu) the first vowel
is long, as though written arn. The second shape of a is as in
lata ' grandfather.' This is called &?oe"o (long) and is,
added to the letters thus.
The short vowel A is written in eight ways in English : with five vowels
and three dipthongs : thus (A) Ashore, Amelia, "Victoria, Woman, (E) writer,
flower, other, (I) stir, Cheshire, (0) London, son, mother, Hertford, (U) gun,
eup, until, (IE) soldier, (OU) neighbour, (IO) fiction, occasion. The Sanscrit
asti and santl, become in Latin est and sunt ; the a changing into e, and into
u. Many Sanscrit words are identical with Latin. "|6o santi sunt, (j6sS;S"*o9
pravahanti provehunt. But as these instances shew, the Sanscrit vowel A is
convertible into E, I, 0, and U.

ALPHABET.
TT
tJ*
dj13
W

ka
cha
ta
ta

^T-3 kha
chha
"0" tha
'cpTI tha

~7\~ ga ^jj-0 gha


ar ja Cp~* jha
of15 da
dha 5" or
da.
dha "jj^ na

na

P
"^T0 pha
ba
2j5" bha Sjr> ma . _
dSr-o ya XT" ra
SfT0 ra
ey* la
IP t
o5" va
"ij-0 sa
^57 sha
or -fi-o sa ^T6 ha
tg^ xa.
The vowel 1 is short I as in ' India.' Thus S}\_Q irri ' a fawn'
SSl^u illu ' a house'
icci ' having given.' The word English ig
written S}oft sSs> Inglishu and England is ;oo> Inglandu. The
| is called
itwam as So twatn is the name given to the
vowels only; while caram as S3T*!Jo Acaram,
cacaram is
common to both vowels and consonants : the long sound is "&#o
itwam. The secondary shape O) is called
gudi (like goody)
and the long sound is ) Xo&&Ss-o gudi-dirgham. It is sounded
i or ee like i in machine, ravine, Louisa. . Thus

(a woman) is

stri, or stree. fc Lila (a comedy) is sounded Leeler. The sign


for dlrgham or the longer sound is often omitted in writing.
Added to various consonants this somewhat changes their shapes.
Thus
ki I ki 4) khi |) khi. % gi V gi |M ghi |w ghi
or %XS~ ghi.
Herein we see that instead of adding the accent above, they add
the sign 0 dlrgham at the end.
chi

li chi

4x) ti

d3 ti

^ dhi

^ dhi

& ti or Is ti
) ni
J) bhi

$ ni

ji

8 ji

d>5 ti or dS ti
c3 ni

e> ti

^) bhi

h^i jhl or Qc$~0 jlil

8 thi

|) tin

L% ni or es5 ni

thi

%o pi

8cp jhi

$ thi

Id pi

a di
phi

g mi

di

3&t> ni

ti

& dl dhi $ dhi

^ phi

[in common writing ) chi

$T) bhi are shaped alike]

a di

) bi

|) bi

chhi and ) bi

gxr mi or fc: mi

Ceo }i

10
Q3J* y

TELUGU GRAMMAR.
(This consonant having the vowel inherent) Q ri

) li I) II li > IT 23 vi lb VI # si
lx shi or %sn> shi
p si j or !fo-o si
ST6 hi

ST6 hi

a-6 hi

v>. xi

#sl
hi

6 rl
shi
%3"o or

JL x.

It will be observed that some of these letters have two or three


forms just as happens in English. In common writing ) li and
) vi are shaped alike.
Instead of the initial (or capital forms) Q I
I they use Qai yl
and Qy yl which however are pronounced simply i and !. Thus
iccada (here) coy>J$b Idu (age) are written instead of ^^.^
and
The initial forms !,
are seldom used unless in
poems and dictionaries.
It will be observed that the six consonants ojjo gha, pa, S$ pha,
SS. sha, ^ sa, ^j"0 ha, which have the vowel ' a' written separate from
them, likewise have the vowel C) (i) written in the same manner
separately.
fj3 or e the short vowel U as in Superb, or 63 in book. Thus
<fea&>j uppu ' salt' t&S puli a tiger.' And
or e*S-A is the same
vowel long, as u in.Lucy, chuse, choose or oo in root, shoot. Thus
&X*i3 Gguta * to swing.'
In common business this is best represented by oo ; thus Ramoodoo for Ramudu : for in the affairs of ordinary life more precision
in spelling would be pedantic*
The form 6 is constantly used for this vowel, thus &jso> uttaravu ' an answer,' is written es
; but grammarians assert that
this form belongs to R, as will be stated in a future page.
The second forms are \) and \J with which %/ (the sign of a) is
used : excepting as regards the ten letters that never use
These
are ^3 B6 gj gp- tb C3 83 O e*9 which are written
&o, 3^
8fO, iSi, foO,
eW, eJ. The rest use it as follows :
See on this subject Frinsep's remarks In Journal of Asiatic Society, June, 1834,
pge 28U

11

ALPHABET.
> ku

khu

X) gu

qJ ghu

tfc)jhu d>Dtu f5o thu

2fc du

$0 thu

du

ib dhu

j^j nu

<6 bhu

mu

cSS3o yu

& ru

shu

su

ST"o hu

&> chu
dhu
^) pu
e>J lu

iSxO xu.

chhu

g ju

3o nu

So tu

^S) phu

X> bu

&j lu

vu $3 au

Sa~, 6"" are ku, chQ,

formed by adding the to


Here it will be observed that the letters
pa
pha and 5$ va
add the vowel \} in a peculiar manner. This is done to distinguish
them from c>3 gha and 3$> ma. But in common hasty writing these
distinctions are sometimes confounded.
In like manner ^ 1 N' is often written for ^6 S ; and ^ V is often
written for P. But over S and P, when thus written, a little up
right dash is often placed to shew the difference, and to denote that
the vowel ought to be separated from the consonant.
Instead of the initial forms 65 and Csr^ the consonants 5^) vu and
vtl are generally used. Thus the words
uppu ' salt'
<&<3o& uduta 'a squirrel' are in the dictionary spelt '^J and &sfc#;
but in common life
vuppu, and
vuduta. But the V or W
is not sounded and accordingly the sounds are uppu, uduta, or ooppoo, oodoota.
The short fi when it is final is written indeed, but is very often
(like the silent e in hare, ride) dropped in pronunciation. Thus
^ fS> chenu ' a field' is always called x3f~ chen ; J*& batu 1 a duck*
is pronounced r5~ bat ;
stop ! stop ! is pronounced
wf W F Tarl ! Tarl ! or Tal Tal ! sfciS^Sb ' a he buflalo' in like
manner is calledifc $^p*&~ dunnapot. Words that end in ofo) mu as
lSo'jS, beramu * merchandize' T^CsSa caramu ' acrid' are always
pronounced iSso beram "s~*tSo caram. In such words the final U
is necessary only in poetry : for in Telugu as in French verse each
syllable is enunciated. In the words borrowed from Hindustani,
English or other languages (and which have a final silent consonant)
as firyad (a complaint) vakil (a pleader) book, major, line, number,
(the English words)the Telugus do indeed add a final u, thus ^Tr^aS),

12

TELUGU GRAMMAR.

:Sf ex>, wSS , "&>ao, J3jfc,;6owCd ; they write the vowel U, but do not
pronounce it.
At the end of a verse in poetry, the syllables eX5, p, pjj. often
drop their vowels and are contracted into
i- Thus *rke" be
comes AiSjcF, tSu^Sp and ^oi 6i& become fc^f>?E", woSi
But vulgar copyists instead of dropping the vowel, lengthen it;
thus a&fkexr^ OS]0^ wO&Soi&n..
Many Telugu words use the vowels A and U in the second sylla
ble at pleasure; thus we if valaga, or rr>tx>X valuga, KoiSs&tu or
KoaSosicexJ, ^tfKi or "SjooKo, Stfsic or SSSsto, tests' ataca, or fc?SS"
atuca. The same happens in verbs, thus a&ffi&ej paracuta, rlCe4j,
S&ejSeoi>4-> may at pleasure be spelt &&&& parucuta, ^PKoeweo,
i6t)oS'dO'&i->1 or dropping both vowels
parcuta, i6e>_8o-Ekej
palkarincuta. Accordingly if we do not find one form in the dic
tionary we must look for the other.
The short vowel 3000 is ti or roo as in the words rig, rich, trick,
rook, brook. Thus zxotx. rishi ' a prophet'
rutuvu ' a season'
jjjoraska debt. The second form is ^ as in
tripti 'satisfaction'
8\<& cripa ' favor' "j^o^
Sanscrit.
In common writing, the letters ft" zu and &f"> zu are often shaped
exactly like the vowels 300.") ri and
rfi. And instead of the
capital uoo they use &. Thus zjxi"jS i8 written Oo"sS. But this is
wrong.
The vowel
is also written (but not pronounced) along with
Thus 6\ cri if\ gri &j pri
sri, &c. But ^ tripti is
generally, though not correctly spelt
trupti and
griham
(a house) is wrongly written ^g-!S; while
krushna or
krishna, (a certain name) is vulgarly written
and 2^) vaicriti is written 2^6.*
* The vowel 'J Lu as in will run, shall read, ie rarely used, and the learner may
safely neglect it. Indeed 00 (that is, the consonant L) is generally substituted.
Thus clripta 5" s6 (short) is written So S& and pronounced clupta. The word
&if pluta ' extension' is written
Plava -f6s5 the name of a year is pro
nounced like the English word Plover. In fact "2 is peculiar to a few Sanscrit
words, and ought to be pronounced lri as in bell-riuger.

ALPHABET.

13

The short vowel o) is E short, as in Bella, Betty, periphery.


Thus oifS>sS enumu ' a she buffalo' UswJfo Telugu or "3rS>Hb Tenugu*
(the name of this language) ^f^**^0 Chenna-Patnam, the original
name (still in use) of Madras. lj^"?> vrase 4 he wrote' j6S^ palike
he spoke.' If such words are written in English characters the
addition of h (vraseh, palikeh) will conveniently shew that the e is
to be sounded as a syllable : not being silent. Thus in Latin bone,
tale, male.
The long vowel
is e long as in the French words meme, bleme
and the Persian words shekh, sher, der; different from the sound given
in English to the vowel a in name, or same. Thus &x> emi ' what'
&rS>!C enuga ' an elephant'
tene ' honey'
ledi ' an antelope'
lellu ' antelopes.'
The short vowel a is vulgarly changed into e in a few words.
Thus
gaddi ' grass' is pronounced T?S geddi, Xotfo> "jSo^S'o.
The word
vela ' time' is written and pronounced ^gfi vjala.
These are mere vulgarisms and should be avoided. So "^JS9 nedari
'lout'
leka 'without'
leta ' soft' become F^Kfl n-yadari,
v~m$^ l-yaca, er<S 1-jata; while "^*-> veta 'venison' (the common
word also for a sheep) becomes 'f-2*J and dSr-ij v-yata and yata.
By a similar error, which is universal, the words beginning with
~t5 orl, &c, are perpetually written t3~ and

; thus ^cssbej to

do is almost invariably written TXtiSi3eo; and x5oa&> (to arrive)


tT&Aj ; ritS cheta (by)
chepa (a fish) are usually written tS*8,
chata, chapa : because the illiterate spell by the ear alone.
w>
batta-meka ' a bustard' is pronounced vulgarly butter-maker.
^>*j a suburb becomes
p-yata,
teta 'clear' becomes
^"S*"' t"J'*ta- So
a name (instead of peru) becomes
p-yaru. And (as vulgarism is capricious) the contrary happens :
thus 9"6tfo sariram 'the body' is always written "36tfo serlram.
This must be remedied in searching for a word in the dictionary.
The correct spelling is uniform : the vulgar forms are devoid of rule;
* It is high time to aholish the ahsurd name Gentoo which was introduced by
the Portugueze, and is ignorantly used by some persons for the name ' Telugu.'

14

TELUGU GRAMMAR.

and various people use various spellings. They often know and ac
knowledge these deviations to be wrong, and entirely approve the
more correct mode of spelling. Among ourselves orthography has
only in late years become fixed: our ancestors cared little for the
spelling even of proper names.
The final short a is sometimes written e. Thus ^8^, "SotSS",
allica, pentica are written ^J*"?, ^*3~ allike, pentike.
The second forms are -= e and S e.

Thus ~ ke g ke ~ip khS

^ khe ~~R ge ~% ge -^x> ghe ~jp> ghe, &c.


The long vowel differs from the short only by adding the C mark
above called sirup pollu; which in ordinary writing is omitted.
Thus the long and short vowels are written alike. Sanscrit writing
never uses the pollu ; but the sound is invariably long.
In the copies of the Telugu Poems which have been transcrib
ed for me (now amounting to some hundred volumes) the spelling
has been left as it was in the original. To rectify the vulgar errors
would have been an endless task: the spelling has been rectified
only in those volumes which have been prepared for printing.
The shapes -=> ~ are drawn from right to left, (backwards) and
the sign of a is drawn (forwards) the opposite way. Thus S
is ka, but ~ is ke, and "I is ke. Accordingly we have these forms
!p khg, ~7\ g, -=^3 ghe, 13 gne, "3 che,
je,

jhe, "?b te", I? thS, "3 dg, ~~q> 4h,

"q5 the,

"3 de,

1j3 bhe,

~3j me,

~~3> ve,

chhe, gp jne,

~~% se,

"3 dhe,

~j3 ne,

"c3i ye,

~3 re,

she,

se,

"oj pe,

ne, ~ te,

1p phe,

Ufa re,
"^aT" he,

U le,

"~S> be,
le,

xe. And if

the accent is added, thus " ke, IjB khe, ~f, ge,
ghe, &c. the
vowel becomes long.
Instead of the initial form of o) e (which is confined to poems and
dictionaries,) "c&j ye is in use. Thus for oJ^JSS evadu ' who'
eccada 'where'
enimidi 'eight' oioeSb^ enduku 'why' we
write and pronounce Sj^sSo yevadu,
yeccada, o&pxx>S, yenimidi, SaoSbSo yenduku. And the long vowels as k^o, eJe>( &-A-e3
are always changed into csSr'yo or ^^o, &c.

ALPHABET.

15

The letter Y though thus written (the learned say) ought not af
fect the pronunciation*
The vowels A and E are in vulgar writing used for one another:
chiefly in initial syllables. Thus o&pajS enimidi ' eight' is written
<s6pS yanimidi ; 6fc>jf_dS is spelt =*|L^; 63osS0o evvaru becomes
<s&Z\& yavvaru.
It will be observed that the six letters over which the vowel ) i
is written without touching them, likewise have e and e written in
the Bame manner.
S3 ai; BSjjMo ais-war-yam, (prosperity) BS^jo aik-yam ' unitedness.' This is sounded as the English sounds of sky. like, heights.
Words beginning with this vowel use the shape 3D in the dictionary, (See rules for finding words in the dictionary) but in common
use this is laid aside, and Wom ayi is substituted. Thus SOp^i* I
became is written bMJF'fi" ayinanu. Under the vowel o! it has
been shewn that CCD yi is used for i, and in fact does not retain the
sound y (which is reckoned as a consonant) thus a-yi-na-nu is pro
nounced ai-nanu. The second form is T" ; thus H Kai, j3 Khai,
'
Q_
O
gai, &c.
The forms therefore are as follows :
"1
"3 o~ qZ. O 15
~Q> q &c.
Q__ o o_ "V)
a_ 13
Q q_L
q ~8>
o_ qJ_
This vowel must always be expressed by AI in Englishnever
by Y. Thus
is nairruti, not nyruti ; 2>5"s&o is paicam, not
py-cum ; S^8**5 is sain-yam, not synyam. If it is written Y, thia
leads to uncertainty, as will be seen in the remarks on the conso
nant Y. For the letter Y is, in Sanscrit and in Telugu, always a
consonant ; and cannot be used without a vowel following it.
The vowel
is o as in Sophia, Police, produced, Moravia, poten
tial, Located. Or the French words folle, monnoie, montagne. The
longer sound hi is that which occurs in the Persian words shor, top,
mor, or in the French words lorgner, monde, fosse.
These initial forms are found in the dictionary, but are laid aside
in common use.
vo and
vo being substituted.*
* The alphabet is called L;6s<Ttyo 6namalu from the words 1,0 jS tfc % $ kt citfi
&C$0i&; which is to Hindus what the Bismillah is to Musulmaua.

16

TELUGU GRAMMAR.

But the consonant V if followed by U or O is not pronounced.


Thus "off) is simple o and "oy-0 is long 5.
oppu ' right' is usually written
ocati ' one' is written iJS'iS or even sS 5"*3.
ottuta 'to press' is written
&<Xo ogu ' wicked' is written "^rKo.
opica ' patience' is written "^j^S".
Ls&sSyi oman:u 'bishop's weed,' is written "^r"
Elsewhere the long vowel is changed into ; thus the word for
a boat or ship is always written and pronounced '* vada; unless in
poems, where it is written
oda.
The short o has two forms, viz. iT"0 co,
go,
kho,
&c, and the second form is ~\>X> gho, ~3cpJ jho,
mo, 55dO yo,
P
v) &c. Tne second form is compounded of -ra e and
\3 the sign of u.
This compound form is used by all consonants : but all do not
use the simple form. The simple forms are these ;
r 45*-" fT3

S*-" <&r

tho fiT* do (jT* 4h eT

S~ ^f0 aST* bo 8^* bho 5~ ro S~ lo.


a peculiar shape "23" po

pho

Four letters have

sho fd~ so.

All these may be made long by adding the accent, thus ~~ co,
fT6 go, &c
Some are elongated by adding (dirgham) to the second form,
as ~3-T3 co, "ipO-0 kho, &c. "^J-3 po, !$T~ vnoThus e and 5 compounded (like eau in French) become 5. But
four letters omit the sign \) when the vowel is long. ~=?p3~o gho,
Hp-o jho, ~5by> mo, 53T0 yo. Thus one commu is omitted : but
uneducated persons often use two.
It is a very common error to write the long 5, instead of the short
o. Thus r*otS, roCo are written r^oS, r'oaSi. This does
not affect the pronunciation: which remains short.
The vowel 57 au or ow, as in cow, out, mount ; but it is compounded of A and U ; and accordingly in common writing the initial

ALPHABET.

17

shape
is never used; f^j avu or awu, being substituted; and
the V or W being silent as already shewn, this is pronounced aw or
au. Thus **$&4-> awta or avuta (to become) which in the dictionary
is
auta pronounced like the English word outer. Thus 'wtfo
audaryam 'generosity' ^f^?S aunnatyam 'loftiness' are commonly
written fc9>"CTBgo) o^jS^Sigo, but the pronunciation remains unal
tered. In these Sanscrit words this change is not approved.*
The sign
is (very needlessly) retained in combination with au
as regards" some letters. Thus 5S?-0 mau, gSj* 0 yau, "o^^T3 hau.
The following are the shapes used,
jpT" x $3
3^ zf
W

<F

fT*

3*

Tp

&
^

^ f
^
3"
& -&s>
Throughout the grammar I have used the common forms of the
initial vowels. For the sake of uniformity in the dictionary, how
ever, monosyllabic forms of ai and au are used. Thus for the words
t &oxiki payita (a woman's veil) and
cavuzu (a partridge) we
must, use the spelling ~^j&> and
Sanscrit words invariably use
the monosyllabic forms. Telugu words use these or the dissyllabic
forms at pleasure. Poets adopt whichever form suits the metre ;
thus IT"?. 8 cau-gi-li (an embrace) is a dactyl formed of a long sylla
ble and two shorts. But this may be written 5"^*8 cavugili (four
shorts) or by inserting O (that is N,) poets write tg)0%Q cavfingili
whereby the second syllable becomes long.
Thus, besides the forms exhibited in the alphabet the vowels take
the following forms; both in poems and in every day business.
* Few of the Telugus are able to pronounce the short vowel o in the English
words lost, hot, horse, top, God, law, lord, order, which they make w*y(x>>&s&x>
5S"(&), eV^!). TT'dSb, er, er^iSb, eS-iJTiS&j, thus born becomes barn, God,
guard, and former, farmer. In the Telugu newspapers Hong Kong is spelt
6*0 T*OXb Hangu-Kangu. In English neither sound is used unless in some
districts as Derbyshire where honey and more are pronounced in the ancient
manner ; the sounds are quite different from those of rod and rode.
C

18

TELUGU GRAMMAR.
a
t?*
3

becomes

cS>

*
i

d63~ y3
CCO
yi

C00~~ yi

j)

ya

ru (but sounded u or 56)


vfl (sounded u or 55)

ri

&

rti or 5 ri

"<3:>

ye (or wrongly, ct> ya)

o^i

ye (or wrongly, dsS3H>ya)

oJ

S3

ai

CJcou a-yi

3j

"^j

vo, wo, or 55oo yo

a.

sr*

vo, wo, or 53t 5'5

StT*

au

C5q^)

a-vu, awu.

tOST"* rii and "2T lu are not in use.


A short vowel is called Ijf*'^5*0 hraswamu, (sS-^-jfr-^Jko' o hraswaxaram, or e)x>2j laghuvu : each of which words literally means *
(levis) light; as opposed to XbOo^ guruvu ' heavy' which is the same
as fc$>s~o dirgham ' long :' a vowel which is long by nature as
a, i, &c, is called 6$e~o dirgham : but it is called guru if long
either by nature or position ; that is by being followed by two con
sonants. Thus in the words fcotf anta 'all' ** ^ anna ' elder bro
ther' eJtSjiSo tammudu ' younger brother' &c. &c, the first vowel is
short; but is guru being followed by two consonants. The v/ord guru is chiefly used in prosody.*
In the Rambler, No- 90, Johnson uses the preferable expressions strong and
weak syllables. These words are referred to in various parts of Telugu Grammar
and therefore are here noticed. They are also ued regarding the 7frsJJ&'Srt30
or Table of (jfras&oeM) Prosodial feet : wherein the sign | (a short upright line)
is used for short, and yj (our mark for short) denotes long. As the quantity of
every syllable is evident to the eye, scanning is perfectly easy, and the marks |
and \j are rarely used. We may therefore without any inconvenience use the

ALPHABET.

19

On the Consonants.
The first 25 consonants, as shewn in the alphabet, stand in five
lines, each df which contains four letters besides a nasal.
The four letters which thus form one line are often looked upon
as equivalent. This particularly happens as regards initials changed
by grammatical rule; which will be explained elsewhere. The
" Primary" letters T cb S "& ka, cha, ta, ta, pa, are changed in
to " Secondaries" and respectively become X gS
5 Si ga. ja, da,
da, ba, or X $ & S3 ga, sa, da, da, va.
The sounds of many consonants require no explanation. Thus :
if ka X ga -CS cha & ja ^ na
pa. a) ba s> ma c55o ya
ra O la S5 va ^6 sa
ha are usually pronounced like the cor
responding English letters as sounded in Kate, Gate, chase, jackal,
no, put, be, me, you, row, low, vale, sale, hale. The letter G is
always hard, thus ft"^, ginneh 'a cup' and T?wiS> gelucu ' to con
quer ;' but it is never pronounced soft as in George.
The aspirates are the following.
2f) kha as in 'park-house;' 'buck-horn;' qj) gha as in ' loghouse,' ' stag-horn tJS chha as in ' coach-horse ;' Cop as in ' hedgebog ;' (if tha as in ' cart-horse ;' j JJh, as in 1 bid-him ;' (j) tha
as in ' but-him ;' ' not-here ;'" (fi tha as in ' ad-here ;' J{3 pha as in
' up-here ;' fff bha as in ' club house.'
The learned affirm that aspirates are peculiar to Sanscrit, and
never should be used in native Telugu words. Thus they wish us
to write those words without the aspirates : <S"tf dora ' a master'
marks found in Latin and Greek. Iu reading verse, the natives use particular
chanting tones which to our ear are far from agreeable . It is such as the Romans
used, according to Ovid, Arte 3,345 Yel tibi composite cantetur epistolavoce. This
passage should have been noticed in Monk's Life of Bentley, Vol. II., p. 324. See
Smollet's remarks (Humphrey Clinker, letter of 13th July,) " Every language has
it's peculiar recitative" &c. Natives are accustomed to read in a very loud voice :
whenever we find this disagreeable, we- merely need remark cSsOff&Sc) fcS8 t3Q ?
3oe> TT* i58S50 V The student will find it useful to read the first two sections
CO
of the chapter on Prosody.

20

TELUGU GKAMMAK.

gali ' wind'


gatti ' strong' S"*"^0' kobbera ' cocoanut ker
nel' S>sS&t> dumukuta ' to leap,' oSo&> zancuta ' to fear,' e>*3
datti ' a girdle:' but in this the}' are not countenanced by general
use, which gives the aspirate to these words ; viz., <?^8 dhora,
ghali, ?j3 ghatli,
khobbera, >sSK>4j dhumukuta, cc^olo
i&fc> jhankincuta (HD. 2. 901) also co^oSSAj jhancuta, and
dhatti.
The capital shapes of the consonants are given in the alphabet.
But some of them take another form, without Talacaltu, when writ
ten beneath the line. Thus g" is the capital form, and
or ~rj
is the second form of ka ; in the words "35" lecca (an account) ^5"
palcu (a word.) Thus 55b is ma; but the second shape is as in
the name ^ii^
Manmathudu (Cupid) or s&tf^o marmam
1 a secret.'
The following are the letters with their second shapes. Some of
which (as ) Ba) are nearly the same as the capital shapes.
f

kka

X gga

5 dgha

f\ chcha or cca

US chchha

23 iia or zza
25 jjha cb tta cb ttha
S dda
ddha
K
OJp
fcO '
"
G> "
9"
3 una
e> tta
e> ttha
CS dda
5 ddha
\ nua
'
o
cp
o
cp
=j
ppa ^ ppha
bba
dbha ^ mma dig yya
I??, or Itf rra (also e rra)
<g\ ssa

shBha

O 11a

11a

SSQ vva

^ ssa.

In some of these combinations the upper letter is different from


the lower as ( Bi) because the other combinations (as
are
wrong; though they sometimes occur in writing. Native tutors
would teach us about a hundred more combinations, though well
aware that they are never used.
The pronunciation of some consonants is peculiar. Thus f cha
and 23 ja are sometimes softened into 9a (or tsa, as in hot-sun, Bet
sy) and z or ds (as in swordsman.) The softer sounds 9a and za
are peculiar to Telngu, and the harder sounds cha, ja, originate in
Sanscrit : no Sanscrit word can use the soft sounds.

ALPHABET.

21

Theletters and & take the hard sound with (I, E, E' AI,)
<^ a) 3D. Thus
chippa ' a plate' &sS> chima ' an ant' x3afcsjAj
chepputa 'to say' "3(8 jerri ' a centipede'
jerri-potu 'a
cobra de capello' x3<S> chenu 'afield' "^<S jena ' a span' ^l^85^5
qhaitramu ' the name of a month' and JS^P Jaimini ' a certain name.'
All these take the hard sound. But iJo|_eSbjsS chandrudu ' the
moon' x^S'tJS^sSx) chacachakyamu ' brilliancy' iy*c6o chorudu ' a
thief being words of Sanscrit origin give the hard sound of ch.
And Ke>sto jalamu 'water' ar"e>tf jalamu 'a net' &&x> jivamu,
' life' give the hard sound of J.
The following words being Telugu, give the soft sounds ; i5e>jS
calamu 'anger'
c^uta 'to extend' TS^fco cotu'a place'
vafcula ' to come' ^^'cS3Trci.c6 ^ofcttcunnaru ' they enter'
which might be spelt in English letters tsalam, tsatsuta, tsotu, vatsuta, sossusunnaru.*
And the soft sound (dz) of is perceived in the Telugu words
eko^ zabbu ' i/oie' ~2k sio bezzamu ' a hole or bore' af*^ zodu ' a
pair' which might be written dzabbu, bedzamu, dzodu. In common
writing the letter 23 is wrongly shaped like f>X> bu.
Instances wherein the consonant is doubled. 5>^ pic^ci or pichcbi
(foolish) is pronounced like the English word pitchy ; and =5t3^ \a99eh
(he came) is pronounced like vat-cheh. jjX mazziga ' butter-milk'
is pronounced madjiga; and K^"3 gazzelu (anclets) would accord
ing to English ear be written gud-jelloo.
In some grammars and in some recent editions of poems, the nu
merals O and -3 (1 and 2) have been placed over these letters : one
denoting the soft, the other the hard sound. But the principle is so
easily understood that marks (which indeed few understand) are su
perfluous,t
* This is the German sound of C; for in the names of the letters in the Ger
man Alphabet the letter C is called Tsay, and Z is called Tsett.
t The mutation of ca, into sta is obvious in the verb : where the participle
^SoBou-Ck che-yu-tsu is at pleasure spelt
chestu : thus the sounds of S and
T change places.

22

TELUGU GRAMMAR.

In the rustic or ancient pronunciation, the Telugus use the soft


sounds alone. Thus we frequently hear the words Oj5j,chinna,
cheppu, sStnfo jilugu, ^sfaotta jemudu pronounced cinna, ceppu, zilugu, zemudu.
They in like manner mispronounce Sanscrit words.
The soft sounds are common in Irish, where true, dry Sec, are
pronounced thrue, dhry, &c.
The nasal sound & gna or ng of the first varga or class is like n
in the word mignionetle or in opinion. It occurs in the common words
sj-#>^t>ox> vang-mu-lamu ' a recorded deposition or statement.' Like
all other nasals, it is usually changed into O as in the word woXo
angam ' the body.'
The nasal of the second varga or class is g^- and never appears
alone : being always written under the letter j, as in the word
ar'a&s'sSxi jnapacamu 'recollection' and
jnanamu 4 know
ledge' $o_ san-jna, ' a sign.' These words are usually though
not correctly pronounced TV*jgAS-sSaa gyapa-camu, TCojiifco gya-namu,
"fr*X savtgya.
In teaching Sanscrit or Telugu the teacher is obliged continually
to make his pupils pronounce harder than they fancy requisite.
The letters
Ta, S Da, and C3 Na, are harder, and the letters
e$ Ta, Da, and $ Na are softer, than the sound they have in
English*
The hard D is often pronounced nearly like R, thus 13z;c" Bezavada becomes Bezoara.
The distinction between the hard and soft T is perceived in these
words.
a stab
a beast
cutting
a fort
ir-(S
old
a song
the bark of a tree
a grandfather
&04j
strange
on a bow
^3 _4#
rubbish
evil
to
The soft D and the soft T are used in modern Greek : as is shewn in Dalitway's Constantinople.

ALPHABET.
s&4
u

limit
a bundle
ten millions
"3teex> ^3ix> evils
60
u
**S
a
j
1643

husk
short, not tall
mere, only
reviling

69

holding, a list
r
binding
i
The distinction between the hard and
ires
a speck
ra
powder
irsSb
waste
(adv.) fully
*
a boil
a
sa
a
door
a
b
X>So
an egg, the eye-ball a
o
sua
tu&
a bottle
length
a bough
wa>
he
t&i
to slip out
a)6
having fallen
*>&
*>*

fallen

23
intoxication, prid*
a cover
a monkey
bands
friendship
a rag
a wick
a bag
silk
a sword
soft D is important.
a bush
a pouch
bed of a tree
blame, reproach
vulture
correcting
a blow with the fist
sense
the udder
a flock
battle, quarrel
to blow
ten
a bit

Q
abos
a pig
having fruited
In the negative verbs some masculines end in the hard sound,
some feminines or neuters in the soft sound. Thus,
she becomes not
he becomes not
-?!&
she lives not
he lives not
she comes not
he comes not
she will not stay
he will not stay

24
i6e>5'{Sj

TELUGIT GRAMMAR.
he speaks not

S&aS'aS)

she speaks not

he hears not
S>$ei>
she hears not.
This aorist form is used in all verbs. The following call for par
ticular attention ;
s-JSa^jsr-cKS^JSo he cannot write [CTcs6l5i> he did not write
sr-SSoffsSsSlSiSb he cannot read fJeSsS"^^
he did not read
The difference between the following words is equally important,
^rasSw
crimson
fHfS
a waterfall.
And between soft and hard L.
^ew

lice

names

tTtu

to flow

stones

S~"exi
a leg
"5""^
legs.
The hard sound of 3 is exemplified in the words 5^8 kaniti ' an
elk' and S"cM3f> canuzu 'a partridge.'
The letters P Ph B Bh M call for no remarks in addition to what
is stated already regarding aspirates.
\
The letter Y is always a consonant, and requires the addition of a
. vowel. Thus t3c&j che-yu-ta ' to do' ^S00^ che-yyi ' the hand'
"*csfc co-yya 'wood' &<*&gx> bi-yya-mu 'rice'
a-yy-a 'sir.'
Likewise in Sanscrit words as 36^!&)D pad-ya-mu ' stanza' F^cssisSxi
nya-ya-mu 'justice'
can-ya 'a virgin' r&n>Boi> sur-yudu 'the
sun.'. When yy occurs in a name we may conveniently express it
by ii. Thus ~3o<s> Venk-ayya and r*rti<& Su-rayya (certain
names) may be written Venkiia and Suriia.
The letter ^ ' y' is denominated IcSSjj or cSSr=s5a.
The letter R is a fruitful source of idle disputation among the
learned: some of whom assert that in certain words, as t&dcsSo^
j&5&, S"L?, &c, we ought to use the obsolete form Sie^dBoo; sfceaS,
S"g. It is sufficient to point out that the shape e*9 is obsolete, and
we may safely neglect it. In ancient times the two letters varied so
far in sound that they were not allowed to rhyme together : and the
excellent poet who wrote the Telugu version of the Sri Bhagavat is

ALPHABET.

25

blamed by pedants for neglecting this refinement. The letter ?> is


called aoofifS^ and the letter 6 is called aoSt~di>*
When R is connected with a consonant, with no vowel between, it
may be written thus;
carta ' Lord' j5^sS carmamu ' act' sSoS^tfas
marmamu a 'secret.' Or the mark E~" called sSo&vKvZ is placed
beyond: thus S"tfr", c&^~*Sx), s&>sS>e~jS.
The letter R in such places must always be clearly pronounced as
is the practice of the Scotch and of the Germans.
In some printed books the silent
R is shaped <5~. Thus ?(5~&
carta. This is chiefly used in foreign words ; as X&5~ <5"~ Governor,
|>^<5~ senior, CjSgtT" junior.
Many puref Telugu words have a liberty of adding R to the ini
tial consonant : thus 8*$,
<S^, JjS^sS tova, trova, dova, drova,
all mean 'a road.' V jS cotta (new) may be spelt (J~*J* crotta: and
OB kinda (under) may be spelt (Joss krinda : thus in English there
are words that resemble others in the initial, as cave, crave, gave,
grave ; tie, try, die, dry ; cape, crape, gape, grape ; pay, bay, pray,
bray ; couch, or crouch, babble, or brabble, petty or pretty. Chaucer
writes droil for toil, prin for pin, grit for girt, and brids for birds.
Spenser writes thrust for thirst (F. Q. 3. 7,. 50.) A similar liberty is
found in all languages of the Celtic family. In English these are se
parate words, but in Telugu they are often only various spellings of
the same word. For this reason, in the dictionary I have mingled
these four classes ; as I and J, or U and V were long mingled in the
* The obsolete (^Q R and C the semi circle have crept even into some of Ure
books printed under my directions. These letters ought to be set aside and not
allowed a place at the compositor's table. The letter It is written under the letter,
and shaped thus (crara-vadi) in the Burmese language. The letter G is also
shaped like the form o. The letter H is also similar. Some other characters also
are evidently cognate.
t By the "pure Telugu words" (Hi^ HooXb) or "Radical Telugu" gram
marians intend such as are not derived from Sanscrit. This will be explained at
the end of the Grammar in remarks on Etymology. The principles of Telugu
and Sanscrit spelling are widely different: but as it is requisite to explain both,
the reader will observe that such rules as mention one of these languages apply to
it alone.

26

TELUGU GBAMMAB.

English dictionaries. While the consonants were classed separately,


in the Telugu dictionary, this uncertainty regarding the initial often
rendered it requisite to search for a word in three or four places be
fore it came to light. By mingling the initials, and excluding the
optional R, all the various modes of spelling usually appear in the
same page. This arrangement diminishes the size of the dictionary ;
as formerly two or more forms were inserted ; and were explained
separately or referred to another page.
The expediency of the present arrangement of the dictionary will
be hourly felt in reading: a native assistant or instructor, when asked whether we are to look for the word in question, under the pri
mary initial K or the secondary G; under Oh or J (^f,
and
are all the same word, meaning mischief, harm) under T or D ;
under P or B; under s or $ s, is very apt to reply that either spell
ing is equally good.
The letter O is L as in "e$eXo Telugu. The letter # is the same
pronounced harshly, turning the tongue upwards : thus
pellu
'names' S"*^ collu 'birds.' Certain Sanscrit words always use O
and others always use
The letter 35 V or W ; this is generally sounded V ; thus,
srd3o vadu 'that man'
vidu 'this man' ao^JSo evadu 'who.' In
Sanscrit words it ought to be pronounced V as sSdS>$J vayasu 'age'
vina ' a lute ;' but in many Telugu words the sound is more
like W, thus
vatti 'mere' is usually sounded watti. The learn
ed generally use the sound V, the illiterate often use the sound W.
In English words the Telugus find V hard to pronounce; usually
changing it into W. When it is doubled, as in
puvvu 'a
flower' S"*^ covvu 'fat'
davvuna 'afar' it is usually pro
nounced as W, thus pu-wu, co-wu, da-wuna. In common talking
the V is often dropt: thus
veta (hunting, the chase, venison, a
goat) is generally changed into ^*-> yeta and
yata. Else
where V changes into O. Thus
vagce (vut-cheh) ' he came,' is
pronounced
oQe.
The three letters sa ox sha and ^6 sa are as different in sound
as the English words sharp, action, soul. They are exemplified in

ALPHABET.

27

the names * PsrSi&>, eu$wBro'S>3, pr*i&r6'sS Sanivaramu 'Satur


day' Laxmivaramu ' Thursday' Somavaramu 'Monday.' As distinct
names are convenient, some call these '5"o85''5"8'ji santi-sacaramu,
K'j&.T,tftf cashta-shacaramu, f5o^r^>"arBJJi5 sulabha-sacaramu :
others use the words
Sa,
Any three words in a simi
lar order are more easily remembered than the grammatical phrases
' labial, dental, and palatal.'
The learned state that $ Santi-Sacaramu, belongs solely to words
of Sanscrit origin : and wish us to exclude it from all Telugu words.
Thus they think e$$G> 'must' ought to be written 2Se)>jSe: and
St,
should be
But the voice of the
nation is against them : and common usage is the best guide in this
matter.
The word
or
" blest, happy, auspicious" is superstitiously placed at the beginning of papers and books; but in government
business at Calcutta this is forbidden : and books printed at Madras
omit it at pleasure.
The consonant 'Sj-o H takes peculiar forms with the various vow
els ; thus r ha "^r6 ha r or
hi r* or %3~ hi ro
\<cn\P> hu

"n>\ hri "=S3~ he

-!X"> he

hai ~^J~0 ho
a

"^Sy6 ho or ~^S^T hO '^0 hau.


The interjection 63-6* aha denotes yes.
The letter Sj-t> H is sometimes pronounced as F. Thus
Jihva, pronounced jifva, (ignorantly written 2? sS"^ Jimha) is the
Sanscrit name for the tongue. es-^Ko ahladam (afladam) delight.
It sometimes changes places, in pronunciation, with the letter written
under it. Thus the name ^5 Bramha (a name of God) is written
Brahma. And the name for a bramin is written |_p'jSj>FWiSb brahmanudu but pronounced bramhanudu.*
When the letter H is silent (that is, is without a vowel) it is ex
pressed by two dots or circles, viz. g which is called
e visargalu.
* Thus in Danish Hval is the name for a whale. In Swedish Hvad is what and
Hvar is where. See Rae Wilson's Norway and Sweden 182C, page [60] Appendix.

28

TELTJGTJ GEAMMAE.

And it is the custom to repeat after this the vowel that precedes it ;
thus
swatah is voluntarily, pronounced tS^^* swataha, -tys&S
Ramah (a proper name) is pronounced Ramaha ; as if it was writ
ten "CPsS)^-. The word &>%4px> duhkhamu, pain is pronounced
Dukhamu.
The letter (Sx csha, more conveniently expressed by X, is a com
pound of Jf ka and sS. sha; and is sounded like ct in action, di
rection, section. Thus
axi 'the eye' ^6<S>- parixa 'examina
tion'
axaramu 'a letter of the alphabet.'*
The letter X is placed by the native authors at the end of the
alphabet. In Wilson's Sanscrit Lexicon it is placed with the letter k.
The Telugus are as negligent in spelling as the English vfere be
fore the days of Johnson. The words borrowed from Sanscrit are
often misspelt. Thus \^ stri ' a woman' is often written l_ Sri
' fortune' and vice versa. The word ts ;Sjo annam ' food' is constantly
written and pronounced 3F3;>. The word [^^exlo Bramhanudu
is frequently mispronounced sr^s&fSjSo Biamanudu.
On the Sunna and Half Sunna.
It has already been stated that the circle or cipher o called sunna
is used as a substitute for a nasal letter. But it is wrong, though
customary, to place it in conjunction with ^ N or jSb M. When N
or M occurs double, as ^i^i, 43 ^ the vulgar write "o^ o;Sj 0r
even ^o^Jl, and ^Qj^,
When sunna is followed by a consonant of the first four classes
(varga) it is N ; but the remaining letters (pa, pha, ba, bha, ma, ya,
ra, la, va, sa, sha, sa, ha, xa,) sound it as M; and it likewise is M
whenever it stands at the end of a word. Thus the word Sanscrit
-fiar6 ^<So is pronounced sams-cru-tam. The Sanscrit words "jSow
So conversation, ^o^csfio doubt, are pronounced sam-vadam, samSayam. When followed by Y, the sunna is pronounced, nasally :
thus ^ocJfisJo say-ya-mi, 'a hermit,' $o"ao-oX's&o say-yogamu, 'junc
ture:' here the nasal sound of n is used, as in some French words,
* The letter X is in Spanish pronounced like sh. Thus Texiera and Xeres are
Bounded Teeshira and Sheres, or Sherry.

ALPHABET.

29

bien, sien, cliien. requin. Thus sunna is written full but only half
pronounced.
These words are Sanscrit; but in some Telugu words the letter C
called the half sunna or semi-circle is used by some grammarians*
but in common use the circle alone is used : though it sometimes is
pronounced full N, as in the English words song, long.
The spelling used in ordinary writing deviates from that approved
by the learned. Thus ftfosSb atandu is pronounced **3JSS atadu.
The learned assert that the semi-circle is peculiar to verse, and that to
use it in prose is absurd.f
The following observations regarding the circle and semi-circle
need not be read by beginners. They can only be understood by
those who have made some progress in the language.
In some particular words the sunna is inserted after a short sylla
ble. Thus 8 t> tamniudu may become tf^oaS tammundu ;
t3to becomes wsoo a son-in-law; S^tf^
&ioix>kxi%).
M. 17. 1. 55. ^JfcKb or >?5oO?<> an elephant, "SexMo or "SewoXj.
The sunna thus inserted is called 65j&jS^or optional N. Thus
{J43 becomes fc5tfot3.~S#S or "3o; T>io, &oooeJ or i6c>oej; *T
S3 or S"ct3 ; 5"5, g"Sor. -gejoxi Telugu or "3ewoj Telungu,
also spelt HfSoXo Tenugu or UfSioKb Tenungu, and even UpfkXo Trenugu or ^eJjfcojfc Trenungu. M. Virat. 1. 6.
It is inserted before "TC0 when that adverbial affix is added to a
Root in A- Thus tvtt* or -coic ; ^&K7r> 0r ol<3oX'oTr. '
And after words of colour. Thus 5fc>LS"K" or okltfoTT* redly.
jSoTr* or (5e>o"7r* blackly.
It is sometimes inserted in the verb, in the third person singular
masculine of the negative voice. Thus ^Jfi> or ^2ojSb; 6oasSa or
* It is analogous to the sign used in old Latin printing for m or n. Thus gcmitu, indignata sub umbras became ' geitu, idignata sub ubras.' In some ancient
Latin ifords the letter N was optional ; thus toties or totiens ; quoties or quotiens.
In his life of Numa, Plutarch mentions Pontifex as written Potifex.
t The printers of many recent publications seem to be unaware of this rule. In
a Telugu version of the Arabian Nights we even find (p. 582) such odd forms as
Jd O^l) C JF* ; and similar refinements may be seen in most pages of that book.

30

TELUGU GEAMMAB.

6ooa>. Thus, (Lila XI. 83.) ^i^o^a for


' he disap
proves :' ^oSosSo for ^offiasb. This spelling is rustic ; and is used
in verse merely to lengthen the preceding short vowel.* Also in
other parts of the verb, as Se>SoeJ, 8ejo5Sej ; ST'vXS, TooKS"; S"o
XoiJ ' to grieve' may become 5"e>oXbej. It seems to be prefixed to
the letters K G D and B alone.
It is even inserted in pronouns, o^Sb becomes o^oSb (M. XII.
6. 615 here evadu. becomes evvandu.) And <^^*3, oJ^\o*S the ge
nitive of >^^>.t
In such places the N is used or dropt at pleasure: like U in
honour or favour. Practice alone can determine where we must
use it.
In the ancient pronunciation of Telugu, (which the rustic classes
still retain) the nasal sound was very prevalent : but the educated
classes have laid aside this disagreeable accent. In England the rus
tic pronunciation, particularly in Derbyshire, is more antique and
nasal than that of the higher ranks.
The nasal (following a long syllable) is preserved among the illi
terate in many Telugu words: as
vadu 'he' "^*-> veta 'hunt
ing, the chase' i> vika 'strength' StS toka 'a tail' "^"S" kaka
' heat'
zada ' trace,' ~&>, ~5~e> he is not : which the rustic
classes write zT'Olfo, "3o4j, Sog"; eT6off, T'oS', eT'oSS, "goesb,
~&*o&>. The verb "S"-&>ej js written T"oSbi> which properly is
another verb.
is the spelling in the dictionary, but SS-o-Sbej
in ordinary writing, though condemned. 63-S is written &9-oJ8;
* It is sometimes omitted to suit the metre. HoSoO becomes Hb8>, 'wSoej-*
3 becomes ~titS&rvd. In M. 4. 2. 169. we find de?,, ^>8o5\ erigi, eringi,
here the same word is used twice ; with and without sunna, to suit the metre.
See quotations in the dictionary.
t The poets (like Homer) sometimes alter the spelling of words to suit the metre.
Thus da&^So eppudu "when" is\j \j a dactyl: but may change into oi^J)J5b
epudu a tribrach \j \j \jj or even dsg- SSo epudu \j
\j 'an amphibrach' or
epdu,
\j a trochee.
Cf

ALPHABET.

31

&*ow&; TTO& for tjo. The learned have attempted to


reconcile this discrepancy by using C the semi-circle ; they wish
such words to be written thus ^cs5>, ScS", iS^cS", T'cS'. In like
manner the forms ^cfc"A" cheyaga,
poeaga, tp"^ raga (do
ing, going, coming) are commonly written and pronounced ^dSjoTT*
cheyanga; sJr*sSo-n- pooangd; t^ott* ranga. This is the older
spelling, now disused by the learned. The slightly nasal sound an
swers to the indistinct N used in French or in the Hindustani
language.
This semi-circle is occasionally used in poetry (when written on
palm leaves) as a hyphen at the end of a line*
The semi-circle has never come into general use among the peo
ple, and it will be hard to prove the expedience of a refinement like
this : which is discountenanced by most manuscripts of the poets and
it is entirely unprofitable.
Experience and the advice of sound scholars among the natives
has shown me it's futility; but some bramins of ordinary learning up
hold this character. They acknowledge that in practice it is laid
aside, and that there is no rule in any grammar to vindicate the va
rious ways in which the ardha bindu is inserted.
They insist upon an English pupil acquiring the practice of using
the semi-circle: as well as the obsolete R; and leave him to find out,
* The vulgar often write the long vowel short and substitute the circle for ardha
sunna. Thus jsf vica 1 force' is written So 5" vYnca, 8^&&> is written (y'oZPej
and jf^flof is written for S^&K. d"*;f Poca ' a nut' is written iroS" pBnca,
JT6^ becomes r"oX>, (F'oiSlV for S^tS-K*. SOTS for
tegeh. >o*J for
Rasica. 1. 52. Though written wrong these words are pronounced right.
This error often occurs both in poems and in ordinary letters : and must be observ
ed by the student who otherwise may be misled in the dictionary. Op. the other
hand, sunna is omitted with equal carelessness, thus aoj(j;S is written, cxXisS
Ofte>!fe3.ooo*e)sS HSoSbso, SSSS K&, ifiox'a, f^X", r-o& (goye)^PS,
"3~Ofi Kanchi (a certain town) is written TT*&, sSoJT*tu the town of Ongole is
written S ff^OO and yet no one pronounces the words in the wrong way. Thus
o
in hasty English writing, letter, teller, litter, tiller, tetter, titter, may easily
be understood, though written wrongly.

32

TELUGU GRAMMAR.

by experience, that both these are unknown to all bat pedants. Yet
as few students continue the study after acquiring a smattering of
Telugu, the emptiness of these instructions generally remains unde
tected.*
Some modern pedants among the Telugus have attempted (in imi
tation of some Devanagari printing to abolish the O ; thus instead of
Wossk), and
they affect to write
and e3-|j) sic.
This idle whim appears in 6ome recent publications both Sanscrit
and Telugu. It is an empty innovation and is not likely to become
popular.
From what has been stated the reader will observe that there are
(as in some other languages) two or even three modes of spelling :
one in daily use and indispensable ; this alone is used in the present
grammar ; the second mode is poetical, and uses particular forms of
certain initial and final letters, as .3^5SsSc for (in common spelling)
V)jS, and ^-"p?^ for sr-pip ; and a third, which is pedantic,
using the obsolete R and the obsolete semi-nasal.
* The ordinary teachers are apt to speak to students on some learned subjects
which are ill suited to beginners. The tutor should on such occasions be desired
to read the following caution. s^o?it);js>arI5o S3-o|Jj>sSx> t5sSSS "jTSO

oj&SbaoS \&fiH8o ge)"S)foS)"^"gS>- cor",&n,gSs5)^e))"^; cot- (j6 c>


&tu oor* ia-gS'o'rtJ&\)<tf"t
VXsioer* ^dSos' tJotfgip'XsSoDer^
[jr>c&Si~3xi-fi8i. 2;"^" 3-&cip<Sx>esre ^TT^tyo-tJSsSiSsk} tsp^pTfer'
JO&^asSo X^S" efauS

Sfmvo- 53-2!^e>;Scao-

c&fiijD^JjSSS j6X"8[g^oD"^i5Sb, In reading any manuscript with a learned Brarain, we shall find him object to the spelling in almost every line : asserting
that the ignorance of the transcribers has vitiated the book. But our business
is to study the language as it is ; to take it as we find it : and errors that do not
injure the souse or the metre may safely be left unaltered. Much that is pressed
upon our notice as highly momentous, is in truth mere learned trifling.

DIALECTS.

83

In poetry a word may sometimes stand part in one line, and part
in the next: thus NalaDwip. 2. 831,
+
and in 2, 166, the
word fQM& + 2> ' thou becamest' is thus divided.
It will be seen in the chapter on Elision that the final M is often
dropped in Sanscrit words. Thus (X'oJfo + eS-o'Cip'o grandham
arambham becomes \jKo-qrtiotfo grandh'a-rambham : the Elision be
ing the same as occurs in Latin. But with Telugu words the rule is
different ; thus ^Kt&a an actress,
play, may form iS^Xtiyte
bogam-ata 'the actress's play' never jr*~7rt>. And S'Sntio
caranamu-anna ' the clerk's brother' may become ^ts^s&>^caranamanna but cannot become StSnQ^ caran'anna. In Sanscrit in such
places a long vowel would be used. But in Telugu this never is
allowed.
On Dialects.
Just as happens in English and French, certain forms of expres
sion and of spelling are in common use; others are found only inpoems. Most words belong to the common stock ; and those pecu
liar to the higher and lower dialect are altogether but few in num
ber. Such occur even in the verb ; thus " shalt not, wilt not," would
be the poetical form ; " shall not, will not," is the common form, and
shan't, won't is the colloquial. Native grammarians condemn and
neglect the colloquial forms, which they consider vulgar; though it
is easy to prove their occurrence, (as in English) even in the writings
of the best authors.
We are aware how totally the rules for Elision used in French,,
differ from those of Latin : and the difference between Sanscrit and
Telugu in this respect is yet wider. What is right in one language
is, sometimes, wrong in the other.
The rules for elision, permutation and softening initials are re
quired in poetry ; but not in the common Telugu we talk or write :
and these poetical refinements are not admissible in books written
to teach either a language or a creed. Our native teachers would
willingly reject common Telugu altogether, and teach us the poeti
cal dialect alone : which they themselves however cannot use in dailjr
talking and writing.

34

TELUGU GEAMMAE.

In ordinary sentences, as [X'oJjJsSn^j^S grandhamu unnadi 'there


is a book' ^pScojjbp vaniki istini ' to him I gave it' $o
7T
&>Sx> chhandamu anagd yemi ' what is Prosody ?' they would di
rect us to spell these words thus; \Xo$sS>Dj6^S grandham'unnadi,
srpl%p vdnik'istini, ^oow;Sox'"^c> chhandamVanangan emi.
This mode of spelling would be correct in poetry ; but in com
mon life no one uses it ; and if we wish to be intelligible, we must
use the common dialect. The two dialects differ almost as much as
ancient and modern Greek : and were a resident in Athens, to attempt
to transact business in ancient Greek (using likewise poetical elision!)
lie would not easily be understood : nor will the Telugus understand
us, unless we speak and write as they do. These remarks are made
in consequence of the publication, by natives at Madras, of some
small works on Grammar and on religion, which by using poetical
rules are rendered hard to understand.*
On Accent.
The accent accords with the spelling ; and is easily understood.
Iu words that consist of short syllables the accent falls on the first,
thus
puli 'a tiger' &S>padi ' ten' <^ps 8 enimidi 'eight'
pani ' work' would in English spelling be pulley, puddy, ennitniddi,
punny.
When a long and short syllable come together, the accent falls on
the long : thus osr~&> Iteh a spear' "3"sS pamu ' a snake.'
When long syllables come together the accent falls on the last.
Thus St*"5o kuda 'together.' The following instances of the ac
cent may suffice : and to each is appended an English or Latin word
of similar sound. "^8 sari (Surrey) ' right.' ~P&> sama(summa) 'even.'
es*-> ata (utter) ' they say.' sfcrf mani (money) ' a jewel.'
hari
(hurry) ' a certain name.' 5"^ cala (colour) ' a ray.'
pusi (pussey) 'rheum.' ^8 cheri (cherry) 'each, apiece,'
madi (mud
dy) ' a field.' "35 tera (terror) ' a curtain.' ^9 puli (pulley) ' a ti
ger.' S5"s&> satacam (shuttercome) ' a set of one hundred stanzas.'
* Writers regarding China have noticed that a similar pedantry prevails there ;
grammarians considering the language of common life wholly beneath their no
tice.

ACCENTS.

35

Tn all these we perceive that the vowels are short in both syllables
and the accent falls on the first. These words also shew that in
English we express the first vowel (short a) sometimes by u and else
where by other vowels. But a double consonant as o or
or ^
has a different accent; as is perceived in English when the two con
sonants are in separate words thus ; royal-lady, begin-now, unnamed,
unnumbered.
No student I ever saw, though well educated in grammar could
pronounce Telugu, Sanscrit, or Hindustani intelligibly on arrival in
India. But I acknowledge that the grammatical knowledge conveyed
by a tutor in England is of greater importance than pronunciation.
In reading aloud, it is the custom to open the mouth wide and to
raise the voice to a high pitch. In fact they inculcate the rules used
by music masters in England.*
* " Those who wish to make themselves understood by a foreigner in his own
" language should speak with much noise and vociferation, opening their mouths
" wide. The English are in general, the worst linguists in the world; they pur" sue a system diametrically opposite. For example, &c." See Borrow's Bible
in Spain, Chapter 1.
The spelling of some Sanscrit words is retained, as ^-6 Hari (for 5x^8 S Harih)
a name of Vishnu. if> Kavi (for Sfag Kavih) a poet, &c. wherein the termina
tion is but slightly altered : these are denominated gi\sSi>s4 Tatsamamu,aword
more fully explained in the appendix : as well as S$s?\a5sS Tadbhavamu or Per
mutations.
v
After making some progress in Telugu or Canarese, the student should read over
those chapters of Sanscrit Grammar which treat of (Sandhi, Vriddhi and Samasa)
Elision, augment, and compound words. Doubtless many read Telugu without
this : but if we ever make any real progress in the language the student will re
quire the aid of the Sanscrit Dictionary, and cannot even talk or write Telugu
with any ease or precision, unless he masters the first principles of Sanscrit or
thography.
Hindus and Musulmans usually mispronounce English names : and both the
English and French, particularly in names of places, have equally corrupted the
pronunciation used in India. The accent is misplaced in almost every proper
name.
We call Muh'ammad, Mahomet, and Goo-da-loor, Cuddalore. "We change
Tee-pu
into Tippoo, and Tiruvalikedi (a suburb in Madras) into Triplicane.
CanchTpuram gotf^DtiO or S"cS is changed into Conjeveram; and Tirupati be
comes Tripetty; Eranaoor Soff p^^ytSa becomes Ennore. Pudicheri becomes
Pondicherry. Bengi-lti-ru becomes Bangalore: and the name SfOo&ra^T" Carimanal, (a small insignificant village north of Pulicat near Madras) has been

TELUGTT GEAMMAE.
When reading verse the Telugus like all other Hindus use a sort
of vociferous chant; (the papists call it "intonation,") and at the
end of every stanza they are taught to drawl out the last syllable in
a kin'd of quaver which to our ears is absurd. It is needless for us to
imitate this method which a native tutor will lay aside when he finds
that it does not please the English ear.
Though the learner must enunciate loudly, he need not do so
after he has obtained some familiarity with the sounds.
Contractions.
The common contractions of words, (whether Sanscrit, Telugu,
Hindustani or English) used in letter writing and accounts are as
follows : The Hindustani words are marked (H.)
Sunday.
e-fu ok
Acting.
Anno Domini.
fell
II
n

(H.)
'. e.

XX ||
*l
*n
*|
*||
tfoff

all

(H.)
Koye&(H.)
Co.i(H.)

Answer.
Cusbah ' a town.'
Candy or Indian ton.
A Garise, or measure.
A pagoda or gold^'coin.
Thursday.
Respecting.
Gumashta, ' a writer'or agent.'
In charge of.
(Persian, on date) as fJo||__a^
on the 22d of June.
According to, at (the rate of.)
By.
Tuesday.

changed into Coromandel ; and is applied to the entire coast. It bas been furnish
ed (by English ingenuity) with a Sanscrit root " Cholamandal or Land of the
Chola grain !" a name unknown to natives ; who assert that the Curu race
(which name some Europeans imagine to be the root of Coromandel) was iu th
north of India, not in the Peninsula.

CONTRACTIONS.

37

E3<5 or 8(SsS (H.) People.


&||

^tu

^||
^||

Afterwards.
ywS (H.) Appertaining or belonging to.

^5~||

rexr'-s^ (H.) A division of a district.

W\\ or

Pence.

f\\ ^-afSoo (H ) Postscript.

5 ||

s^^~ (H )

fr||
J5||

S3
pSo^sSx

(Tne Persian word dastkhat) ' sig


nature.'
A day.
On account of.

~j3o[| "Number"'. e. Case, letter, field, trial, &c.


>^)||

^SJCs (H.)

Pergunnah." ' a division or district.'


Question.

(j^||

\&$&

First.

j^ll

^T'O'sSo

According to.

||
gj-D||

wtw#
sywab (H.)

The dark fortnight, or wane.


An ltem, or belonging to.

3j-t>|J ***|| s^cifiSo st^ojS) (H.) Be it known (to you.)


||

jx>$sro':S

Wednesday.

jJjqJI
j5oo?C'sj'o'sS Tuesday.
SS>o|| or !^|| sfc-o"^ (H.) A village.
S5cr||

sr6^(S~ (H.) By the hand of; in charge of.

gj-jQ j|
^^11

Stoo^s&^^H.) Out of.


"ST*o (H.) A station ; also, ' Dated at.'

qd||

a^o (H.)

An Individual.

ecu || e3-J| ox>a^>,^S--^S> (H.) Izzat-i-dsar,

'Reverence to the

Traditions'. This is a Sectarial exclamation among Mussul


mans of the Sheea creed. But it is used by Hindus without
any idea of the meaning.

38

TELUGU GRAMMAR

"5" || ^ll"01"!! Signifies TPs^j^T^a^ggo^i^BlJ " His Ho

' Wa' (P.)

o||

(H-)
SjSjsGsbaejO

nour" the common salutation at


the beginning of a letter.
And.
Etceetera.
Letter, statements.
Saturday.*
Friday.

~% || or

is! 55 2?*

Your humble servant.

sin
9
(fesso-ln- (H.)

The light fortnight.

9"

" San" (P.)

Year.

n
^or^||

Abovementioned.

A year.
Of a year.
is -^osS^TPexj Years.
^Sr- (H.)
P^w

Sakin ' Inhabitant of.'

(H.) Sahib (a gentleman.)


Monday.
^oTfsfcr* (H.) Temporary.

"^^11
+

(H.) Hunn ' a pagoda.'


caretf ; deuotin g omission of a word.

* In poetry it is customary to designate metres in the same manner. Thus


?ll 111 ^11 5S-|| ~^|| *|| II "'HI
denote the metres called SoaS, |>-j&
ej-ej-aeS, "^fc>^9, &i^e>Sr>e>> iJos5S'5Sn>e)) ^(Xj-oE-ejsfc^
ife "S^faS and s5|| stands for s5tf jSsSco i. e. prose ; which (as in Lalla Rookh) is
mingled with -perse. The letter } vu and eyen
will often be found written
by mistake for <& || i. e. TJtpalamala. Further details regarding metres are con
sidered in the chapter on Prosody.

CONTEACTIONS.

39

On other Contractions used in Writing.


Where two short vowels occur in a word, the second is not always
written. Thus &Sft tirigi * again' X^S" ganaka ' therefore'
taruvata 'afterwards' "3(6 S" venaca 'behind' ~S&> colimi ' a fur
nace' v%>$ valasina 'must, ought' fex>?6 alugu 'a spear head,' &c.
are pronounced as here written : though they are often written
thus S tirgi. X^j ganka, SttS tarwata, "3iS_ venka, S^l^ colmi, s5e> 9^ valasna, and e algu.
In poetry such contraction is used for the sake of the metre : thus
a&8Sf> may become &_&P. a* may become . "SatuoS^p meluconi becomes ~&>er?> melconi, the u being dropt.
The colloquial contractions, 15 for "^i>, &c, are explained in the
chapter regarding those words.
The following and similar words (particularly such as have three
syllables and the middle syllable eX> or
or Sb) frequently arecontracted by dropping the U of the middle syllable. Thus ew?
chiluca becomes
chilka ' a parrot.' "S"ew:S caluva becomes T*tJ
calva ' a kennel.' This even takes place (as elsewhere stated) when
two words are combined. Thus
t& + sS^Si becomes & S^Sb
tod-bot, -B-SS + rSSa becomes VS^sSb. F^eM + ^D becomes 8"*
col-puli.
On Majors and Minors.
Nouns are distinguished as Majors and Minors. The majors (vo
ces majores) called sfc^iS- mahat or
U"l5s'tfe>3 mahad-vaeacamulu include words relating to rational beings. The minors (vo
ces minores) called fsSo5S-*<5~ amahat or 2;fe;f-F<j755'sSejo amahad-vacacamulu relate to neuters and all irrational beings, including
the words for child, infant, &c. Feminine words (whether of women
or goddesses) are defined as (amahat) minors in the singular, but
majors (mahat) in the plural number.

40

TELUGU GRAMMAR.

Thus all masculines are major, all neuters are minor ; while femi
nine words are minor in the singular, but are reckoned as masculines
in the plural. In Ordinals as first, second, &c, there are no major
forms. Thus "Soijr6 second, sfofiS^ third are used with all gen
ders.
The sun and moon (Surya and Chandra) are always spoken of
as (mahat) majors ; being the gods Apollo and Adonis. Likewise
the names of Dhruva, Sucra and some other stars. Thus in English
we still say he for the planet Mars and she for Venus though the
word ' star' is neuter.*
This principle pervades every part of Telugu Grammar and will
be exemplified in the numerals : of which the original names are
neuter. These remarks are necessary to the following rules.
On Numerals.
1 is o called
The vowel & not being used except in poetry
this is spelt "^>5", ^5" or even
Hence come the nouns 1^*3
(neuter) one; ~)e> one man, "S>5"3 one woman. In Sanscrit
sS is the neuter word for one ; and is commonly used in Telugu.
2 is -3 for which the neuter name is ~3oS ; (vulgarly ~3oa be
comes 6os> just as Resin is pronounced Rosin.) It is a noun sub
stantive ; of which the genitive form is ~?Soe3. The major form
(that is the masculine or feminine form) is
always written
cxffi
OJ ; Infl. qm8
CO and accusative cxoK6
CO p. The word ~SeS (in
v
Sanscrit) (j$a&sto is first ; and second is 'SoS^6 which (in Sanscrit)
is &cBjsS. The affix 5 changes the sense ; thus k"e3 one,
ir* the first. "r3oa& two, "Bo^ second. sSxr>s&> three, sfer-^
third, &c. See chapter on the affixes A'E'O'. The sign 6 is usually,
with numerals, written thus; 3<S^ third. VK"6 fourth.
3 is i 55bxo (neut.) sSKo8o (m. f.) sSar-cS"6 is third: which (in
Sanscrit) is J^ScSSs&d. The ordinal names, (first, second, third, &c.)
are of the common gender.
* In German the moon i masculine, Dermond: and the sun feminine, Die Sonne.
In Arabic too the moon is masculine, and the sun feminine.

41

NUMEBALS.

4 is b* ; rJ'ooKb ; neut. jSwHoSo (m. f.) Fe5T* fourth, which in


Sanscrit is 3'SS$e~8&>. By adding S the ordinals become minor
nouns: viz. fT,ojrea the fourth thing : *2ox>&*d the fifth woman.
The names of the remaining numbers are as follows:

5, yt

Minors.
tsoMi>

Majors.
eox)e5b?(oo or

Ordinals.
5th &ax>&*

6, -

63- &

e3-8o*>t> or

6th 63-5^

7, a

^jb

^oSbKoS&or

7th oSoS^8

Seven is often called 69-&"^glS't3 arunnokati or


yellu, to
distinguish it from Wox>a6 five. The two words aidu five and edu
seven are so nearly alike in sound that they are daily mistaken from
one another.
8, o SajbSoQ
S3^sfi>ojSbo8o or 8th o&ijDSciS'*
9, P~

Tsx> 8

^^o5SbbSo or

9th <5f

10, oo a&a

j6sSoo<3o or
10th i6<S^
c&Qs&oa
The remaining numerals will be stated in a future page.
On Softening Initials.

The rules regarding softening Initials are to be passed over for


the present. The student will afterwards study them.
The letters r,
are called s6&^e "Hard:" when
they stand at the beginning of words they are liable to being soften
ed respectively into X 83 (or
S CS 81 or S$ : which are call
ed "^8
"soft" the K becoming G, &c.
Thus, i^+r'koAj becomes *?r44j. T becomes D ; #s&3,o
tammudu is a ' younger brother,' but when combined with Wji^anna
" elder brother" the compound is WfSjess&v^eu anna-dammulu ' bro
thers.'

In like manner 8o[& tandri is ' father' but combined with

42

TELUGTJ GEAMMAE.

tal-li 1 mother' it makes the word


o[&bto talli-dandrulu, i. e.
parents. Thus "3
chellelu is ' a younger sister,' and
acca
is ' an elder sister,' but S^_^^0^ acca-jellendlu is ' sisters.'
Elsewhere (only in poetry) a similar change affects other nouns
or verbs following a nominative case. Thus &tS& + &*&v atadupoe ' he went' may become (never but in verse) *3iil>~5rc&> ataduvoe. Thus HD. 2. 2442. a&o-OKoe?>sto , i. e. fis&^, and HD. 1.
2199 -$ra meaning
to die*
This change is denominated -fiti18~~z&o sarala-desam. It fre
quently occurs in Telugu poetry and (but rarely) is used in common
prose. The few instances given above are in frequent use, and these
are all we need at present consider.
In Welsh poetry as also in Irish, Gaelic and other languages of the
Celtic family, as will he shewn in a future page, this principle oc
curs. It is wholly unknown to Sanscrit Etymology. This change
is evident in the verb : where the auxiliar &t&&> paduta ' to fall' is
continually spelt wfcfc> baduta ; which we hourly use in speaking
and writing.
The same principle appears in other languages. In Spanish a
cat is gato. Littleton in his Latin dictionary says Thrill and Drill
are the same words.
In a few instances an initial consonant is dropped. Thus "=cJ&5&>
veyuta 'to cast' "^fk nenu ' the pronoun I' f>& nlvu 'Thou'
memu ' we' are spelt &cs&>eo, i pfc,
eyuta, enu, Ivu, emu.
The pronoun "^ifk nenu ' I' can even become & e.f
The letter K G is sometimes changed at pleasure into 5S V. Thus
S^o or ^6 ' an earring' 2&X"s&> or *:5sS ' coral' "^Jf infinitive
of er>Xoi> (to drink) may become
On the same principle T
So becomes
he, as ^"X'f6o"sr0Sb a handsome fellow, S^*osr,S
a gardener. In some places T'sfc also becomes Tr-JSo as fc?t$"7viSb
that man.
* Learned natives are fond of altering the spelling in some poems without any
authority : indeed their propensity to tamper with the text is greater than their
respect for any author.
t Occasionally rude contractions occur; thus in Pal. 198. ^*ejOTSb[jjS5-^Str'
o'&X'Sjor'^-Sr'ajS^ySo gavanik'occi for X&pi +
gavaniki vacci.

LENGTHENING EINAL VOWELS.

43

After we become familiar with Telugu spelling we are often


apt, in transcribing a passage of poetry to change a soft into
ajhard, or a hard into a soft initial : elsewhere we unintentionally
use or omit an aspirate, writing X"|3 or 5*3 ' strong' Gr C or
' a master.'
Theserchanges are not of any consequence, and the natives them
selves are equally careless. Thus in English we write connection
or connexion, honor or honour, and either spelling is admissible.
Some learned men inculcate more exactitude than they themselves
use: for by observing their conduct we shall perceive that in writ
ing down from dictation, and in preparing a common letter, they de
viate from the principles which they teach. A century ago the
English and the French disregarded errors in spelling; and the Hin
dus are at present equally careless. But unless we know the
proper mode we cannot trace a word in the Telugu dictionary :
and this consideration has led me to give rules so numerous and so
minute.
Eurther rules on this subject will be placed at the end of the
grammar.
On Lengthening Final Vowels.
The three vowels ^ Q \), when they are final are often length
ened. Thus
' sister' becomes in the vocative
acca.
' brother' becomes WF*^. &o\% ' father,' s> mother become &o|& 1
O father! and
! O mother! "3 [& 'fool' in the vocative case be
comes
; and "^sSMJSb ' a proper name,' makes rr>!&o&r O
Ramudu ! Of this the proper form tt>sST3 is a vocative, but is
used only in poetry. This is a license peculiar to a few words which
colloquially retain \Jt) the long vowel U.
Again the final \} or
is changed into fcj" to denote question.
Thus 'sf'&> ' he' becomes sr'i He ? Sometimes this is used to
denote conjunction ; thus sr-&r*~$fiy ' He and I.'
And emphasis is marked by adding E.' Thus sr'ifc vadu, ' he ;'
sr"c! vade ' that very man : he himself.' At present it is only re
quisite to point out that the final vowel is often lengthened without
affecting the meaning. This particularly happens in compound

44

TELTJGU GKAMMAE.

words. Thus W8f_'3"ejc<!> acca-jellendlu 'sisters,' is generally


spelt ^^Z^lgew acca-chellelu. This is the conjunction.
In like manner Sr4S < together' is generally spelt Sj^ts" and the
final U in eJ**fSo becomes "(& 'inside.' These shapes are con
sidered vulgar but are in daily use.
Thus in the writing of illiterate persons we frequently see the
final short vowel lengthened ; but this should be carefully avoided.
No vowel ought to be lengthened unless the sense requires it ; for
every lengthened vowel is an accent.
On Elision.
"When the short vowels ^ Q \) stand at the end of a word, they
are liable to Elision if the next word begins with a vowel. Thus
+
anna + eccada may become 69 ^L^J* ann'eccada, al
so g^asS^S anna+yeccada 'where is his brother V fc9S + djf_&
adi+eccada becomes 3"3Sf_J ad-eccada, also fc?i5&?r_ 'where (is)
it.' This is called cKl^Q yasruti which sometimes happens to the
vowels / O). But sr46-f-oJ3f_tf vadu-eccada has but one shape
^"SS^JS vad-eccada 'where (is) he?' the vowel \) or U being al
ways subject to Elision.
It is already shewn that w&jfo atadu ' he 's^cSj p5 ' went' may (in
poetry)becomef {Jjfc^r'aj atadu voye. AndwhileTeluguthus alters
the initial consonant of the second word, Sanscrit often alters the last
consonant of the preceding word ; thus 'sfi- or So vac or vaccu
'speech' and wo 'dispute' becomes r"TrKo vag-vadam.
Such linking is continually used in verse ; but in speaking and
writing Telugu (as in French) we continually neglect this elision
and change; which is denominated ^0$ sandhi. Thus st?>S + om
%P 'I gave (it) to him' would in poetry become *r?> f>P, but in
common life such elision is never used, either in speaking or writing,
unless as regards certain words. Thus we say SSJiSo^aojai, ata
du poyenu, he went ; neglecting the elision.
The Sanscrit rules for elision and permutation are entirely differ
ent from those we use in Telugu : and as they are much used in

CHANGES IN THE LAST SYLLABLE.

45

Telugu, as regards Sanscrit words alone, they will be placed at the


end of this grammar for the use of those who have not learnt that
part of Sanscrit Grammar.
And as the principal Telugu rules are used in poetry, but much
neglected in common life, I have placed them at the end of this
Grammar to be referred to when questions arise in Telugu poetry.
Among the natives these rules are known to few but poets ; who use
them (and often break them) in writing verse.
On Changes in the last Syllable.
Many nouns end in Mu. Thus gS^jSx), (jfo^sSo, f)5cH$sS, tftf^
which are Sanscrit; and *oj$sS, -&*Jsio, ^k^sSo, a.^os:S
which are Telugu. All these are in poetry occasionally changed
into MMU or MBU as gS5'S or "^ooo, )6o<$5&^ or a&o&oso,
"^^^4 or '3^0M- But the original form in MU, as ^c&jSo is
obvious and requires no rule.
Sanscrit words are classed without reference to this final MU.
Thus TS" |sS, |tfo$US, pg d*|sk>, $ e^|sS wherein the final MU is
optional: being changeable into nj^lo, tS'sfo^1 tH&ow, or " ai^"
that is, in composition. Thus c!#|j>e, |x'o$'j3"j5S. Accordingly
in searching ,for a Sanscrit noun of this class the final mu is to be
disregarded.
In the dictionary a doubt may arise. Thus sSbjSsSxi, if it is the
Telugu word for ' we' retains the so : whereas if it is the Sanscrit
word for (manas) ' mind' it is printed 5&;5|3x>* and the Mu not being
reckoned, the word is sought for as sfctf. Accordingly these two
words 5So(5|!&3 * and sfc(S*S are far removed from each other, in the
dictionary : the Sanscrit word is placed next after J&^s&iiJoj whereas
the Telugu word is next after s&ss&>~u*ex> with the interval of a page.
The mark I is used when the added
is not reckoned. But
when this *S does not interfere with the alphabetical arrangement I
generally omit that mark ; which is used only with Sanscrit words.
In printing it has sometimes been inserted erroneously ; thus
Xb^slsSn which ought to be ?&UtJsS.

46

TELITGU GEAMMAE.
On Terminations in NI, and NU.

The letter N (either NI or NU) is added to a variety of words as


.a sign of the accusative (singular and plural:) as an affix to the
first and third persons of verbs, &c. And as this is monotonous
there is a liberty of dropping such a termination. Thus the full
shapes are sb^SP I went, &*&o&> he went : but in poetry these often
drop the final vowel, becoming d*S~, sb-66J5~* and in common life
the syllable is altogether dropped, and we may at pleasure say
sfr*Sa i& or else 5^0,5^630. And the principle applies equally to
the accusative, the locative and instrumental cases : to the tenses
and to the infinitive or root. In the following instances the sign +
denotes that the N is used or dropped at pleasure.
Accu
?&|jJsS + ffc
ahorse.
"3-" + ?>
a crow.
Loc
SjoAo + pj
in a house.
Inst
fc?SJ>^+ fS>
by him, by his hand.
Accu. plu
cxoSs -)- ffc
houses.
Past Tense
5g)043-fp
I was.
t&oca + fr
he was.
Aor.
o&4> + Jk
he may fall.
fc?j-f (Si
it may be.
The same principle applies to the words er6 -f ffc or er6 inside and
to the infinitive Aorist, as joS-7T>-f or o&tfg- or &oX while
there.
The principle of the mutable N, like swiv for mt, (piXoiuiv for (pikots;
and EI7IEV for ewe in Greek : or " an" for " A" in English, is a mere
matter of spelling and will easily be understood. But the ancient
grammarians have treated it in a manner so obscure that it is hardly
possible to comprehend their meaning. They seem to have inten
tionally surrounded grammar with all that mystery which might pro
duce veneration : and never have attempted to remove those difficul
ties which the reader, after every explanation, will feel to be great.
* This frequently occurs at the close of those stanzas which require a long final
syllabic; for every silent consonant as ~ or g"~ makes the preceding short sylla
ble long.

48

TELUGIT GRAMMAR.

Examples ;
mannu ' earth'
ollu ' the body' make the inflec
tions sfco43 manti, 3-043 (or "?)o43) 0nti. Accordingly the dative is
5fc*3 mantiki, 1)045 ontiki; accusative sfco43p mantini, "DoiSp ontini.
In like manner
'the eye'
' a tooth' s^wj ' a house' make
the inflexions 5"o*3, a&oiS, go43 and the datives 3"o4S, afccS, a(ot3?.
Also the accusatives ro4Sf>, *o*3p, apiSp.
In these words the inflection adds the vowel I, and accordingly
the dative adds KI, and the accusative NI.
But if the inflexion is not in I, then these cases end in KU and
NU. Thus in the plural 5"oE> eyes' **f> teeth' auofifc ' houses'
make the dative
o-uo^Sj and the accusative 8&offc
5ocS>jS>, cxoo^?6.
So those nouns which, having no inflexion, retain the nominative
shape, if they end in 9, add KI, and NI ; but if they end in any
other vowel they add KU and NU.
Examples; 5" ' a knife or sword.' Genitive, the same. Dative
SS_. Accusative Z&V. Plural. S"<fceu kattulu : but e> ' a table'
makes the G. wo. D. wu 5b ; Acc.wi&. Thus&pS 'an abode;' D.
<&p. Acc. <&plp ; but plural N. <fe(S>SSe, D. &;S>Soe>S5. The
> words SDso kalimi ' wealth, possession' makes the dative 5"8Sto and
the Accusative S"9Sp. But the plural is 5"eMsSew ; the plural Da
tive is S"esSe>S and the plural Acc. 5"eoSe>ffc. Thus aiS&co the
front' D. cfc>>e, Acc. oSoSsap. Thus S>8 ' a cat.' D. b OS ; Acc.
S>8 P, Plural. S>eMeo. D. ixwaSS. Acc. *>ee>rfc. Thus 5 ' a poet.'
D. 5a. Acc. S"ap. Plu.N. 5">, D. S"$e)K3, Acc. S'S'MfSi.
Also Hindustani words, thus *>^S tupaki, ' a gun.' D. 8oi*
Plural. &-^oe 'guns.' D. SsirrSjoSS.
The same principle appears in the conjunction. Added to nouns
in I it is NI : but added to any others it is tf). Thus D. ato45
intiki ' to the house :' with the conjunction 3)0438^ intikinni ' and
to the house.' But in the plural ^ofiiSo indlaku 'to the houses'
which by adding the conjunction becomes owoafSc1?^ indlakunnu
' and to the houses.'

THE NOUN.

49

The verb ia regulated by the same principle, and carries it yet


further.
poti ' I went' if it adds N becomes sfr^Sp potini: but
poye, ' he went' if it adds N becomes
poyenu.
So the verb ot&> to remain' makes in the Aorist s&osfcsSbfS), but
in the past tense )oiep ' I remained.' Thus jbewifctj 'to stand'
j6ex>&<b ' to speak' jSifc-E&ij * to walk'; the aorists of these verbs are
pegj;S> : 6ew&s&fl : b&i3> : and the other persons, singular and
plural, proceed on the same principle. The past tenses are pOSp;
Thus the same principle appears throughout; when a noun or its
inflection ends in Q the dative is and the accusative is p ; other
wise the dative is b and the accusative is J^j.
The only two words excepted from this principle are N*) thou and
Stroo you, which make the dative in PSS and S*rSS. But these ter
minate in long, not short vowels. Thus they do not break the
rule.
In the words noticed here the vowels I and U occur monotonously
in the spoken dialect : in the poetical dialect this inconvenience is
lessened by elision and contraction.

BOOK SECOND.
ON THE NOUN.
Ancient grammarians describe the nouns in three Declensions.
There are two numbers; singular and plural. The Latin cases
will be found to embrace all the shapes of the noun : and this ar
rangement is preferable to the native mode wherein Telugu gramma
rians have made fruitless efforts to mould the noun on the Sanscrit
model.
In one respect the Sanscrit model is preferable : as discriminating
the third case or Instrumental Ablative (By, with) from the Locative
case (or 7th case) " In."
a

NOUNS.

50

Accordingly the cases found in Telugu are the Nominative, Geni


tive, Dative, Accusative, Vocative, Instrumental and Locative.*
The Genitive case, if it differs from the nominative is often called
the inflection: thus o^>o(S is the inflection of
a house.
The Genitive often uses
" of." Thus wSjo^Oo and &$P
oix>_~ii& equally signify " his name."
The Genitive plural changes the yo LU of the Nona. plu. into
O LA. Thus N. Plu. ti&^o* ; G. ^^"u of the brothers.
The Dative, as already pointed out, adds to the inflection if it
ends in C) or &) ; as N. ^So he, G. ^P, his, D. s^pS to him.N.
a woman, D.

to a woman. But if the inflection ends in

any other syllable it takes Sb. Thus NG. S a child. D. )3o to


a child. As regards some words the inflection ending in ]^) takes
at pleasure ^ Na before o in the Dative Singular. Thus NG. ?<o[_tf
sS a horse. D. ?&lrfo or o[BsS^Si to a horse.
The Dative plural adds So KU to the plu. inflection. Thus G.
Plu.
s*>-e>. D. fo[SsSx><!)<& to the horses.
The accusative generally adds jZ> to words that end in O) or S) ;
but jJj to other words. Thus N. S>8 a cat. Accusative
N. \^)
a woman. Accusative, ^P. But the plural N.
cats, Accu
sative Zstxiofr. N. (4;^", Accus. ^vfr.
Masculine nouns ending in "Q
UDU or
DU make the accu
sative singular by changing the termination into ^ NI. Thus N.
SsSMjjfc a brother A. ti^P. N. Wewsfc a son-in-law. A. &>P.
N.
a husband, A. s&xp. N. "535" o a person. A. ~&ZP. N.
S-qrt^!Sb. A. ST^^p. But Sanscrit masculines in \)
drop at
pleasure
altogether: as N. KotfcdSb a teacher. A. KoSS or TfoOop.
* Sanscrit grammarians (from whom Telugu authors borrow their rules) call
the nominative
$irS>i[r_l First case; the Accusative 8cSfrSi{r I Se
cond case; the Instrumental {JdS3r-a$^| Third case ; the Genitive and
Dative are included in 5S-^-S!jr_l the Sixth case ; and the Locative is called *^ i6
J3in>azp'_i the Seventh case. The Ablative is called either {^&d33 Instrumental
or (6
Locative. Singular is called &t5$sSx> and plural sS-Dj^ty5Sio.

FIRST DECLENSION.
The Accusative plu. either simply uses the inflection plural; or,
adds ( to it; as G. Plu. KoLtSskcxu. Acc. fo[tSs&xv&, Horses.
The Vocative generally uses either the Nom. Singular itself, or
lengthens its final vowel, Thus, N. of. a sister. V. f. or
O sister.' N. tfo(a a father. V. Uoja or &o\h 0 father.' But
nouns ending in \) U change that vowel into
a, or
a. Thus,
N. tSsfc^&b a brother. V. Ks&^a or &k>m~cs* O brother ! The Nomi
native plu. adds es-tf or 69-tj. Thus, N. Plu. fc> S" m sisters. V.
3Sf_ertf orw5Lsrxr O sisters .' N. Plu. tfo|^fet fathers. V. So
loer*tf or SolorTr> Ofathers.' N. Plu. S^wo. V. S^rS or
Ss&^erTr,> 0 brothers.' Nouns derived from Sanscrit, as jSj^5^ a
king, may in poetry merely drop the affix
Thus ^i*)^ O king.
The instrumental case adds to the inflection the words
' by' or
'with;' and the Locative case adds foiSb or
' in.' In
the irregular nouns these cases are shaped in a peculiar mode with
out these affixes.
Na, the sign of the Locative case, is sometimes used for the In
strumental in the singular number; thus from
a spear,
iSsJr&^jS) he stabbed him with the spear. S"^> a stick, 3"~|j
he beat him with the stick.
Of, To, From, &c. are in English called prepositions because they
precede the noun: but in Telugu they are postpositions or affixes be
cause they follow the noun.
There are three >oXsSe Genders: called ^)8oKsS Mascu
line, ^Sotfsto Feminine and ^o^tS>oKsx> Neuter.
FIRST DECLENSION.
The First Declension includes all those nouns that are masculine
and end in Du; as 8:So a younger brother; s>o5tSS a good
man;
a hero; eS;*>2& a son-in-law. "5NoJfi> a husband.
t> a person. )CotfeSo a stout man.
Many Sanscrit nouns [such are called Tatsama] are placed under
this declension; Udu being added. Thus ~&<&s& 'a god.' (jpSr^KoSo
Bramhanudu, 'a Bramin.' *5jJsoo vartacudu 'a merchant.' fesSfco
t> a son.

62

NOUNS. FIKST AND

The Inflection singular of the nouns of this Declension is formed


by changing X)^t or * of the nominative singular into jS. Thus
N. Sstofifc. G. a^,?).
Plural.

Singular.
N. tfJ&^ao or S^oiSb

N. Ss&^ew,

oaC), Ss&^^T or

G. tfsS p or 8sfc0j&
or i jboSuS*u->, {JjS,&53s'
*
ird. #^p or e^ai

G. #sSx> o. iSs^olS.

i
'j- 3
D. Cf^ejSo, &ofo,o&3 or 8s&>

A. tfsk^P, Ss^Sp or d^wrf^

CO
A. 8^je))Ss&je)|&) or &sS*>oS[-f

V. tfjjjitf or efS"ro

V. tJsoero', or tfjSarTJ*.

or

I. tfsSjt>3tf or tf^jcS^
I. ^ are formed by affixes added
L. j to the Inflection,
L. SsS^jOer4 or 8;S,PcSjog&
good
man, plu. sfcoOwoafc good
r*t& He, a man, s&o-Osr,2So a
people.
Plural.

G. &OQ?r*pt sSboara

N. sSi>oa'sroo) >o&tt>05
G. sSboO-sroOSs, so);ra
D. s&>or<>ctf
CO So.' sS>ofi=r8S
A. 5&ofisr>o^(ai) i3boar>8j6

V. 5ooCsrT3
I. aoofisrjt>^# or SjOOwjOy8

V. &ofisroTj' or S>OfisTj
I. sfcoSfS-oS^tf,
CO
I jSboasr>8^StJ
or sSboOsnofi

The noun WwSSo a son-in-law is declined in the same manner.


All Genitives singular and plural can at pleasure add 53oo S_ " OF"
in all declensions.

SECOND DECLENSIONS.

S3

Some masculines which end in \)


have two modes of inflexion
in the singular; by dropping i, or by using p. Thus
a hero
Plural wjDfiSbeu
G. J)iS> or w>s>p
The rest is regular
D. >Oa$3 jDS or wjDjSbfSSo
A. mSs&IB
CO 1 or o8S)
CO
One, a person, Plu. a.S'cfi persons. It is declined thus,
Singular.
Plural.
N. ISS'iSo or "^)S"oSo
N. "S^Co or liJS'oljSo
g. n>fp or ura
G.
d. "rpi or'Sis'as
d. usref
A. "^5"?) or "S'iSj,
A. "^rdp
Instrumentals and Locatives are formed by affixes added to the
Inflection.
All words ending in UDU take F> and T$Sj in the Dative singu
lar. Thus, >p and weojSSo *0 son-in-law, > 8
and 8jSj(5
^ to a hero.
The nominative plural of this declension is formed by changing
the final
of the nominative singular into eJO or cap,
o(_o
and even 56; as &^o, s&\oo ; WeuaS, esewoSb or wwotfc.
jfofiaSb, x'oJJo'lSo : WeuJfc, wewBo ; fTcer^-"O02So) g^er-sr-'OOBo ;
j-j>, xt'Oo. In poetry the final vowel is sometimes dropt : thus
gs&yio tammulu, may become #S<5~ tammul. All the regular
nouns make the inflec. plu. in O LA.
SECOND DECLENSION.
This contains neuter nouns of more than two syllables, ending in
;& and asfca (amu, amu, emu) in the singular number.
The Genitive of some nouns may be formed in
use the nominative singular instead of any Inflection.
Example fo\8sSx> a horse.
Singular.
N. XolsS, Xbyjooa Xb^s^

Many nouns

Plural.
N. Holtfsfeoa, *>[Trex>, o[tfo
we, or 7&\tizSx>eii

NOUNS.
Singular.
G. o\S^), or Xo[soix>?r_

(jroj^SS)oljr'jt)g or KoL?
A. o^sS+rS>, or Kolp'JJj.
V. 7&\tSsh, or i?fo[o
I. Xo\_tf5S^CJ or 7&[tix>&*

Plural.
v, or Xbjjp'e).
D. Kol^sSMfSS, xb^ojMejSo,
so oSS, or Xo^JpuSo
A. olCfsSe> + fS> or XolxPej+rSj
V. XoL?s>er-tr" or J^lTyer'Tr'
I. X>|S5k>e>^5tf, KiljJ'u^a or

L. !fjl5Se>ciS306 or Ko[jre>
o[TT'i6 or Ko[tfsfcoer*
csfio5$> or ^LP'e'W*.
tio-^sSx) a wife, (vulgarly "w^sSxi) is the only Feminine noun
in this Declension.
Singular.
G. ^jOis'sSco
or ^5jO"crs&Dc&!f
on
ro
^
D. ^5>o"E^"sSx)so or ^SjOTJ'jOS
A . "wO"us>Dp& or ^oTjr*^

N. "SiO-cr'ejo (vulg. 'Sg'eu.)


G. "wO"^ej
D "> CGo'eSS
o->
A. "t)OTT>Sb
on 1

T. ^SjOT^'Sbo
or ~"Z>o~zzXtsSx>&'
m
on
on
1
J
on
sfcoasb or '^iots-'sSbov^

I. "S)OTTa^55
or "S)0"cj'e^
On
CV>
L. ^SiOi^ejdSjojS)
or ^ioxpo
00
on

The verbal nouns or Infinitives ending in ADAMU are declined


in the same manner.
Thus from sb"*$sj*J to go, r*&&x> going, departure,.
Singular.
N. frs5tfjS or s2r:So
G. 6-6*5 4rf55x>S'vD. d*sStfsSiS55 or srs5-re'r5go
or E^rf^p?

N. &*S)sfcoe or s^sSx^ex)
G. 6*S!S5Se>oJx>5' , or 6*55
trD. 6*85tftfS6 or s^tf-G^aSS

SECOND DECLENSION.
Singular.
A. A*sSsp& or iirss-ssj6^
I.
or sPsSSjSso^S

A. s**:58Se>;!S> or &esS-csv}S>
or s&^sSSsSxie) t^S
S^sSs&De>dKiOi>, or sir* 3

The Sanscrit nouns which take the Telugu termination ^sS


are declined in the same manner. Thus tfsSx> a chariot, e^s&o a
horse. 8J$jsS a jewel.
Singular.

N.
N. 85>sS, tJ$fc ! or kos
G.
D.
D. 8$sS;6sS, or STjr!t>
A.
A. B^sfoDjai, or ^Tp-0?^
V.
"V. 8$s*r
I. 8$!&o^a or StfsSx.S*

8$s&ew, or tf-g5-e
8#sScoe>, or 8-zp-e>
SbJsSxiejso, or.8-zpre>55
tJ$rfxe' + i3b, or Tjre> + f6
S!fi3xrTr,J or S-^rer8'

r6.
L. KJp'&otf, 87p-jS,8c?iSKeJ>** or
ejcSSoSfe, or 8Tjj-e)dSoOd&
8 g>sS?S &>
In like manner are declined tr^sSa, tStf" sS, (jfoJfsSx), sSjc&s&j,
jSmS^sSm and many other words borrowed from Sanscrit.
Nouns in emu ; as ~ao"3s&i a corpse ;
s&> a camp ; pf^iSx)
^fineness make the dative "SiO'3sS;63o or "S^o^pS ;
sSj6 So
or ^'epi and the plural ~3coo"3sS>aex> or ~&ocle ; ir"5;Seo) 0I
ir>~4vi1 &c*
The second form exhibited above inserts oX> as ?<o|JJo. This shape is
only used in poetry, where the metre requires a syllable, otherwise short, to be
made long : for gurramu being a dactyl, gurram-bu lengthens the second syllable.
Even the last syllable of the genitiTe l) can De changed into T&)o if the metre
requires the change. Thus in the Vasu Charitra 2. 64. KsS<JfSl^y o'5>f5iTr"5' the
fever of youth: elsewhere a6e35'0'!^)ojrEii a wall of crystal. In such instances
grammarians look upon the genitive as an epithet. This will be explained in re
marks on Druta words.

66

NOUNS.

Words denoting inanimate things and ending in U, of this Declen


sion, take ^ in the Locative case ; either in the regular manner, by
adding NA to the singular inflection, as, TMS&x>$ in the paper,
eS-T*? 6(6 in the sky,
sSO(5 in the country ; or by changing the
SSx> of the inflection into ^ and lengthening the preceding vowel:
thus TVCT*jS, M-T^iS, oST'iS.
The form aniki, as Ko^pg for 7fc|tf *>x$&, (also anni as *>t?'?)c5.
for Xo[8tffS in the accusative) are considered vulgar; and so is the
ablative form
(in the country) from ~$&o country ; yet we
meet with these expressions even in standard poems. Thus our
English poets, even Pope and Milton, use expressions or forms which
modern ta6te condemns.
Native tutors are apt to reject some good forms as vulgarities.
(Thus
instead of <&-*5 sS?S&. H. K. 5. 76.) Some indeed
have urged me to omit such in this grammar. But whether the
forms are right or wrong, we must learn them if we wish to under
stand and to be understood.
Sanscrit Neuter nouns, when they fall under this declension fre
quently use the Sanscrit shape of the Instrumental case. Thus
fygcBio Justice makes rr",^><S in justice, justly. SS^ifo dis
crepancy, makes aS^"$?S inimically, through spite (See T. E. D. in
tisisSx). s'o<5'o">Sj3"pr>.) The proper and usual Telugu shapes
would be S>S*$sSx>'3<$, fr^dSisSv)^,S'oS'tJ^jS^ but, the pure Sans
crit forms are often used ; just as we often use the pure Latin forms
ex parte, ab initio, afortiori, &c.
Nouns of this declension make the nominative plural either by
adding t to the nominative singular ; or by changing the final *S
into * and lengthening its penultimate syllable if it is not long.
Thus N. Sing. XolsS. Plu.
or no^ew. N. Sing. "5o
Plu. ~%ozgtx>.
THIRD DECLENSION.
The third Declension includes all regular nouns that have no in
flection in the Singular.* Also irregular nouns ; which will after
wards be described.
* Those verbal nouns that end in
as |_p^dSa3eo writing, can form the
plural in |jrrd3ajejt, but this is not usual.

THIRD DECLENSION.

57

Thus WjSj. elder brother,


elder sister, >g a child,
moIher, 8o{& father, use the Nominative form in the Genitive ; but the
Genitive can at pleasure add the word 55Sf_- Thus tfol&"$CS or
8olSKr_'4& the father's name. S"l wood, 6"(tf"r5j. or S"|t>3
the colour of the wood.
An elder brother,
Singular.
N. ejfj,
G.
or W^oluif,
D. i^95
A.
V. W?^
I.
or w^tf
L. tSfSjeJ^ orts^d^oiJ)

Plural.
N.
G. r^L or fc^ooSwif.
D. WfS^SS
A. t*^"3*
V. Wr^erTT=
I. w^e"^ or w^e^S
L. es^eer6 0r WjS^esKSoaa

a tiger,
Singular.
Plural.
N.
N. ^ee
G.
or ^S55Mr_
G. i&oxu 0r ^bee>53r_
D.
D. ^oSo
A. 4)P
A. ^ee>i&
V. i&>
V. i^eerT7
I.
or
I.
^ are formed (as in the
L. ^Ser* or i^)8cSSob
L. r singular) by affixes add3 ed to the inflection.
The cases are formed by adding the usual affixes to the Nomina
tive or Inflection. In the plural the Locative case,
frequently
is contracted ; thus ^osSj sandu, 'interstice' -(tofiSbeep-* sandulalo
' in the spaces' is written itfoeSbej"6 sandullo.
Some nouns of inanimate things of this Declension, ending in
C) , \},) A, I, U, and E, use ^ N in the Locative singular : as
5r*tfiS "on the wall," PlS^ "in the shade,"
"on high ground;"

58

NOUNS.

^SiS in the ear, "ct6^ on the road :


on the nose, S^s&tfb
on the breast:
on the stick.*
Nouns of this Declension make the plural by adding OO LU to
the nominative singular. Nouns that end in I, form the plural in
ULU ; those terminating in I in the two last syllables, also change
these into U in the plural. The plural inflection may be formed by
changing the final Op into O.f
Nom. and Gen. Sing.
Nom. Plural.
a master
r^w
a frog
a calf
a bone
a mountain
rosso
wealth
the ear
HbSbew or Xo&
a temple
Xo&
09-95
a leaf
a spoon
K8"&
Also some nouns derived from Sanscrit as,
feStJS,
a forest
6S-&
the beginning
?.5<x>
fc8
a hill
;5Q
a river
JSoj&oSssWO
a man
Some few Telugu nouns add " at pleasure; thus
0r P&$
fire. Jr*o3 or ST'oSbS" the throat. So *r>e>&,r,e>&s'j -=3(y# or -^eg&gsre>oe3 or ^oofas?, &ct
Sanscrit feminines ending in long A or I, as
bhasha "lan
guage,"
fortune (not monosyllables,) shorten that letter, thus
* But the added to words ending in I is vulgarly changed into p ; thus,
ijap, uT'bp,
&c. This is not considered right.
t T The letter K ; 2y the letter B, plurals T"ejo> Tytw.
X Bannaya, Chap. 68.

THIKD DECLENSION.

59

bhasha, WiS^ laxmi. But if the next word be Sanscrit forming


(samasa) a compound, the broad A, or I', is generally retained.
Thus V^?sSree-iS description of a language.
4) and
being monosyllables do not drop the long vowel. They
are declined thus ;
4) a woman,
Plural.
Singular.
N. 4ew
n. 4,
g. 4> r 4,55w-

g. 4;w or 4>e,53M-

d. 4;s

D. 4w5i

A. (JojP

A. 4)e,'ai

v. ^.4,

v. 4i*r*"a' r ^4|*M

i, 4^^ r 4,<^6

i. 4>e>^ r 4,wS^

L. 4)u>'* or 4*^^

l. 4/ser* or 4^e>dSiois;>

The word J* also is declined like this by adding the usual affixes.*
&pt>- a man, derived from
(which is seldom used.)
Singular.
N. *S>?>2>G. sSbpS*. or SbjoS.5i5f_
D. sSbj02-S
A. s5bjbSi-P
V. i.55bj&&.
I. sfcfbl^tf or *&pfl>.S^
L. s&^Ler*

Plural.
N. a&jj>se
G. jfcj&sSsio
D. jSbjS>s3sie>S5
A. 55bfS>&e)pS>
V. s5oj3j3iPer-a'
I. sS>jS>A>e>^tf or s&(5>5ie>S^
L. s&rfcsjsoer*

0 Irregular Nouns/ Class First.


All the irregular nouns are primitive Telugu words borrowed from
no foreign source, and they proceed on principles peculiar to the lan
guage so remarkable that they alone furnish a sufficient proof that
the language is entirely original.
* The two words stri and sri (or shree) are continually misused : each being
written in lieu of the other.

60

HOUNS.

Although considered as Irregular these nouns evidently form the


cases on certain principles which I will endeavour to render apparent
by classing together such as proceed on one mode.*
Some nouns whichare regular in the singular, form an irregular
plural.f Thus,
N. and G. Singular.
N. Plu.
bta
a note, billet
CO
trouble
CO
a blow
CO
a
net
CO
6J
a tree
CO
eo
2)0#0
90O&
a bottle
CO
Ca
a beast
CO
an egg
r8o
a fowl
CO
powder
a wild
*a
a pint
a carriage
"?3sS>8
a peacock
S a crocodile
an old man
leather, skin
~5oS>
marriage
CO
SXn>f&
a fish
a louse

a cow

<o
CO
CO
uoaft

CO
fO
*1%0SP or, ^o&o&
&p>?fcex>, or, &twj
"Sew
W-iJjew or S3-e

Second Class.
The Inflection singular of the following nouns is formed by chang
ing the last syllable of the nominative singular into d3 and the plural
* The rule given in the ancient grammars is that only such nouns as end in
S tf t ,
take 43 in the Infl.. . .See the Bhattiyam, Chap. 30.
+ A few of these words assume a Eegular plural form in poetry.

THIRD DECLENSION.

61

nominative into or ofiS. In poetry some of them use regular plu


ral by adding
to the nominative singular, but in ordinary busi
ness those forms are never used. The plural Infl. changes the
Nom. LU into LA.
The Instrumental and Locative cases singular usually change the
final G) of the Iafiection into A. But these two cases are very ge
nerally laid aside, and instead of them the Inflection (Singular or
Plural) is used, to which the signs x33
<5f* 'with' and a** 'in'
are added.
Infl.

N. Sing.
a lodge
a cord
a yard
a city
waste land,
common
a country,
a day
food
a nest
fuller's
earth
the leg of a
bed-stead
the west
the mouth

I.

L.
tT3Aj

N. Plural.

^43
CO
^0-43
&*s
t*s

6*
Si)

CO

fata

CO
CO

r*43

CO

or "r>r"5

*3Tr- 0

the fore
head
>*3
a river
an embrace ^""ftS
the cheek
a handful
a plough

>c>eu." >#>
CO
CO
7jco
Vco

NOUNS.

02
N. Sing.
sSoaD the court
yard
a pestle

"3e

L.

Inn.

<r*ri3

6^s"4j 4& .ct^aj

the interior eJ^fc^


a door
r8*3
the outside 2a

er'AAj
w4j
13 Aj

N. Plural.

6^r^> or 5^rQ
(So
m
er*?v^ or ej^jvO^)
-sr-i^ or-srlo3
2uoejoi2^

Cfass.
Nouns noted below change the last syllable of the nominative sin
gular into o43 to form the singular inflection and osi, o&) or o*
to form the plural nominative. Some of these nouns also take gjj
in the regular manner to form the plural.
N. Sing.

CO
(too

G.
rots
S&043

the eye
sand
the sky
a female's
breast
S063
a bow
s5c43
a thorn
8\c43
a house
a6043
a tooth

I.

sot)

L.
Sot)

Plural N.
S'j&jew or So6

0A>
tfOt)

tfjj^eu or oa

aoij

s6o4j

aewew,
CO 7 aojsb
CI ' Sotfc
CI
s&>oJSb or So^
abob

Fourth Class.
The following use the nominative singular for the singular inflec
tion : or change the nominative singular into d3. Tbey make the
plural nominative either regularly by adding eX) to the Norn. Sing,
or by changing the final syllable of the Nom. Sing, into & or 026,
Thus,
N.
Infl.
I.
L.
N. Plural.
iS^te)
a place
-<y*43
iS^&aoo, or

THIRD DECLENSION.

N.

Infl.

I.

L.

N. Plural.

a pair, a
none
CV)
pair of
shoes
^Jo^> or ^oSi
a boil
a fruit
a&oJSo
CO or a&o&>
CO
&a
a village
CO
?C*i3
a nail
Jr*tfooo or ST6^)
blood
none
water
rose water
no plural
the sea
-373^
moonlight
63- 3"^ w-s'oao.es-rsu
hunger
05'
CO
6-<*s5o4j r$oi> -*s>o&
a sickle
CO
or "sSo43
or, r*&Xo&
oJoxIfc or io?>o&b
spittle
!)6oSAj
a shed
an axe
pudding
pick-axe
ca
s3o c3e a hare

CO

Sooc543

CO
XoK3e, Kotfoc>
Soo-^$u or 55 0^
Pit tXJ
11
fcAJ

"Sese the begin SSS43


to
ning
Tt
a mortar
a tortoise
CO
the body
CO
Some neuter numerals are declined in the same manner. Thus
N. r^* a hundred ; G. r&43 ; D. f^43 ; A. }S?63p ; L. (&r*o or
j&n>*3dSos>; Plu. J&*>e,
N. "60M0 two ; G. ~3o43 ; D.
"3o3; A. *^063p L. Tlo4f* or "^o4o orTSoSok; Plu. "6oo;

G4

NOUNS.

N. sfcrfc three ; G. *r43 ; D. s5kh.4S ; A. rSbr*3p ; L. sfer&o4j


or s^n>io;^Plu. sSxr>$. NG. ^po8 eight; D. SopSoSS; A.
^pSa&oiSp ; L. 6fc>paooeo ; P]u. ^>,S> sSdeu.
The use of the local and plural forms of numerals is shewn in the
Syntax. Thus three threes is nine : three eights are twenty-four, &c.
Some masculine and feminine numerals are declined in the same
manner. Thus SS>3 two persons ; G. SS(6 ; D. ogd ; A. S)g
Bp. Also sS*ot> three persons; G. sSg>6 ; d. so>e ; A. &>
*>P. The word
is four persons; G. f$e)68 ; D. ;Se>6e ;
A. i5eMXoep*
Fifth Class.
Some nouns change the last syllable of the nominative singular
into Q to form the singular inflection and into ^>" to form the no
minative plural. Nouns in
preceded by a short vowel lengthen
that vowel to form the inflection singular and the nominative plural.
Thus,
N. Plu.
I.
L.
G.
N. Sing.
sr5
3-9
edge
none
COM
tj**5 or "tT*eu
a stone
3#
the hand
*
none
ghee
none
a well
fr*5?
a pit
<SfoA C7ass.
The following nouns form the inflection singular by changing the
final vowel U of the nominative singular into O) I. Nominative plu.
change the final vowel of the nominative singular into e*>, ffc or os>.
Some, however, make the inflection singular irregularly.
N. Sing.
^
a field
rfj^pSj
a hump-back

Inflec.
^P
fo^p

L.
'Sper-*

N. Flu.
^jaieu or 3e

* In poetry there occur other spellings; the letter G being changed into VThus owOo^Oo two, tfjog^Co three, jSoOi*)& four.

THIED DECLENSION
N. Sing.

Inflec.

N. Flu.
sr"jS>e or strSSj
r"e>j3owo, or
Soto

L.

a tree
a tank
the body
a village
S5"8oJ5o a daughter
toa

-*5S

a name

-rex>

thread
a share

G5

^pbew or
Scrbt6oo or Scroo
no
^at> or ^>Ooew or
**
none

*0 or

Seventh Class.
Words ending in
form the inflec. singular in
The Norn. plu.
either adds t to the Nom. Sing, or changes the last syllable of the
Nom. Sing, into
thus N. r[Co t sowing machine; G. R^J* ;
N. Plu. JT^eu or tT&. N.
a plough share ; G. *
N. Plu.
r(Ooe or S". N.
the neck; G. _6 ; N. Plu. fcl>ew or <
&c.
~
Eighth Class.
Some nouns form the inflection singular in Q and the nominative
plu. in % og>, or o\&.
N. Sing.
"S~ex>
"Sew
63-e
sSb^;&)Xr

S^tftw

I.
G.
the leg
"B^O
the finger "30
a wife
none
a grand
J&jSao-u*

daughter 0
a daughter 6^S
in-law
fctftfttj a cousin
j&tJesS

L.

N. Plu.
on

none

63-oo oreS-o(ffio
sS>f5aSo"CTofi> or
r^Sogi or^tfo
I*
Kfofftfosfc or iSbtf

66

NOUNS

N. Sing.
^l^o a sister

G.
^jgS

N. Plu.
&Bog> or ^go

I.

a town
L^68
The word ~^e the hand makes the G. in ~^>, but it has no plu
ral.
Sometimes the same plural is used for two or more different
nouns : thus
Singular.
~cyi&
a day

"Sew

CO

8&e

a country
a nerve
a name
a splinter
a root
a finger
the eye
a stone
a fowl
a leg or post
a rivulet
a fruit
a tooth

Plural.
TT>#>
I IT)

days, lands, nerves

names, splinters
roots, fingers
eyes, stones

fowls, legs, streams

S&00

fruits, teeth

Foreign Words.
Both in speaking and writing, the Telugus generally retain many
foreign words untranslated. The words Doctor, Captain, Gene
ral ; coat, ice, glass, wine, beer, brandy, cup, saucer, bottle, court,
book, receipt, pen, ink, bureau, &c, and perhaps a hundred Hindus
tani expressions in daily use as Kharch 5"cotS> expence, outlay, zuNoie.A grammar of this language written in Telugu and printed in 1835 is
arranged somewhat in the method preferred by the English. But besides much that
is omitted it gives some false statements. Regarding many of the words described
in this page, it exhibits regular as well as irregular plurals. But those regular
plurals are fictitious.

THIED DECLENSION.

67

rur, razi, sandook, chacu, petara, jild, jawan, roz, naucar, munshi,
nakd $Xt&>, &c. This dialect cannot as yet be set aside : because
there are no native expressions 'which precisely convey the same
ideas. Take an instance. The word gazu tt*^ does indeed mean
glass : but in Telugu conveys the idea of glass bracelets ; a"?^
ginne ' a cup' denotes a metal cup. There is no word to denote a
glass. In like manner the word book, if translated ^o$s&> or
would convey the idea of a book written on palm leaves. Thus to
bind a book is s5o "SoiSbT^dSSJ.o or 2?ex>S'AJiSo because there is no
intelligible and convenient word for binding. It is not easy to
speak or write Telugu without using foreign words : but good taste
requires us to use them in moderation.
These foreign nouns whether Hindustani, English or neuters of
Sanscrit origin, have no inflection, nor Locative or Instrumental
forms in the singular : in the plural a few have inflections. All these
use affixes.
Thus
naucar a servant
naukarl, service,
ff* a
table,
lainu (the English word line) ^> a couch. *F* a
pen. omo ink.
office. 2* wine. -<z& doctor. ercJco law
yer. "7r"S8gS~ a guardian.
Plural.
N. pSCSoew or "p^g
G. -prbe> or F^""
D. 'j3~s'coe>S&
A. 'j3~s'Coe>j&
I. -^rcou^a
L. fTs'coeer'*
Words ending in LU as Vakeel 55e, Amul WsSmU), &c. are in
cluded in the same rule thus,
Singular.
N. "pros
G. pS'Sboior
D. "ps'ooso
A. -fTs-CojS.
i. -preG^
L. jj's'coer*

N.
G.
D.
A.
So

Sing.
Plu.
slttw a minister
ministers
rfio3Sr. of a 8cc.
sSlaoSS to a minister
*slewf$
sSt^M*
Colonel, General, &c. S"?5 e-<S~, <5~ Sec.

68

NOUNS

It may be worth while to remark that house-hold servants at


Madras talk a broken English with fluency; but the learner will find
it profitable to employ only those domesticks who will speak to him
in the language he is studying : such are always to be had. Our
initiatory native instructors also speak English, but we should as soon
as possible lay aside such aid and employ a teacher who speaks
Telugu alone.
ON PEONOUNS.
The pronouns may be divided into two kinds, viz. the personal
and the adjective pronouns. There are no Relative pronouns.
Personal pronouns have two numbers like those of substantive
nouns, and three persons in each number, as ~ri&> I, fc^j thou, sr>6
he. Plu. ~&sS we, sxrb y0Uj 5J-.tf, they.
The Gender of the 1st and 2d person is always clear. But the
3d person calls for distinction. Thus Mas. ^rafc he, Fem. and
Neut. &G>she, it, and Plu. Mas. and Fem. 'sr-Co those persons. Neut.
those things.
The pronouns have all the cases of nouns except the Vocative,
which, however, is used in compound words, as &*&>t>~gso O Gar
dener.' Jf'wTT'-iT0 O milk maid &c.
On The First Person.
The first person (/, myself) has two modes of forming the plural,
viz.
we and ^jS*3 thou and J, or you and we, or thou and
toe ; for this includes the person addressed.
Singular.
N. "^i* * I
G. Vi T^o^o ?T_, frs5b my
D. f^So to me
A.
me

Plural.
N. "3osS we
G.
sS^S^_, sra> our
D.
to us
A. sfcsfco
>i>&3| sSjsfe^o
or sfesSgjej^fc us.

* In poetry "j3jfl is sometimes changed into aj& cnu or S E'; and iSotib*
is changed into
j and jb into

PKONOUNS
Singular.

Plural.
by me, with I. sr^&,srer*

wjiVA us
me
L. T^oer*, 7TcSfioSb in me
L. &r>&*} s$r>d*osS> in us
The other form which may be called the dual, runs thus,
N. sfe(5sS Thou and I ; you and we.
G.
s&tSSJm^, s&(6 cS> Thine and mine ; Our and your.
D. *>iS 55 7b wee and /Aee ; to you and us.
A. sS>;SsSj6; sS)^ej> j&^sSko Cs
^e ; s and you.
The Instrumental and Locative are compounded as s&i4^J$
us, 3a;Sd6oe) in ms.

N.
G.
D.
A.

Om (he iSecond Person.


Sing.
Plu.
thou
N.
sxr*t>voyou
fc, fro^^.,
thy, thine
G.
xr=o3MSf_, sxr>& yor
to thee
D. S*rS5 to yoa
P fk, Pr%l <7iee
A. osS, Sosfo^, Sos^y, Ss&^

I. fr^tf, frS^ hy thee, with I. &r^3, s*r


thee
you
L. Ptfr', {bd&oasb in thee
L. So^er*, &rd&osS> in you
This word
forms the Dative singular and plural in >SS and
txy& in opposition to the general rules of the Dative case of the
nouns: which would require the termination to be not Jfc but .
The peculiar politeness observed in the use of the pronouns among
the Hindus requires caution. In speaking to equals or inferiors with
some esteem, it is not proper to make use of the pronouns Pi) thou ;
but Sxr>& you is used. And so when a person of authority speaks
concerning himself
toe is used instead of
/. A Telugu
when speaking to his master, uses the phrase ^^Cfi your honor . or

Pronouns of the Third Person.


and Wtfsfc (each meaning He) are nouns of the 1st declen
sion.

70

PBONOUNS
Masc. Singular.
N. ~sns> he, that man
he, this man
G. bt'P, -ar-Si his
>P,
D. sr-pi, *r>&$ to him
A. -sr-P,
Aiw

hP%,
&p,

Aim

Masc. and Fern.

Masc. and Fern.

G. sr8, ST'tJe), WO'S , sr'OlJJ

1)8, Jjtfe), >oSs, o(#.

D. 'ST'S?, rBe>S5, TB^tfSo, WO

&8, f>tfe)&i>, l)S S3, SoSsSS, &o

#55
m
A. sr-dp, wtje)^, srotf;
i. z^s^s, r.8^

1 SSo
g>8p, litfejffc, >oS?j4>, So^p*.
se^tf, fees'*

Masc. Sing.
Masc. and Fein. Plural.
N. oDs>o, oi^JSb* wAo, which dsS&,
oiw^tSo which
man ?
men
G. ^?>,
whose, which
cisSofis
man's
D. cisSjoS, oi^ai to whom
c5s$6, ois$oS5S
A. ^?>, ois$E|^ whom
dsSep, oSsSoSspfc
I. JsSp^iJ, ois> p&* by whom, dsSd^tf, oteogS'*
with whom
L, oJsSjoer*, 5;$&ej" in whom
dsSQeP-*, o^oiSer*
When the long initial vowel is shortened the next consonant is doubled, as
here shewn. From sra4o he, is formed >a-fia what man, by contraction
o^s5iSo who? So in the feminine &9 edi becomes <^8 eddi.

PEONOUNS

71

*rSo He, that man, >t& this man, are used only of inferiors ; but
when we speak of any man with respect w&iSb and
Tvt& or s^S
or %{z$~ir&>* are the proper words to be used, and when much res
pect is shewn the word S5-cs>;S is used: when still more respect is
to be shewn, plurals are used, as *rJfc they for r4So he.
w&JSo, t5eJ-7T"(5So and 5S^<Ko, s^tt-So are also thus declined.
The words Sf-c*fi;S his honour, his reverence, that gentleman,
and
or t*<*SiS are declined thus,
Masc. Sing.
Interrogative.
G. e*-c^55r_
-giosjj6 53iiS'
&<s<,jSo3r
D. fcS-dS5j6So
-&ciS);6S5
SotSfSSS
A. es-osr^fii
-8*csfi^fji
>cjSf5^,
I. W-dtSbpS^g, or
-&<&fi^& or
&<si>$^& or 8*
L. es-dSjjSer*
-S*css5;Ser
Sxsfi^r
These words have no plural, but borrow from ^r23o and lt><3b fo,
/Aa* man and this man; and from d:Si>
N
G.
D.
A.
I.
L.

Feminine and Neuter Singular.


653
i7, that
*Aw woman, it, this thing,
-nrp,-5rpo3Sf_
>p, >p53|f_
T5"j&
>p
-ra*p, Tr-p^
&p, &p^
T5*p^#, -CTopiT6, -t;r^
fep^tf, &p^,
ra'PeP-*, (wog^)
Spep-*, (&o6S")

Observe, that
and &o45"* are disapproved as vulgar. They
are therefore included in brackets.
The feminine plural of W8 she, that woman and 3)9 this woman is
the same as the masculine plural of vrjo he, that man, and ItHSo this
man. Thus sr-'Cfc, srtfew
^Aostf women, >Cfs(S)tJeu Mese wo>wcm &c. But the neuter plural of MS it, thai thing and S[S this
thing runs thus,
Neuter Plural.
N. WB fAey, rfAose things
ss(2> <foy, ^e$e things
G. ts-43, ^43Sm^_ or, 'SJ'p &43, SeSoioS^
or &p
* In poetry O&lSo and (Stdttb are sometimes spelt with a long initial as

PKONOUNS

72

Neuter Plural.
D. sr**3, sr-^So, or ^F>
S*S8,

0r !>?>

A. -ST4Sp, sr-lofc, or
f>*3p, &kj3, or Sp
I. sr.e3*3t, -sfij^S, p>43^,
hiSS4, or
or srf)^6
L weSer* r*4JeJ"*. or sr-P SfieJ^, SiJer8, or S?d*0)
Inlerrogaiives.
Fern, and Neu. Sing.
N. >S,^S, oi a* which woman,
which ?

A. Sp, -&P.
I. Sp^ss, -GpS*
L. "^Per6, ("^5"*,) S-Byjae)^

Neuter Plural.
<ta which ?

S*P, ~$P
-pr*
-^(J"*, ("%"*,) "^PdSSoiSb

In the feminine singular the word ds513 is generally used for


which woman ?
The feminine plural interrogative of
is the same as the mascu
line plural interrogative of eirfiSo which man? Thus, Sing.
which
woman ? Plu. ds55&, ds$oS which women'? &c.
69-^,59- S# TAatf reoman or
woman and e9-"&>, 0r
&"3o that lady, this lady.
The word
or
self, is translated He, She, It.
Sing.
N.
G.
D.
A.
I.
L.

ir, ^*?>
^i5,
tf(53

Plu.
^fSSSb

tfjS^t*, B^^6
SjSer*, SJjScSSoafc

N.
G.
D.
A.
I.
L.

-^sfoo,
-^*oo
BsSb,#55c>5i>or , (&j&8)
JSbSS, (;&e)
tfsSw^s&yS, (5ffc6j6)
J3o^5?, tfsfc.y*
Ss&er*, 0sS>c*6oa>.

* Some words peculiar to poetry are needless in the Grammar, and will be found
in the Dictionary : such are c*C<jS for ft.

PRONOUNS.

73

The plural is used for your honor, a respectful mode of address.


Thus SsS>a04SS to your honor's home.
From these pronouns are formed many compound nouns, which
are declined in the same manner, by adding (to adjectives) xri>
for the masc. and t6 or 59-^, $3-)~& and ftS-'Sj for the fern, and
f8 for the neuter. Thus masc. sing.
8 r4fc a potter.
=r5Sb an old tnan.$F& a child. Plu. S>s8sr*ogSb;"?>g^x'>od>,
B;S^^osCj. Pern. sing. Ac^SS, J5"^er"w, or tfw^er^Sl'S or
ow old woman.
a child, a girl. plu. aS9sj-ofc or
"^93TeS old women. S>rQ^ro^> children. Neu.
2Ae foro/e owe.
plu.
fAe Zarye owe*.
These compound words form the vocative by changing the final
vowel U into A' if they end in &> for the masc. or by adding
F if they end in 5 for the fern. Thus Nom. fCojsr>& o cow
herd. Voc. fTo-sr"W 0 cowherd! Nom. &f&8 a girl. Voc. fifSj,
Tsr"?r O fnaiaf / &c.
S (From t51^ ^) and & (from
those things) are also added
to the infl. sing, and plu. of all the pronouns, to denote posses
sion or connection : and are declined like fft. Thus 71*8 orF
cKi8 mine.
or >c*CS thine- p'SS fo's. sr> or sSj^Q oars. SrS>
yours.
theirs; and so
things. >S> /7iy things- D. 7T"
'EyjbS tfo wiree. jr"^r>43 To mine (Latine ad mea.) A. r^^Si,
L. fr'wF)'**, (or 'F0"CT'04r*) in mine. sS^'wpS to ours, &c.
They are also added to the interrogatives : thus, SjS&Q whose
(is) it ? ^3^83 whose {are) these things? "^pO to which (does) it
(belong) ? ~^?>3 to which do they belong ? fyc. The masc. and fem.
plurals are s&^sr'CS) my people. <&p>tc> your people. >o5&o5^6sr>o
whose people are these ? whose Jcinsmen are they ?
The pronoun
is defective, and is used only in the nomina
tive, genitive and dative : Thus N.
what ? G.
0/
?oa? D. >&>43S,
for what*
f 05& (adverb) There, is declined as a defective Tronoun ; thus ;

74,

ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS.
D. woBbSS, or, woBbe>& thereto.
Ins. woBo^a or Wo&sSo thereby.
L. tsoaSber* therein.
In the same manner )oBb here is declined.
D. sstoa&Sa hereto.
Ins. s;ob\3& or SjosSbsSo hereby.
L. goBber* herein.
And also ^o&i where: thus.
D. oioc&SS wherefore?
Ins. ^oBbt3e or ^osfcsso whereby.
Loc. oiosSber* wherein ?
See also in page 79.

ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS.
Adjective pronouns have no singular ; and are thus declined.
Masculine and Feminine.
N.sjos&so };n^| ^os&allper-^ Josffi how
j
persons

sons

many per
sons ?

G. Slo8,or 3Bd } woaa


53m5"
IT"
*\
D. ajoesi
eoeses
A. sjoaep
tsoaep
I. sioae^Se, sjoa } wobS^,

L- siosflep-*

^oe
oSoa9j&
"\ oioae^,

or^oae^j orcioae^
eoaSer*
loader*

roe8i
r"oa6j8

or r'oae^
roaOy^

Aerate".
N, s^, so many

tfiP^

oija^ how
many ?

trf&afcw

ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS.

75

Neuter.
G. 81&.43 or q&tf *

^
!

D. BiP^i
A. s^p
i. m^a^tf

e1^433
fcspj^p

r^ap

i
>

or

or e^8

or

L. stl^8r
The word
connected.

being

Sing. Neuter Wotf


$otS
<^o3
S"oS

or so much the following words


Neuter Plural.
All, so much as that tsp^ So many, all,
All, so much as this
so many, all,
how much ?
oip^ how many ?
some
^fe. some

Herein the sing, denotes quantity ; but the plural denotes num
ber. Thus otaSScSitjsfaj how muchrice ? S-'P^'&S'ew some goats.
Masc. Eem. "oSsS>o or ss& all those (people)
S[o$i&oa
so many, these
<^o&s&>o> or oioesSS how many?
r*0{5sfcoa
roj5C5o SOme
This sometimes takes a plural form, as Wo&eu, sjo&eu.
The initial letters
A' and
I' (which might be called ar
ticles) and their interrogative > E' are prefixed to many words,
meaning that, this and which. Thus fcS-^tas f^af tree> es-'S&o
those trees, -*t3*33 this tree.
which tree ? Bat when they
precede the nouns, they are sometimes changed into short vowels
doubling the following consonants. Thus es-T^esSxi or fcTre>!to
that time &c. Several other words originate from the same prin
ciple. Thus psr>s6 that man.
this man. dsSa which man ? &c.
Also

there.

here.

where"}

7G

DEFECTIVE NOUNS.
e&osSoa Sucli as that. afzoXotS such as this (talis) etesSo*3 tohat

sort ? (qualis.)
So
So many
Bo3,
So much

<^$x How many.


J>o<S How much &c.

Instead of the initial vowels A, I, E, the syllables TA, TI, TE


are perpetually written. Thus ^^J*, ^%J^>
there, here,
where, are written <*&^_S, o*5^^
This mode of spell
ing is not inconvenient. But by an error in which all persist
(and the same appears in copies of poems) the letter Ye (denoting
which) is almost always written <* Ta meaning that. Thus &>o$
how much ? becomes cSooS thus much. A little practice will enable'us to recollect this perversion ; which otherwise may sometimes
create a doubt. We merely have to recollect that instead of ye it
is customary, though wrong, to write ya.

DEFECTIVE NOUNS.
Some nouns have no singular nominative ; and are placed in
the plural form in the Dictionary. Thus, ^ew, ' milk.' Many
names of particular kinds of grain are thus defective. Thus
The word t>& water is used in the plural : unless in poems,
which at pleasure use the singular r>t&, as is already explained.
Thus

a little water: literally a few waters.

Irregular Defective Nouns and Adverbial Declension.


Some adverbs and other parts of speech are capable of declen
sion as defective nouns of the third declension. Thus Sxnis above,
SS beneath, er* within are properly mere adverbs ; and though
they have no nominative they have a genitive, and sometimes
other cases. But it will be perceived that in translation these
cases become other parts of speech,

DEFECTIVE NOUN'S.

77

Thus
is above ; but the infl. is o^a of above ; upper or
next : and the Dative Set to up, can only be translated up
wards. Hence we may form a nominative by adding various
words to the infl. as craa that which is next, or above.
foes, loifcTV adv. Beneath. G. Soft adj. last, underneath.!).
lofiS adv. downwards, down. Hence SoSS nom. what is beneath.
When these two adverbs are united into a phrase, a plural is
used thus Sos>aj-eex> up and down.
tSx>oc&t sfcooKtf, or Saj>-7r> adv. In front. G. sfeoojs&3, ifeoHfi
adj. fore, fronting. D. sSo8, sSojs6S adv. forwards. Hence
sinoss 43 a ,(7}a iu&icA is infront.
"SiSS-, "S^S^ or "3(55"*' aQV. Behind. G.
adj. Under,
back. D. "3|5^43S, "3(S5"S3 adv. backwards.
"When these are united (with the plural affix) ~3fsSx>o&tx> 0r
tfoeSb"3(5 "ex> meansfore and aft, backwards and forwards.
The two words before and after frequently change their mean
ings: thus Sp'3jS5'43roa6 Those after him may also denote
his predecessors.
S'TSt.jj&t) adT. ^ to. G. S"-G5<643 adj. last.
adv. ^i! first. G. d^j)*3, "o43, ST"S*3, ^"oo43, ^8 ,
adj.jr, earliest. Hence 8~ja&3S or ePS^S is the nominative.
tssSSei, es-sie, sSe> adv. Thither, beyond. G. wx>8, e*;SO,
ea^8 adj. JbrfAer. D. wsS^SS, M-ssSS, esS$ adv. o
sis>Se>,
st^oadv. .H*V7*er. G. ss\sS#S, -&s, sjs^O adj.
nearer. D. st=SSS, s^SS adv. 27's iwiy.
&*Xl adv. formerly. G. &*X& adj. former.
&ra&> adv. Afterwards. G. &r043 adj. ?ie^. Hence is derived
69-sarzs43S xhe next one.
esfctf or
or
adv. -ft/ear, 5y, G.
or sS adj. wfo'e/j s
wear, adjoining, neighbouring. D. K^SI or
adv. To, up to,
close to.
adv. Afar. G. (the same) SJ^ adj. distant. >$iS Loc. at
a distance.

78

DEFECTIVE NOUNS.

cr*, er^iy or
adv. In, inside, within. G. B^jD, er^^S,
er*s643 adj. inner. D. "*?>?, er*, e^a&Si, adv. inwards, in.
2^ adv. (Loc. case) outside. G.
adj. Exterior, outer. D.
2*3 adv. otf, outwards,
-zr>&*> adv. 0 <Ae 7e/2 AJ. Gr. tt><6) adj. tfto ty7iic7? is on the
left hand. D. Er<68i adv. towards the left hand.
3e>a&e> adv. On the right hand.
adj. D. sSaofcSi.
Saafcej adv. Outwards, Gr. "3e>3&>, 3e><Sf)43 adj.twfcr. D. "3e>s&S,
"Se^'iSi outwards.
Oo34j adv. Afterwards. G. wo&t3 adj. sweS. oS43 <> ffe
w>7;ofe.
^otJij adv. Hereafter, henceforwards. G. t^o&43 adj. such. D. ^oe
*3S hereafter, after all.
pi^L adv. Yesterday, Gr. p?$^3 as r>;^2i6p yesterday's tvorfc. D.
P^d.4^ WP ^ yesterday. L. f5^^* within yesterday.
adv.
Jay Je/cre yesterday. Gr. ~a;5^3 Of that day :
thus ~&y*$^82T,zx> the letter that came the day before yesterday.
D. "Sx^iSS until the day before yesterday.
ciewoS adv. The day after to-morrow. G. cieuoS Thus
&<6?> the work to be done the day after to-morrow. D. <^eoo&
adv. the day after to-morrow L. Sito4j ; as TSs&*j^>$o*j to
morrow or day after to-morrow.
adv. There. G. ^^.^ adj. of that place, or country D.
fcSf_& to that place, thither, thereto.
Si^_S adv. Sere. G.
adj. of this p>lace. D. S[Sf_&S
this
place, hither.
oi?r_adv. Where? G. =i_2> adj. of what place? D.

to

what place, whither ?


wfc^ Jm eaery i7w'y. G. t5JB^s3 universal. D. ^^35 o the
whole.
In like manner
^ere, stfS^k ere, ^tf^*1 where, make
the genitives thus ^tf^3 of that place, 3^43 of this place, ^*3

DEFECTIVE ADJECTIVES.

79

of what place ? D. *t^*S8, s^43, ^^ to that place, to this


place, to which place.
A few adverbs have nominative forms, Thus
this day. G.
of this day, present. ~f>sri> the man of to-day, the present
man. D. ~^tS% to-day.
*
fc9*3S Then, ^*$<& now,
when ? These form the G.
ts^tf, sv^a, ^._D. <^*3, si^*3S, oia&jai.*
The defective pronoun ^osa ^ere or that, is used in forming a
noun (or gerund) and is added to participles: thus s&^ooofSoixisS
for going. L. s*<x$o&>$ in, or hy, going r>6*cBo:S"e5jSoaSb jS y0Jwanf o/" ait?.
The acc. of this ends in $ IfA. Thus oSs&^osj^oel^^Soa
regarding his going.
It even may take a plural form as sb^X'sjoae^S for going. tpX"
ejoaSjoSSyor coming. SroX'ejoSjie>KS for staying.
Even some Sanscrit adverbs can in Telugu take an inflected
form. Thus the adverb
at present. G. (adjective) (jS^
or l^jvuSo^J) present, existing, current. L. Jj^j&.'&s&oafc af
present.

ON THE ADJECTIVE.
The Telugu adjective like that used in English, is devoid of
nnmber, gender, (unless what affixes supply) and case. Compara
tives and Superlatives are formed merely by adding the words
more, less, most or very. Some adjectives add WajS the rela
tive participle of >iSt> to become : thus ^o-^) or ^"oJ&omjS pret
ty. But this will be placed under the Relative participle.
* These three words fcSS&^ab appudu, Si^Sfc ippudu, ds6^So eppudu,
are sometimes (in poetry) contracted : being written fcS^i) SS^ oi?^ ap'du,
c
c
&
ip'du, cp'du. But litis is not used in common life.

80

Or THE VERB.
Some few Sanscrit adjectives are used in the Sanscrit compara

tive or superlative forms: just as in English we use the Latin


forms superior, inferior, prior ; supreme, extreme, maximum.
Other particulars regarding adjectives are placed in the Syn
tax.

INTERJECTIONS are fully described in the Dictionary.

THE VEEB.

81

BOOK FOURTH.

ON THE VEEB.
All verbs appear in my Dictionary in the Infinitive form, end
ing in *j Ta. Thus *o^4j pamputa to send rJfifcS^ caduvuta to
read.
The ancient Telugu Grammarians have with good judgment dis
tinguished three conjugations of verbs. The Second contains such
Roots as end in T or S, likewise some few verbs in TT, or SS ;
such as t5cs&>*j chey-uta or
ches-uta to do: Lp-cS3o4j
vray-uta or \_st^iAj vras-uta to write : si^cskiij poy-utaor S^fol)
pos-uta topour:
<s&>&> toy-uta or
tos-uta to push : ljScjo
4j vrayy-uta or Ij^ta vrass-uta to break : #<sfc3g4j dayy-uta or
IS
dass-uta to weary.
The Third conjugation contains verbs that end in cu; as "S>otS
pen9-uta to rear, &fpiSit3 manninc-uta, toforgive. Or in ecu as
"aj^i) me99-uta, to approve .- *JtS>^*i ^afc-uta, to die.
Most of the verbs which are derived from other languages are
placed in this conjugation.
Thus tf&-o*S>4j raxin9-uta to protect, f>"a*oMO'iS>4j phirai^-uta,
from Hindustani, phirana, to turn.
All verbs that do not belong to the second and third conjuga
tions, appertain to the first conjugation. Accordingly i6o^i>
pamp-uta, to send, iS>i&k> 9aduv-uta to read,
pov-uta to go,
are verbs of the first conjugation. Each conjugation contains
several classes of verbs, and instead of the numerical signs First,
Second, or Third conjugation, the expression is, A verb ending
in du, in yu in cu, &c. But natives never use such expressions
among themselves.
L

82

THE VERB.

The first and second conjugations contain chiefly verbs that


originate in Telugu :* the third, (besides numerous native verbs)
embraces all verbs derived from Sanscrit, Hindustani and other
languages.
A verb may change out of one conjugation into another : thus
t3cs&>*j chey-uta ending in Y is of the 2d conjugation. But in
its Causal shape "^owoiSiij cheyinguta it becomes a verb of the
3d conjugation : and in its passive shape t5cC5wS4j it is a verb
of the 1st conjugation.

And the same changes take place in al

most every verb.


Verbs ending in **> are of the 3d conjugation ; thus a
Some of these have the liberty of changing k cu into &g ppu
thus s>^* which falls within the 1st Conjugation. This will be
afterwards explained. Thus the termination of the Boot alone
shews the conjugation.
Certain changes made in the root make the participles : and
then by adding personal affixes with some particles, the tenses
are made. Thus from t33&> makes the past p|| * chesi having
done: and from this comes T%pfri> chesinadu, he did, "So^t^So
tec/jinadu, he brought, <o>"fr>b pampinadu, he sent. Again ^
JF'iS* chesinanu I did, UO^ffk teccinanu, I brought, *oijr"fS,
pampinanu I sent. Here the terminations are uniform, though
the verbs belong to three different conjugations.
These personal affixes are the same in all verhs whatever ;
both active and passive just as have, had, hast, are equally appli
cable to all English verbs. Accordingly if we know the affixes
of one verb, we know those of all. And (as in English, Latin or
Erench) it often is sufficient to mention the first person of a

Many of these are likewise found in the Kannadi language which appears
to be more ancient than Telugu.

THE VERB.

83

tense, because all the rest of the persons merely change the termination according to one rule.
There are properly only two voices : the affirmative and nega
tive. The Passive voice is compounded with c6a&> to fall: the
Middle voice with ^fkk) to take : and the Causal voice inserts
SjoBa incu. But all the terminations continue unchanged. Thus
(as in English) the Passive uses the active endings.
The tenses of the verb are Present, Past, Future, Aorist and
the Imperative.
*
The numbers are the Singular and the Plural ; and the persons*
are the first, second, and the third. In the Singular, the third
person feminine has the neuter termination, but it takes mascu
line terminations in the plural.

Principal parts op the Verb.


These are the Eoot, the Infinitives, and the Participles. The
Hoots end in Q}] " U" as
pampu, 'send,'
poru,
1 go;' to which by adding i> (the infinitive sign To) as a&o^yij,
ir'ifiej the verbs to send, to go, are formed; as they appear in
the Dictionary.
The Root (t?*&&) has been differently defined by various
writers. Some say that ^o^Aj pampu-ta is formed from s&oi^J
pampu, adding fc> ta. Others say (with the author of the Dipica)
that the root is ifeo^) pampu. Others exhibit the verb as o&oabS
3 pamp-adamu : but the oldest authors quote verbs in one form
of the third person singluar past tense of the verb : *o"S pampe,

When we converse with a native who knows Sanscrit but not English we
must remember that I, We, are called &J|s&>^yBc>&. : Thou, You, are called
sSb^sfc^^S- ; and He, she, it, they, are called
sfc^ccsS, the first
person.

84

EADICAL FOEMS.

he sent,

cheppe he said, &o"3 unde, he was.

This is the

form in which verbs appear in the lexicons of Hebrew and Arabic:


languages of which the bramins are not likely to have heard.

EADICAL FOEMS.
The following roots are included in the First conjugation which
contains more than half the verbs in the language.
&>ei> to rule, &*wo&> to drive, wb!64j to ask, d*t6_t> to tread,
fcssfo^fc) to sell, "S-S>Xo*3 to grow, efcskoSSk to leap, sS>oi&> to flame,
i6ofc> to fall, e3-s$b*J to play,,s&ew&i> to speak,
*> to mount,
-in&t> to sing, t5(fc*J to say, SooKoAj to walk, SfSok to hear, r-f&Aj
to buy.
The verb S"?S>4j Konuta when it means to buy is Eegular : but
when used as a sign of the Middle voice, it is irregular.

Silent Roots.
Mand. ' Flame.'' This is the root of s>oo4j mand-uta toJlame.
ir>r&io&(6) the wood flamed.
Und'. ' Be.' &oj4j To be, stay, dwell, stop, remain.
fr^eso he is in the village.
Ami. 'Sell' esto^ To sell. M-ii^a^a she sold it.
A'd. 'P%.' pronounced Ard.
To play, e3-Srob65-&
the women danced.
Pa'd. 'Sing.' (pronounced pard.) "rSak To sing. &ti&a-in&$&
she sang a stanza.
Pad. ' Fall' (pronounced pud)
To fall. !<Sm6&c& the
birdfell.
Po'v. 4 Go.' 5^iS*J To go. r&&*ox>$8> the time is past; or

INFINITIVE FOEMS.

85

the sun is set. The full form &*:S:Se>cs&> appears only in verse.
Pal. 220. the form s^s5e>cs&> is in use.
Av, or Ag. ' Become'
ts?64j or
To become. w&P
tscxMi$a it became his : it proved to be his. The ancient form
WKo is seldom used unless in poetry.
Palxtk, ' Speak,' 3&oo3o*j To speak. ^oSSosSo^DI^JSb the
doctor (or learned man) spoke.
JEalug. ' Accrue' 5"exiHo&> To chance, accrue, be, happen.
ejfi> There is a story. S'JJS'eJSb there is an owner.
Note. "^Ko6j v. n. To move and
to be angry are re
gular verbs.
An. ' Say'

To say. Wto.Wfr^afc he said so.

t& he told his brother.


Koi*. ' Get.' r'jfcAj To get. r*dt6gSr,?r^LJ6 he got or bought
a wood.
These forms jSjo&SAj, &ojSo&> &c. being the Infinitive forms
exhibited in the dictionary, the silent roots are Maud, Und, &c
as now shewn.

INFINITIVE FOEMS.
These are the Infinitive in A as
pampa : the Infin. in
Damu as ^oa&SsSo pampadamu: Inf. in TA. as ^)o^)t> pamputa : Inf. in

E^di as s&o^jS pampedi. In my Telugu Diction

ary, the Inf. in TA alone is used.


The " Moot in A" or " Infinitive in A" is made by changing
the final U of the Root into A. Thus out of the root i6o^j) pampu
comes )6oi6 pampa to send, and then by adding l**03 Damu to
this, makes the Inf. in
Damu" a>o^)asto pampadamu.
Some grammarians are of opinion that this infinitive ought to
end in ^ffc thus afcoijfcffc, TS&lpt pampanu, gaduvanu, or by con

86

PARTICIPLES.

traction sSoa&r", Cs&;$r~ pompan, gaduvan, which by a further


contraction become *>oa&,

pampa, gaduva. It appears how

ever reasonable to look upon this NU or N as an affix not affect


ing the sense. Certain affixes change the sense of the Moot in A.
The letter75"* is also added as
"*"*, *J s5~7T> pampa ga, gadavaga.
This is at pleasure spelled &b&o~K, tfs>s$o"7r pampanga, gaduvanga. It is also called the adverbial form.
The Inf. in TA adds the letter ^ to the Root ; thus out of
i&^>) comes &o-^)L> pamputa : and the Inf. in -53 E'DI changes
the final \) of the Root into -53 : thus out of &cy&) comes *o
*>S pampedi.
The Infinitives in TA and DAMU are declined as nouns:
Thus 8&o^)iJ is a noun of the third declension : and &o*szix> is a
noun of the second declension.- Some call them verbal nouns.

ON PARTICIPLES.
The Participles in the affirmative Verb are the present, the
past, the relative and the aorist. I shall use the sign P|| or p||
for the word Participle. The present p|| is made by adding to
the Root i or #b ; thus s&o^y makes ^o^^ or s&o<)8S. To
these the affix
(out of the auxiliary verb
is also add
ed: thus ^So^iS)^ pampug-unnu and do-^sfopy^pamput-unnu
sending.

But k and t&I&Ql being used chiefly in poetry, the

colloquial shapes ^> and Sbi*^. alone are exhibited in the following
pages.
Verbs that end in * T'T'U as S"**^ ' to strike'
< t0
place' S^3^ ' to revile or abuse' can in the present participle and
past tense change | TTU into &>Sb or i& ; thus s^toSo,
or r*so and the past tense S"*43S 0r
0r ^ S.
The past p|| is formed by changing the final U of the Root in

TENSES.
to " )" ' I :" thus out of &ci) pampu comes
ing sent.

87
pampi hav

If a verb has three syllables, and the second is short U, as **


s&Ko adiigu, (to ask) t5s>) cadiivu to read, S'cfi-efo cariiqu to bite,
5"cfc?o carugu to melt ; this U changes into I when the termination
changes into ), -*=>, -5 (i, e, e) : this happens in the past p|| the
3d pers. sing, of the past tense, and one aorist p[|. Thus iJSa
cadivi (having read) US) "3 cadive he read, and CQ"^ ^adive, who
reads.
And these verbs have also the liberty of changing the middle
13 U into
a when the final vowel \) of the Eoot ends in
a:
thus i5e>sS paduva or
9adava to read.
The Relative participle is formed by adding ^ NA to the past
participle: thus froin<6o& pampi having sent comes *ot>!$ pampina that sent.
The aorist participle is derived from the Root either by using
the root itself; or changing the final X) (TT) of it into -^5, -^563, (e,
eti) or-^= or -=>& (edu, edi) : thus, j6oa6)( a&ot.,!6o-^43, <6o")Ss,
&oti& that sends.

ON TENSES.
The tenses are formed by adding the personal terminations
to the root or else to the present and past participles.
[The following rules on formation, marked with inverted commas
['] in the margin, were framed by a native tutor in the College.
They may perhaps be useful to those who study Telugu in
Europe : these principles may be occasionally referred to when a
doubt arises. Such as read the language in India will seldom
require these rules : which will be easily acquired without being
studied in this method.]

S8

" ON TENSES."

' The principal personal terminations in verbs are borrowed


from the pronouns.
*
' The terminations of the 1st and 2d persons are these.
' Sing. 1st pers. fS from ~^f& I, as ;6o^5)&i> f^fr I send.
Plu.

2d
1st
2d

*s
&

thou, as
we, as
&rwyou,a8

^ Thou sendest.
"* We send.
t> You send.

' But one shape of the past tense changes the \) (TJ) of these
terminations into ) (I) i. e. fi>, <&, s*, & mi, vu, mu, ru, are
changed into P,
Sx>, Q ni, vi, mi, ri. Thus i^o&Sp I sent, o
2j33 thou sentest, ol,%&> we sent, ^ctSa you sent.
' The Terminations of the 3d person Sing.
' Masc. z& from *r"&> and
he, this man. For the pres.
tense as ^o^Safs^ffio he sends ; also for one shape of the past
tense, as i6o>iiT#a he sent and for the negative aorist, as
he does not send.
' jSj For one shape of the past tense as s6o"S>ffi he sent, and for
the affirmative aorist as * 0^)34 he will send.
' p For the future tense, as a)o^&j&, a&o^f>.
'Fern, and Neut. Q from f> or Si9 She or it. For the pres.
tense, as AoiQ&fap she or it sends and for one shape of the past
tense as ioS>;Sa she or it sent.
'j^j For one shape of the past tense, as aSo'wfli she or it sent
and for the affirmative aorist, as i6o^f)ffc she or it will send.
') For the future tense, as &o^>&p) g^o^p, 0r s&oL?) she or it
will send.
' <5b For the neg. aorist,'as !6o<ijS> sjie or g

M0 sengm

'Plural.
' Masc. and Fern. & from ^03 and
They, these persons.
For all tenses, as ^OT^J&F^eS, 7ey send 8&o)rrSS they sent, &o
"S>tf>, ^o'wcfi, they will send, ^o^ysfctfc

my seni, s&oa&tCi tffoy

" ON TENSES."

89

send not, but one shape of the past tense changes "Q (U) into Q
(I; Thus
They sent.
'Neuter Si from
and 9fi They, these things. For the pres.
tense as *S)o^i)3Z>t^a they send and for one shape of the past tense,
as a&o?>i6a they sent.
* j3j For one shape of the past tense as &o-z>& they sent, and
for the affirmative aorist as oi*L)?S> they will send.
' p For the future tense as S&o^Sf), abot,?), &o%p they mill send.
' s) For the neg. aorist as *6o*$j they will not send.
' These terminations take before them certain intermediate par
ticles to make the affirmative tenses ; and are added either to the
root or to the present and past participles. Thus,
'In the pres. tense 0 a is inserted for the 1st and 2d persons
in the sing, and plu. For the masc- in the 3d pers. sing, and for
the Masc. and fem. in 3d pers. plu. while jS^ is inserted for the
fern, and neut. in the 3d pers. sing, and for the neut. in the 3d
pers. plu.
' In the 1st shape of the past tense & is inserted for the 1st and
2d pers. sing, and plu. while -=> E^ interposes for the masc. fem.
and neut. in the 3d pers. sing, and for the neut, in the 3d pers.
plu. And in the 2d shape "P" is inserted for the 1st and 2d persons
sing, and plu. and for the masc. in the 3d pers. sing., and for the
masc. and fem. in the 3d pers. plu. while $ interposes for the
fem. and neut. in the 3d pers. sing, and for the neut. in the 3d
pers. plu.
In the 1st shape of the future tense -= E^DA is inserted for
the 1st and 2d persons sing, and plu. and for the masc. and fem.
in the 3d pers. plu. while -=>* EDI is interposed for the masc.
fem. and neut. in the 3d pers. sing, and for the neut. in the 3d
pers. plu. And in the 2d shape -5 E' is inserted for the 1st and
2d persons in the sing, and plu. and for the masc. and fem. in the
x

90

"ON TENSES."

3d pers. plu. while -5 or S) (E'F) is interposed for all genders in


the 3d pers- plu.
' In the Aorist & is inserted for the 1 st and 2d persons sing,
and plu. and for the masc. and fem. in the 3d pers. plu. But for
the masc. fem. and neut. in the 3d pers. sing, and for the neut.
in the 3d pers. plu. no particles are inserted.
' When these particles are connected with the personal termi
nations, they stand thus :

' Pbisent Tense.


Sing.

Plu.

' 1st pers. fS> ami


2d
$5 avu
3d Masc.

adu
3d f. n.
or oa nnadi,

1st pers. '


imu
2d
cfe aru
3d m. f. aru
3d . ?S^a nnavi.

ndi.
The affixes 5$jQ or oS and jSja are added to the p|| ending in So
but not in

Tense.
Sing.

Plu.

1st pers. BP or 73"*i&

1st pers. SS or "FS

2d
8a or ~F>&
3d m. ^fSi enu or 7** ^
3d /. n. i$e or o>

2d
8 or ffcS
3d m. f. 0 or TTes
3d n. -=fS> enu or rS3,

'Ettttjbe Tense.
Sing.
' 1st pers. -5>sSP& edanu or
enu

Plu.
1st pers.
emu

edamu

91

*' ON TENSES."
' F0TUBE TeSSE.
2d

Plu.

Sing.
or

2d

or -t5&

3d m. -=>&p or -p or >P

3d ot./ -=&or-&

3d /. n. -=>&p or -^Sp or S)p

3d

n.

-=apor-5por

i Aohist.
Sing.
' 1st pers.
2d
3d
3d
/. n.

Plu.
1st pers.
2d
3d
m. f.
3d
n.

i*

1 Impeeatiye.
Sing.
2d perB.
or Ecr

Plu.
1st pers.

or "sjtiba

2d
*> or &.
' The present and past tenses are derived from the present and
past participles ; and the future and the aorist from the root in
U. By adding therefore the affixes to these participles, the affir
mative tenses are regularly made. Thus, from the present parti
ciples i6o^ofl^_ and ^o^SS comes, by adding the affix #>
A'NU &c. to them, the present tense ^o^Sbfr^ and &'4>)
"a'ffc I send. So ^o^ga^a, 6o^)-y$ thou sendest. denote
pr^go, *o^)rsib he sends, afcoT^Jab^Q or ific^igioa she or it
Bends &c.
' The final \) U of the present p|] is dropped by elision, when the
affixes <& A'NU &c. are added to it. Thus ^o^JSb + ^F^.
?S> pamputu + unnanu=& oi)&>~(r<^&> pampuf tinnanu. There are
also two other shapes of the present tense as iSoi^Jifcfr^tfj or *o
fy o^ffc which are not used in the following pages, the one being

92

" ON TENSES "

poetical and the other being vulgar. They are formed by merely
changing e$ ta into i& qa.
' From the past participle io& comes the past tense, by adding
the affixes dp or r^fk &c. to it, as a&o&SSS or s&o5>fr?$> I sent: *6o
or a&ofc-jjr^j thou sentest : Ao^fc or <&oS>tt!6 he sent &c.
In one shape of the 3d pers. sing. ot>fc the final G) of the
past p|| is dropped when the affix =>!& is added to it. Thus ^S>
makes o~^>$>.
* From the root ^
comes the future tense by adding the af
fixes =>&ffc edanu or
enu &c. to it, thus ^o^SKjfc or*6o";&
I will send. *o"wsJiS or Ao'fj^) thou wilt send &c. the final \) of
the root being as usual dropt.
' The reader must not confound this word a&o^jfc with E' long
pampenu with the word 6o"wSfc with E' short pampenu, which is
the 3d pers. sing, of the past tense of this verb.
' By adding the affix ekffc &c. to the root, the aorist is made : thus
from a&o^J comes a&o^&jSi I will send &c. s&o^ssbg) thou wilt
Bend &c.
4 Out of the two shapes of the future tense, the use of the shape
stSfb (edanu) ^o^csfr pampedanu is strictly confined to poetry;
and the shape Sfr (enu) a&o^^ pampenu is seldom used : but
the present tense and the aorist are used instead of the future
tense. Thus instead of &o'fi$>t they say &c')'&r&.
1 From the root ^o-^) comes also the affirmative imperative :
either by using simply the root itself or by adding to it the affixes
S or s*r for the 2d pers. sing, as &oi) or i6o^)jS 0r <o^y&r
send thou and K*S 0r
for the 1st pers. plu. as a&ct^CiSo
or *o-^-cri let us send and
or & or commonly oa added to
the Infinitive in A for the 2d pers. plu. as ^c^)& or &o-)h or
^o^oS send ye.

93

ON TENSES."

Formation of the Negative Verb.


' The Negative Verb is derived from the Boot in A, and by add
ing certain affixes to this, the Negative participles, the Verbal
noun, and the aorist with the imperative are formed.
'Thus a&oaS which is the Eoot in A of *o^fc> takes the affix
g" K to form the " negative p|] in KA" as *oj6S" without sending.
'And to this ^otf [the Eoot in A of
is at pleasure
added. Thus s&os&S" and a&o* SSotf equally mean without sending.
' Likewise the Eodt in A adds the affixes ) NI to form the Neg.
rel. p|| and g Mi to form the verbal noun. Thus i6o<6p pampani
that did not send, and *o^sx> the not sending.
' In the Negative verb, the aorist is the only tense, and it is
formed simply by adding to the Eoot in A the pronominal affixes
already explained. Thus ;
' Sing.
Plu.
' 1st pers. i6oa6f>

1st pers. *6oisS

2d
3d
3d

2d
3d
3d

m.
f.m.

>
t& '
Kb

m. f.
n.

&
oj

' To form the Negative imperative, (the Prohibitive) the Eoot


jn A takes the affixes
Ka or 35 KU or 5b*S Kumu or
Kuma or 5oj*t Kumee for the 2d pers. sing, as ^o^S" or
js&os&SS or a&oi6S5sS <s&0!sS)K5s5t 0r &o&&r Send not thou, and
Kandi or SSo Kudu or
Kudee for the 2d pers. plu. as
io!6oa or aS>o*gSS or &os6So& send not ye'Elsewhere instead of these forms, the verb sSucs&jia is used.
Thus as in the affir. verb $&o&
means (il fant remettio)
you must send, so in the negative, the verb s54& or ssg~ may be
added. Thus <&o&ei> do not send, thou shalt not send.'
The passages here marked with (') inverted commas may be oc

94

FIKST CONJUGATION.

casionally referred to, if a doubt should arise ; but those who


study in India will not require these rules.

FIKST CONJUGATION.
For the purpose of exhibiting the terminations, the verb ^o'sg)
*> pamputa To send will now be conjugated throughout.

This

is a regular verb of this conjugation.


Also 'OafcijSj&j to read, because it is a verb of three syllables and
undergo some changes in the formation of tenses, as was already
explained.
Also the verbs
vinu-ta, To hear ^"ffciJ Konu-ta to buy
and &&>> padu-ta to fall. These are given because verbs ending
in NU and DU are contracted in a peculiar way.
Also the verb ^T6
povu-ta to go because that lias some pecu
liarities. And to these will be added the Irregular Auxiliary
Verbs &oJSb4j to dwell ;
to become ; XtxXii), to occur.
Affikmatiye Vbbb.
Infinitive in TA

*o^t> To send.

Infinitive in A
Infinitive in Damu

0*6
)fco;6&sS

Infinitive in E^DI

*ot,B.
Pabticiples.

Pres. p||
Past p||
Eel. p||
Aorist p||

&e>-4)& or do^g)^
Sending
*o)
Having sent
6o?)^
Which sent
afcO", i6ot>t3, aSo^sSo or <6oT,3, a&o^ "Which sends.

FIRST CONJUGATION.

95

NEGATIVE PAETICIPLES.
Negative P|| in
Kel. p||
Verbal noun

Ka &o&$ Without sending


ifeos&p Who sends not
6oa&j The not sending.

Pbeseitt Tense.* I send, I am sending.


Sing. 1
^o^yso-ir^-f-sfc, &o^l)^*+
2
6o^)sj(T^&, s>c^y^*#.
3
m.
Ao^jsbjT^aso, &o-)ws&.
3
/. n.
160^80^, !fco^)gooa.
Plu. 1
a6o<6))-j3^LsiD) ifeoi6;^*ss.
2
a>o^ys(3-^0o, )6o-4)rOo.
3
. /.
abo^ijgb-jo-^oo, ^o^^oo,
3
.
a&o^y&j^a, abo^j&s.
Here we perceive that the verb &ot> ia added, as in English
' to be' is added to all verbs.
The Present Tense has two forms: the longer, ^o^SaF^fS),
pamput mnanu is ' I send, I am sending.' But the shorter form
a6o^J'<?'fS> pamputanu is used with afuture sense : as in English
" I send it to-morrow." This rule applies to all verbsThe final syllable NU ((&) is in all the tenses dropped at plea
sure : Even the letter
which terminates the 2d person sing
ular is frequently dropped : thus M. 1. 1. 174, where tS^Q is
written for t3^Sj>.
Throughout the verb the mark + denotes that the final sylla
ble NI or NU is frequently dropt. Thus in Greek the final N is
often dropt, and " or ia, iwn or iwartv may be used at the
poet's pleasure.
Observe: in speaking Telugu, the final V (VU or VI) is often
(vulgarly) slurred. Thus F^5& unnavu,
unnavi, aetata
vintunnavi, ao*& vintavi, Sf*>s&>i& vinuduvu, StfSS vinavu
are
often pronounced soft, thus ; unna'u, unna'i, vintunua'i, vinta'i,
vinudu'u, vina'u. But this is not elegant.
In the following pages numerals are used to denote the first, second, and
third persons.

FIRST CONJUGATION,

96

Sing. 1
3
3
Plu. 1
2
3
3

Past Tense. I sent, I have sent.


a&o&a+p, a6 0^70^4.^

/. .

m. f.
.

a&o"S>4-,ai) *os>-jyo
j&o^+fli, j6oj;sa, a&otcft
a6o?>8&>, a6o|Jp-sb3
a&o&sa, s&o&7r>cfi
*&oi>e, ifioti^ifi
a& o^s, f3b( <6oS)^a.

Future Tense.

I will or shall send

Sing. I

io~S>K-f

3 m. y. .
Plu. 1
2
3
m. f.
3
n.

abo^ci^ a6o^jt>( a&o&ja


aSo'wsssSM, a&o wsSm
a&o'&jsSo, a6o"t>
&Ovts&} a&o'SsS
a&craap, a&o^jo, s&oLp.

Affirmative. I send.
i6o^y +
9. I
2
3 . /. n. a&o^);S>
P. 1
2
8
3

afeo-^ft)

AORIST.
Negative. ' I send not.
a&oa&jfc
S. 1
2
3
08.
3 /. n.
P. 1
2
3

. /.

a&oa&Sa

* This has the liberty of inserting N (for the sake of metre) before a, Thus
<&oS&oifi he sends not. In Bhasc. Sat. XII. roetri gratia S"eS^*f58So is
pelt S"|r,(io'B.

TO SEND ; TO READ.

97

IilPEEATIVE.
Sing. 2 6o-), 3&o^s&, s>o-4)sSj*, 5&o^)S>c, Ao^sxy send thou

PflOHIBITIVE.
Sing. 2 S&cafcr, <s)osSg&, s&oa&sS &>, j&oa&SSsfcp.g, s&osisoto-g.
Plu. 2

Send not thou.


a&oa&ro&g, a&oa&Soeso, a&oS&SooSo, &o<6&!s.

Courtesy requires, as in English, the use of the plural Impera


tive instead of the singular. But in prayer and addresses to the
deity, they generally use the singular shape alone.
Those persona that end in N, (whether ni or nu) drop this ter
mination at pleasure. This is denoted by the mark + , as J&o^ysb
The mark is added to such shapes as are peculiar to poets.
The sigu [ ] denotes such as are inelegant-

Infinitive
Infinitive
Infinitive
Infinitive

in TA
in A
in Damu
in E*DI

4&S>ij

To read.

AriflEHATIVE Paetictples.
Present p]|
Past p||

&^>^> or tfb<S&>
tfSa having read

reading

llel p|j
Aoristp||

r5fi>8^ which read


CS"i,iJSs4S,S-3a,a-3JSb,tfd&g) which reads.

STAAT3-

FIRST CONJUGATION.

98

Negative Pabticiples.
Neg. P|| in " Ka Cases', or tffi&sSSSo-ra*
Neg. Rel. P||
esbsSp
Neg. Verbal Noun
fS&Xsa

"Without reading
Who reads not
The not reading.

Present Tense. I do read, I am reading.


Sing. 1

xSt&^&Tr^+fr, tfafc^jw + jSi

3
3
Plu. 1

m.
/. .

3
3

tfJSb^SbTr^SS, ^5b)-3^Sci
5Jfi$8b^>LB, tfdft^Sioa [tf^-ff-a]
EJaSb^Sj-p^sSo, Ci&WJS

m. f.
n.

efc^iSaF^SJ, iS
tr<&>*Fy\ tfa&$3a.

Past Tense.
Sing. 1
2
3
3
Plu. i
2
3
3

I did read : I have read.

tj>aS + F>, tfaaTT"-fiS>, [tJftsr. + fJi]


traao+a, wea^is [ua^iS]
ca"3 + fS, Caa-;yj6 [tfaro]

m.
f. n.

m. f.
n.

ca"3iai, tfaajsa, caaoa


tjaasso, tsaa-jan-^ [^s^sio]
uaaaa, caa^as, [tsa^cS]
tfaas, waafp>eo [ts&^oS]
TSSiSito, aaj6a.

Putuke Tense. I will or shall read.


Sing. 1
ea"3+js, tfa^js*
2
3

m.f. n.

a-3es, tya"^^
tro"3&jo, tra^p, tfeap.

99

TO EEAD.
Futxjbe Tense. I will or shall read,
piu, i
Efa"3BJ&i, a"3tS
2
3
3

-tra-sasSf}, traces
tfa"3b, tfa^CSo
55a"2&|6, t58~5p, -CSSp.

m. f.
n.

AOEIST.
Negative. I read not.

I read.
S.

1
iJefc
2
3 ./. .
Plu. 1
2
3 ?. / i5S>b?SS>&
tJ >;) fS>
3
n.

S.

1
2
3

3
Plu. 1
2
3
3

m.
f. n.

m. f.
n.

tfi&sStfi
WefcsSSS

Sing. 2

Imperative. Read thou.


55266, &^, i5sfc6^, tfe&$&, -I5&r

Plu. 1
2

tfifcsSssfao, rasb-5rjSM
tfiuSoS, Cafc^ifc^ U&oife, t?&5&S, 0eSb$&.

Peohibitive. Eead not thou.


Sing. 2 trees', tfeSb^SS, treaS5sS, SsS;S5osSr>) tfs>;S5Sar.
Plu. 2 CefisSS'oS, CcSbsSSojfcg, 55&;SSooiSb) i55b:S3&.

Verbs ending in j^j, NTJ such as affck to hear, G^fcb to buy,


DfS>i> to eat. and tfk4j to say, form their present p|| in the usual

100

FIRST CONJUGATION.

way by adding
; as 3|S>t> ; or by changing the'^fk into O
sunna as aotfb. Or when they take
they change fk&> into
c&a aa ao4. Likewise in the past tense apop becomes ao^Jp.
In the affirmative aorist 3fSiS>fS> becomes aojfc;S>. In the 2d and
3d person plural a,&i>Go becomes aoi&So or S>o\&> vulgarly ac).
Here the soft D changes into hard D. The form o[e& is used on
ly in poetry. Thus wo (So. M. XIV. 2. 94. and 2. 169.
Some grammarians direct us to write these verbs with ^ N, not
with O. Thus aottj becomes a<*y But this,is a refinement ap
proved only by grammarians ; not by the people at large.
The verbs affcfc> to hear,
to go, s&&t> to fall, ^afcio
to be spoiled,
to fit, ftxbio to descend &c. change at pleasure
the affix -= E1 into )c33 in forming the past and future tenses.
Thus 3"i3iS or aPSsrfc; and a"^fS) or apssjffi^. And they have
also the liberty of being contracted in the relative participle- Thus
aPiS or
or
and Q^fS or
Many verbs ending
in
NU and So DTJ (as mentioned above) contract tho second
shape of the past tense. Thus apF*fS> becomes ^F^fk, ^J&T3"i&
becomes ^"^fS>.

Infinitive in TA
Infinitive in A
Infinitive in DAMU
Infinitive iu E*DI

ajfrtj To hear.
S>;5
a-StfsSw
a"ja.

Affirmative Participles.
Pres. p|| 3oi or aofcoffc^
Hearing
Past p|| ap
Having heard
Eel. p|] P?S or a^
Which heard
Aorist p|| a^, a"^, a^a, a 7=i*>, S Which hears.

TO HEAE.

101

Negative Pakticim.es.
Neg. P|| iu Ka
Eel. p||
Yerhal noun

325', 3&o-r>*
3j6f>
ajSKo

Pkesent Tense.
Sing. 1
2
3 m.
3 f, .
Plu. i
2
3 . /!
3 ??.

Without hearing
Who hears not
The not hearing-

I hear, I am hearing.

actoF^i
ao6r + fJ>
ac&opr^S, ac&r.^
Soiojpy^JSb, ac&r>b
sofcoj^e, actxioa [ac^a]
ao&pT^js, ac6Tss
aofcafj^Oo, ac&rSo
aotofT^cfi, ao&r.Co
acioa^a aoeja.

Past Tense.

I heard, I have heard.

Sing. 1
ao43 + p, 355^ + ,*
2
ac*ja, a-pr^
3 m. a^ + jS), apeaH-Ffc, af^fss
3 /. n. a"?rS>, apsag+iai, jsjs, ap;sa, apoa
Plu. l
ao*3so, aF"^^
2
30438, ajj^io
3 J. /. 3f>6, atT^Sj
3
n.
3Pi6a, 3^3.
The form 3p6fc>,
in tlie third person singular is peculiar
to poetry.
Note, tffkej to go and sfci&ij to live never use the form Oo43f>

FIRST CONJUGATION.

102

Futube Teitbe.
Sing. 1
2
3 m.f. .
Plu. 1
2
3 m.f.
3 .

S. 1
2
3
P. 1
2
3
3

I will or shall hear.

3"^ + jS>, a?>5fc>tf + nk, 3"^i&


a"j3#, 3|Dofc>KiS, a^
a^a^, apajSjog, a^p,
a^Ks&sfj, aj&^BsSx), a~^a
a^a&g, a|&SiKeo, a"^os
a"^s&, apsoaCc, a"^c6
a3j&p, a"^?>, a>&.

AOEIST.
Negative. I hear
Affirmative. I hear.
a&ssb + i&Sj, aoafc+(S>
S. 1
2t$>t&>$, aocsb^)
2
./ . ajs..*
m.
3
ai&eSbsSK, aosfcsS
3 /. .
a;s>j>as, aoe&cfi
P. 1
./. aj&j&cfcg, aoj&cfi
2
3 t./.
.
a ffcffc.
n.
3

Sing. 2
Plu. i
2

not.
a;S&
ae&
3<s<>
3jSs
aj5t6
a?>.

Impebatiye. Hear thou.


affc!SB) aisfess^l ai&ao, ajS>fcr>,
3fS>srf, aos&), accpsso,
ajsoa, ajso^, arfco&, aj&a* aj&a.

Peohibitite. Hear not thou.


Sing. 2
a^s", ajSSS, 3jSSSs&=, atfSSsSHj, aj$5Socr
Plu. 2
ajSSoa, a;SSSa, a;ssSoo, 3iS3S&,
Sr^Aj Sometimes forms the Imperative irregularly. Thus ; Soifc
or ajkoJfe.
Thus in Palnati, D. 361 sfo*55e>!SB!-es>!r5Sieua

TO TAKE.
Infinitive in TA
Infinitive in A
Infinitive in DAM U
Infinitive in EVDI

103

tr ;*>>

To take, buy
To take
Taking
Taking n. s.

6" sS
r*7Q

ArFIKMATIYE PARTICIPLES.
Pres. p||
PastpH
Rel. p||
Aorist p||

r'oks or r'cfcjjji^
~P
r'pfi or S-jSj.
*r-f, ir^ia, r-^a, r* -^as,

Taking
Having taken
Who took
Taking.

Negative Participles.
Neg. p]| in 6" E!a r*;sr, S"j5!fco-GS

"Without taking

Bel. p||
Verbal noun

Not taking
The not taking.

"(S&>

Pbesent Tense.
Sing. 1
2

I take.

6^o&0F*^.+ ft, r*odj +


g-o&ofy^s,, ro&n5?j

3 y. . r'otxi^a, "otooa
Plu. 1
"c&x>-j3^sS ~"o&72o
3 . J". S'-ofcofr^Co, r'oi^KS
3 . r*o&^p, r'oija.
Past Tense.
Sing, l

I took.

ro*3+y>, r"pfT'+rfc> -73^4.^

3 m.
^PF*^, "F^>
3 /. . s~i3j&, r*j^8, r*fo8,

WEST CONJUGATION.

104

Past Tense I took.


Plu. 1

~o*3aj, s-f!>7r>sk), -73"^

3 w. / ^P9, r*p^&, r'F'a*

Putuee Tense.

I shall take.

Sing. 1

r*^ + f&, rpS5 + fS>,

Plu. 1

S^^BtSc, rp6k:S, r^sSba

AORIST.
Affirmative. I take.
S. 1
3
2
3
3

Negative

1 take not.

S. 1
2
3 m.
./. M.
3 /. n.
p.
1
r";s>ieo, r'osfccfi 0r roiefc
2
m. f.
S"oJi>cS> or ^l^
3 m.f.
. r*j&iS>.
3 .
r^sSb +<<>, g^o^fc^-i<,

Sing. 2
Plu. 1
2

sr$&
r*jS#
r*j6^
-"i$ss,
i-jSsSM
r*iSas
r-fStf,
riS&.

Imperative. Take thou.


";*>, e^ia,^, r*jss&*, r^a^
r^off;&o, ^ot5sto
r^isca, r*ffc*, r^c^, r"?i>.

TO SEND.

Sing. 2
Plu. 2

105

Peohibitive. Take not.


a-" iSS", r^ss, r'j5S5ss, r'jSSS^, r^s5o^
^roa, r'fSKjss^ ri555oi*, r^jS5o&.

The verb
as the sign of the middle voice deviates some
what from the regular verb
to take or buy. The middle
voice is thus conjugated. The irregular portions are marked
But in the middle voice this verb is often written SSffcti kunuta
instead of "*i&*o Jconuta.
Gejtebal Note. In all verbs it is hard to express the Infini
tives and Participles in English, without misleading the learner.
The true import is explained in the Syntax.

Infinitive in TA
Infinitive in A
Infinitive in DAMU
Infinitive in E'DI

a&o^rv&tj v. a. To send
%gT ^o^r5, ,6o^s~j4
a&o^jr'jjtfato, 4o4)r*flitte%
a&oi&r* -=e.

AjTIKMATIVE PaeTICIPLES.
Pres. p||
Pastp||
Eel. p||
Aorist p||

a&o^J^cto, a!) o^)r*o


Sending
a&o^r*p
Having sent
6o^rf>^, j6o^jrjS>L
"Who sent
*o4)fr% 4o4)tr-$e, s6o^r-^a, a6o^r-^*,
*o^r*;S> Sending.
Negative Paeticiples.

Neg. p|| in * Ka a&o^S-jSSg, (j^- s&o-^je^r Without sending


Neg. Rel. p||
a6o^r^?), g^- ^c^^p Un-sending
Neg. Verbalnoun &o^8"*jio, (jdr i6o^;rca> The not sending.
o

106

FIEST CONJUGATION.

Sing. 1

Pkesent tense. I send.


doi&s-oto^+ffr, i6o^r"o&r -f-

3 m.
3 /. n.
Plu. 1
2

!6o^)ro*XfT^LJSo) j&o^r*o&r!&
a&o^jr'o&oiS^e, a&o^r'ofcooa
*o^r"ofcn'iT^L!S, afcoi^)r*o&r'S5i
a&o^r*o4x(T^LBo( a&o^yro&r>SS

3 .

a&o^r-otoi^jS), *o^)r*ciJ3.

Past tense. I sent.


bo^y"o43 + p) a&o^jsr-iT^^-iai

Sing. 1

3/ . 6oa6)r*^ + j8i, s&o^r'Poao-j-rfcg, a&oi^r^jBjsejj,


Plu. 1

<6o^;r*o43s5o, a&o^ji-fr^j&o

3 n.

a&o^r73j&, a&o^~pjS3, a&o^r*^3.


Future Tense.

Sing. 1

a&o^5~~j3 +

I shall send.
abo^)r,p63oa + j&, a&o^yr*

3m.f.n. *o*)r*-j35j&, a&o^r'poaoaps, a&o^r"-^, a&o


Plu. I

&o4)^?aS,*oa&r,p6fc>SJSio, a&o^r,-j3ss

2
3

aSo^r^BS-,, a&o^r'jaofcas^, aSo^r-^ss


n.

afco^)r'^aj?>,

a&o*&r*p53oajD,

abo^s--^

abo^s-pp.

107

TO SEND.

AORIST.
Negative. I send not.

Affirmative. I send.
1

S. 1

3 m.f. n
1

3
3 f.n. a&o-^S-jSsSbf,

2
P. 1
3 m.f.

2
3

n.
3

Sing. 2

Impebative.
BgT ^o^F*, {J^-^o^g-Aog, ^ 6o^)r'So ,
03 a6o^r*aq, a6o^)g-*fJosSo, *o^)r-j>sfiix, a&o

Plu. 1

&3* *o^)r'oKs$, a&o^ro-cr'joJ a6o^)r,-iS>BjS,

Peohibiiive.
Sing. 2

afco^jr'r, (^r a&o^r**, C3- a6o4)r*55&--,


!53 *ci)r<5orfj*, cj> a&o^r6*^. Or else,

108

PIEST CONJUGATION.

*, li a&oi6'"So&.

Or else,

a&o^r'fsroa, &oi^r',i6S5, a&c^r,issSoi, a&c^y


When
is added, contraction sometimes is allowed ;
tfe^csSi^p having sat may become Srfl^p but this is vulgar.
If a verb ending in NIT is in the middle voice the k is doubled :
thus
to view from
to see; "*ffc 7 fkk> to purchase
from "r&4J to buy, yet in some other verbs it is left single ; thus
a?S>S"",r&4j from ai*t> to hear.
The past negative tense of fffciJ has two forms, of which one
ib contracted, viz. ~jS"^;> and r*"3i&. The longer r"j$"^S> ja I
(thou, he, &c.) did not buy. The shorter is the middle form as
fcSife r^ea I (thou he, &c.) did not sell.
But the longer form t9sv^r*iS"3'5> js a]a0 admissible. Thus in
the notes on the Bhascara Satacam 41. ^>*jss5'&'",j$_gsj> he
did not crown himself.
The form w^T^S^ is used for ^^r^p^cfe* and
r^aafSi for ^tf^r*jSsro&>rfc. See the Syntax of the Past P||
in UKA.

Infinitive in TA
Infinitive in A
Infinitive in D AMU
Infinitive in E\DI

*o4j To fall.
a6S
&8ttix> The falling
*>3o
Falling.

TO FALL.

109

Affirmative ParticiplesPres. p||

a&JSoSo or *&SbijSgL[*fc]

Falling

Past p||
Eel. p||
Aorist p||

&
Having fallen
afciii or
Which fell
sb^, a&^a, a&'Sag, ae,3sSo, s6e& Which falls.
Negative Participles.

Neg. P|| in 5" KA

*4S5oot

Neg. Eel. pll


&a|t>
Neg. Verbal noun &#o

Without falling
Un-falling
The not falling.

Present Tense.

I fall, I am falling.

Sing. 1

a&oa&iT/f jS>} tfSfc'W.fffc, a&Tp-(- ji

Plu. 1

j&aotfjf^sSx), 8&b^*!S, 8&jE=fao

. /.

a&SbteTo^cfc, a&afc s^Bo, a&jgTOo

Past Tense. I fell.


Sing. 1

&&Q + p,&8i7r

3 /. .
Plu. 1
2
3 >./.

a&ajsa, s&6, s&a0a.


Co '
s&a&ao i6aiTsi, a&zrsSK)
a&aea, sba-p^s-). &-zr&>
1
'Co
a6ae, a6afT'f,, a&-^cfi

110

FIKST CONJUGATION.
Futube Tense.

I will or shall fall.

Sing. 1

)6'3-|-i4>, <6a6fc> + ;&) s6"3f6

3
Plu. 1
2
3 . /.
3
.

a6"sap, a)as3ajo) ab^ja or


a6"3essi>=, A&sfciSsSoo*;, s&"5ss
a&"3at>, <6a6fctS>, a&"^35
a6'Bao5) a&a63j<sej, ob'SoS
a&"3a jE>} s&553oajt>, &Hp, hp.

AOEIST.
Affirmative. I fall.
S. 1
2
3 m. f, n.
P. 1
&bS>0o
2
abaos&Qa
3
m. f.
3
.

Negative. I fall not.


S. 1
2
3
m.
3 /. .
P. 1
2
3
f. /.
3

N.

Imperative. Fall thou, &c.


Sing. 2
Plu. i
2

Sing. 2
Plu. 2

^JSb, j6sSojS, <S&jfcsSr S&jfcco>


a&aotfsSw, a&j>-cr>ss
6jSca, SS.,SoJSo) a&jjoOJS6, i6oa.

Prohibitive. Fall not thou.


a&^S", a&S3, a&asSsScij, a6SSo^r, a&S&or
a&as'oa, &SSoefe, s&SSooassg, a6assa.

When a&&Aj is compounded with a noun ending in 3, that

TO GO.

Ill

syllable is usually dropped. Thus


fear. ^tiKSafcabi) to fear,
surprize.
^ 5 * afcej to be surprized.

Infinitive in TA
Infinitive in A
Infinitive in DAMU

&*^jej povu-ta, to go.*


sfr* or tfr6^
sir^jisSM

Infinitive in E'DI

ds5g.

AEFIBMATIVE PARTICIPLES.
*o or
Going
si^txu
Having gone
a*ojS
"Which went
**5&>g, ir>^)43, *"6kg&, s6&>o, sfr3

Pres. p||
Past p||
Rel. p||
Aorist p||

Which goes.
Negative Paeticiples.
Neg. P|| in g" Ka
or ^*5Sots "Without going
Neg. Eel. p||
"Who goes not, Un-going
Neg. Verbal noun
The not going.
Present Tense. I go, I am going.
Sing. 1
a** 80 75^4. ft, &iF> + (Sif
2
3

m.

So
*^>%)
s^SbF^sfe,

This verb is sometimes pronounced sJr*SJS)TS5ej ; and accordingly belongs


to the 3d Conjugation. This is an ancient form. But in modern days it is
considered obsolete and is avoided by educated persons.
t The following instances are found in various poems. d^^T&jr^lSg)
DRAyo. 384. jJOSSotfcTsr^gj D. R. Y. 2248. Zjy^rS&n we have seen
SprjS&a we have heard. B. VIII. 445.

112

FIEST CONJUGATION.
Plu. 1

s^SoF^sSm, is^w&a

3
3

m. f.
n.

&*#>V&, s^eT'Bo
^a [**^.]

Past Tense.
Sing. 1

I went, I have gone.


p, t^oaifT' + fii, ir*oca4-!6

Plu. 1

*83o, ^oMfyjSM, jfrSoxS

d^oe, d^oMi^eo, :ir8ooj08

w.

sfr*oi>jS>, sfrax>iS3.

Future Tense.
Sing. 1

I will or shall go.

d-*3+(&, d*e*>gfJ

1 m. /. re. J^SoS?)> S^^P, 5>-cer<?>


Plu. 1
^T^)2SsS, Sp^sSm
3
3

./.
n.

ir*63ojSSo, Sfr*e&O0
ir855ia?>) s^oS^P, r*corp.

At the town of Madras this verb is often mispronounced. For frScxnfy


2So becomes
&> a vulgarism that should be shunned. Another error
in pronunciation is, that N is dropped . thus poinadu becomes po-i-adu.
t It has been printed out in the alphabet that cSfi ya and oil ye are often
wrongly sounded and written for one another. Thus o^oSOffc poenu is written
d"*aSja poyanu and even ^oSofk and -iycSSo,

113

TO GO.

Affirmative,
8.1

AOEIST.
Negative
I go.

d*jsSb + ?fc S. 1
2
2
3 t.y^ . d^Ak, sfr*sjS>.
3 m.

P. 1
3 m.f.
3 .

Sing. 2
Plu. 1

I go not.

S^iSbaaa, d-*$4&sSs3
d*gsarfc
&*?b,

sireSi, s^s55fe1 or

3 /. n.
P. 1
statin, ^6sS&r>
2
6*85, d-esSS
3 m.f. d^c&, sb^sSeSog
3 n.
ir*s$^).

Impebative. Go thou.
^*^, ^^, ^"GiS^, d-^5*^, d*^S5^
irG"CT"s, str<g}Ksko

Peohibitiye. Go thou not.


Sing. 2
sfr3o, *S5Sb, ^T63^, dr*g6c^ (or d*&s)f
Plu. 2 ^S'oS, d*SoSfc, i^SSoJSifj, sfr*S3&.
Verba in any double consonant (V among the rest) as
navv-uta, To laugh^ 8&4j tavv-uta to dig, ^~$>$p> covv-uta to be
comefat are entirely regular. But those in single V as ifr*ji>
poTuta to go, w^t> avuta to become, vary in a peculiar manner.
Of these

forms the Infinitive in Damu, thus; Tr":Srfy>.

A few words as d*iS&x>l*Ty>sSxil (let us go, come along) are considered


irregular ; as mere exclamations.
t The form sfr*3S"^, pokuve, Oh go not'J (intensive) occurs in the Bhagavat,
VIII. 474, when Siya uses the \yord in addressing^Mohini.
P

114

FIRST CONJUGATION.

The irregular verb &oJfc*J To ' Be, dwell, stay' enters into
tlie composition of all other verbs (just as in English) and there
fore will be given here throughout.
Infinitive in TA
* ot&k
To be ; being
Infinitive in A
Infinitive in DAMU
Infinitive in E*DI

&osSu
&o"Sa.

The being

Affirmative Participles.
Pres. p||
Past p|j
Eel. p||
Aorist p||

&otx>fb^

Being

Having been
^oa^
Which was
(feo^, &o"343, &o <8b, &o"B&, 6oifc
Which is.
Negative Participles.

Neg. P|| in Z Ka
Neg. Rel. p||
Neg. Verbal noun

ekofir or 6o&o-t*=
&oSjb
&ojso

Present Tense.
Sing. 1
2
3 m.
3 f_ M,
Plu. 1
2
3 m.f.
3 71.

Without being
Who is not
The not being.

I am, I dwell, I stay.

&okop^_+ fS>, 6o&r-t- r*>


&o4-tT^gj, &o&r>
feotop^ab, &o&r>e>
feofcoi^S, &ofcooa.
^otofr^&c, &odys5x>
^otoF^tfi, *04jai
^oi77^ac', &c&p>5>
&ciz>Qi?, &okS.

Some poetical forms, are found in all the conjugations. These


are, in the Present Tense, ^ofcofr^S-i-ffc I stay, ^o&x>fT^^) thou
stayest, &o&frisks we stay. And in the Past Tense ^7^? +
ffc and &o57r>S-f- fS> I dwelt. &0&frtss5x, ^tj^ssSw we stayed.

TO BE, DWELL, STAT.

US

There are some other forms of this which are more or less vul
gar: such as ^*ok>&, &oAt&, &o6iTijj?) &ofr, &o~cs&! &o
&r3; A^j*, ^pT^J>. And, in every person, we sometimes
meet with the inelegant contraction Aots*^ ^oT^^j-and &o
;e"<> &c.
The following is used both in the present and past tenses.
Sing.
Plu.
2
3

?.

(kfT^So

2
3 ./.

6-^56
&F^>

3 m f.
3 .
^^p.
Some of these numerous forms bear idiomatic senses : the form
most contracted QV^^b, iSf^iS,
often has a past sense.
So in English " he is gone" has a past import. The form in *j*
as o&r>ffo often has afuture import : so in English " Tie comes
to-morrow," or it denotes continuance as f jJae^^o&jT'Cfi "they
dwell in the forest, but fiar* $&pJ^6 merely denotes they are
in the wood."
Fast Tense. I was.
Sing. 1
esoSS +
+p, ^o&Ty + pS).
3

m.

&o~<* -f- fS>, &o&"fX">J&

* Some forms of the Past Tense are peculiar to poetry. Thus i?)o&S*p 1 was,
5S)oS&qg) unditlm (not S>) thou wast, <3fS?v;Sa ' She wore' is written T
&*dScoiS>Lc>> in M. 11. 112.
f This form
if put as a question would be &0&3^t. But in
poems &o3"3 is substituted. Thus &*QTr becomes jS"6!? didst thou go ?
d"T>!)^8T*)
Suca. 3. 276. This contraction is used in no other
person or tense.
This is often used by poets : but condemned by criticks as vulgar. Thus
in English " beest thou" is considered a vulgar form of ' if thou be '' and yet the
best poets use it. In all languages some forms are in course of time laid aside
by the educated but retained by the vulgar.

116

FIRST CONJUGATION.
Plu. 1
6o&0c, 6c*3o, 6o5fr jSm
2
&o&08, <3c43d, <&oSirab
3 m. f. 6o&8, &o&rT'&1 &o{h q. t.*

Sing. 1
2

Future Tknse. I shall stay.


&o 'Sa + <*>, 6o"5jS
&o"3$, (fco^g,

Plu. I

^o'SSJic^, l&o'iSsSo

3 m. f.
3 .

6o"aBS, ^o'SoS
(&o'aa)t)^l 6o^j6j 6o&f).
AORIST.

Affirmative.

I may be.

6oSSbb^, Aoj&^j

Negative.

I shall not stay.

^otf^ -^^

3 m.f. n. 6oo,S>
3 m.
P. 1
<&0oS>s&v:,&ojiS
3 / .
2
AoaoSaJfij, ^oiSbSS, P. 1
&o[e
2
3 m.f. &ci>i;, ^oabOo,
3
^oLb

eaoSab, "gS
6oaS>,

These two forms have different meanings. &o&&> is 'I will


not stay.' It generally has a future sense. But
implies ' I
was not,' and generally has a past sense: P;S>j3jS denotes "I
was not here yesterday."

Thus in Pal. 227. r'XSlkn he perhaps will smite. VjfatSQhp beau


ty perhaps will fail.

TO BECOME.

Sing. 2
Plu. 1 *

117

Imperative. Remain thou.


6cb, 6oSbsS>3, ^oifesSr^, 6coao, do(occr>,
6otftf, ^OTyS, 6oJfcjSjS,6oSb-crjS>

The termination TJMTJ as in &o4fcs i8 often changed into


AMA. Thus %>os&p'3i>tyr'l> he said Remain here : the origi
nal form being oSbrfbp &c. So ^dfi^p instead of "3cs&>jSi]D.
Prohibitive. Stay not thou.
Sing. 2 ifeoSr*, &oS&, 6oS&to, 6otf SosSr &otfSoa^,
Plu. 2 6oSS"o&, 6oaJio, feofiSSoeSog, <6otf5o&.

Infinitive in TA
Infinitive in A
Infinitive in DAMU
Infinitive in EVDI

Pres. p||
Past pi|
Rel. p||
Aorist p||

&&h-f woe. To BECOME.


TT
Tr5Stfs$
ec&g&.

The becoming
That which becomes.

Affirmative Participles.
or w^jS^,
Becoming
Wa
Having become
w^g, ^43,

Which became
or wevgSg,
Which becomes.

Negative Participles.
Neg. P|| in Ka T"f or T'Sfco-GS* Without becoming
Neg. Rel. p||
Tf>
Who becomes not
Neg. Verbal noun "">
The not becoming. The forms &o&~5~, ^o^Sir) &ot&o~rz} ^oUSoh are in com
mon use as intensives; ' remain not thou, stay not ye.'
t The ancient form t9iiit> is seldom used unless in poetry, f^jej is at
pleasure written 37ej auta : hut either way it is pronounced a-u la resembling
the English word outer.

PIEST CONJUGATION.

118

Peesbnt Tense. I shall or will become, I am becoming.


Sing. 1
2
3 m,

e^&TT^+pk. >^* + f&


W>&F^.iS, *,ar'$
e^ife-^Sb, w^-^sSb

Plu. 1

tS^SacJ^sio, W^j^tSn

3 m. / eeSoF^Si, &&w&
3 n.
3b^,
[6r.]
Past Tense.
Sing. 1

I became.

tsoMS + f), tsowf^

Plu. 1
fcJoM8, tSocofysSx)
2
Woa>98, fc9oM73-Co
3 OT-/ om8, eo7T{5c>rtJo5g8]
3 n.
65-555 + ;*), WMiSji, [W3ojfr3] 0r

In this Tense we see the principle so frequently occurring that


a short vowel followed by a double consonant is equivalent to a
long. Thus
< aye' or ' a-ye' is the same as fc&g ' ayye,' which
last is chiefly used in poetry.

* The final > is often dropt particularly in verse; as "3 88, SjS^S,
f eS-c&jSi is vulgarly written 6?- cSSffc -which is wrong. And in careless talk
ing the middle N is often omitted. Thus -&r>fi-prsr did you see it is pronoun
ced -EST* 5Tr) or even -&r^$. So al^So he wasfound, becomes

TO BECOME.

119

Future Tense. I will or shall become.


Sing. 1
eawjB+jftJ}, eso&Kjja
2
tSSo?5>, WoSogJg)
3 m. f. n. o3cajD, 9S&k|, Woco-^p
Plu. 1
W6fcyesss, eo^tfaa
2
waagscftf), woSogSS
3 m. f. fofc^aOog, OoSogtC)
3 n.
e63og&|6, fcS^gP, fc5oarg!&.
AORIST.
Affirmative. I will become. Negative. I shall not become.
S. 1
e^ab-i- pi
S. 1
2
e>$sS>3
2
3 m.
3 f. .
fc9,st>
P. 1
. /. f^'So*
2
3
3 n.
There is a poetical form fc*ifcffc &c.
There is a rude inelegant form wsSeSS, instead of T"6, and
t#3ai for*5^2S>.
3m.f.n.

Imperative. Become thou.


"s^,
, 5^, >fsv>, rte^g, eosS
W^KStoo, fcS^)CT!S
ro&, rc&, fojsc, [T-oa.]

Sing. 2
Plu. 1
2

Prohibitive. Become not thou.


Sing. 2
Plu. 2

s-'g,-w*>&> -5-"SosSx, -5-SS|irb,-5-50DT


Ttfoa, -3-Soe&, -5-Soofc, r,S3&.

FIRST CONJUGATION.

120

Infinitive in TA

r<wxoJj Kalugu-ta,
TO BE, EXIST, HAPPEN, ACCEUE.
Infinitive in A
S"f
Infinitive in DAMTJ
taKStSaa Existence, happening
Infinitive in E^DI
ZSrfS).
The initial ?f K is often changed into X G.
Affirmative Partioipi.es.
Pres. p||

Sooxo* or feoxitff*^ Being

Past p||
Rel. p||
Aorist p||

5"* having accrued


tffifciS, or 5" and ?C> which was got
SQ-f^S,
rS)-sa, rtK>

Neg. P|| in " Ka


Neg. Rel. p|j
Neg. Verbal noun

Negative Participles.
ZvXf, ZvX&o-cp Without being
ZoXp or
"Which is not
"3&>
The not being. Poverty.

The Present tense is not in use.


Past Tense. I was.
SS*0-i-ji>, ZQhfr>+jS>, KSO + P, fSTf + Ffc

Sing. 1
3 m.
3 /. .

tSu + fi), rgto^aSb, TC+<S>, x|>7rSb


ZQH + fb,
5"8Ao,
)fgjSft,K0o!S

3 m.f. S*B*8, S'S^fT'So, jfSa, Xrp&


3 n.
tfBTtffc, rDftjSa, x-S^a, ?TB3>.
In the other tenses, in like manner two syllables may at plea
sure be made one. Thus
holigenu, may become
kal'genu Ac. And in like manner ^8* becomes f%
Future Tense. It will accrue.
Sing. 3 m. f. n. SG-X*P, fO^P, *MP
piu. 3
n.
ro-5?ap, re^p, re&p.

TO EXIST, &c.

121

AORIST.
Affirmative. I am, I was.
Negative, I am not, I was not.
S. 1
feuxbafc + jfc, e$>
1
"tfh
2
S"ex>!<)Sfc^), S"u^j
2
-3$
3 f.
~s&
3
. S"ewKiffc, 5"<uo
3 / . S'wHipfc, reisfo
3 yi .
S"e>x"ffib or "g>
F. 1
feuKbafcsio, feisSo
1
"gjfco
2
-gas
2 m. f. goo
3 . /. 5"x3bsSbOo, S"e>cS>
3 .
E'euifS)) re).
3 .
C'eiJC or -g.
The Imperative of 5"tw?fb4j is not in use in modern Telugu. An
example occurs in M. XII. 2. 271, where it is fuoxisio and ac
cordingly the plural would be 5"tu;coS.

The verb ^ewxbij has three meanings, " To Be, to Happen, to


Be Able." Thus : added to the Boot in A of other verbs it means
Can, and the negative ~^t&> means Cannot. Thus,
S. 1. s^KeuHisSbffc I can go. Of which the usual form is
I can go. Negative
fr> I cannot go.
2. siTVeuxoaSb, or,
Thou canst go. s^iS thou canst
not go.
3. &*Kv& He can go. d^JfeisSo she, it can go. ^"g^ he can
not go. fcfis&*"3fi6 she, it cannot go.
P. 1. d"*XeuXoafcss More usually irVeisSw we can go. r*~$sSx> we
cannot go.
2. jfr*x'MXoj>cS>,d"6x'e>S3 Te can go. zxr>&&*~$& ye cannot go.
3. &*Xe)Sls They can go. (m.f.) sroa>d-6i5SS they cannot go.
3.
Those things can go. wad"6-^ they cannot go.
These are the regular forms : the irregular forms in use are the
following.

122

FIRST CONJUGATION.

Singular. The first and second persons are wanting.


3. m. 5"ei6 He is, or was : thus
there was a cer
tain King. Negative
he is not as
he is
not here.
3. /. S"eb She is. Negative ~$<&>.
3. . 5"esS>, or S'g' There is : thus a-S^antf 5"e& there is a (cer
tain) proverb.
Plural. First and second persons wanting.
3. m f. 5"e>t& There are: as (ff_tfSjgsot8'e(S there are mer
chants here. Neg.
they are not. Thus t*o6
oa>&&"cfi they are not here now.
3. . Se& They are. Thus otfcSjf&x'eS'e# there are ele
phants so large. Neg. ~$<d. Thus taoMi6;je6~S?Jj
they are not (here) now.

S. 1

These words are used as auxiliaries thus,


iS I can
fSjfc^s&iX^ I can say
^A>^^"Sj6
I cannot say

Thou canst fr^^tfe


Thou canst say
frfi^*^
Thou canst not say
3 m. Sefc He can
sr6^ijX'e>4fe He can say

ea^S tfyCei> She or it can say


p, 1
"&> We can "iaAo^i&^tf 4o We can say
^iS&'3&ytSx> We cannot say
2
e0o You can sxrSbi3)6^>fe(fi You can say
Uart>iS^"joo You cannot say
3m.fZv& They can tr'oabTifyxviSa They can say
woefc xJ^^ai They cannot say
3 n. See They can &s>&o&r<t>
Those can remain
e>$otf"3
They cannot remain.

123

'* CAN."
g. 1

The verbs *r"euej to suffice is likewise used : thus,


xr"e>i8 lean
^fc^aSyJ"
I can say*
'fifr'fityxFoiS*

oewe& Thou canst

say
fc&ijAjS'ej Thou canst not
7srab5&tf ^tufli He can stay
8<Sotf xT")iS) She can
fcsa^joSCToofS It can
vr*6$ott3"e>c& He cannot

3_m.f. n. vrmjSi

p i
2

I cannot say
6 Thou canst

%j*tc>dao "We can


CoiSbCo Te can

stay
*s>$)o!tS*>& She, it, cannot
"&>*s":3^*J,,ew&S We can say
"aSi^i6yEre>iS We cannot say
a^oVa*yJ,'tS>* Te can

e9-Bo^a&ya*>& Ye cannot
3 m./. CoJ&cS They can wo&^j*,jrM&8& They can
woa6^i6ij^r3 They cannot
3 . ^refj They can ead^xreuft They can go
ed*xi*w^ They cannot go.

The verb "^a&tf>ej or


S. 1
^3a)+ia,

to Can, or " be able" is thus used,


+ & i can. TfcV^i&l*
I can say
^fSj^S^^tffi I cannot say

73c?>Sc>*,

"^o-

Thou canst. ^^afcypSsSg)


Thou canst say

The initial iJ* is often changed into ST". Thus "]jS>:3a&jsrtwSsj!&.

124

FIKST CONJUGATION, " CAN."


>jx56y^tf3> Thou canst not say
TTafc:S^'^8S^3i He can say
fcS&T3iy^S'^S& She can

3 m.f. n.

wfiaj6yjS^i& It can
^j6x3i6j"^tfeSo He cannot say
vttAtfSe s>

She, it, cannot say

P. 1

"^Oogbsfoo^ ~$&e-iSx> "W"e can. "4s tj^s&j^oE-s "We

can say
"j sS^33^"^tf8S "VVe cannot say
^SoSoCSb) "^tfbe-oo You can. O^So^is&^C&So Tou can

say
Sji.Bo'aa&y^tyDli You cannot
3 m.f. l33o8o3o, ^c&bS They can. ^o*3^l3c&Bc> They

3 n.

"jS^*

can
woab^^^oJfi They cannot
They can. WO'B a^TS^S* They can
wa^^y^tf^j

say
They cannot say.

The reader may think the rules tediously minute regarding the
first verbs of the first conjugation : but the great difficulty of the
language will be removed if they are thoroughly understood. The
remaining verbs are treated with more brevity. The termination*
being entirely uniform, those of a single verb will suffice for the
whole language. Thus in English shall, did, should, &c. are. uni
form in all verbs, but they vary in the root.

SECOND CONJUGATION.
This contains verbs the root of which ends in <s& YU or c8u
YYU which is changeable into or
Thus ^<sSm*j cheyuta or

SECOND CONJUGATION.

125

33&t> chesuta to do. Isp>cj&4j or L*r%*J to write. yScSfisgk or IjS


&^k> to split. cSagia or
to be fatigued. Either form is
used indiscriminately.
Some verbs of two syllables have a liberty of being spelt in two
ways. If
T is single, the vowel preceding it is long : if dou
ble the vowel is made short. Thus ^cs&Aj cheyuta and S^cJ^ij
may be also written ^cJfcgi) cheyyuta and 6"*c8Eogfc>. The Inf. in
A ^<*6 and S^aA become T3c3g and S"<s6g. Thus the vowel
followed by
YU is either long by nature or is made long by
position.
All verbs however have not this double shape. (j>Tcs&>ij v. a. to
write is distinct from lSc3*o y. n. to split.
Yerbs of this conjugation deviate from the first conjugation ;
for when they take the affixes beginning with the vowel g) I to
make the past p|| or => E* to make the future tense or S Eu to
make the aorist p|| they change the syllable ci&> YU into & SU.
Thus from ^dSSa "to do" comes
having made, ^"^Bfk I shall
or will do ; ~$^f> that does &c.
They can likewise change at pleasure the cJfi: into fc> SU in the
Infin. in TA and in the 3d pers. sing, of the affirmative aorist.
Thus t3cxSx>4j or x3>k> to do and tScj^JS) or *J;3oi& he, she or it
will or, shall do.
In the affirmative aorist and imperative the usual terminations
are added to the root. Thus from t3cs& comes
and
ScSMeSJSM. Or, changing cSx>> and cs6> into & and # ; thus
x3&bf& and ^tfsto.
In verbs of three syllables of this conjugation, if the middle
syllable be ) I, it is changed into \) U in one shape of the affir
mative aorist and imperative : and in the Infin. in *j TA. Thus
from &&cxSx>te to be damp, makes *Sc&waS>;> or JJfcJfi>? and #5
csoari or eJs&tfiSw and S4dKM?> or eJcso f6ofS* and tf&coajij or

126

SECOND CONJUGATION.

In the Imperative the root of verbs of two syllables changes


into . Thus from t3cS6j comes
or Eowg do thou. In
other respects it presents no novelty.
The present p|| is formed by adding
to the root in U as ^ csfij
or by changing cs&cB into
Thus
doing. So also in
the past tense "$1>$?,
I did, thou didst, become ^_*?>, ^
&c.
The letter S being pronounced ts as ^dtfijiSb cheyutsu, these
letters change places in forming i3 chestu.
The letter S is written either c1 or *, ~V or at pleasure. And
as the initial frequently is softened into or
the word ^*
(having done) may at pleasure be written
35j> or "f>?>.
Some learned men wish to discard 5 (the santi-sacaram) and
substitute the ft (or sulabha-sacaram) in every place : but this is
a refinement that never will generally be countenanced. Some
places alone of the second conjugation admit the (santi) T where
as all may use the ^6 (sulabha). A few accurate scholars who
wish to exclude # (santi) altogether declare (with the grammari
an Appa Cavi) that this letter ^ (Siva) ought to be used in Sans
crit words alone. But in the common mode of spelling some
places admit one letter, some the other, and some both : this is
unobjectionable : and is countenanced by the oldest manuscripts,
and by nearly all the soundest scholars : for even among the
learned a few alone wish for any peculiarities in spelling. Tho
difference indeed is as trifling as between the French words
avait and avoit ; allais, and allois ; duaii and disois ; and the mat
ter deserves notice only because our native instructors are apt
to dwell much on such trifling points and condemn the use of the
(Siva) $ though themselves use it daily.
In apology for this inconsistency they alledge that all persons
(themselves included) are in the wrong and they urge us there

SECOND CONJUGATION.

127

fore to write in a manner which has no advantage to compensate


for its peculiarity.
The following, as well as the other verbs which belong to this
conjugation proceed according to the rules given above.
fedS4> or fe&tJ
to take
sir*dHSo*j or &*;&>*j
to pour
r'dt&t) or r'&t)
to cut
*&soofc> or "2SA>4j
to bhrow
~&><5&3&> or "fcf&>i>
to graze
tsudKooij or <*t>jSto
to become fatigued
ajtf dt&ii or
to gleam, lighten
BoOdtfisto or HoOc^ofcj
to rain
c&d&>t> or kSo^o*j
to fear
f DdSotj or fJO/&*J
to mix
k)Dcj3co*j or wtM$)i>
to grow.
And :Secsk>*j or ts*>&ti which denotes (in Latin, debet ; in
French, il faut,) Must.'
Roots.
Chey, cheyy or ches. Eoot of "SctfuiJ, ^3<s&gfc> or ^^i> To do.
(Facere.) The vulgar spelling ^T"efij4j or Tes6>i must
be avoided, though in general use.
Coy, coyy or cos. Eoot of S^ccki), sr*dB3og*j or r'&ij To cut,
(secare.)
Poy, poyy or pos. Eoot of sfr'caSato, fifdtfijgli or
To pour
(fundere.)
Talay or valas. Eoot of 3>cflfc*J or
(Debere) to owe :
whence sSc>jsa must, ought, should, as "Ctfo^jiS you
must come (debet venire, il faut venir.)
Tady or Tadus. Boot of
or OSaj&to to be wet (madere
in Latin.)
Dayy. Weary tfd3a*ji> or &fc^b> To be tired, (langueo.)
Vrayy. Split (jScsa^ij 0r l^^tj To be broken, to split, to be
shivered (Dissilio.)

128

SECOND CONJUGATION.

The ancient grammarians might have reasonably defined the


verbs of the second conjugation as ending both in T and in S.
Of the verbs here given the first three are quite regular.
Valayu 'must' is irregular. The neit 3&csoi> is slightly
irregular and the two last are peculiar in changing TT into SS
(thus l^ctSu*-> to split p|] U^f$) whereas other verbs though they
use
at pleasure, do not use SS. Thus ^csoi> or r'csftjgtj
to cut : p]| r6^ never
The conjugation will now be given at full length, although it
uses precisely the same terminations as are used in the first con
jugation : the only deviations are in the radical syllables which
have now been given.

Infinitive in TA
Infinitive in A
Infinitive in DAMU
Infinitive in E'Dl

^aofc>, or
To do
t3c<6* or vS<36g
iScsSiiisSx),^ ^ScSS^SsSm Doing
^"fift
The doing.

The roots in J?DI are made from the termination in S alone


thus
ljj-^a, sJr6"So.

Pres. p||

ArriEMATIVE Paeticiplis.
^dSwtiafj, 3& or ^Af^J.

Past p||
Rel. p||
Aorist p||

^* or
Having done
or
Which did
^"?), xS^iiS, 3-?i5,3 TJSo, or ^csfc "Which does.

Doing

* Vulgarly spelt Tdt a form which we must avoid. Thus jT'cBSoXejSl


TQ&t&otX) &c.
t The student must be aware of the common erroneous spelling, wherein
^d&liiSxi^d&ito^d&p are written ECdfiSlfa, 'uT>cCcoej,!vrci3ifo, This
must he cautiously avoided as well as the similar vulgarism VdfiSo, T"c&
i) Ac

TO DO.

129

The shape x3i^ is in daily use: it is contracted from tStiSii


& which is used only in poetry.

Neg. P|| in Sf Ka
Neg. Rel. p||
Neg. Verbal noun

Negative Pabticiples.
tSdSjg", ^dS^S" or ^csssSSots", ^dSJgSSoS
^<s6p, ^3c*Sgp
t3<*6o

"Without doing
Who does not
The not doing.

Pbesknt Tense. I do, I am doing.


^o&M-fc-^-j-p&fj, ^AiF^+fi, or

Sing. 1

>

2
^dSoTS-pr^g,
or ^]iriS
3 m. ^dtswajfT^JSog, 'S^jf3-j1aSS) or
3 /. n. ^cs&jOajSje^ 'S^^, or ^Aofi, [^^60r^

The second and third of these forms are in common use : the
first is peculiar to poems. The forms appear very numerous:
but in fact are merely different modes of spelling.
Past Tense. I did.
3f + P, 3_ + P, 3?>p* + #,or:*f*7r- + jS>,

Sing. 1

m.

^fyafa,

[*^*ab]

3 f.n. ^"?) + fS, ^(5 or ^|>ofii, ^;$6, ^3o6


Plu. 1
^d&>, :S|>pToi>3) 3^So, [^VAo]
3 !. /. ^'^8, ^f>F8o, or
3

n.

3>~$&,

or 3^3.
B

[^^cc]

SECOND CONJUGATION.

1,30

Putttbe Tense. I will or shall do.


Sing. 1
3"?ja + j&, ^iijS), T&Sfb
2
3
Plu. 1

^ -?>,
/. . ^"?'&?,J
iS"7)StfK,

or ^p, &P, 3^>j&


^"Isfaa

3 m./ ^"^ISo, ^3"?>0o


3 .
^&?), ^i>j6, ^P, ^IjD.
It will here be observed that * and
are used at pleasure in
the past and future tenses.
AOEIST.
Affirmative. I do.

3 ./. ^csaMj&g, 3&;3


P. 1
2

iScHijefcOo?), t3oOo

Negative.

I do not.

S. 1
^cBSffc, ^d*g,S
2
^dS^, S<Sfig)
3 m. "^dSaS, ^ad&^as
2 f. it. ^cS>>, ^=sfigs&
P. 1
^cSfiiSxa, 'BcBSgJfoa
2
*5dS83, ^dtfigOo
3 m. f. '-SoSSSa, ^SdB^Oo
3 . ^dtC*, ^cJfcgiSj.

3 ffi. /. ^c8x>fC>, ^Jfceo


3 .
^d3^>( ^&;s>.
Some other forms are rarely used : these are ^$i>f&, rS^i&>^)

Sing. 2

Impebative. Do thou &c.


tSom, xSowgj xSdBojiSMg, ^<*5oS&')

Plu. 1

T3cS5a>B!SM) t3tfsS, ^3wsS

TO DO, TO WRITE.

131

Prohibitive.
Sing. 2 ^dtfS", TSdfegS", HScsfisfc, ^BdtfgSo, ^c&soSto, ^dBoSs^g
Plu. 2

x3d*ifoa, ^(Sfi^roa, ^dSjS3S, ^5dS55oi>, t3dSS5o&,

In all these, the long vowel followed by a short Gya may be


changed into the short vowel followed by a double consonant ey-

Infinitive in TA
Infinitive in A
Infinitive in DAMU
Infinitive in E^DI

^ct<s&*j, or \j!*M>

To WRITE

l_src*6

To write
The writing
Writing.

Ajtibvatiye Pabticiples.
Pres. p||
Past p||
Rel. p||
Aorist p||

UP*1^ or l?r^,f%L
or

Writing
Having written
Which wrote
Which writes.

Negative Pabticipi.es.
Neg. P|| in g" Ka
|_=r<*S' 0r \ct<s6SSot3 Without writing
Neg. Rel. pl|
\_ar><s6p
Who writes not
Neg. Verbal noun \_srcSa>
The not writing.
Pbesent Tense. I write, I am writing.
Sing. 1
iF-jk^-f-*, L^S^+i*

3 / n.

Iw^oS.

zsi

croons 'KOLivtmfiioo oj; aum

'sT^arTl G^^Tl

auiog aaqqo sauoj

9JB jCflBiioiSBOOo "pasn snqj, cp.copcJ2~|

'Sd+e^

^<J^i + sf [<s,j&*ttl]

nia:

/'tag 'o!g<^"l

O^-cH

isiaov

g y M

CSJCSP^TJ

TO WEITE : TO BE WET.

Impebative. "Write tliou.


ljp*30c,j ljr':SSMsS, l_sr-d!&sr>, [r,cSSjay)

Sing. 2
2

133

. (jr0S5oS, (jr-dtSooSSog, [*r'CiSx>Ol&j (jarcio&.

Peohibitive. "Write not.


Sing. 2 ljTd3jf)ljrd35SS) ljrcS5j55^!,L5r<SG^s5r, ^ciSj5oSir,
Plu. 2 \J3-<SCS'0&, Ijfd&Soifcg, ^cSi
(^oSjSo^g,

Infinitive in TA

^ScKxii), or
To be moistened.
8&<*6, 3"e s5
8SbSjjS( SS:SsSx>.

Infinitive in A
Infinitive in DAMU
Infinitive in E*DI

Pres. p||
Past p||
Eel. p||
Aorist p||

To get wet.

APFIBMATIVE PaBTICIPI.ES.
8ad&>Sb, OSo^j or &&&&&

Being wet
Being wet
5J5f>iS
Moistened
*i>, &i>*3, &"7>3, ^a-?)*) 0Scs&.

Negative Paeticiples.
Neg. P|| in r Ka
e&dsr, Stfasf
Neg. Eel. p||
8&<&f>, &p
Neg- Verbal noun
8&eKto, {SeS:s&5,
Peesent Tense. I am wetted.
Sing. 1
ti^^T^X+fr,
2
OSo&nr^g, go^$&
3 f. n. sa&^u^a, &s> 4uoft

3 m.f. ^a&^jF^S, asso-^ss


3

tfefc^a.

134

SECOND CONJUGATION, TO BE WET.

Besides these forms others are occasionally found as, i* aas


Si'jT^.f ffc, dScSM-ab pr^iS &c, which appear in poems.
Past Tense.
Sing. 1
2
3 w.
3 / .
Plu. 1
2
3 m./

I was wet.

tfa?>s, a_^,
[oa?*]
aa-^+ffc, aa?>or<>jsa[aavsi]
tfa-^+so, aa^jsa, aa^oo
a?>aj)o, aaj>;, aajj^jj^ [b&vab]
ca?>88, tfa_^a, ts&^p*t&, [av<&]
aa?>a, ea?>T^(S>, [aa^cfi]

Future Tense. I shall be moistened.


Sing. I
+
e$a-fbffc
2
^a^a^g, aa-*.
3 m.f. n. aTbap, a a-i& tfa^jD
Plu. 1
tfaUK5Sx, aa-^jjin
2
sauss, ^a"f>c&
3
a?)!s8o, a-*iss
3 .
aa-jia^g, aa-fip, &&%p.
AOEIST.
affirmative. I am moistened.
Negative.
S. 1

S. 1
2

#ad8a>fc, {foe*,

P. 1

adSi + iSlb, affaS +

2
3

3 m. f. n. aacsfc>j&, aab^ffc

ad*^, asa
m.

3 /. . #adS3SSb, tftfsSfia
e$adSSfa), 8Ss5jS

2
aacs&sfcaog.aasosoSo,
[aaT&)8o]

&'5=sj*,

aa<s6cs3, assso

3 m. f. 8&c&&, aaass
3

3 n.

aaoSiiSog, ti&sStSo

#acS5kefcsS, aafco
P. 1

I am not wet.

n.

ScS5'j$, Btfss.

TO BE WET.
Impeeative.

THE VEEB MUST.

135

Sing. 1

Be thou wet.
&03oosSx, S4*>$Sjtf, S&cjKxjsfcrg,

Plu. 1
2

8ScSfc!fe=, 8#otfSx>, iSc&-&<c


ascKioa, arfoa, eacainsag, tfjfc^sog,

Pbohibitive.
Sing. 2
Plu. 2

S^dSS", dissSS", tfacSSSo, #s5S5, e&cSSSosfe>, #s5S5


sS,adSi5SsSr) SS$S5t$r., &adKi&&^. <3&;$&SXr
ef&csssca, ^assroa, dacssj&o, $sss3c( ^acsssGo
>, gssssob, oacsisoag, 8ss&a.

rfudafok or

' MUST, OUGHT, SHOULD. ' This verb

is a defective auxiliary and has few tenses.


Past p||
tfe><?
Bel. p||
tfe>$!$
Irregular Neg. Eel. p||
^ei^P, "oP
3

Sing. .

Past tense
^8fS> or sSf^iia

3 Plu.
n.
sSo^a
Affir.
aor. 3 . sSocssi^
Neg.

aor.

3 ft.

It must
They must
Must

3e>5Sfik, sS<b, s5b Must not.

To understand this, it will be useful to consider the verb in


phrases. ^cBSsSejS^afep what should or must be done. t&c&Tr'p&p
what ought not to be done. ~zr>P is the neg. p|| of sstfv^> to come3Ar^ciS>3e>ffjSa (you) must do so. wfa^cSi-tT'iS) (you, he) must
not do so.

13G

THIKD CONJUGATION.

THIRD CONJUGATION.
The Third Conjugation contains such verba as end in > <;u or
ecu, as woi&t) to rear. sSopj^O'dbAj to excuse. *6&.otS5*j to
examine. "SjtSj^*j to approve.
Some of these are verbs forming the causal in gotfc incu or <ju
as ^^>^ to bind, to build : S"*3o<>ij to have it bound, get it built,
^Jcs&jia to make, ^omoOjAj to have it made, get it done, cause
it to be done. ljraSo4j to write : (p^oajotfoi) to get it written,
have it written.
Nearly all such verbs as are borrowed from Sanscrit or Hin
dustani, as afaS&ockii to try, S"^otS4j to contrive, SSoiX>i> to
compose, SjO-jvaoSfcej to adorn, 5Tocoo-tfb4j (from Hind, ba
nana) to fabricate, -^oafoMotkAj (from Samjhana) to pacify,
belong to this conjugation.
These form the affirmative aorist and imperative either accord
ing to the rules of the First Conjugation as "^oiftjSb J shan rear
and ^o&tsi&z let us rear : or by changing
and
into So
and S. Thus ^ifS>, "^osS.
Verbs ending in double
likewise change the a and 3 into
& and Jj. Thus 's-SS^afcfs> or ~&>&>$> I shall or will approve;
and 'Sj^i^JJsSvj or "&> J|sm let us approve.
As many verbs in this conjugation make the Infin. in A and
the imperative in a peculiar manner they may conveniently be
arranged in five classes.
I. Tjofct> To rear. S&otfck to divide.
to owe, oSot&fc to
think, to reckon, "tnxkfcj to rub.^"*^^ to attend, e -Sikto ima
gine,^ think. KtXiiJ to scrape, to scratch-ek""**)^ to weigh.
*-> to increase. "ajt&^ej to approve. wl**S^*J to say. ?6*fi^> to
string (pearls &c.) li5^** to break in pieces. S^ta to settle. th*
tw^ij to burn. T3-Sie"Aj to join. So&4j to think. sK5o^*j to change.
ro^*J to join, to sew &c.

THIED CONJUGATION.

137

These form the Eoot in A in the usual way according to the


First Conjugation. Thus "^otf, 6otf, wtf^, <W, rr-^f^^ &c.
II. Other verbs form the Boot in A by changing "5& into TA.
They use VU in the Imperative. Thus,
itlooi Ml .4.
Imperative.
*.
K
(
\ 1
"\
~*ewi5bt> g^tui, r'esS, or r>^,

Serve, mea
sure
conquer
grow
stand
cry
call
bite
walk
suck
pass
weep

none
P*Z,

PS

SSSbsS, SSs>, So
none

Verbs of two syllables.


TS^, "iS or "3 rise.
Verbs which have three syllables in the root as fctutkij to call,
sSot&abtJ to forget, etfci> to love, 2>Sotf>4j to break, use at plea
sure either A or TJ in the middle syllable, thus these may be
written S>e>t>4j, p&tfsfck, :Se)tf>i>( 3tf
Accordingly if one form
is not found in the Dictionary, we must look for the other.
III. Some Verbs make the Eoot in A, in i$ or sS at pleasure.
Thus,

&Sat&4o or

,
-&otf,

In/In. in A.
-A
-&MSsS,

<S*aS-J5ai>
*j, feaoff, (S4^,
;5ev&i>, or |So^*J, ;SeMtf, i$e>^,
3

<*s*b:S,
jSex>o5, jSe>^

s
To draw
sweep
crush

THIRD CONJUGATION;

13S

Infin. in A.
churn
grieve
thresh
Loo
bear
ervyp, s"W, s'V, ^55,
bore
east
fesS
blow
These make the imperative either in
or
at pleasure.
Thus -&j-iSj&), or -^a^>s2>sfco, but more usually in 3> alone as
*, plural -&$o&.
art?

They form the JRootf i' Damn in the usual manner, adding it to
the Root in A. Thus -&6sSasS, -&i%Ssfc>.
IV. Some make the Eoot in A in either
Thus,
sfcjB^otf or kf>jod&
"8 I otf, fS$ os6

to
In the Present Participle these use either

or

at pleasure.

To forgive
count
bless
deliver
double
yawn.
or
Thui

The same change takes place in some parts of the Affirmative


Aorist : as sSbp^ptfca&fb 0r P^p~4)t&fb, ~3_oJ&>&&>, or T3%_oi&)
Also in the Affir. Imperative, as S>^p-BosS, or jSo^o^IsSb.
V. Irregular Verbs. These form the Root in A, the Present
Participle, the Imperative and the Root in Damu in peculiar
ways.
Pres. Pari.
Imp. Root in Damu.
A
T7^ 1&X>
Come
a
bring

"TO EEAE, INCREASE."


Pre*. Part.

139

Jotjj. JRootf in Damu.

give
die
enter
none
"p?!SjS
pain
Bee
ao-tfc, ao^i), sous ss, soi6;
tear
count
place
*ot5oti>
divide
string
scratch.
As examples of this conjugation, the regular verbs "^otSi*j to
rear and s&>p^oi>k> to forgive, a:8&.oiS>t> to examine may be
conjugated throughout as follows.

Infinitive in TA
Infinitive in A
Infinitive in DAMU
Infinitive in E'DI

Hoi&fc
~%otf
"Sotf&!S
"So^a

To EEAE, INCREASE.
Rearing
The rearing
That which rear*.

Affirmative Pabticiples.
Pres. p|| ^otfcgb or "^o'&'BafxV^
Past pll "^a
Eel. pll "^0 6(5
Aorist pll
Xo^*3,rS>oi3a,^>o:3aoJ",&o<S>

Bearing
Having reared
Who reared
Which rears-

Negative Pakticiples.
Neg. pll in ?f Ka
wotTS" or "o155So-ra Without rearing
Neg. Rel. pll
"^oiJj&
Which rears not
Neg. Yerbal noun "wOtf
The not rearing.

140

THIKD CONJUGATION.
Pbesent Tense. I rear, increase.
Sing. 1

Ijo

3 m.

"^>ocS5^r,4- j&

"^otfcgi-jr^as, "SoOs's^JSo

3f.n. "^oabSbjS^a, "SjOCSoSooS,


Plu. 1

^.oiSiSoTT^diD, "aoifc-^sfoj

3 m. f. ~oo&-prLoS) "^o-Efc-^ffi

Other forma such as '^o-cfc-vfci'js^jfc &c. are occasionally found j


as noticed with regard to some verbs already explained.
Past Tense.
Sing. 1
2

I reared.

tio&Q -f jt>, "&ofi-(T+ ffc, PSoxT'-f j&]


"Soaaa, SoCfy^j, ["wotT52)]

3 m. tjo'3+pi, T)oe-?r's6J [~OvTfib]


3/. n. "aoaisa, ?,oos.
PlU. 1

"SOjtoj "wOOfJ'^O [^OiysSM]

"aoasa, "Sioafr^iS), ["S/o^oo]

3 m. f. ^oaa, "woe^ss [ wo^&j


3 n.

"^o^ffc, tioajSS).

Futitee Tense.
Sing- 1

I shall increase.

"SolSjSj&g, "wo^ia*

3 ./. . wo'aSj&fj, "So^p.


Plu. 1
"wo:3!$) 'So^is
2
"2jO'SjsCo) "wot3S3
3 nt.f. "ao:3c5ci) "5o^0o
3 . ">Ox3S|i>> ^)oOf>.

'TO PARDON.1

141

AORIST.
Affirmative. I Increase.
Negative. I increase not.
S, 1
!io-&>i> + jS*, T10S0 S. 1
2
3 At.
3 m.f. n. "ao-J&jSi.
3/ . wOiJiSb.
P, 1
Tjo-Jkfifcsfco, "Sos&jSm P. 1
2
"wO-SSiJSotfi, ^SoSbOo
2
3 . yi "5>o-S>s>c>, wOgbCo
3 fft. /. "wOiJSS
3 . ^oi&ja*.
3 . 'wOtygj.

Sing. 2
Plu. 1
2

Impebative. Swell, increase.


to-Os, "wo-t&sSB, 'wO-Sbsr, "So ->&&>
"ScrSSaadtoS, ^oJsS, wO-ik-ra'jSw, "wC^sSm
"wOtSoSs, ^wO-Sljfcg, 'wO-&>00) "^ok!.

Prohibitive. Swell not, increase not.


Sing. 2 "SoOf, "SotfSS, ^otfS5a( SoErSosSr-g, ^>oe;&5st.
Plu. 2 "SiO-croa, "S>OTj55b, "Sotr55o&b, "^otfSocig.

Infinitive in TA

^p^oiSHa

Infinitive in A
Infinitive in DAMU
Infinitive in E*DI

rfb^iS or s&|9jo<6
Efc^oijtfsSw
s^r^o^a

To FORGIVE,
PARDON.
To forgive
The forgiving
Forgiving.

Affirmative Participles.
Pres. pll

s&j^psfcxkjj, sSb^o^JiSig, jfcjOjo-j&gi, jfc^oi&so^oS)

Past pil
Rel. pll
Aorist pll

Pd^1^ Porgiving
sfc^oO
Having forgiven
s&^ofiiS
"Who forgave
*&PjL0^> JSbfep^, s&^Xo:B&, ^^o^aafcg^jB^o^
Forgiving.

142

THIED CONJUGATION.

Neg. p|| in " Ka

Negative Paeticiples.
^^otf5', 5&r)a.oi6s'i or ^P^P^o^, &
^oa& Soots'
"Without forgiving

Neg. Rel. p||


Neg. Verbal noun

Unforgiving
The not forgiving.

Pbesent Tense. I forgive.


^^ofc*i^+i&, ^^o^^ + ^,^^^)(j^l+i&,.

Sing. 1

&P?%P,
;&Pjptfao, sfcj&^os&sto

m.

Plu. 1

aoj^oiSaSb-i^iS), &.pjOxbw&f ^l&S^j*, &

j5b (S^O i32 Sbpr^jS) i3b jb^0ifc'3""J&0)

j&JB^^; f3^s<bDj

Besides these forms, others are occasionally found, thus ^ jo^_o


Efcifcj^&j s&p^oi^iSj-Fr^i* &c., which appear in poems.

Sing. 1

Past Tense. I forgave.


sfcfs^o&o + p3 sk,p>&-pr> + jS>} jS)^ ftp, [;S>^oa' +

3 m. sbTSP^ + rb, &p^oS>-fr'i&


3/. . ^^.0^3
sS^o^ sSbjbjoOoS.
Plu. 1
&Pr>tQSX>) iSijCjOOtJ's&Oj ;So$^
[sSbjD^otJ'tfjo]

3 .

sft^oBffc, iSoj&^o^.

'TO POEGIVE, PAEDON.'

143

Putuke Tense. I shall forgive.


Sing. 1
sfop^o^es-f jS>, jfc^jo^jS*
2
sSojS^p^ae^g, sfcp^o^
3 m. f. s>p^p':3cipJ sSojO^c-fcjD.
Flu. 1
sfcp^pB
sfcjOjO'^ &>
3 m.f. Jiol^p^BOog, Sop^O^Cci
3 n. sfcp^o^aptj, jsp^ofep.

Affirmative.

I forgive.

AORIST.
Negative. I forgive not.
S. 1
ss>PjloiJiai)sSb]D^oa6*
2
jfcp^otfsS, sfcpjjLo*^
3 ot. Jkp^otfss^Kfcp^o^s&g
3f. n. sfti^pTjJSb^^oKffj&g.
P. 1
sJojS^OtfJto, sfo^o6

3 ./.. jfcp^otfcjfc.
1
jfcp^OtfCX&sfosg, sSojb^o
^4) i sfai ,8ft
oSS

2
s&PjOijSS, rfol^0*jf)
3 fft./. sSjp^Off*), KoP^oSfctfg
3 n. sa&ptf^, *S>feoa6).

e>0o( sSbp^ojfcSj

3 .

Sing. 2

Jfc&oibfk
Imperative. Pardon thofl.
s*'?*}?'*, s&PjiOiSi)*o, s&p^ctt^sfesg, sSoP^oCb^g, sSi

Plu. 1

ribJjOiS>tf tf, sap^c^KsSMg, jS>P^,Ot5oi5'!&c>) Sop^olg)


-G5*jS, Sbpc>Lo85o) s>pjLo'3n,s)
P^7^'S]

E&p^tfo&, sfcp^o^oS^ j&p^o-dcaS>, j&p^c^jaso^ &


p^otfc&g, acp^c^jl.

144

THIED CONJUGATION.

Sing. 2

Prohibitive.
sSo^oa&r, ifcjBjoiJSS, sap^ij&SS, s&^ptfSo
SS, s3b^oi6So6, s&>[B>LotSSSs*>) rfbf^Oj&&jSj|)

Plu. 2

s&J&jptftfo&g, s&)0^pa6E'oa) ss>j0^otfSSb, jfc?^oi$

Infinitive in T A
Infinitive in A
Infinitive in DA MU
Infinitive in EDI

Pres. p||
Past p||
Eel. p||
Aorist pi|

a&S&otf>ij
To TRY
afeS^-otf or i6Si$m3<6
a&6&offiSn
The examining
a66 lo^e
Trial.

Affirmative Participles.
afeSoLotjoso, <66&t6j, a&S&oifcSo^, afcSJL^ifSi^
s6S&-oO
i66^oS;S

Trying
Having tried
"Who examined
afcSoLo^tf, a6&.o3a, a&S&orJ&g,
i66&.o-Efo, Examining.

Negative Participles.
Neg. p|| in S' Ka ^S&otfr^S&oiSSoo-ci.* "Without trying
Neg. Eel. p||
*6i>-o-f5p
Untried
Neg. Verbal noun i66S>-ot5sx>, ;S>.orfiS
The leaving without
,

Sing. 1

trial.

Present Tense. I examine.


^S&oifcgaiT^-t- ffc, j66^oiS5-3'f3i) S&6i.^)fr^L+3aJ

'TO TRY, EXAMINE.'

145

Plu. 1

*6 JLoxfeso-fj^sSo, a&6^-odowss, ^SJLt&f^sSm, s&


6vS).Tiro s5,

a&6 JLoki(T'ci8oJ ifcSJLoeb-^tf^ at6i>-i6)7r^'5S) a&S

3 m.f. i'SJLorSbSoTT^jSj, *6i-0-a()-BP6, afc5i.-^-(3^LCfi( sS


0

Besides these, tbere are some other poetical forms. Thus


dLoOH&p^iS), *6<S>-ov6)-i&-(T^liSol &c.

Sing. I

Past Tense. I tried.


&6oLooa + p, afrSJLo +
a&6J>_?> + jt>, r^S&o

3/. . afcS&.oS-f
i 6il> o^a, at6<^oSoe.
Plu. 1
^6<l^oa^,*6>S*oa]T"fS) it6i>. J)sxi, [s66>Sxox3'jio]

3 .

a^JLo^ffc, afc6JLoffl;S3.

Sing. 1

Futuee Tense. I shall try.


sfc6J\oi3eSfS>{j, <66oko^iS4

3 m.f. n. ifeS^o^Spg, *SJL0ap.


Plu. 1
^JLo^aaxg, *6ii.o^*s
2
*61>-o^2Kcf.) l^&o^Oc
3

n.

a)6ifcOT3a|6, iJko)fc
T

THIED CONJUGATION.

146

S. 1

AORIST.
Negative.
Affirmative. I try.
6&OiS>S&.f (S>, HtSjS. 1

I try not.

3m

P. l
2

3 n

Sing. 2

stSoLoSsSn, <6oLoi6
ss=
St6<^o?5C5o)s66iKOi68c>

>.
Imperative. Try thou.
S;65KO-E5b, 8&6cS>-Oi36si>3) ^SoL-OT^sfe^ rf)6<I>-0-ESosScrgi
s66<Si-o^)s5j, i6&.otf>s*r, s6&.o^S)j-.

Fiu. 1
^y-wf&o, *6>i<-o5oS, 8&6JL.o-^*sst sb6&--^o5S
j&goLotfoa, e6&-oioa, afcS^ocfcJSsg, a&SoLo^yaS^

Sing 2

Prohibititk. Try not thou.


^6iSkoS'> afrS&.oss&S', *6JL0-rjSo, ^oLos&SS, !&6gLo

Flu. 2

*65xoijs'oi, <6&.o)6roa, afcSJLotfgosso^ t6JL.oi

147

to come;
Irregular Verbs.
Infinitive in TA
3^t>
Infinitive in A
"c^
Infinitive in DAMU
-u*$ti<ix>
Infinitive in E'DI

To COMK

s^.

Affirmative Participles.
Pres. p||
Past p||
Eel. p||
Aoriat p||

jSifc^Sjl, 55j^,

Coming
Having come
"Who came
i^,a^4S, 5J3^a,tf ^efc, ss*^ Coming.

Negative Participles.
Neg. p|| in Ka
Neg. Eel. p||
Neg. Verbal noun

t^S", "t^Kio"^
tJp
~^^>

Without coming
Which comes not
The not coming.

Present Tense, I come.


Sing. 1
*4>lTb.+lb>
+&

3/ . i^^S, ssAioft.
Plu. 1
iS^7jr^jS, ^^Su
2
^r^L&, rf^C&
3
sSt6TTJjO&, :S^c>
3 . s5 ^<%ls,
The longer forms already noticed are seldom used : such as 3tf>^
^W^fr, Z^&T^tb. &c. The forms X4$> thou comest
are erroneous, We must shun the gross vulgarism
of ^tt^ij voccuta.

THIED CONJUGATION.

148

Sing. 1

Plu. 1

Past Tense. I came.


^ + ^a^ + ffc, [:5^rfc]

Sfi^Ssk, sJjSj, S^^r*^ [sSct^^J

3 m.f. sso^e, 550^*, [3^*]


3 . i5^f&, rfs^s.
Future Tense. I shall come.
Sing. 1
5S^k + ffc, sS^ffc
2
S^e^, ss^<g>
3m.f.n. S^&F>, *^f>.
Plu. 1
s5'3^e5sSx, s5^sfo>
3 m.f. Si3^cs;-, ss^cfi
3 n.
%?ip, sb^p.
AORIST.
Affirmative. 1 come.
S. 1
:Sfc|3i
2
iS&S
3 m.f. n. sS*>^r&.
P. 1
sSSosfca

Negative. I come not.

S. 1
2
tt
3 i. tpJ^
3 / . ttS>.
2
sS&Oo
P. 1
TTsS
2
t^es
3 W./ 5^So
3 ./ -CCS
3 n. S>^iS>.
3 . tr>$.
The form s^fk,
&c, is wrong.
As already noticed the final NU is dropped at pleasure. Thus
&*ixx>$&Tr shall I go home (lit. shall I go and return, a phrase
for ' Farewell') is generally contracted into ^ax^efe-* the last

vowel being elongated.

TO COME, TO GIVE.

Sing. 2
Plu. 1
2

Imperative. Come thou.


"o\ a*,
e toj .
^ j*5^, H^sSxt
eo&, BrypS, tfoc.
Prohibitive. Come not thou.
tt&, t^&s>-, tt3jSp>, -cr"S)^,
-cr-ro^ TrS6Sb( tp>Soo3, -cSo&g.

Sing. 2
Plu. 2

Infinitive in
Infinitive in
Infinitive in
Infinitive in

149

TA
Bl*^ or <xo^t>
A
St^, S)g, -^o&,
DAMU 3jsStfto, ss^S sw, -^cBiJ55&>
ENDI B\^a

AFFIRMATIVE PARTICIPLES.
Pres. p|| si^^g,
3^1%
Past pj| 9,Z
Rel. p|| 3)0^
Aorist pj|
t^*3, si^SS, q^^f, S*>;>

To GIVE
To give
Giving
Giving.

Giving
Having given
Who gave
Giving.

Negative Participles.
^Soots", s^SSo-gs*, &
cssr,
Without giving
Neg. Eel. p||
s^p, sicsfigp, -#p Not giving
Neg. Verbal noun s^^. zi,<&Sx,
The not giving.
Neg. p|| in " Ka

Present Tense. I give.


Sing. 1
s^^+i*,
+
2
st& TTjjj, at*-?S
3 . B^i^Jfc, Si^nsfc
3 / n. S>^>
3) ^) oO.
Flu. 1
st&T^an,
2
Si^T^*, Sljfr'SS

TH1KD CONJUGATION.

150
Phi.

3 m.f. Sl^T^L*.

There are also the forms e^tfJFUi* and ^tfj^fr^ffc.

sing, l

Past Tense. I gave.


*ey+p, ssj^+jB, ^a^-pro-t-r^, [s^*]

3^a,

^tt'SD, [qtr^ifi]

Flu. 1

SS(^QS,

Sfi^s&j, [^CT^&a]

3 m.f. 3(0^9, ^^F"CS3, [83^*]


3 n. V^fb, e^yia.

Sing. 1
+ i&, Ei^i*
2
s^ag^, si^53>
3./ . e^&P, s^P.
Plu. 1
8(^K8SJ3, sj^s

n.

aiap, S^P.
AOEIST.

Affirmative. I give.
S. 1
e^ + iS*

3 ./..
+
P. 1
2{{&3b3
2
s)*5S
3 m. f. s*&
3 .*' ai^i*.
There is a form ^f$,
: but this is wrong.

S. 1

Negative.

I give not.
s\d*^iS>,

P. 1

s^S8*", si<*2t,

ast^es, 3<*,

3 ./ q^*'

IEKEGULAE VEEBS.

Sing. 2
Plu. 1
2

151

Imperative.
3{o^, s^, ^*^!S, sicaM^fao, si-J&igsS^, or
3
82>,4.
aj*Soa, ^cSgoa, 3otf>, -&cV>Sb,

3}csfcgifi) q

ct&a.
Pkohibitite.
atsS5^, ^S*- ^S***!.

Sing. 2

e^r>

Plu. 2

Si^5"0*, sicufgS'oa, sS^s5efe sicS^&sSbg, s^So&(

The principal parts and tenses of the remaining irregular verbs


of this Conjugation, will be given, with a few phrases to assist the
memory.
UtSy^t) To bring. Eoot ~tb, as"^"^^ he did not bring.Present.
"3*^*Fti + fJ, S^F'.i
"35*+!*; Aor.
&c.
Past "3SjjS + f>, "3ai-?r> + fS>, "3_?> + f>. Imperative "3, "3sfet,"3oa.
Neg. "S>*>.
St-e&^fc To give. Eoot
;
as ei^"Sfo or id"sa he did
not give. Pres. 3*^*"?^+
3^1^ +
Sj^+;ai. Aor.
ssig +
Past 31*^8 + p, si_^-f P, s\ayfr> + jS>. Imper.
3*%
Kiss^oS, [-&oi.] Neg. sfs^a,, sjcjCgiSfc, -8*jd. Past tense v,Q~i<&, or
BldSSg^sfc, -8*"i3e> he did not give.
aSfS>\* To come. Eoot "a* as Tr"5e>a he did not come. Pres.
S^Oa fircj_fS>,!S;Ai
+ ffc. Aor.
4- fS>,
+ ?*>] &c.
Past sSS^O + IO, :Sj!> + ?>. Imperat. -a*, tfsS, KoSo, tfo&( [tt>o&.]
Neg. ~cfb. Past tense tt
i5-iS^t) To die, expire. Eoot tT", or ^*sS as tT5$"^S> he did not
die. Pres. 5J^iS5fT'^fc, t6j P^Sa , C
Aor.
-iJ-S^iS
&c Past tfa^a+jo,
+
iS^-^-ri^,
c^i*.
Imp. *TS>, t3,4>sS)%t5S3o, O'^oaj o^a Neg. xyrf/fc.Wrfsfc.

152

GENERAL RULE.

iS^iSjvij y. n. To enter. Root -iS^tf as arsSith. pres. iS^e^ta


TS^fog, tT iS^SolJ^* or ir*-^afo. Aor. -iT0^^. Past S^S^S + p,
jrc^-i-flb, ,5^vT^+
xT*_^ + jD, Imperative -iS^Bisto, -^tfoS,
Neg. %r"3o Past tense ^TtS'ii&.
"^>iSj^*j To pain or ache ; this being a neuter verb is only used
in the third person ; as, it aches, they ache, "rw^^, Root
"Skt5S,
aa "^>.)^l5& it did not ache. "^wssS" without aching.
"^wexiSSiJ to speak painfully Pres. ?^^r^,~^^}';5>Li?,"?>i>
^jofi or vulgarly
Plu. "^tS^Sofy* &c. Aor. !Jo'"^iS>,
Past Tjo&^S,
Plu. l&oO^a. Neg. "rw^
sSttS>4j To see. Root -tSpJS as -ir"5"3<S!> he did not see. Pres.
sr-&rT'<jL+r&, -tfr>]~n> + fS>- Aor- ^Sj-"*^^ 4- pS>, xSr-b + sS> &c. Past
iSj^aS-t- ?>, -;St0 yr +
-iSr-^ -f p. Imperat. iSr*J<-, iSr-iSoSias, iir*
np'j;r"1 0r,2oa, i$rjSi&. Neg. -iS^ii'fSi, iiTd(!jo.

GENERAL RULE
The affirmative and negative relative participles form the basis
of the tenses and will be best understood from examples. In
these we shall perceive that the Affirmatives end in INA and the
negatives in AN I.
First Conjugation.
sold
To sell
p unsold
who played
play
unplaying
sing
sung
unsung
become
done
undone.
Second Conjugation.
Do
done
cat
cut
pour
poured
"must" sScj-SjS
be wet #4*?S wetted

undone
uncut
unpoured
unwetted.

153

PASSIVE VEEB.

vtfcij To
fcew-iki}
SewtSoij
-g tfc^ii
&8fcci&4>
^ooootiiiiJ
do&&j
iotfcn
^oti3t>

Third Conjugation.
T"*>iS boiled

boil
call
love
bring
die
have called
have done
place
bend
count

s5o*j5
Uo^iS
ija^iS

Ttff> unboiled
Zititip uncalled
called
s$e)S5j& or
loved
lip
who brought
xT5p undying
dead

e^ofi^

sSotf?
^otJp uncounted.

reckoned

PASSIVE VERB.
The Passive Verb is formed by adding a&efcij 'to suffer' to the
Infin. in A of any verb ; the initial P being softened becomes B.
Thus from rio^fc the passive forms are as follows,
a&oioi> TO BE SENT.
Present tense
1 a&oa&MJfcSoF^X+i3* I am sent
2 *&oaSSb So73^5$
3 m. dJoa&waagoF*,^
if. n. HboS&BabBajSjft &c. &c>
Past tense
Future tense

1
1

Aorist
1
Negative Aorist 1
The Imperative

*o!6S8 + Jb, <6o^SF + i>) atc^u^^-^>


I was sent
afroa&w'3ffc) aSoS&M^fJ* I shall or will be
sent
<6oa&Sofcj
rfso^wSffc I Bhall or will not be sent.
might be formed on the same mode, but it

needless in the Passive voice.


T

154

CHANGE OF CONJUGATION.

As *
' to fall' baa already been conjugated, we need not
here give more than the first person.
Some intransitive verbs can at pleasure adopt a passive form.
Thus from &o4So4j < Be' &oSw"Erb (a rustic phrase) he was, &c.
So in English, we say he is gone, he was gone (which are Passive
forms) instead of has gone, Sac? gone.
Some parts of the verb
to be heard are commonly
used in the active sense, as 8 ;5w&oSo
I am heard, a;S*>&Op
I was heard for Sofcop^i/k and 3o*3f> I hear and I have heard.
Further details will be given in the syntax.

ON CHANGE OE CONJUGATION.
It has been seen that the verb
to fall is the sign of the
passive voice in all verbs. It belongs to the first Conjugation and
accordingly in the passive voice all verbs fall under this conju
gation.
And the causal voice ends in cu. Accordingly whenever a verb,
whatever its conjugation uses the causal voice ending in cu, it
appertains to the third Conjugation.
The verb Ijst'csSm vrayu to write is originally of the 2d conjuga
tion ending in Tu : but its passive is |_r,cibAj which belongs
to the first Conjugation and its causal is l_p-<xotfc which belongs
to the third. Accordingly verbs are merely distinguished as end
ing in cu, yu, tu &c. without any note of Conjugation.

MIDDLE VOICE.
The Middle voice is formed by adding r*frb to take either to
the Eoot in U, as has already been conjugated or to the past
participle. Thus rio^r*^ or afeo^r0 j&k.

MIDDLE VOICE.
~&>ti as meaning 'To take, or buy' is a regular verb.

155
But

as an affix of the middle voice it is in some places irregular.


Some verbs use the middle voice ; others (as in Greek) do not.
In those verbs which use it, the conjugation is uniform.

Present Tense
Past Tense
Future Tense
Aorist

Examples.
1 &ci&) or a&oSj^c&o-pr^ + fr, s&o&r-ofa* + j&
1 *o>6 or <6otr*o43j!>J a&ofbr" fS^jS*
1 *<^ or a&ofcr^ssfco, a!)oir"^i&
1
or a&o?>r,;S)s>;&) &o&S~o&fr.

And all other persons are in like manner conjugated as in *


T&Vfbki to send. The form &o\>~& pampi-conu is rarely used.
Verbs in the Second Conjugation form the Middle voice with
SU or f> SI but not with cS YU or <* TI. Thus 3;&r*ffc*j 0r
^6~>k> to do, L^rkr'ffcAj or ir.^g^fi*j to write, never ^
Further explanation on the mode in which the Middle voice is
formed and alters the sense of words will be given in the Syntax.

THE CAUSAL VOICE.


The Causal Voice is made in various modes. Some verbs have
no causal. The simplest mode is this ; QoiSs jncu is added to the
Rooting. Thus from j6o^)4j to send, ^o&ot&ij ^0 cause him
to be sent,
v. a- to build becomes "<3o-&Aj to cause to be
built,
v. a. to tell, '3&^oiS>fc> to have it told, ^^^> v. a.
to beat, 6"63oiX>&> to have (him) beaten, xSdtfioij v. a. to do, *3
oMoi&k) to get it done, 6"*<sk>*> y. a. to cut, S^ouoifck to have
it cut, Ijst<so4j to write, ljroMOiS)4j to get it written, E^dSot>
to pour, ^ooao4j to have it poured, "^csfe;k to throw, "3coot6
*J to get it thrown, S9-#ci> y. n. to play, 63-&otS>fcj y. a. to play.

156

CAUSAL YEEB.

In English we often use the same verb for both voices : thus
thfoto is to turn, v. n. as s>j? <4B it turned: and 5fc&otfbi> v. a.
to turn, as ^j^P I turned it, <S-<S=*j to play, v. n. 3-&oikt.>
T. a. to play.
Some verbs in GU make the causal in *k cu. Thus "T'XoA)
v. n. to boil, t,t&*j, to boil, v. a. ts*XsI> v. n. to hide, t&tS>Ij
v. a. to hide, jrHbt v. n. to weigh, &r>-&tj or &rfcoik&> v. a. to
weigh, -prosit} v. n. to extend, stretch,Tji-'-&>4o)-(5-&otf!4j)to stretch,
extend, S4*^ v. n. to swing, S*iS>*J v. a. to swing, S>t>Xo4j v. n.
to break, Oootfcij v. a. to break, sS ssik v. n. to bend, ssotfcij y. a.
to bend.
Some verbs are contracted as follows :
Ci5>Xii> v. n. To tear, -OoEfck 0r ^4j v. a. to tear, sks/fctfi**
v. n. to sink, so->4> y. a. to sink, to drown, ~
v. n. to
grow, "'>oi5a*j v. a- to increase, Si?fc?6i> v. n. to break, &>c-s>Aj
v. a. to break, sot> v. n. to descend, 8o*4j or So^)*j y, a. to
take down, ~%&b v. n. to break, "3 0
or "3o^ 4j v. a. to break.
Some verbs change Xo GU into ^) PU. Thus,
tsBE>*o4o v. n. To pass, ssSo^f)*J or e8ftoxk*j y. a. to carry on,
"B!&Nii> y. n. to be tamed, "S>Sb^!)i> y. a. to tame, 8&Xok> y. n.
to turn,
v. a. to turn.
Some verbs in
DU, & EU and <*> LU add
Thus,
t$riSot) y. n. To fade, be scorched, tSri>TS>Aj or t&nt^^k3 v. a. to
dry up. ct'iScAj v. n. to fade, wifci> or *r^k to make fade,
jgps&ii y. n. to be buried, sgpabifciJ or jgr^4o y. a. to bury. &*
oo*j v. n. to change, tSr*SSi5ai>, fert>^ij or srBo^i)4j v. a. to change.
^Co*j y. n. to arrive,
^Sb^i> y. a. to join. &J-**j v. n. to
be extinguished, e*-8o-&fc, es-cJV^, or 9-coi4)&> y. a. to extinguish.
greot> y. n.to sink, &rex)t&4j or Sbn-ejo^fa to ruin. Truo4J v. n. to
burn, T'ewtfoAj or T*t^ v. a. to burn. S'saifo v. n. to move, 8"
etxt&ti, 5"t^*J or 5fSojfc> v. a. to move. Trwto y. n. to flow,

CAUSAL VERB.

157

fall, TrettfciJ, ttm^*j or xre^)4j v. a. to make fall. "6ei;fc>


to float, "5ewiS>4j "tkw^4o 0r "3o-ukfc> v. a. to make it float.
Some verbs in *6 DTJ, iS> NXJ and

YU are still more irre

gular. Thus,
aS4j v. n. To be loosed, aaoafc>,

atfc^io v. a. to loose,

afcSfc. v. n. to fall, S&stfctj to spread, Pct&to T. n. to fill, PoiS)fc>,


Po"4)^> or po&OTibi) v. a. to fill,
make visible,

v. a. to see, S"p*>o-Sb4j v. a. to

v. n. to say, wp&o-tk&j to make it to be told,

Sfl>*j v. a. to eat, Sp&oiS^ to cause it to be eaten, a ?>4j v. a. to


hear, apfcotfcij to recite, zi&ci&>*-> to fear, eafco-E&k to frighten,
BoScJ84j v. n. to rain, S56t>otk*J or KSSooooSbiJ to pour, 'ajtfcsSx>i>
to shine, "Sjtf ?jOtS)Aj make shine, sSr-cs&iJ to be foul, sSt^)4j to
dirty, "SadsC-ok to graze, "^o^)4j or"^&oxSi> to graze cattle,
er"iS>*j v. n. to rise, "iaewr'eWc^iJ v. a. to awake.
&oo4j v. n. To be, forms in the Causal &o&i> To place.
Thus ^otSoAj, $oi5SsS, ^jo^Sb, igjoa, 3^. Neg. ^oiJp. middle
otibr'i&fc). ^OT&r^sSJJsSM To keep.
Some verbs in *& cu change * into S>otS> pincu. Thus skr-T&to to
weigh, er?>oi5bk> to have it weighed, &waA-> to call, Sj>fcoCfci>
to send for, "&a\*J to drag, -^^otS)^ to have him dragged, sSe
*S>fc> to love, ^eiioi&ij to enamour.
Those in ^ $qu are thus formed : "3*^ to bring, "3
&^ctt>&> to send for, ?i5^*-> to give, s^otbfc> to have it delivered.
But others are irregular. Thus peusktJ to stand, V oj?^4j to
stop, "St&4i to rise, ~t^)t> to arouse, awaken, &^>i> to see, i*r
t4)^> or r-fco34o to shew, O^*" to die, o^*j to kill or tfofco
to have him killed, sS'^Aj to come, 8S.^o-c&4j 0r Taotk<j
to cause him to come, ^tf>^i> to increase, egoist) to have it
increased.

158

CAUSAL VEEBS.
Ok Monosyllabic Boots and their Causal Forms.

"T That is 5S^> ' to become' forms in the Causal ir>&o&l>t


-B-SoiJSsS, Taoa, too^ meaning to effect, make, perform.
But this verb ~5~aoiS>4j ig only used in poetry.
rr That is sStti^ < To come,' forms in the Causal es^oifcij, ts
-S* That is

' To give' forms in the Causal s^otfbij, q

j That is

' To bring' forms in the Causal HS^oflbto, "3

Those verbs that form the causal in, INCU or & CU are of
course included in the Third Conjugation,but those that form it in
other terminations, are placed in the first : and various verbs take
various forms ; which indeed are generally placed in the Dictionary
as separate verbs. Thus ~dfo&> v. n. to break, "3oiS>k> or "So^aj
v. a. to break, &c.
The Causal tenses are formed exactly according to the simple
verb "^>oiS>*J to rear. Yet it may be useful to conjugate one re
gular verb throughout.

Infinitive in TA

afcofco-ffcij

To have it sent, cause it


to be sent

Infinitive in A
a6oSotJ
Infinitive in DAMU &oS>
Infinitive in E'DI
< o & o 3 a .
There is a form <o?>oi6 DUt it is used only in verse.

Pres. p||
Past p||
Eel. p||
Aorist p||

Affirmative Participles.
a&oSjo-Ebrfcg, ^oko-Sago^, s)ot)^)^_
a&ofcoO
*o*oOjS
abofco-a, a&o&o^f 3, S&o&o^Sfj, sj6o5.o:546) &c5>o

CAUSAL.

159

Negative Participles.
Negative p|| in Ka
riofcotf 5" 0r a&otoOSio-w
Negative Rel. p||
^ o S o p
Negative verbal noun
<6o2>orJ.
Present Tense 1
^ototSbgbT^+fji, a&ol^Tr^+ffc, *o

3 m. *ol)Oi3b8o-i3^aSb)a6o4) A'fr'jlSb,s6o?)^oSo
3/. . i^o&oi&gifj^ a&ot^Jj^S, [s&o&i&ioa.]
1
a&o&oSS-)- jS,
+ p,i6o,ofi-yr +

Past Tense
Future Tense
Affir. aorist
Neg. Aorist.
Imperative sing.

a&o&otfcsSc/s^ a6o5)08bj&.
a6oS)OUiS>.
TSo&oifo, j6o&oiS5sSa3, a6o^oss5j, 960

Plu.

Prohibitive sing.

2
2

)6oJ)Ot5oS) a6ot)0b{fe, a&o&otfclig.

Plu.
i6of!>oSo&.
The various forms here omitted are the same as those used in
the verb ^ocfcij < to rear' which is already conjugated.
The Middle and Passive voices are as usual formed from the
Boot in TJ and in A. Thus a&ofco-Skr'jfck, a>os>oijwj6fc> and
these are conjugated like S^f'Aj and
On IjT"sag j&aew Rustic Phkases.
Some forms used in common talking are considered vulgar.
Thus fcSSi^ for fces^F^ifc I will call him. This contraction

160

COMPOUND TENSES.

is equivalent to the English ' J7J give it ;' 'you're going:' 'he'a
coming :' which rarely occur in writing. Learned natives (though
they often talk thus) wish such phrases to be excluded from a
Grammar : but a foreigner requires information regarding them.
They are in daily use, even among men of education, and also
occur in some poems.

ON COMPOUND TENSES.
Having now gone through all the various conjugations and the
irregular verbs, it is requisite to notice Borne forms which are ap
plicable to all verbs :some other forms will be noticed in the
Syntax. Indeed they all appertain to the construction of senten
ces.
Compound tenses being formed from a pronoun joined to a re
lative participle (thus, he who was, ^oi^ar-jfe) these forms are
some times used.
>o&iSw&i!S> 'Iwas.' Lit. 'I am he who was' ^>oh$m&%i
' Thou art he who was' which by contraction as already shewn
become ^o&7T^)) o&jr$) I was, thou wast.
The following are the compound forms of the past tense and
are similar to those already given under the simple verbs. The
negative affixes are applied as already shewn.
ArriHMATIVE.
Masc.
Pern, and Neut.
S. 1 ~fifii&o&$-zrS+ ffc I am he who was 1 rj5$>&o&$Tr>$ + &
I am she who was
2
>#)oajS'sr'$
3 m. srafcsoajSCTs.
P. 1 m. f. ~0aiSx>'&o2i$zr>tS tSsa
2 m,f. cr>tf^oS^u-c)
3 m.f. sr&$O&jS sr. Bo.

2 $$&o&$s>&
3 wa^oa^s.

COMPOUND TENSES.

161

The neuter has no peculiarities. ^S^oa^S it was. t?soS^a


those things were.
The first and second persons singular have a feminine form bor
rowed as usual from the pronoun. And in the first person sin
gular the r*> NTT as usual may be dropped : thus )0&jS-cy>;$ -|- ffc
becomes S&oSjS-cj'jS,*
And instead of the Rel. p|| the aorist p|| may be used. Thus,
in the Mahabharat (X. 2. 275.)
&iSf>fre)i>\K&>&-zr>VsSx>
we serve (him) and live.
Or by adding fc9<>sp &c, the following compound tenses are
made which are in daily use.
Masculine.

Feminine and Neut.

S. 1 ^iS)SjoS^sr'SS2Q + !()ora"fy, + iS>l"^fi$oS^-cy'i5^D + p


'^#j6}=T-(2s+ P &e.
-^fS>^o5i5'cr"^l8-).jo
2
3
P.

1
2
3

P&$)C&$in*ti-pd3>
^iS^oSp p>13 t^iS
. Sf^oaf5r.eS^>g + ia
oTsi5gioftiS-srSoc)j (T4S3
m.f. "&S^joa^P'8'^82o
SS 55)0 3T8"<^ 13^ aS
m.f. Ot^OoiSoai6c!r'2sa
OtCSS o & jS sr* "8 p7 oj
./ sr8oiSoai6sr"88

^feoa;5T3'^203
|b^oSiiT3'}5'3iar4S
3/. . e>)OajSKSV>g +f&
t*^jo&(5"C5,So -f- f3.

3 . Waoa;SsS^ + fl
tsa^oa ;i -5rSb + (&.
* Examples.Aniruddha Charitra, Canto 2, stanza 112, the
heroine Usha says ^>$>oZi~$p&x>g'&fi,rSjyy>$ Ever since that
day have I remained thus. Again ^p^jSyQ^^dSop^o^-i^z^
Pjl I always laugh when I (fern.) see her. This is similar to the
use of the feminine participle in Greek; A4>APriASASA x"P<*v
AvanptovTOf avTov.

COMPOUND TENSES.

1G2

Negatiye.
The two forms ^oS-fr" ji> or &tPS> ' I stopped, stayed or dwelt'
and "S^ffc ' I am not' are often combined thus,
S. I
$&tfoafTjavjS> I did not stay.

P.

S.

3
3
1
2
3
3

m.
/.
m.
.
OT.
.

.
f.
y.
/

rgc $ (?^b TT^ iSo


fSigjoajia vafc.
~&>sba&o&-{y 6xs~'gxi
S)cr'i3cioSpr,So-ff-c6
r0Ei^)oaF,,C&'5-33
fe9s^oaiia-5->').

Or by adding
to the Eel. p||.
Masc. I did not stay.
Pern, and Neut. I did not stay.
1
"7jS>Oo&F>Er &-<r>&>
1 ^ffc^oa;6-c5'fSiai-r^>

3 to. sr-fo^joaj6CToSS3T*.

3 . fcS63)4?>>^<&.

P. 1 m.f. "&>sSK^oaj6srff jS-rSo


2 m f. txn>&&o&$*r'&r>&
3 ./. 73-Cf>^jo&;6BrCC>-S"',(3o
3 W. W3iSoafSS)T-.
These forms are literally I am not he who was. Thus resem
bles the idiom used in Prench. Ce n' etait pas lui qui l'a dit.*
* Some propose the following forms : but they are not in use.
Mase. I did not stay.
Pern. I did not remain.

-$&>0&p-sr-&~TrfSa

"^fS>6oSjBtT"^SjO

p$$op~r>iiS&

p&%)olipT3$l3fr'$,

COMPOUND TENSES.

163

The termination in N (P or #>) as already noticed is dropt at


pleasure, because the letter N occurs so frequently that it is not
consistent with harmony: which is primarily considered in
Telugu verse. Even in common talking it is often dropt.
The syllable a VI (Waa3,_6o4Sa) which terminates the se
cond person singular of the past tense, is often dropt.
Thus in M. 1. 1. 174. ^c> is written for 3f 8s> and this fre
quently occurs in common talking.
The negative aorist is sometimes compounded with the verb
<is$)k> to become, in this manner. This conveys the sense " I omit
ted to stay," " I failed to stay," &c.
S. 1 -ffr&og-gQ + p (or)
2
^$igjoJS2ss> ()
3 m. ri>5*)0#aks-|-(*
^p> So S ts^cSj -f i& (J)
8/. n. wa&oasa^ + rfc
a o a -op So -|P. 1 -&>sSoS^8S)o (c)
2
Otr8ofeoJS2D8
3m f- -sr-OS^oa

1 was not there

"31588

(a) Thus Si^Qa Surabh 1 14. 1*138 Balram VI. 278.


(J) -^jST^-raoSork (Katam Kaz, page 494) he was not in sight,
pe^-sr'cfcfk Radha. 3. 103.
(c) The compound form "SjoSf_"guao occurs iD a stanza of the
Vedanta Rasayan describing the appearance of our Lord to the
Marys after the resurrection. This poem is described in the
Madras Journal of Literature (July 1840) in " Notices of some
Roman Catholic Books existing in the Telugu Language," page
55.
a'rf^S c^^555s5cp>Co2S/a.tfc5ji)j6sSxi'So

164

COMPOUND TENSES.

3 n. a$oS5Saa.f;S> (d)

-tXabg+fr

These are all conjugated like the verb


to become, but the
sense is negative.
There is also another form as ^o^i^^fT^ife he is about to
send.
The verbs kSoi^JAj to send, ^&csuii to do, "^>o**j to rear &c,
take the same forms ; and these forms are applicable to nearly
all verbs. Thus,
1st Conju.
2d Conju.
3d Conju.
1 ;o!S&2a+P I did not send ^.<X>13b + P I did not do ^>osT3&
+ p I did not rear
j6oa&"383
thou
^dsi"3S3
tiotfasa
o
a
a
s6o*6653g + i3i he
l&css>i&
+
^.ofisa^ -f j&
*oa&Sjg-f fit she
^ctfiSog +- ffc
"wotfaoSog -f r&
Or else
or
or
i6oi-c5i>ofc> + ?J ho
*cs-cF'ak> + js>
'tjoiJ-cr'Sj+iai
a>Oi6-ra*a3-)-rJ she
x3dtfi-!T6fc) j&
"aotf-GPSj-i-rfc
&c.
&c.
&c.
Some pedants assure us that jfio^^sp is not negative but af
firmative : ' I sent.' But this is absurd. Some forms are also
mentioned which we may reject as wrong, such as ^oa&^^f3*
T"fS> I did not send. Those who advocate such phrases ought to
produce proofs of their assertions.

Herefrom (Js>=Ki_*j to adore, L?!f_|!o&sx> is tee omitted to


adore.
So in G. X. 158. !65"^iGaoS^rS).o^Tr6"?>oS' &e>6fc> (Ko^O
(d) In B. X. 10. 391. *6f3rro3ex>a^s56fc>r- the word
of the hermit did not fail.

SYNTAX.

165

BOOK FIFTH.

ON SYNTAX.
Optimi ad vulgus hi sunt concionatores, qui pueriliter, trivialiter, populariter et simplicissime docent.
IiUTHEB.
Nobis prima sit virtus perspicuitas. Qtjihctiliajt. Till. 2.

The Syntax uses an arrangement of words which is common


to the Peninsular languages (as Tamil and Canarese) but entirelydifferent from that of Sanscrit and that of Hindustani.
The Telugus are a people quite as highly civilized as any in
Europe : occasionally their modes of speech resemble those of
Italy. Thus instead of 'Sir you told me to do so' the phrase is
ssiS ^(SkiabjO (S"e-7reb *t> oaafi^tfi (this do saying lordships
order gave) My lords (plural) gave me directions to do this.
When the Telugus or Tamils speak 'English, the syntax they
use is Btrange, because they think in their own language : and
in like manner in speaking their language we cannot without
taking much pains use the correct syntax. The Hindus, even those
who are uneducated, are generally quite correct in speaking their
own language ; and certainly never err in number and gender, as
the English often do in talking English. The dialect used in
Telugu towns is somewhat corrupted : that used in the town of
Madras is objectionable : for Madras is a Tamil town : but in
retired hamlets the language is'spoken very purely : and the style
used in Temana, the Lila, the'Tales of Nala, Hariscbandra, and
Abhimanya ought to furnish a complete key to those niceties of
Syntax which daily occur in speaking and writing.
Sentences or paragraphs run into one another as is the custom
in English Acts of Parliament: being linked by past partici

166

SYNTAX.

pies (having so done) or gerunds (by so doing) instead of verbs


and conjunctions : thus instead of he arose and went the phrase
is "^oir6ooo^sSb having arisen, he went: or else >3&jSoa>i$;S_S>p
hy (his) calling (me) I came, that is he called me and I came. Thus
resembles the Latin Gerund.
"When a long paragraph is composed of several smaller portions*
it is often requisite to reverse their order. Indeed in a long in
tricate paragraph I have often been obliged to read the first line
or member, and place the translation low down the page ; the
next line over it ; the third above that ; and so on until I reached
the final member, and placed it as the commencement of the Eng
lish paragraph.
Numerous instances of this may be seen in the Telugu Reader,
and in theWars of the Rajas.
From the peculiarities of the southern languages it is hard to
translate into them from Sanscrit, or English, without a very
great change of arrangement.
In poetry and in ordinary talking (as happens in English) the
order of words is sometimes reversed : and the arrangement used
in the poetry of the one language is used in the prose of the other.
Thus instead of GriSrn>poa$y>j$Gs the lady gave (it to me) we
hear ^^^S^s-^p she gave (it me,) the lady. For 7T8^o6
S6^F**fc my brother is come &^TTt>'tr (S&s^ *6 he is come, my
brother : 3"g^S>|f_rS> tie him up, the dog : which would correctly
be SSS" fhte-Zka,

ON BRIEF EXPRESSIONS.
Telugu like Tamil and Cannadi is as laconic as English and we
collect the meaning from circumstances : thus s;^?* " Give
say" means tell (him) to give (it to the man.) Or it may mean
desire (them) to give (you the things.) trpf^p^&^d ' come let
said they,' that is, they said ' permit him to come.' fSQ adj. cold i. e.
* See Langhornes observations in his preface to Plutarch : on
that author's lengthened periods,

BRIEF EXPRESSIONS.

167

' It is very cold.' ss S fever i. e. he has got a fever. ^L? sic horse !
may mean, I want my horse; or the horse is come. 5fsr leave ?
that is will you permit me ? or may I go ? to which the reply may
be
yes. wa&xpjf sS Error ! i. e- pardon me. >Tfi&(jicss*s your
favour ! meaning thank you, OT^wgtfo I entreat you : thus a sin
gle noun or a short phrase is often used in speaking to convey a
sentence, In the ordinary language used in letters, the style is
not difficult ; but the spoken language is often obscure, because the
natives often use a single word or a short phrase, perhaps aided
by " suiting the action to the word" a motion of the hand, head
or eye ; which are not easily understood by a foreigner. Indeed
silent motions or (fc^iScSisk:) gestures often convey the phrases
" I will come ;" " quite impossible ;" " I do not know" " he is
gone" " admirable" " shocking" " tall and thin" " large and fat"
" he is gone to eat his dinner." These and many other phrases
are conveyed in a manner perfectly intelligible to natives.
"With peculiar gestures the single word a&oifcx' ' a feast'
denotes To-day is a feast day and I request permission to go
home.*
But in writing Telugu letters and statements such brevity is
not used : indeed the style is often verbose and lengthy. A pri
soner or witness often gives his statements very briefly : which
the clerk will write down in a diffuse style supplying dates, hours,
ages and numbers according to his own knowledge.
Even in written Telugu the brevity of the dialect often makes
it obscure : thus es& T5^r<*^^^-(ff*<>Lr'ti6"& 'Let come if say
anger : go if say anger:' that is, ' If we call (you, you) are angry ;
if told to go you are equally displeased.' ^*^foi6otx3po-Dr>T7'(Q
5" o^asfco ' now day full, night little :' i. e. At present the day is
longer than the night : This brevity often renders it hard to
translate with precision.
In the comedies the following phrase is common fcs^a&-cr;&
Co^&o'^5S>fS>*"f5nc<^i (Sugriva Vija) Then Ramachandra spoke
* See the remarks made by Montaigne in his apology for Ray
mond de Sebonde ; where he quotes Plin. N. H. VI. 30.

168

SYNTAX.

as follows. When a speech commences thus, the phrase ^P^B&j


tT'tSi is sometimes omitted at the end.
Pronouns also are not used so much as in English : being often
omitted. Thus (p"*^
I have written (it.) a&o&'p-'&they gent
(him me, it &c.) sjejj<a ?w
he sold (his) house, ^oo^^r*
"P^jSfc he cut (his) finger: but when they are expressed they some
times convey a doubtful meaning ^ifcsp'poajeufcsa^-jy* t& he sold
his house, would mean that one man sold the house belonging to
another. !<i\ti&a'r,6'^-&> (I) want (my) horse. Literally horse is
wanted.*
The numeral " One" (as one book, one horse, one o'clock) is
generally omitted. Thus ffoej-fia&^f _yr*t& he came within an
hour : Cx-^om one rupee : 6r'd*ojSj8 one rupee and a half.
The verb 6oofc> To be' and
' To become' are frequently
(as in Hebrew f) understood and not expressed SSas o
eMS&fJ^Bci by leaving out the verb ft9-"ajSoSoo&&jfuj To her
how many children ? that is, How many has she ? sr'Sk^^eA
he who i. e. who (is) he ? t#BoL&> it what i. e. what (is) it ?
they where? i. e. where (are) they? ^^"Sso your
name what ? i. e. what (is) your name ? s^Sfra this (is) mine'

* In ancient English of Henry Seventh both articles and possessives were omitted. Thus (Paston Letters by Fenn Vol. 1 p.
445) eaSh of them embraced [the] other in [his] arms. This is
printed Ech of them enbracyd odr in armys.
In the English Bible we find the words he, him, I, me, we, our,
she, her, they, them, printed in Italicks because wanting in the
Hebrew. And these may also be omitted in translating into Telugu.
The accusative case of nouns also is perpetually omitted : and
this also is a Hebraism, See Exod. XVIII. 22, the burden. Judges
V. 1 1 , inhabitants. And in like manner the auxiliary am, art, ia
are left out. See 1 Samuel XIX 22.
t_Thus in St. Luke XVI. 15. that which (is) highly esteemed.

SOFTENING INITIALS.

169

*a5osSe9-dSS3jSy^e>s we (are) his brothera. qas&oaa this (is)


good. e*&tsspox>e this (is) his house. ssiStStJjBa this (is) his.
-rS?je)"rSf isg) a beggar will love her brat. Lit. The crow's
chick (is) the crow's pet. &o&f>v>o2>$*nt&iso&)a he who has
slain the boar (is) a hero. t>8^s&o0^rsfe he (is) a good man.
Elsewhere the verb understood is "
which is the root of
fc?g>*J. |>oi>73r.woa& these (are) my people. -^*^?ft9-d6^oMO*5^
S)oj> there (is) a feast in his house to-day. "^^ wo5 to-morrow
(there is) a marriage. The verb which is understood is w^Sboa
from
to become.

On Softening Initial Consonants.


This has been sufficiently explained in page 41. Other words
use this change only in poetry.
And even in poetry it is a mere matter of taste as in English,
Governour, Saviour, behaviour, honour, favour &c. may be other
wise spelt Governor, &c.
Accordingly even in transcribing poetry or inserting a word in
the Dictionary the soft or hard initial is often used at pleasure.
Thus d*o poi or JS^cxo boi;
9am or
zani ; * f^.kannu or
Jf
gannu ;
tokku or <S"gi dokku ;
or "3*^. This is a
matter of small moment. The learned assert that all words have
such license : but this is not correct : and as regards Sanscrit
words the initials are softened even in poetry tfo\js is sometimes
written o\es but sound scholars usually shun such an alteration.

Conjunctions.
The conjunction n&j, nnu stands (like que in Latin) at the end
of words ending in U. Thus ^r*o^)fS^L"iotffi^Lvandlu-nnu-memunnu, both they and we.
"Words ending in 1 as sr>p$ vaniki * to him' use
x

nni : thus1

170

SYNTAX.

vr-pSp^&pS^ vanikinni vlniki-nni ' both to that man and to this


man.'*
Sometimes the final vowel a, 1, ij, is merely lengthened : this
accent serving instead of a conjunction. Thus sr>t> he : but r
iSr3iS^ he also came.
clothes, 5fon>*Jeu bundles may be
come ww-;foT*4jex) clothes and bundles.
But the conjunction is very generally dropt: thus ^afc j>
~$#> He and he and I. e3-tw)<uo
CB the wife and children. <S^0<S^(S
master and mistress srp >p to him (and) to him. sarSb"a

* Some foreign words which end in i also use ?x but the long
vowel is shortened. Thus
, pallakT, ~K*a gadf have long termi
nations. But when there is a conjunction, these are made short :
thus a^&T^&PjL pallaklnnt gadinnl.
The following rule is devoid of proper authority.
* Another form is
which is added to words ending in a, a ,
and 6 ; but the short vowels are generally lengthened: thus
atta mother-in-law and
mama father-in-law may become
fS>;&>LsSr^r^s> iSb^ both his mother-in-law and father-in-law. ""'"'X*
a jacket, in-iv a turban, become tS"*^
"if*
A jacket
and a turban. t*&'6 gadide an ass, Lp barre, a she buffalo,
become ^^^'&^~&$ir&>*l\^Sfc^SQ..,
The form i&f&i is occasionally used to the postpositions termi
nating in a short : without lengthening the final short : thus >6

In poetry pS nu alone is used, thus (B. VIII. 188.)


f || S^iswfr (nu) jber cS^jS,
SbSdSofi (nu) frer4? <iS^3
^jfcSxSMJSewi& (nu) M

".Boffc the beginning of all was in Thee, And the end is in Thee ;
both end and midst, and origin art Thou of creation: like as
earth is to the vessel."

CONJUNCTIONS.

171

=> (both) you (and) we.f c* A reddi (a reeve or head farmer,) %ts
rssSo a clerk, H%tSn&>-.fcLreddi carnamunnu, both the reeve and
the clerk. &f acca elder sister, wS" ^3e)o<s& acca, chellendlu, both
elder and younger sisters. fcr^L young, "2>g old, 5>f^"g pinna
peddalu, both young and old. This was an old word for the com
mons or common council in a village.
Sometimes the conjunction is emphatic, and used at pleasure :
thus ^*^Jfr?k^~&>s>oos&4J sjm Tr" "F^to At present " too"
we are all happy, oi^a6f&j_oi3&r>-^ this is always the case.
There is another conjunction

TU which is used in poetry

In poetry we sometimes find that the first word alone using the
sign. Thus a<> a bow, tsss^ew arrows would in common life be
tu?S> <a>;&}e;S, 'both bow and arrows;' or a^"^5^Wr*>, or sim
ply SewwitotM. But in poetry it takes the form sejStoe villu-nammulu, -re;Si4^* rice and milk.
" Night and day""o-" (So
ia contracted for ^lOpj^Xboo^ .
And *aoir*S' ten and a quarter, jSj**>woojsS>o-aS' 105^ These
are similar in construction.
D. Abhimanya p. 76.
"3^? 6*3 Tr*$ Luck (and) want
(are) light (and) dark like, That is ' wealth and poverty follow
each other as do night and day.'
f Thus in P. 2. 47. *|| S"d*giSiSSo ^c^jIvjjS So 3d*g&3;SJ6
#sS3'3Se>cS5x> "3t3T]bi5c- fcsfigsio "7?ew:$s& j&wsSsfc "^c5gs ao*^o
tw &*-&k
"Sxe>r-||
The Pancha Tantram is written in verse with much learning
and eloquence but it is an elevated rhetorical style and the amor
ous descriptions are highly coloured. There is a prose abridge
ment in Telugu which our native teachers often advise a learner
to read. But the style is pedantic and the book is dry and use
less. The childish volume called Vicramarka Tales cr\Joif^
vtfogtvi
is more paltry and should be avoided. The
original poem is greatly admired for its style. These prose
abridgments are like the ordo printed in some editions of Horace.

172

SYNTAX.

after a word ending in a or % or e thus w3<3&> ws$cjfc>, tfextfu


S^r<S53o, ftSSdSw 8icsfc> both that and this. &*6<SSx>&[&&&H:8d
DEB. 601. Hari and Eudra fought. So in U. E. wss&x,
The word s>0 (yet besides, but yet) is often used as a conjunc
tion: sometimes NT or TU is added. Thus
or j8cs&>
[Thus in Latin at or at^ue.] These words have been erroneous
ly used in the old version of the Scriptures in places where Telugu requires no conjunction. The word >&o~fi (id est, that is to
say) has also been wrongly used for the conjunction.
The conjunction Tjb or ~K*P (the initial K being softened into
G see page 41) signifies and not : it stands at the end of a phrase.
It may be rendered indeed thus &7T-?> or >~i-7r|6fc9SptfuS^cS
they will grant permission to you but not to him. Literally to
thee indeed, to him permission they will not give. ^rifc'SSS2)(SS~3
(fcXj-fl-^fcStfssiSxi-s^eSb what he studied was Telugu and not Tam
il. Lit. " "What he has read is Telugu indeed, Tamil not" stoH^r*
P Except this, and besides this. &-<*>$*o S^Mao^TVpa&eoiora
So car"i6p'S3fjfi#> This can be effected by none but him. Lit.
Unless by him indeed this work cannot be settled. See Lila XX.
219. 221. In such phrases the Telugu omits the affirmative and
uses the negative verb. The words
or ww?^ when repeat
ed are used for either, or j thus p&~Kp*r'&-ir'p d^sSiS^ffe either
you or he may go. ~$lox>'ir'~&&oxtyr' either to-day or tomorrow
but when &ox>jf> is not repeated it signifies even or at least : as
>5$aM(T"TT'l5'sH83 even thou hast not comeOther observations will be found in the rules regarding the past
participle.
On tiie Emphatic Affixes, A', E', O'.
In common prose these are long. In poetry they are shorten
ed at pleasure,
The affix a. denotes question. Thus ^S^^tto he came. aS^Tr*
T3 did he come ? E' denotes certainty : it is the intensive. Thus
^"P*^ vaccinade surely he came' : 'he certainly came.'
that
very man, only that man.

0' denotes doubt ^t^jr'^ vaccinadd

THE AFFIXES, A', E', O'.

173

perhaps be came. ge^r-pa^Sx* perhaps this is his. &TF<sr*~&


perhaps he is there, perhaps he is not.
to thee.
to
him. fc^wpS"' perhaps to thee (or else) to him. -^>Gr*'<y'<'
perhaps he will come (or perhaps) he will not come.
If O is added to an interrogative, as
S3|^as~?xr it
may denote doubt : as I know not who, some body or other ; I know
not where, some where or other, I wonder who, I cannot tell
where.
But O' sometimes denotes reference: thus ^S^t*** ye said.
enl6^i^^rsja^^|je^e7Jfii-jjp& I have brought the book
which you mentioned.
The sign of question (A') is often dropt, the voice alone denot
ing enquiry. Thus T^xreSb ? he won't come to-morrow?
Qo&) ? you won't stay to-day ?
The affix a is sometimes a mere intensive : thus (from "^t&4j
to rise)
(sing) rise. ~&o& rise ye. Intensive forms "S*^ !
"So-ra" ! Oh rise ! Thus "B^*^ to say "C^rfw Bay thou. ~3*!g&r*
(or in poetry dropping one letter ^^isSr-) 0 tell me !
In poetry emphasis sometimes uses a short instead of e long.
Thus, "r3$> JNenu ' I' becomes
nena, I, myself. =rsfc vadu ' he'
sr5 vada, that very man. friS) thou

nlva thou, thyself.

now
or v^t* just now, even now.* In common speaking
these would be
* "S|| ziX'sSceiSo ~^Se uo^"Sj-=lSx.S>Dtu )ss (niva)

t&ejcao B.

VIII. 444. Thou alone art the great cause of all, thou verily art
the universe ! #11
Xj-8^ 6&>jS^>{) TV3
xoreoao etf
"Sjs^PS ZfcioiftSF- Xo& sr-lS (vada) &f)i&o sr (yada) a&o&goo
sr-el (a&5"*j|&dsi TfSxraosfcs- \_w?)^>^~|| Panch Tantram II.
124. "If a man has accumulated wealth all his good qualities
obtain credit. If any one is opulent lie (vada) is a man of high

174

SYNTAX.

In compound verbs as ?Sa + $SoSoAj 'being' s^om-J- ^oeSSij


'going' the emphatic sign may fall at the end of either verb.
"When it is joined with thefirst it denotes certainty. Thus from
tsstot) (to sell) wa^TT^sib he has sold (it) By adding the empha
sis to thefirst verb w^tSF^So he certainly sold it. But if add
ed to the second verb it denotes wonder. Thus
(3^3 Be
hold, he has sold it! Saoifcfc) to bless. &aoe)ry<>l_Mb he blessed.
^ao^^-jy^Mo he certainly blessed. &2>o&$fF'j& Behold ! he has
blessed !
Sometimes E' denotes only as well as emphasis : thus f>~i?)S
p^Bo " these very men were there" may also mean " Only these
men were there''
G~3,%\~fTci
himself said so:" or " he
alone said so." jr'wi&fgp there are hutfour. MiSKa"&ejs$9^si
you have merely to ask for it. Lit. Asking alone is wanting.*

birth, he is a man of learning, he is graced with every virtue,


he is a man of eloquence ; he is popular, he is celebrated for
his powers in speaking."
(Et bene nummatum decorant Suadela Venusque !) Sananda
Ganeswaram. 2. 120.
Ke^iS SjSow &fi>;Sos tt-3
If the emphatic E' is followed by another vowel, N is interpos
ed. Thus ts^F" atad ena what? he? ts|f_"i3-jcr accadane
na what ? there ? (Atadu being a Kala word adds e but S9 ^_<
accada being a druta word interposes N and likewise adds Na.)
Sometimes E' denotes question. Thus ~&$it*&*~i$ was she
away? (Panch 1. 801.) i. e. -&$&*ox>ii-cy>. S0 again in P.
2. 50. 5 || SojS -rri$x>l 1 Moirv&S ^j&fja 3Sa aSexarSo (&
ar- | ue>s(S j5^SS2SsG I <nv&o$8G-4~Sx>$ weAoo
? Can that
be called strength which rests in the body alone ?
* But with druta words N is inserted: thus
in the
house. -&ono*S"""^ in the very house or only in this one house, tab
sfr5^"^ifc&&*c3j66 ' On his only stabbing her' or ' the moment

THE EMPHATIC AFFIX.

175

The E' sometimes denotes identity : thus fc95ja^ this is the


same man. 8j323-i4)^S''&> this is the book in question, or the
same book. '8o43po-'3S'43jj& the same people built the both. S(
"3<3 these are the same articles, "wpox^^-"? her house itself is
[sacred as] Benares.
A past p|| as t3j>, d^ow, "3 may intensively become ^"r>, sir"
^-S'"3 ar,d *nus takes the form of the Eel. p|| : thus &*tx>\jr~i>
F^* I have already written the letter. sife^'fio > by
acting in this very way you have been ruined. "S^iSf^iSb he
already has said it.*
As shewn in these examples the emphasis must in English be
laid upon the auxiliaries "is" "has" "did" "was" "does"&c.
to convey the peculiar force of E'.
The emphatic E' sometimes has a taunting sense. Thus aoOsfco
To be sure you are a sensible man ! ~d?>$-zr'&~ you are

he stabbed her she fell down.' Thus in the Sumati Satacam, verso
10 : 1| f>~$ l^-cr-qr-Ssfco | ->n>"3 8i6$retfs&>oMjS j&jfc^erg or \
t^~6 jS<3oe)So SiS^to | t~6 :f^O~KT'tis&o\l> J)sS ffcsS)&||
Vemana says, es-|| tfoa&
c***3 X\jf>oi> iS$
[ ftf^p
a-p ^3tfTrSa| r>-x "&eo ^ ^rs^;^ tfo^-f>. a. 'If a foe
worthy of death fall into thy hand, do him no injury, do him
every benefit and dismiss him : this is killing (him.)'
Here iJo^)~i> this is killing merely uses the accent.
A similar affix prevails in the language of the South Seas. See
Cook's Voyages Part 3. Bk. 1. Cap. 4. 19 (in Kerr's Voyages
Vol. 13. page 46.) " Here the suffixes era and ira save many
words."
* In poetry (The Druta) syllable NI added to the emphatic affix
E' forming E'NI signifies if: Thus ^^a^jj^oMS^jo aitiveni,
If thou be a native of that place. <3ox>oi6S'&S_"jj!> (i. c. 81 ~&)
M. X. 2. 34. If thou fail of effecting this.
^

176

SYNTAX, THE AFFIXES A', W, 0'.

very clever! >SSo&io*y*afj;!fcuj"3"j Tara 3. 8. I suppose you have


nothing to do at home !
In a few places the letter V ia inserted to prevent elision* and
E' being retained becomes E'VE' : thus # mother ^^"^S"^ talleve karta the mother herself was manager. *S"^'3'?5Sj<ypaS he
himself consented. f>#sS certain, ?>^"&> quite certain. f>j*~&>~^
absolutely certain. C5-_?j estate. S5-j or <S9*~n"3 the very estate. V
Bg a wife. tf PV"%"*3S>^0 his very wife said so. SjOftoSkto
to inform, tell. abdioAS M. XIII. 4. 306. O tell me !
Further details regarding E' and TE' are to be found in a sub
sequent page regarding the Syntax of the Past Tense.
The affix O generally denotes doubt but sometimes question.
Thus ^ Oh ? he Pf
If O is repeated it denotes or. Thus ^"3r#so (JT6 either you
or your brother.
If E' is followed by E' or A', the N is placed between. Thua
es&"i^^r<> possibly that very man.
When ' O' is added to the 2d pers. singular of the past tense,
ending in VI, as d*8s> potivi 4 thou didst go' a peculiar contrac
tion takes place : the VI is dropped and ' O' is added to the pre
ceding consonant. Thus
becomes
poto.

potivo ' perhaps thou didst go,'

The verb "* f*> with regard to the second person uses another
contraction: for S~p&~r becomes

Konito and even %~o

* Some object to this definition: they look upon 're' as an


emphatic affix.
t P. 2. 52. S"|| M*3 ds3oj*!Sa& fryz&~cUsS*$^ -f.fr atfo^a
fatxn sos k<x>k ajiX$s6 aiiBOEu p oeo^^^a^ii &eo-3
7w^<S^ for tfaotfTS-cr-.

ELISION OF MU.
Konto.

177

Thus in Dasava IX. 310. Z-tijttoSSroSr* thou didst

take my clothes. This is a rustic phrase.


Sometimes O is a mere interjection : thus sS^"?xr Oh is he
come !
thou comest not, "C^r you won't come ? Elsewhere
oyi is added as tJ'lr053 (a rustic phrase) Oh come !
The vowel 0 added to a numeral changes it into an ordinal :
thus 7Tuortj four, i^w^ fourth, WooosSb five, oS^ fifth &c.
sSxp>(S^9^A the third day signifies next day but one (just as
s^^f^d? On the eighth day, means, In a week.)
In common letters, these are contracted by writing only the
last letter of the word. Thus for wtfc^F'eur8 (64th) they
write s_V JT6. And for
(100th) ooo 6^* &c. a& o^a^S""
(19th) or ff*. aia&sSar^jj Twentieth is written so "ascr..
In poetry the form is AVA. Thus F'tux^, eoaosstf &c.

Sometimes the first Bhort syllable of a Telugu word is


lengthened.
sS"3r*>
Must
5r>';&
S-o^jSm

A little
Likewise

r*o^3s:>
-$rTr>.

A very little

Some words of three syllables lengthen the second,


e)3
Power
e>jSss
A day
Eegularly
Old
She, it is
That is to say
To whom
It is called
Some of these words are altered thus, in verse, to suit the me
tre : elsewhere to denote emphasis.
Y

178

ON TERMINATIONS IN MU
On Eusioh of ML

When a Sanscrit noun ends in MU, as "tsf desamu, a country,


TjrigsS a realm, Jx'cJfsSa grandhamu a book, theMU is elided, if
the next word is Sanscrit, and begins with a vowel. Thus cSS" ss 4fc*o#tfsSM="c51S"o&35S des'an taramu, another country, tpasrgoeJ
(jfOTjr=ol^!5jS granth'antaramu, another book.
But if the next word is Telugu, the first may drop the vowel as
a-^^c^sStt^a oca grandham'unnadi' there is a book. But it
never drops the consonant M.
The MU at the end of words as

we, s&tfsSn we, XilsSo

a horse may drop the vowel TJ if the next word begins with a
vowel as rT ?j^Sa& -f fi&jS^Q na gurramu unnadi' becomes "pr'Xoltf
sS7S^> na gurram'unnadi ' my horse is here.'
Telugu words of two syllables, that end in MU never change
MU into M. Thus ~&>s* (we) never is written ~&>o. -rss pamu
' a sake' '33-:S momu ' a face' never are written "Ao or "S)to.
Vulgarly these words are written with O. Thus s^t^o, *j*t5o,

Telugu words of three or four syllables continually drop


the final U : Thus b(J$si is constantly written Xo^So and f 8
is always spelt 5"8o.

But this is considered inelegant.

In the spoken dialect the final vowel is dropped even though


the next word begins with a consonant. Thus >6(JJ AaJS^jSO,
lj5:SpSOji8 gurramu vaccinadi, gurramu nilichinadi are written
and pronounced So^o^s^s, xo[Kof)8aj6ft.
In the Telugu Dictionary such Sanscrit nouns are classed as
ending in
mu, Thus
I
\J<o$\ sin, xr83g I sS the sign 1 being
used to denote that the final syllable is changeable and is not re
garded in the arrangement.
Hence 3o(SsS mana mu a Sanscrit word tot mind is spelt

1 *J

ON DRUTA AND CALA WORDS.

179

and the final * is not reckoned in the order of words. This


word therefore is not placed along with the Telugu word tkjSsko
manamu ' we.'

ON DRUTA WORDS,
The following remarks on Druta and Kala are needless to be
ginners.
Grammarians have given the name \^^Hs> Drutamu to the let
ter N when it is used to prevent elision.
In Greek Grammar we frequently see N added to the dative
plural or to some persons in the verb : and a similar interposition
of N is common in Telugu poetry.
Drutamu denotes the N which has no meaning. The letter N
has a meaning when it is the sign of the accusative, as
bidda
' a child' accusative ^tf> ; or the locative case as Sjoti^fc 'in
the house,' or the verb ; as o&SS?> ' I spoke.' s^otoffc 'he went.'
But when it has no meaning, and is merely used to prevent elision
(like an for a in English) it is called Drutam, (or the Extra N,)
and the words to which it may be grammatically attached are called L?^^ l_3) 5^0!Trfo30o druta pracriticamulu, or, word3 of the N
class.
Examples. ~3$% adv. behind, "S^S'+^cSS may become "S^S"
?S>o&8 they were behind. ^^F* atlanar is it so ? Here atla end
ing in A' is followed by A', denoting interrogation, ' atla + a ;' and
between these letters N is inserted, atli-na. tsap^&jS&ao&e atani
chetan-adiginchiri, they asked it through his hands. Here cheta,
ends in a vowel ; and adiginchiri begins with a vowel : to prevent
elision, N is inserted. Again; Tr"^"$e>5 ran-5-ledu he really did not
come. Here V ra ' come' is followed by the intensive e, 'ra-e'

ISO

ON DRUTA AND CALA

and to prevent elision N is inserted ; ' ra-n-e' because u* ra the in


finitive is a druta word.

ON CALA WORDS.
There are particular words which are not allowed to add N in
this manner, and these are called
rasSto Calasabdamulu or
Cala words.
All nominative cases are included in this rule. Thus sri&o
"SfS> vadu-undenu, ' he was' may by elision become rJ6o'3;S> vadundenu ; but not ^J^i&o'S^ vadunundenu.
Should however the N be inserted as here shewn, srsfc?&ocl#
vadu-n-undenu, the letter N would signify ' AND :' thus ' and
he was,' or ' he also was :' because r& or fSy^ (nu or nnu) may be
the conjunction. Thus N may be inserted if it has a meaning :
but cannot be inserted (as in the Greek words already noticed) for
the purpose of preventing elision.
Further rules regarding Druta and Cala will be placed in ano
ther Chapter : because they may be required by the advanced
student ; though unintelligible to the beginner.
The principles of Druta and Cala have been supposed peculiar
ly obscure : but we may observe that the Telugus, even the most
illiterate, who never heard of the Grammatical terms ' Druta' and
' Cala' find the distinction easy. Hence we may fairly conclude
that the difficulty has arisen from the mode in which the subject
has been treated in Grammars. There evidently are two parts of
the subject, one is quite easy and has now been explained : the
other being more refined can only be understood after we become
acquainted with the Syntax and Prosody.
In some grammars it is asserted that all nominatives are Kala
except
ncnu, ' I' and
tanu ' self.' In poetry these words
may become ~f> ne and B-" ta. But long final vowels, (e and a in
ne and ta) never can suffer elision : it would therefore be needless
to add N to prevent elision. "We therefore do not require any

ADJECTIVE.

181

bucIi rule. It ia sufficient to know that these words have each


two forms.
The learner need not even peruse the rules concerning Druta
and Cala. Native tutors insist greatly on them : but they are
unnecessary.

ON ADJECTIVES.
Adjectives are of two descriptions : some being Telugu : others
Sanscrit. Each will be considered separately.
Telugu adjectives are all regular : in general they are devoid of
number, gender and case : and (like those of the English language)
form the comparative and superlative degrees by adding the words
more or most : or by other modes qf construction. Thus "^gou
a large house. ^'^'x^c^' large houses. "SfScxoogsr-* jn large
houses.
old. ^^Ssyc> an old man.
an old woman,
jfcoa good. K&oOsr-So a good man. ;&oS a good woman (or
thing) sSboa=ro& good people and JSofis good things.
small,
a young man. fif^ a young girl. Si$>Lrcs> little ones.
^i^L015 m a small house.
Many words which in English are adjectives are in Telugu
participles : thus 8ft iS fit, "?>&i proper,
or
bad, ruined
&c. These will be considered under the participles.
Some nouns are used as adjectives. Thus fW<& prettiness,
p>jfcxb tallness, ^P^> civility,
a cat. These may become ad
jectives, thus ^"^o^a^S a pretty girl,
XbJT6 & a high wall.
skfS^ifcpL. a man of civility, ^^c^ cat's eyes: denoting what
we call blue eyes or sapphire eyes. Some of these add WtxufS
" which is" (past rel. p|| of
' to become,'^ as $rfo-6ox>$
pretty. &X<x>s$ high.
Some Telugu adjectives or adverbs ending in MU may add
ox>$, tJaco^fe^o*3 or
as SP^sS (or) wgs&o^jS opposite. Or

182

TELUGU ADJECTIVES,

they may drop, MU, as ^^^^ a cross road, fc$j&x> or ^(S^sfcoM


;5 or "^f^M^ a fine cloth, 5^sS purity : hence ^tf^tf" pure,
tfy3ewHo or fcH^sfcoooiSUeMXo pure Telugu.
These have also the liberty of being used in their Genitive
form, being considered as nouns of the 2d declension : thus
sSx> slightness, ^i^l^^5*^ slight sweat, a.csr-oiS sweetness, 2<3&is^)-Sr>L><x> words of sweetness, &*tix> largeness, 3^ 8*6) large.
fc?OKsSx> beauty, woaig) or foss'SojS beautiful.

The nominative form may be used instead of the Inflection :


thus ^o*D spittle forms the infl. ^o%S Hence oioaiSWjijsSaa
defiled food or oioABWjSjsSo leavings of food, oJc*3sr*keu or
oio?,43Srsgew fowl language, nonsense.*
Certain adjectives ending in the short vowel a and denoting
qualities which are the peculiar objects of sight, taste, or touch,
may at pleasure add the syllable P ni or *S ti, Thus
black, eg
white, o^lj? red,
\ yellow or green, 8=**>,g sweet,
sour: thus
j5o or $%,P or (SojSsr^JSc) a black man,
or "3 P or *o t3Hbg
a white cloth and so on. The respective nouns are
ness, ~3e>o^j) whiteness, ^*>6)red, *f&>^) yellow,

black;
sweetness.

But the words i?*^ insipid,


fine invariably add P : thus
tS*ji&:STfc> an insipid or dry word, iJ|f_ps&>p2>. a handsome man
never i3*\s*it> or tff s&p^-.
Some add *3 or <!3-*S or
Thus ^>oo high, ^SbTr>*3 tall,
dre&-mSs&p2>. a tall man. r*S large, err43 - ^jS^fine
or
K'^-a thin.

* The Hindus look upon spittle with disgust and are much
gratified if we so far respect their feelings as to avoid touching
our mouths in their presence with either the hand, a pen or pen
cil.

TELUGU ADJECTIVES.

183

Some Telugu adjectives occasionally take a plural form : thus


(^ little, "tig great, O^eu^s 03 both the young and the old.*
Speaking in English, the name of fruits and flowers, and also of
Hindu castes, are nouns : thus a mango, a rose, a carpenter, a
merchant (these being peculiar castes.) But in Telugu and other
languages of India they are generally adjectives. Thus SwosS)
means appertaining to pepper : this is the radical word : whence
Sotfi6?,oe5 a pepper corn, zx>
pepper powder, JfcecK^^
fe a pepper plant, 3843 appertaining to the plantain, fc?8*3"B-"cs6
a green plantain, fcS8i3i6ca& a ripe plantain. Thepluralis either
fc843"B-d33iuo or843*c^ plantains. s5jSoS a mango, tSz-Sxtttg, a
mango tree,
a mango blossom, s*r&3&"B~'c*fi an unripe
mango (lit. a mango knop) *Srwc;&p&Tr*cSi mango pickle. &rzx>
SuoS" mango gum, sS^Sca^if^ mango bark. Thus the plural
will be ^r,ta&TdSi<x>t sSr'&jS dfcc> mangoes.
The names of trees can be used as nouns in their plural form
but not in the singular in which they are generally considered as
adjectives : thus
margosa trees, CoStu Tamarind trees,
sr&)?!o mango trees,
e lime trees : ^^"^ plantains,
wo
tumma trees, s>(&eu banyan trees,
But as generic words they can be used in the singular. Thus
65-85r^joad"ax>iSa The arika (crop) was dried up. The same ap
plies to

BStoS.T'S'ff,

lime (lime) &c.f

So of castes, IteX of the Telugu caste, 5"o-^a 0f the goldsmith


caste, t3oO> of the highlander caste, s of the carpenter caste,
* This frequently occurs in poetry. Thus
clean shaven
gew^eSaS j6&e>oi^j)euir*aer their heads are clean shaven but
are their hearts pure ? (Vema) ^^rss5espoe great are thy
virtues. B. X. 120.
crooked, s&fS'eusSrL*:urDsScoex5 our acts
are crooked.
t One poet says T,5'tf:gr*r"'S>, p^-5r<sfieMTv"SjjS>.

184

TELUGU ADJECTIVES.

c^tf of the brahmin caste,


of the paria caste already ex
plained, tSnOJC of the cobbler caste. Hence by adding ^ra& we
form "3ejX'ir-ji) ' A Telaga' of which the feminines are "3e>x a
Telaga woman, 5"o-<aS a goldsmith's wife &c. Plural f o^wsr-oSa
goldsmiths, 5"ote>&$ the goldsmith's street &c.

FEMININE AFFIXES.
The word e is added to a few (Tatsama) words of Sanscrit
origin ; the letter R being inserted. Thus & zy^ofotSo a learned
man. airso^-cpuo a learned woman. S'&^^t&sfc a merciful man.
ecsS-cysfecfiTT'oo a merciful woman. (Anirud 3, 55.)
he who
is brave. Sj'SiTPew she who is courageous. ^JJeSefcSb he who is
right minded. $?*gt)jfr"ax tx> Bhe who is virtuous. tfoLpfc^fe'S
js^jSSo when his father was living.

^xr^^i^^asb

when his mother was living.


es-uo Forms the plural
or 9-o[o the letter R being in
serted thus
sSi04)Tro> or tooasSbcSbTT'oleSb women who are
prudent. JT'l^s'sw she who is barren : plural fC{jsc& or IT"
(j3o|jS> : the latter form being poetical.
A few words add -=>3 ETA : as
keeper tribe. !T*>)rJ& a herdsman.
a)^sj-"4fo a country man.

belonging to the cowa female of that tribe.

a rustic girl.

The Teluotj Compaeative and Supeblative.


Some rules properly belonging to the noun and the participle
are placed here as that arrangement may be more convenient to
the English reader.
The Telugu comparative is formed by the word o~fj or S^i^
added to the genitive. Thus "cP^o"!^ (or TypS";^ oxiSsSboaa
This is better than that. Sr"&a r ^8 oto{p-K* fi>^ the
mother is fairer than the daughter. cp$'(5^oape&;6 this is tall

SUPERLATIVES.

185

fcr than that. W- "5> 5" fr^ oxr "3j |_u tt ,&
Th an her, this one is
fair, i. e. this one is fairer than her. Or typS o_&can>^So^J^"A"
f*
eaca frm equally meaning. She is fairer than her. Sjotf
S'f'.j. SjofiS "^56. There is nothing better than this,
S'F^L
^Sba Tgc6 there can be nothing worse than this. Here the force
is superlative, while the form is comparative. 8(3SS'o~>"3eofc'
(SCsS"^iS> There can be no tyranny greater than this.
Elsewhere thus Jotf o-jri6)*4 Wo5JTr,Tr*jSj8 It is as finei
as it is i. e. it is comparable. There is no saying how fine it is*
[All adjectives are Cala ; because they are looked Upon as Nomi
natives.]

The Telugu Superlative either uses po-cs fully'


' great*
0 'exceeding' &>8_ 3 'much' "^F0 ' plentifully' &c. as Pot
&e>, (tenerrimus) quite a child T'P'fl^. (difficiliinura) very dif
ficult. S'JSS?^'^^, j&5r*5';iS equally mean Extremely hard, i. e<
hardest wQr^'&jS very hard, &>|_Ss&oa& very excellent: but it;
does not mean as in Latin Greatest or most.
[The word ^F1" is in general use, but the learned wish to
spell it
Or like the comparative, it uses the dative sign with all, than
all. Thus fc?o8 ro"fe j^ssbxo she is tallest of all.
Or the phrase runs thus
sS5&t>2r*,>er ? sS>X"to^
sS&cCisr^gber" ? women talkative ? men talkative ? i. e. are women
or men more given to chattering,
pi3c>Tr aB j^sso"^ thai
one tall ? this one tall ? v e. Is that or this the taller ?
Another phrase is i^}^ If you look at. Thus t^^-iSr*^ aa
ir&i&ir1 jSjft this is longer than that : lit. if yoa look at that
this is long, i. e. longerTwo persons of the same name are distinguished thus : ^ WtS^tf
"Jftfc " Senior master" and t>Q&8~ir,t& "Junior master" ot
" young master." Likewise regarding two persons in one office of
z

186

SYNTAX OF ADJECTIVES.

whom one is the senior- Here


and S^-, great and little evi
dently convey a comparative sense.
Or else the adjective is reiterated with the dative or the loca
tive sign. Thus \iP'$>v&\Jrlfi>!& Shrewd[est] of the shrewd.
' ty sifc er^ ( 6 s& hard [est] of all, lit. hard among the hard.
Elsewhere it is a mere metaphor. Thus IbsSbOe^sSw 1 he is a
jewel.'
Or thu&Sog'J^oBo^
? ' which is the oldest of these?' -^^a
oaooSer* c&>> sSioafi ? ' which is the best of these ten houses ?'
^5"iifi.e)OsSi"3iuoXb"0^\. ' Telugu is the best of the country
languages.'*
Thus, as in English there are two superlatives : the one implyin'" contrast, the other a mere intensive phrase. There is usually
iio sign : thus sjes&o > This is the good one or this is the best
ene.f
* Yemana 2. 29. &> eJ^jS
~d&3>oX ^noaw. \ir*r>
kt>.
5"^ xXc>e> a&nQ sSr4j
' The sweet of
sweets [superlative] is life : but gold is sweet[er] than lives t
and woman's words are sweet[er] than gold.'
In Hebrew there is no comparative or superlative. These are
produced by reduplication. Thus in the ordinary English we
say the great church and the small one meaning the greater and
the smaller.
t See Ency. Brit. 3d Edn. " Grammar" Chap. V. Section 93t
note C. says, Hie unus dolor est ex omnibus acer (i. e. acerrimus)
amanti. (Propertius 2. 22.) So in Paradise Lost IX. 795. O
sovran best and precious ofall trees.
In E. P. 2. 117. The poet says %\\ Si3isS XotfS^otsjS qin>iS
^)<t>dS>Oifc s>;5oK>iX> Ij3k>x> sSb;&>t>oSb | (_p"Sr?3je>$S6eo (jr5r

SYNTAX OF PLURALS.

187

On Pltjeals.
The Singular is called
^iJiSsSo, and the plural wsrw^tf ;5sSo.
The usual plural form is " as cg_ex> dogs &>^r5oeu guns. KoljJ*ui
torses.
The plural form is sometimes used when the conjunction is un
derstood. Thus w^ssj&^ew elder and younger brothers : *s _H
sisters ; elder and younger.
In such compounds it may be uncertain whether either word
is intended to be plural. Thus either **fSj, or SskaSo (or neither)
may be plural. And the same of tjf_ and "a^ew. In such
compounds the word is generic not specific. There may be three
elder brothers and only one who is younger : and still the com
pound is w^K^ew.
[The Second Declension has two forms in the plural, "^sSx>e
and tST'w. The form ^^exj, i&-4-rto, Sj'Sxew, is by native
tutors condemned as inelegant. But it is in general use ; and the
oldest Grammarian (Nann. XII) merely observes that ' it is to
be used in verse only with words that poetical authority justi
fies'].
Other instances ; efc"Kjj *jfctfeu east and west, Si&s&H
w towns and villages, 88t$o(_#beu parents. Herein *8 is
spelt 38. Again &o\& rb55ex> father and son. es-rSaa^tu
(Nala D. 3. 604.) hunger and thirst. "Ser^wsio^- winning
and losing. ^P^j^tw loss and gain, 'So&kotvs <Sx>tx> silver
and gold. (Vaizayanti. 3. S3) ofc>xs>eu topsy turvy, upside
down, q'c&q'&vS*' with fear and devotion, f><3&qr<3f>sSx>as&ois
3oS using persuasions and threats. Also see M. 9. 2. 141.

This is a series of comparative superlatives.

188

SYNTAX OF PLURALS.

Even Sanscrit proper names and other nouns are thus combined
IjS^"!^*" Drona and Bhishma. BeJ*-{5'r6oeeP-*s'-fr'>xer*S'sk:aoV
PRTJ. 588. 9. in earth, heaven and hell. l&*2S2)Tri)"trd!&o
M. 7.3.302. fc)abg-9-* ?fc<u> Achyuta and Arjuna. Ts^rtfresfao
t>ox>$ &8s8~3:>'tJTy*) Ho8a&8#sg>dtfc^04j |3r^8rso a letter
addressed to T. Vencata Rao the farmer and C. Tammaya the
clerk.' Lit: To farmer and clerk so and so. 2>#>S~'o5"3e))o
g^oSew. The towns of Vinuconda and Bellamconda ; srogo-sar.
SjSfsfj'itf ra E-SgsScoeuffc^ infancy, youth, manhood and old-age,
[Only a few well known words use this sort of compound.
Thos we could not form &o\& into a compound with e^dfe or
Such a compound would be simply eJo^itSfS^ or {Jo^Tr*

As in English, you may be used for thou.


sj-& they, or, his honor,*

Thus R^ss you

[In the Manu Charitra I. 26. the hermit is addressed as you.


[The plural is elsewhere used "where the singular is meant, to
denote respect. SS&sSS Tt&T*&s:Z%-fy>&. Sons were born to
Kusu : which name bears the plural form,
[In the popular tale of Harischandra two sages are mentioned
?>'$jsx>\j&!& and oSSAjw ; the plural denoting respect being used
with the latter alone.

Because the other is a hateful character.]

Our native tutors are usually bramhana, and instruct us to speak proudly, as
bramhans do : saying We instead of / and Our instead of my. In Pritchett's
translation of the New Testament lie always uses this mode regarding our
Lord. Thus " They seeing the multitudes, -went up into a mountain and their
disciples having come, they opened their mouth and said"and in Matt. XVI
16. Ye are the Christ. This is the French fashion. ' Eoi du Ciel ! je m' aneantis devant vous.' This version by Mr. Pritchett was printed in 1819 and 1829.
The Rev. Mr. Hough having spoken well of it in (vol. 4. p. 270) his History
of Christianity in India, 1845, (citing History of British and Foreign Bible Sopiety vol. 3. p. 462, 463) I will mention that in 1826 I met Gurmnurti Sasfri the Head Telugu Master in the College : whose favourable opinion is there

PLURALS.

189

\Tn poetry and in religious books ' thou' is the respectful form,
even regarding a father or the deity. Thus ^Sjbyjo^&a (Sar.
Dwi) Thou art the father that bore me Again; (Parvati,or Juno,
thus addresses her spouse) |>|| "ASw*? Sej6-^JLa (thou) s'JSss
(thou) ZvoZ$j&\*rs-&>-p*a.^&!$ (thou) car (thou) '3eS0X'p!>$
t) \j!)OT?;6x>-f>~& Thou art the omniscient, thou art the Lord,
thou art the one Supreme and merciful God, nor is there a single
occurrence unknown to thee." Here fervent adoration uses the
singular number.]
The common word
doctor, is thus written tfnvjvo.
Other words use Tr*Ob or sr!6 thus t?o(_S7r,c6) Father, 8B
Mother,
Co, Sister, <S^6sr-S> Master, which in
English become singulars. But were the words intended to bear a
plural sense, the form would be &o\j&oj} fathers,
mothers,
fc?f_ew, (S^tjeu. Thus fcSo&g3r>3 (Their honours) merely means Ms
reverence, a common phrase for a bramin and particularly for a
schoolmaster : not intended to express much respect. t<ssjgrj5j
Sfi^7r{fc The bramhan (or the tutor) is come.
Some proper names derived from Sanscrit ending in LU, as
pr'Kotx}, ?fooeu,TP^^ew (like the foreign words
rumal, a

cited. He acknowledged that he had declared to Mr. Campbell his approba


tion of Pritchett's version : I therefore challenged him to read and under
stand a chapter in the Gospels. He admitted he scarcely could : and laughed
at some odd expressions. On my asking him why he had given it that sanction
which had promoted its publication, he replied (like a true bramhan) " Sir,"
who am 1, that I should oppose Mr, Campbell, when he wished to encourage
the version ?" Mr. Gordon and some other missionaries have since printed
Telugu versions of parts of the Bible, but these are inferior to Pritchett's,
-which is founded on Desgranges' Telugu New Testament. The ' Telinga' ver
sion printed at Serampore in 1818 is in some parts tolerably good : probably by
Desgranges : other parts are apparently translated from the Sanscrit by a native.
Elsewhere it is evidently composed by an Englishman who knew little of
Telugu grammar.

190

SYNTAX OF PLURALS.

handkerchief, k-Sr^tw the post or mail, S^ofiew, Council) are in


declinable and have no plural.
[Some assert that Iiamulu denotes the three heroes of that
name : but this solution fails regarding the other names.]
[The word, Sri Kama, being superstitiously placed at the begin
ning of every letter or account (like Allah I among Musulmans.)
the plural form (_TXSu> is used, as more honorable.]
A singular noun major (mahat) may often govern a plural verb
-^Xbi^Stfao sn>Wd*g -jro&jaMa^a my father gave me this horse
(Lit. Noster pater dederunt. )
As here shewn the word my becomes our ; sro#o jjt our father*.
Names of grain as ^rew,

Sffctfew &c. are generally used

in the plural. Thus ^^^)^^> ten tons of paddyt (rice in the


husk. ST* Jb^sSj^
there is (are) some paddy. wSf^SSo^oSfiS)
>4i? how much (many) paddy is (are) there? %3-^J-&ta2tt>~p^jL
pi"^OoXr&> I do not know how much green gram there is.
The word
'water' is plural. Thus ^f^^^j^a ' how
much water is there (lit: how many waters are there?)' ^^.^iS
jS^a there is some water. V-p* ^^f^? there is much water. -8*
r><S^^3 this is excellent water. The singular form r>3S is used
only in poetry or in a few compound words, as >S>
the water
crow.
The word for milk -*rew is always plural. Thus S~p^e-r&
"Brk I want some (lit: a few) milk. But S"*cK3sSir*eu a little
milk.
A few other words also (as T'SStw taunts) have no singular.
It has been shewn that *>8 or
as Ooao&s&oS, es-cfc!to33

Just the converse of the Hebrew phrase in the first Terse of Genesis barm
Elokim.
t The word paddy is borrowed from the Malay language.

PLURALS.

191

mny be added to numerals with (mahatt) major nouns. This Lowever is sometimes dropped, as dbsjSrjjOo^-i^oNtM three hundred;
sepoys.
"Words denoting days of the Hindu lunar month are generally
plural in form as r>$Z>rtx>. See chapter on reckoning time.
The singular is sometimes used for the plural. Thus wflSfkLJ*a> B. 8. 445. deluding their eye. BK85i&j_!*w* (Padma
Puran 3. 7.) Closing the eye of all the world (in sleep) -sr-Q
-^r=AjS>-p^* I heard it at their mouth, ^S^&^tS^ r*pr^b
he received it at their hand,
f^au^S" much brick,
^^S*XowrtS(T& they stripped all the leafoff the trees. T"jr"{jaca
BfbsSM^-jT^eS) Much people* 2^

&br"|3 8 the worm has-

attacked the crop. f&rOoc&.'i-23jo&>citxi a hundred leagues.


The plural is sometimes (inelegantly) used for the singular ta
denote uncertainty. "S'B^lfi or fS^sSKb w}10 is that man ? who
is that (neuter singular) 63-s$r'iJ:Sii^e'Sjs^6w. I know not who
it was said so. fSfxSr'" tsars'* I know not who is his master,
JSRSo^sb who is his mother? Pal. 3G4.
In the multiplication table we say four times ten : the Telugii
phrase is fJxert<> efcw) four tens.
The plural in verbs and nouns often has the singular meaning
(as in Greek and Latin) thus
(tenebrse) darkness (Surabh.
121,) "a>Stu (colla) the neck, $&*x.ex> the waist. The verb some
times is incorrectly singular. Thus (^"^SJexi'^o^oa my neck
aches.
The plural is sometimes colloquially used for the singular: thus
(T- 2. 94) fc?W!SK~3-;SS I (lit : We) never even look in the glass.
fcS-tfcXo&lSoe^jSsfo-.S'OJve Offspring six sons were born.

* Thus Horace (Car. IV. 8.) says "lingua potentium."

192

SYNTAX OF THE CASES.

Some Pronouns can take a double plural form. Thus sts^^aa


you, *3-t$"> they, sfcsk^o us.
Plural neuter nouns may (as in Greek) take a singular verb in
the past and aorist tenses. Thus S^S a fowl, a bird,
the cocks crowed.*

SYNTAX OF THE NOMINATIVE CASE.


"When two nouns come together the first often has the force of
an adjective. Thus <S^oX" a thief, a rogue. S"oXsSj*&> a roguish
expression, a falsehood, (S^oXffcs&i stolen goods.
When connected with a verb in the Infinitive the Nom. is ifl
English translated by a genitive : thus o-<X>:S'S^i> your coming
^^ir^jgij thy going. Lit. ' you coming, thou going.'
In English we say ' let me come,' ' let him go,' ' not let 1/
' let he :' but in Telugu either case is used. Thus &tit&Trf> 0v
tstiA^yfr ' let him come.'
The Nominative of neuter nouns is sometimes used instead of
the Accusative. Thus
^3 -fiS (instead of ^^j.). You are
to do this. S*6t8'?r"&> (instead of 6*&r&) they went home, or,
to the village. 6'0&8JftSj5^'ji> when they left their country.
1>$ihfor*Pv bring water. P*s"BS>^cCs Get fire.
(for
x^^f*) i&rl~ir> when they saw the stores. oxS'taoQ*>^ }rtga
(for Sx-S'ei*') he paid the money.
Or instead of the Locative ; being used adverbially. Thus "S^^
Come to-morrow. abtfewsSO^-^co they came by day -tr>[^diri>
he arrived at night tr1 (assets they will come at night. Thua it

* (Surabh. I. 125) &>5'euScr*-j3r& the parrots chattered.


jSy,Sou
S" OK &43 sicoesai "3jJ^~
V ts tr-

NOMINATIVE. COMBINATION.

193

may mean yesterday evening ; or this evening.


T5f>i*a
(or SjSo) instead of oid> or de>rfc ; on his doing so :
oS"
2a (for fJo^jS) putting it under his arm : "^e>Lp'"5fSi he wrote on
the ground :
there. ^%J^ here.dr_tf where ois&^sSb when &c.
ft*&> on that day, "^2& to day &e. are nominatives.
Nouns neuter ending in A whether Sanscrit or Telugu, as f[S
sleep, ^SS" a bed, frequently use the nominative singular
instead of the Instr : or Loc : that is, the affix of the case is
dropped : Thus vo-ir&fr**iSVfasr^i he buried the gold (-ir#
o'er8) in a pit. ^>iSjtf kindness, ^^a"^ viewing him with
kindness.

S>l"e5o rising from sleep csS'Sj-Q looking on me

with favour.
The first declension, which ends in DU, as SsfeJSo can in
poetry insert N. viz : tfsS oi, SsSoa&. But in common prose
also, the N is inserted when a pronoun of the first person is
added. Thus &t$p$'&alosifr I am his brother.

ON THE COMBINATION OF NOUNS "WITH PRONOUNS.


When a noun is compounded with a pronoun of the first or
second person (I, we, thou, ye) the termination is changed ; by
adding affixes borrowed from the pronoun.
If the noun ends in I the affix uses the same vowel. Thus, from
Qo\% a father and S3 a mother.
7i& ao\*p
I am (his) father.
^;S> &8f>
I am (his) mother.
#ol*a
Thou art his father.
*f>3
Thou art his mother.
In ordinary talking these affixes are not much used. Thus
Nouns of all other persons make the affix in U : the first perO. P. Brown's Telugu Grammar.
a a

194

SYNTAX OF THE NOMINATIVE.

son singular uses ANU ; the second AVU, and the first person
plural AMU, Thus, from s&$z&>& a grandson.
~fip> &9-djS s&iSo&iS> or, sfeiSsSwoapJi or, sS)^^^ I am his
grandson. (Inserting the sunna before D.)
jbQ
sfoiisSwJSiS
Thou art his grandson.
"?5os$ 69-dSijS jfcjSsSxejsfco
We are his grandsons.
Of which the negative form adds "s^r** I am not, Thus
f&
"5^^, or 3>-e3jT"fS> I am not his brother. *? r~3"*i& I am not
his sister : *s> &myvt&T*i& I am not his granddaughter.
The following are compounded with a noun of the first declen
sion.
1. fisSsotto
A servant.
"isSsSS f&
73i& -$sS&o,>SrS>
fjrfsStf
T^-^sSsSe^
2.
"fj^S^
3. Sao "f)SSSa6

I am a servant.
The same.
The same.
The same.
Thou art a servant.
He i3 a servant.

Thus the third person is unaltered.


1.

-fisSgjasto
a^cfi "fisSSSew
srt-cfi& "fissSSew

We are servants,
Ye are.
They are.

Thus the 2d and 3d persons plural have no change. But in


poetry the 2d person may add
Thus aySb'f>sSSie>t>. Ex
ample with a noun of the 2d declensiofl ti<*zSx> a clerk.
1. ^iS> S"tfras>f6, or, "^i* S'tf-f??^, I am a clerk.
2. >5) rsreoto^
Thou art a clerk.
But the second person usually has no affix : thus : ^S'tfra&w.
1.

The third person has no affix.


S'5r5s$fle>sS5 or, Stf>-v?o<Sx>, We are clerks.
The other persons have no change.

COMBINATION.

1&5

Example with a noun of the 3d declension. T"^) a tenant,


inhabitant.
1.
_& TT^)fS>

I am a tenant there.

2.
er_a
Thou art a tenant there.
But the second person generally has no affix. ^"S"*^!).
1_ *3ao&>
-e^oiSm
We are tenants there.
Thus "^> <S"tfi& I am a master, ^?>tjSjffi I am his brother,
"^i&tsg'
I am his sister.
The pronoun wsfc he, and 3a she, belong to the third per
son : but in compounds denote man, person, woman ; as 5>oa3-Sa
a good man, o&oaS a good woman. As this form is much used,
it will now be given complete. From 3kofflCT*jfe a good man,
s&ofia a good woman.
1. m. "^r& s&oS'CT'Ssrk
"^Sf5i E>oisj-<>iJi<sTr,p>
l.f.

&o4t3jS?
~f$r& sS>oT5'(Sf6T,iS>
3 m. sr2So^>oO-sj-iSb

I am a good man.
I am not a good man.
I am a good woman.
I am not a good &c.
He is a &c.

wej&osa
She is &c.
3 neut. fa ssbofi xi[tf!&>
That is a good horse.
In the plural the masculine and feminine are alike.
1 in. f. "&>s^^oa^T"855
"We are good.
m. f. "&3s&> s&oa wofissSw
We are &c.
The remaining persons have no plural affixes.
2 m. f. >t asj&oa^oo
Te are good.
3 m. f. <r>8osaosj'8o
They are &c.
3 neut. 693sS>oco(^t
Those are good horses.
The pronoun <^& ' who' is contracted for <Aw*$*6 what man :
the compounds are found in these phrases ; rj$t&&3&&2Lop&&*d
they asked who I was : "&sio63o^oS^re?)t9a^-fP'oj they asked
who we (were). "^p&asser, who am I ? (an angry expression)

196

SYNTAX OF THE NOMINATIVE.

>3>5fc>:S-r I wonder who thou art.

a'Soa^S''* (Me quia ?)

there is no saying who he is.


The following two pages should be committed to memory when
we are learning the declensions.
Nouns ending in 3 I form all the persons thus :from &o\&
a father and
a mother. The negative forms are added.
1. m. 7fo>
*o\&P
"^jfc wtfjD tfo(_Sp -ff-f>
1 /.
e>S $?>
"^js* 69$|0
p TrfS)
2 m. P&
tSo[&S>
p&
So(&a -s-
2 /.
3 m.

I am his father,
I am not.
I am his mother.
I am not.
Thou art his father.
Thou art not his &c.

>6

f>3
Thou art his mother.
wtfjt> #8 a
Thou art not.
sniS> &<SP OoJS
That man is his father.
r>S
e$o(& -B~*o Is not.
e3-"&> e&p &|)
3jt) 6^ -H->>fiS>

That woman is his mother.


la not.

The neuter has no affixes.


esfr,g'j
That is my sword,
tsa TTS\9 T*t&
That is not my sword.
Plural.
1 0|.

Saa&i w8 eJo(*e)oSxi

We are their fathers.

If.

"&sfe3'sr8 tfo(Sbe)to TPia


sr8 Seeso
-& t&o wfl {?eue>o&3 -srsS

We are not.
We are their mothers.
We are not &c.

2 m.
2 /.

The remaining persons


***8 Qo\efej
sxroSo sr8 3ol&bu ~sr&
cn>cS w8 tfweu
Sn>t6 -sr8 &ewo T*C6

have no affixes.
Te are their fathers.
Ye are not &c.
Ye are their mothers.
Ye are not &c.

COMBINATION.
3M,
Z f.
3 n.

*>8o r>8 fo^oo


&t> sj*8 &o|_Sex) T'cfi
f>S3 r*8 #eueu
g>t> r-8 &eex>
"S^cfi
CO
wa sfo5">
tsa s&rS"$6e

197

These are their fathers.


These are not.
These are their mothers.
These are not.
Those are our swords,
Those are not &c.

The following is an example of the Second Declension, S'tf rssto


a clerk.
1
I am a clerk.
I am not.
Thou art.
He is.
We are.
Ye are.
They are.
Example of a noun of the third declension ending, in U. "ri&
a tenant, a husbandman.
1 ^fS)TT^J^
I am a tenant.
2
3
1
2 Sap-BoS" Strew
3 sr0o 5-8f3,ew

2
3
1

~f$> T-n6)?S> V ?X>

I am not.

-r"^sS
fc> "S^^S
wSS -B"^
st"So
-rJ5o.

Thou.
Thou art not.
He is.
He is not.

iaifcnp^)iiifc
"A>o&o T^e)sS "r5&)
2 &r>c& Tr*^s
sxro3S
-s^So
3 sroo -r^Je
sr5o
T03

We are farmers.
We are not.
Ye are.
Ye are not.
They are.
They are not.

Prom sr!> already given, a feminine is formed in "cws, Thus.


fr>Xfasr'i& a handsome man p,X'ffc"C*oa a pretty woman. Thus.
1 T^fk f^X^ xre)j&
I am pretty (fern.)

198

SYNTAX THE GENITIVE.


7j& fT*X'f& TPeiffc
2
f^'X'f&i Trej^>

I am not.
Thou art.

^/vf& -o*e s-&


63- "Sj
-crew
63-"Sj f^x -&e Tfc
1
j5-*> T7o(_fi5&3

Thou art not.


She is.
She is not.
We are (f.)

But the Plural is not in use.

THE GENITIVE,
The sign 55 *_ does not affect the sense.
c3|f_"c> equally mean ' his name.'*

<y&Pt>Co and w&P

Nouns of the 2d Declension may take "4) in the genitive : thus


But this is rarely used with Sanscrit nouns, as [&&<S
The genitive sometimes gives the sense of an adjective. Thus
s&doojSsSm beauty s$c>sSo^;"3j-<>s&> a face of beauty : ^3)a deaf
ness ^SSSsr-eia a deaf man.
a crippled state 2>43srsSb
a man who is crippled
barrenness >*8t5i& a barren field.
Thus Milton (Par. L. 9. 645) says, by a Hebraisin ' the tree
of prohibition.'
In such compounds 6J t_ is never used.
Even adverbs are used in such compounds. Thus, ^tr^a
afterward ^"o^^S^aSb the nest man. t above, 6 ox>*g an
upper chamber. 0* under. 65- oa -u^ow the stone which ia

* This ^>^_ is stated to be a Kala word : thatis e#F>63uSf_o


'his house' never can be written fc^poSwg^ptM ataniyocca-Nillu. But why should rules be given regarding errors that are
never committed ?
In conversation, instead of 63- ' that' and
1 this' we some
times hear 63- ^ f &i&x>Z , This error should be avoided.

THE DATIVE.

199

under it. eHjfS formerly, err*x'&"B!f_ the former account. s;o


syf lately sspTTrt5 sngagsSs the late suit.
Sanscrit nouns that end inJJDU as ;StSoj> <a man' would form
the inflection in P as
But in poetry this p may be dropt.
Thus instead of t&t3^ by the man, ;SSSl5S.

ON THE DATIVE CASE.


The Dative originally means To or For, as wdploaaS^p I
gave it to him l_prS^-35*?iS for writing. But in various places it
means from, in, by, at, of, &c. &e. implying a general indefinite
connection.

EXAMPLES.
To.
a house, SjoiSS^6 go to the house : go home.
~$$>, I, tsfS^SoUScSiao I do not know it : it is not known to
me. *r>&, He, srp8o_ftp I gave it to him.
For.
a word, sSrfc>Sosrk> word for word. Sfo4> belly
S'jb^So"a>;fcSo_g> he has no food for his belly. ^ death,
S5^Ks&a^^8S> when he was ready for death.
From.
a village &d%&&->r$o a league from the vil
lage. sr"0^>they, Kro^9S-5r,a,iT3fi) he hid it from them.
In. sr'SsSxi a week, wif s(S5j;5 &y?rt& he came in a week,
time, 6"*o ^sJxPfjis&SS in a short time. 7r&> a day,
& in ten days.
a wall, ST^SoS^fSxi"^?*) he dug a hole in
the wall. ;62S>sS the middle, (SSsx^aSTSifc he broke it in the mid
dle. &8 end
in the end.
At. *>3 the end 3585 at the end. HI time 9-"S#$o at that
time. tp^S night tpISS at night.
By. "^w a month
month by month. sSbCdaSb Cupid

200

SYNTAX OF THE DATIVE AND ACCUSATIVE.

sfctfepitfo & 13 he was agitated by Cupid. Ka<sfi h0Ur X"acsfi5S)(Sc5S


hour by hour.
Of. ^9 a tiger- ^jSSKaT^.he was afraid of the tiger.
Sometimes it denotes indefinite connection. G^fio a league.
f&>5jtf?S^sS less than a league. fc&o he WSpg&^i) after him. 3
that xs*p8tf-o^tf after that.

Other uses of the Dative will be

found in the English-Telugu Dictionary : particularly under


English prepositions.
The verb To be connected with a dative denotes (as in Latin) he
has. Thus fSifc he^&pSSSsS^a, to him there is a mother: i. e.
he has a mother. >&5'offi&"gsr have you no eyes : lit : to thee
eyes not ?
Impersonal verbs (as in Latin) use the dative for the nomina
tive. ^i&4j to seem.^Pw^^*06S he thought so. 7T"SSj
I did not think so. It did not seem so to me.
The syllable $ (as
to the place) is colloquially drop
ped, and they say "1>>e>5iBS3. Thus wa^ydSMStfaaSo, for \]*r><&&
for writing it.
When ^ ella, all, is connected with a dative, it is (as in English)
placed at the end: thus ^SS to them, wfilo to them all.
Sfo, Then, forms in the dative f *j43l and (by adding the conjunc
tion) vA^f&Ewn then, although. Thus^^w^a&^S&Yet :
Even were it so : but omitting the conjunction it merely means
when.
*&\*58 on their arrival : when they arriyed.

THE ACCUSATIVE CASE.


The sign {P, P~, jfc, fS>s~, ni or nin, nu or nun,) of the accusa
tive, is frequently dropped : :S^>c56S(T"^ he cut down the tree.
S" J>&&rp-cp for *S|D&-p-u* bring the knife, asfr*fSol3|_
KUR. 2. 262. mounting the car.

ACCUSATIVE.

201

[tfotutbOb makes in the Accusative


p or else eaoSoSor else aSb. In DR. 3. 33. (Jtfoooso?68o*>. pSoooSb^Sb 1 will
bring your husband. tr>iSs)^3 he thought of Eama. DRK.
217. er*rro*JSo^aag r*|BsSo 8^043. DRIJ. 539. -WiSsT-oSr;^,
The plural Accusative often drops the NT or NU and ends in
A or I ; thus foescfi all men. G. o6 ; Acc. tsot5i& or o
8j& or wosse^; or else otf or o5. Pal. 106.
The accusatives ending in eli. as sr>e|i,
^641. are nob
used in verse.
The word srP ' him' the accusative sign of
' he,' is also the
Acc. Plu. Neut. of fa ' those things.' And in like manner
these things will form the Acc. & P similar to the Acc. Sing, of
h& this man. See instances in the Dictionary.
Sometimes an intransitive verb &
to become,' governs an
accusative fffe "ra^ (her, acc.) 5> r- -> aSsaM-p* jfc he was mar
ried to her ; wherein "s~s53jSm 1 to become' seems to govern "n'JJj
(the acc.) her.
By adding UDU, masculine nouns borrowed from Sanscrit may
become nouns of the First Declension. Thus T7*sS>g becomes
iSso and forms the accusative "trjsp.
[And in some places the letter N
or i&) may become nacarapollu [s-] or sunna [o] or the semi-circle [c]. Thus "Spr*g|6
/ hit the antelope may become (in poetry) ~&&s~ 0r "^5o or "e5&' ;
as "^ScfPgOp. These niceties regarding the shape of a letter
are much insisted upon by native grammarians as affecting rhyme.]
The poets occasionally double the accusative sign TT'dpoxp
Gouri-nin-gani (for J^dpxp) when she saw Parvati.
A few verbs (as in other languages) govern two accusatives, as
;S fSrjBx^to wa^fyife he asked me for the money.
A word of Sanscrit origin ending in MU, as fa*
may drop
that syllable in the accusative. $r>[p ;6 ho straight as a line. sSgt6
;Sa&o4j for Sg-rfjisfaoa&SoAj. To sorrow. t&osT'Vd&iSbi). To be glad.
0. P. Brown's Tetygu Grammar.
b b

202

SYNTAX OF THE CASES.

[Some anomalies occur in the poets. In M. 3. 5. 262, &|| &


:&d aKl8d8i083o^5S sjjSe;7r ~^>ojS8oi^) ' Place us as goddesses
(mothers) to rule the universe.' There ^yUvrc j8 for ^{Jeuw
c3x4jATr,1 But it is sSr'tfe not sfc*3e. Probably it is a con
traction for sj*3<! + 55* that it is K the root in A of WJfota.]

ON THE VOCATIVE.
All nouns ending in =i mate the singular vocative by lengthen
ing the final vowel: thus &o\h O father ! 8& O mother !
!
good woman ! wife! r^sar* Sir! your honour! my Lord!
0 sage !
In the plural, the L is often doubled. Thus "*oSSeM sons,
Voc. r*fi&&er-!T o sons.
All other nouns make the vocative in W- as & tf ts O brother,
Bf^L Brother or Friend !
Madam ! eJf_--cr O sisters. In
the colloquial dialect the first decl. merely lengthens the final U
of the Nominative, as 84r O brother! w*jjr my dear
child !
[In poetry the final long A or I ! is sometimes shortened : thus
ts?f_ert5 O sisters !
O brother ! ^e;g,tf my friend !
^|>.
[The syllable RO is sometimes superadded. Thus from faisQ
(madam) is formed ^oesSS^ O madam ! 'tfjfjr6 O sister, madam !
[In poetry, Sanscrit nouns masculine ending in UDU, often
retain the Sanscrit vocative: thus ^StJsS-yCSS (Tara IV. 199.)
Hear me O God ! Here the prose Telugu vocative would be
Thus, one of the songs in the Radha madhava Samvadam
says.
% || Tr-CT'^oSo5SrSS' ! [for SSsSnffSS-w,] xr-ojSrf
! [for
iT'OaTS',] Tr-tr-r^ ! [for 5^^>"ts* &c]
[The words son, father, brother, mother, &c. denoting affection,
are used in a very wide sense. Thus (M. 1. 2. 35. Vish. 2. 17.)
Cadruva addresses her serpent brood as <*fSj_ep>-o* 0 brothers ! So

ABLATIVE.

203

in Harisch : Dwip : 2. 2009. the mother lamenting over her son


calls him
0 brother ! In the Lila 8. 56. the parents la
menting their daughter's death, call her 7^
0 my sister.
Thus Andromache (Iliad. 6. 430) calls her spouse father, mother
and brother.
TThus
instead of V"4 &~c?>. Ltt'sgS'^oI is \ "S3-tfcJfir-fn>o[p i a^TT'2?-^Ttf !
! N. D. 3. 14. 11. Were
the Telugu vocative forms used, they would be cS"3olS> ts^ -^o
[&-t&>} $3--r'i$>-zp> ! e^5S'T3 !]
The pronoun feminine w8 forms the gen. ~^P and the Voc.
~gt~F. This occurs only in compounds Thus &4legM- Voc. Sf^
^F" O girl ! "3(6 a simpleton '3l8-n'fr>

ON THE ABLATIVE.
There are two Ablatives : the instrumental and the Locative :
but many nouns unite these : and thus " Ablative" becomes a
convenient name.
The affixes
or 3e> ' by' and ^* ' with' denote the instru
mental : and
or fojfc ' in' denote the Locative : being in
general use they will be first explained. Thus pT^tSS by me.
^8^tf by them sstSsS^i'3 by fever. Si8>sr"?>^&sfco&Sp I sent
this by him. Sfesr8^^ iJoaSajTs^cfc he was killed by them.
e-dtSiS^S^e^^^F^eo they took leave of him. sfotf^sS
^aoa]T{S) he had it written by them. j&sSg by you. ^5e>
by him ^Sja^ra WoMjSa this is effected by him. sa-8sSe> aus-r^
this cannot be done by them.
TyS^ with me. JJ'SS^ with them- S"_3S" >^i a knife.
B^Sjt) I told him ; lit. with him. g^r^gF"^ he beat (it)
with a stick.
Y^S^aSb he shot (it) with his gun.
Examples of the Locative. "Ska a tree ^^aer* or i3ijSoiS>
' In a tree' s^er* or sfc^tsfcosfc * amongst us.'

204

SYNTAX OP CASES.

When the plural inflection adds the sign


in the Locative,
contraction sometimes takes place, and
LO becomes
LLO.
Thus irew 'bushes,' Infl.
LOC. sfr*e>r* podala lo or
&*tsg* poddl-Io 'in the bushes.' tp[_8"3? nighttime plu. Loc.
Tr>\Bii$e<!r* or c*\Q'i^a^* ' in the night time.'
The postposition NA, when used as a sign of the Ablative is
added to neuter words in U : as sir-*? time
in time S^sfe
the breast <5^sk^i* on the breast. Or it has the instrumental
sense : as
the nose
$&&iZr& the bird pecked it with
its bill. "*o& timidity S~oS5;S-c5i5r~ she hid herself out of'shame,
tf o-jy;S"c";3r> he sawed it with a saw.
Masculine nouns of Sanscrit origin in UDU as
a man,
may sometimes in poetry merely drop the DTJ in the Instrumental
case : thus ftib'&iS instead of the longer form fS6op^&.
Some neuters borrowed from the Sanscrit first declension often use the
Sanscrit form of the singular Locative : thus from jScSSo and $"cS30 are formed
jS^o jS, jjroiojS ' by fair or rough methods' of which the proper Telugu form
would be jSdBjsfcoeT8, STcKSsSaxST3, or jSdSSsSxi'SS $, ^TcSfisfeD^tf.
Some nouns of the 2d Declension form the Loc. in two ways
when they add N. Thus ifr-xusSn ' a field ;' ^esSalS or
the field.' <Sn>tfjS;S or <5p>-it j6 at a distance.'
SfS or "ri^iS
In the country.' S3-fl&a6x>f> or <S-&fcc!fr*iS 'at that time.' Sta*
^t)ng$x$ or <^"f3;6 by your favour.' r^l^iS 'by your good
ness.'
^-"jS 'by his wickedness.'
[The form ambuna as p!ox'tfsS war, l6ox'tfoao;S 'in the battle'
is chiefly used in poems : the common form is ana viz. : poxxr'tf
which the learned disapprove : but many poets use it. Thus
tr^aS-^ji for fr^tffSsSMiS or ^etitf oaujS 'by simplicity.' (Vijaya
vilas. 2. 428.)
[If wo<& is added to Sanscrit nouns ending in U, the letter N
may be inserted at pleasure : as Sx>$ot&> Vishnu-n-andu (Padma
vii. 46) or tsZv$$oi& 0r aswsSodfc. ' in Vishnu.' 55i$*s ' a forest'

ABLATIVE.

205

s5jSsSiiosS> or sSiSi&oaS) in ' a forest' [XotfiSaa a book \Xo$4x$oi>


or \jco$5Sjo& in a book.' The form a&;5os ig peculiar to verse.
In speaking, Sj&JcSSoiSb, s5;6Sx>cBiofc are used.]
The affix tofi> crndu or tsoefci- andun is colloquially changed
into SSoafciS anduna. Thus \j<o;s>oa>jS in the book. *)Jfs&>o>iS
In the mind.
Some neuter nouns of the 3rd Decl. which end in Q ' V
make the Ablative by adding NI. Thus "?_Q the head, ~? P
on the head. ^ the ear ^af> in the ear. "ra8 a road "cyap
on the road.
Others use NU : as 6"*o a mountain "cifS> on the moun
tain fc9e>& weariness
through weariness S<* favour <sSifS>
by favour. Thus P. 2. 146. Bd*pTS^*Sgss^ Ticca. IJ. E. 5.
133. But these affixes are frequently dropped. Thus, CS-S'O
hunger, makes the instrumental 8S-^&> or SS-S'O^O. And yet we
hear the phrase S3-S'^3^je!Sxrf&3^'?)!^Eei^3 ' my ears are ring
ing with hunger.' This often occurs, particularly in verse.
Thus, from ^Ssxj love, kindness, (SfSv^38&>t5&.o)6 rescuing me
with his love.
[These instances occur in various poems
in the earth
(ND. 3. 1418,) tfe>-3xa for &vfrHtr>t> (BD. 5. 309) sS^*j
grief, ;Sfc>sSspa SUnk in grief. &J-^o8oS for W-^iS* or e3-^0"
thinking in his heart. 9&> for
with might.
s>;5jjii3T& regarding him with kindness.]

T. 4. 108.

Sometimes $ NA is used for V NI and i& NU. as V**^ on


the road : fC*&# on the wall
for "^s? on such a date
~5~?i$ on the voke &c. ^^i*
for
ttojS>.
to
fcO
All neuter plurals make the Locative in
or
or (drop
ping N) in e. Thus r*oe hills rcvfr or r*otfejir 0r S"*oS
<v or roSe)cSioiSb in the hills : Thus
places ^i^L^^ in a
few places.
These examples shew that the simple Ablative (that is without
affixes, as in or by) sometimes has the instrumental and some
times the Locative sense.

206

SYNTAX OF THE CASES.

Many of the Irregular nouns of the 3d Declension make the


INSTKUMENTAL Ablative without using any of these affixes.
Thus *wa tooth (Infl. *o*3. Abl. a&oi>) 6ok>?re>-^fr he bit it
tuith his tooth. "^S mouth. (Infl. ~f>ri. Abl. "?w*->) =r?>
"^4j3o43f> I heard it from him. Lit. at his mouth.!
the eye (Infl. 5o*3 Abl.
Plural.
Infl. STog)
SoiSiSr8 they saw it with their eyes.
A thorn (Infl. ao
*3. Abl. So6j) sSot>sJr,'a3^> he pierced it oi^ a thorn.
i> a cord (Infl. ^43. Abl.
he bound it with
a cord.
es-ro Hunger (G. M-S'S or S"*3 abl. W-rk) es-Sfc, tftfc^ to
die of hunger.
fr<sa
?r*^*3
abl. iTtfok
for r,Q&*,
Ca An axe (G.
\
Ga or ?To43
c*
Co
CM
(or else !T^ofc>) ;68"1|4> he hewed it with an axe.
R~|8c> a drill plough. Infl. X" _9 . abl.
iTjs; ajJ^SS
he sowed (the land) with a drill plough.
Examples of the LOCATIVE case. sj^> a house (G. 3o*3. l.
$o*j) sjoia -cr-?>-fj'o he hid in the house. BP*J?>F^?6, or
Tr^JSb he is at home.
"3ax a hand (G. ^9 ; L.
;)
^dfrl^ZQ or ^Ser6
^o'iSS'JI the sword in his hand.
3 a bow (G. s>*3 L. ao*j.) aok&fcSo^jfc he fastened it on
his bow.
<5^oo a mortar (G.
L. 5^fc>) S^tiriSa (otherwise 5^
Ber* or fi^g-^se) it fell into the mortar.
"OS a name (G. "^8 or ^843. Loc:
or t>tft>.) e-ar'ao pP>"S
jS*j ^7^!^) the letter is addressed to me: that is 'in my
name.'
S""IS>. Across, an impaling stake (G- "*_8 Loc.
or
rJJ.) r>%
"^?)S they impaled him r*0oto;ai6o?(ira let
every poetaster (be hung) on an impaling spike (Swa. 1. 200.)
?S*w a well (G.
L. ;&*#.)
(or j^Ser*) S^"3
Jfc he pushed it into the well.

LOCAL ABLATIVE.

207

a town (G. S8. L.


&tS (or
or
f^f^
ifc he is in town.
Ty*to a place (G. i5^*3 Loc. xT*^. Flu. ir* Q and L. iS*
>.)
^iS^*J in a few places.
"3uj. A root, a beginning (G-. "SeS43. L. "Sa>es*->)
toiT-Fr$iS^> it is sound at the root. (plu. "Sxesgi Gr and L. "S
b at the roots) ~3ajf
i^ft it is found at their roots.
tt-oo a foot (G. tt-0 L. TTe>. Plu. -r& G and L. T|)
d*j6-r?iisSoPi* I will fall at his feet.
;6sS>tf the west (G. a&^^*3. L. *sk*J) s&S^io in the west.
[The Ablative case being included in the words of the Druta
class, the letter N is inserted. Thus i6s&ij|&F^Lfc 'padamata-Nunnadu, he is in the west.' wp^'SiSo&Sp. < j sent it by him.']
[Native Grammarians, arguing on Sanscrit principles, occasion
ally doubt whether a Telugu word in the Ablative is to be ex
plained as instrumental, or as Locative : but we shall easily meet
the doubt by considering it as the Ablative ; wherein both senses
are included. They also some times doubt whether a word (for
instance
from ^^> eyes) is ablative or accusative. The con
text will decide which is intended. Thus ^oSs may be instead of
Gen. S'ogaJMS' or Acc. 5"o?> or ;loc o&i& or S"^cs6o
b or instr. Sog^ (Vish. 8. 3 46.) ^^^e^Co^oa sit
ting on the banks.
For the Ablative may as in Sanscrit or Greek bear three senses.
See Classical Journal vol : xi. 148. and the ancient Telugu
grammar called Chintamani, Section xlvi.]

ON COMPOUND NOUNS (Samasa.)


SamSsam ^s&l6sS in Sanscrit signifies combination of words :
formation of compound terms : unting several nouns in one
phrase ; the final word alone having the sings of case.
These rules regarding compound nouns are not to be studied
until the student can speak Telugu easily.

208

SYNTAX OF COMPOUND NOUNS.

When two nouns in poetry are compounded, as a row " of"


teeth, a pair " of" eyes, a string " of" pearls English uses the
genitive plural but Telugu uses the Nominative singular : thus
*e tooth combined with s5tf$ row becomes a&oosss^, or,
: "tooth-row." so Sf^j, eye X'sS pair S'pjoX'sS or
a pair of
eyes. So Sli*j_+"*T^=5'F^^) the pupil of the eye. So tfffc
cS^ow becomes ^"w. &c.
Indeed the spelling is altered in nearly every compound
phrase. Thus tf^sSo^i becomes &)iSo\& pareuts.
talli
being written

tali.

Elsewhere a single letter, is doubled ;

thus
' head' has but a single L : yet in the compound
<&eu upside down the L is doubled.
In many compounds the word which is first in English is
last in Telugu. Thus "3o"3iSo a cupful. f>$> water "3o"3i6^ft
a cup of water. Lit. Water of a cup. ^"p^o^e land of two
miles. That is,'BO
a mile of land. w4je>fo:r4j or ^5"^xn>*jwAjM
CO a
bundle of clothes. S'j&X's; "eye-pair" i. e. a pair of eyes. S^* jS
tip and ^S> ear
the tip of the ear, or ear-tip : which if
not compounded would be H&o&i^&^fi : thus B^jS
the tip
of the finger. B"*"tf (cosa) tip "3o^r hair r^-So^? the tip
of the hair.
Sanscrit feminine nouns of more than one syllable, ending in
broad A or I, must in Telugu shorten that letter : thus SuTg
becomes ss and
becomes tfs&eSa woman.
But in compounded words the original Sanscrit spelling is
retained. Thus 5" w becomes in Telugu S"? 'a story' but S"tjt
^oiLa&s ' the summary of the story ' retains the long vowel.
In some compounds the first word drops the last syllable : or
retains only the first: thus 5&rs6 -f jdjrCfcew becomes tfsaj&r^ifi
three hundred. skn>sfc three
a sixteenth s
' three sixteenths.' 7r> eHo + j&* &oew becomes r^cJ* four hundred

COMPOUNDS. PROPER NAMES.

209

;>r2So + er'S'tfaasxj becomes sSeP~65"seM the three worlds (or uni


verse, heaven earth and Hades). sS>r<>6 + Tuotu becomes ^fj?
t three quarters. sS upper + T"txt leg becomes s*rTr,eu 'the
upper part of the leg.' ~o^J a ruby 'St'S lip "1 ~3xr*& a ruby lip.
^Socog a hand
a knife xSS'J* a small knife. *iSa cow
a
male 4S-ir*& a bull.
Nouns that end in MU may drop that termination in com
pounds: thus tJwsSm anger (compounded with )*J>t>,) i5e>*43
being angry. H. D. 1. 2117.
The following words combine a Sanscrit and a Telugu word :
this is disapproved, but is in daily use, even among the learned.
(jvsS)_84 the reeve or head man of the village.
a
tenant, ai-^te a poisonous tree. a&^&Ki a venomous snake.
eSbfSsrSstf bad conduct. Sb^ye_&5' a bad habit. ^Oo
CO 0r CO -|-sSb
*
tfsSo becomes "S^jfcSsSn, -fir*aoSsS the name of a certain voca
bulary. In this instance the Telugu word stands first.
In some compound words the second is superfluous in transla
tion": thus
and Se>"6-<sss equally mean the head. "3f=j.and
~3$jjlr'& equally mean butter.
When several nouns are combined, whatever the case may be,
they are usually in the nominative form, and the sign of case is
added at the end. Thus ^s^eMeM, s5_SS5w, SbsS'uoaS^S
'By bramhans, merchants and Muaulmans.' Here the three
nouns are Nominatives, and 8x3 & "by these" is added at the
end. Thus &&2it&, ^ifcS3, Ap^fto a8jo b8o 'Concerning
his brother, son and servant.' 9, ^i^, eS-^S, fi>Koex>, aiSsSe)
Literally ' Cold, rain, hunger, fear, by these things.

RULES REGARDING PROPER NAMES.


Among the Telugus the family name is in the genitive case :
and it therefore stands first: the personal name follows it.*
Thus in botanical Latin -we write the name of the species but abbreviate
that of the genus which is placed first, like the Telugu family name. The
C. P. Brown's Telugu Grammar.
c c

210

SYNTAX OF

The personal name is often that of a Hindu god or goddess : as


TPSocKig Ramaiia, and
Laxtni : but the family name is usually
that of a place. Thus S'aS^xr'sSbdSj^ Ramaiia of Kadapa. It is
hence called either ^oiS^Kb house-name or *6^S> village name.
Among Europeans the family name is known to all, even to
strangers : the Christian name is not so often heard. Among the
Telugus the contrary is the case : we may know a man well by
name, though we may never have heard his family name. A man
baptized at Madras in 1837 was named Wesley Abraham.
The English contract the christian or personal name and write
the family name at length : the Telugus do the contrary. Thus
*6||*)1id*S ' P- Chinnaiia' may stand for rifr^^W&jSjcsfic or
Chinnaya of the Pasupuleti family. In signatures the personal
name alone is generally written. In marriage the wife takes her
husband's family name. But some persons and castes have no
family nameThe family name is often that of a place. Thus there are
places named
and r'oS&sfc whence *&<^)"3t3Tj*S>csfi
Ramaya of Pasupuleru %~o&h&%^&d& Krishnaya of Condavldu. If asked the names of their respective families, these
men would answer (using plural forms) i^x>ir&>^)"<3e3rcc5:Sx>
we are of Pasupuleru <&c.
In such genitives 5313 1_ is inadmissible.
"When two or more persons bearing the same family name, are
mentioned together, <wr 'This' (equivalent to Ditto) is used.
Thus afJ^^^iS-ctficS^, con^&ctfSg Ramaya and Krishnaya of
Pasupuleru. Or, Pasupuleru Ramaya, and ditto Krishnaya : like
' John and Charles Wesley.' Thus &rjS S^csfcg Narasaya ofyour
family. !&*xr&<s6 our Ramaya, &c.
Chinese too place the family name first. So in old English, John of Gaunt,
Anne of Geierstein, Balfour of Burley. The same is the custom among the
Finns and also the Hungarians. See Foreign Quarterly Review No. 57, p. 65,
where ' John living at Kinte' was called ' Kinte's John' &c. See Blackwood'*
Magazine No. 334, page 178.

PROPER NAMES.

211

When junior and senior are intended the words


elder and
^foL younger are used. Thus "3e>Xsg-& wg&ffcsSg asr >;S^_>tf<3Sj
Vfraya senior and junior of Velagapudi. The words for senior
and junior being applied to the personal names.
Servants who have long been attached to some English or Musulman or French masters occasionally bear their names. Thus a
native Hindu family at Masulipatam bears the name of Holland.
Another bears the name of Majumdar ; that is, Accountant.
Just as William or Elizabeth may become Will or Bill, Betsy
or Betty, the same Telugu name may take various forms, some
respectful and others familiar. Thus Jagannath Rao, Jagga Rao,
Jagannatham, Jaggaya, Jaggappa : and a female name Laxmi
may become ^^f^ and even e>Sy So among men. iBotfcsSg may
become Bo8Tr& but the word i^t^> (equivalent to fellow,) is
applied only to the lowest persons. In speaking they often con
tract such names into ^ot&iv in the vocative ; dropping the last
syllable. This should be avoided.
Some personal names as a&xr'oSo?' sS, 5l?3"0ox'sS &c. have a
neuter form. Or the termination e as
6*". See the rules
for the plural.
As names (personal) take forms so numerous,* a misnomer
cannot well be pleaded, unless regarding the family names. Some
few, particularly men of learning, assume new names ; or epithets :
but cases are rare of an alias assumed for a, fraudulent design.
Sometimes one person signs on behalf of another ; using this
phrase ST?? $s&9?> ~&>;Se13iS "3&"B3j>s s^p-Zvp ' signed by me,
Medideh Krishnamma, on behalf of my uncle Viresa.' Literally
'Signature (H. niskan) of Krishnamma by consent of Viresa.'
It is considered improper for a man to call his wife, or a wife
to call her husband, or, in short to call any respected person,
by name. Thus English servants if respectful, do not speak

* So in ancient English, some names as Raleigh, Burleigh, Shakespeare,


were spelt in various ways, without any rule.

212

SYNTAX OF PROPER NAMES.

of their master or mistresa by name. A man never mentions


his wife's name ; nor does a woman mention her husband's ;
unless by compulsion in a court of justice : where it is consider
ed a hardship and indignity. A woman speaka of her husband
as &cs>tt&*$>& or as ss^B-csss^ Master, or my Lord.
Though Sita (the spouse of Rama) ia a feminine name (in Telugu
f>8&,) it is also borne by men, with the masculine affix, viz.
!>8cK5j Sltaya (as Maria forms the name of some Frenchmen ;
or as Helena and Helenus in Greek). But Telugu ladies of rank
( Velamas) use the masculine affix : and sign their names as ^ #
Sitaya,or sotfcrtg Rangaiia ; instead of f>85& Sltamma or tfo?f:&
Rangamma.
This refinement originates in pride : the common salutation
" Madam " is
'Amma' Mother; but a proud Hindu dame
scorning to let every man, whatever his caste, addresses her as
tother, assumes the title fcjcsfio ' Ayya ' " Father "equivalent to
Sir or Lord. Such is the reason alledged.
Thus Moriamur pro rege nostro Maria Theresa. The Highland
Scotch use the word Sir respectfully to ladies.
Hindu letters generally commence with absurd flatteries. " To
the most noble, most reverend" &c. which are mere expressions
of course, like 'your obedient servant.' In modern days Hindus
see the emptiness of thia ; and to get rid of the custom many begin
their letters with " My dear Sir" (written in English) adding, at
the end, " Tour obedient servant"
while the rest of the letter
is written in Telugu or Tamil. In the native newspapers correspon
dents fairly commence in the English fashion, with
' Sir'
ending with &s&>~% ss&~e^$ 'your servant.' Even the English
mode of using a fanciful signature "A Friend" " An Observer"
&c is imitated.
El aa the nativea pronounce English names we enunciate their
names yet worse. Thus on the map we see Kotta Kotta for #
8^fc Kotta Kota (New Fort) and aV^ja&iJsSn Visakha Patnam be
comes Vizagapatam, (TSS^sS Sricaculam is written Chicacole:
cn>aScxrab Guduliir becomes Cuddalore. sScBsy^ Vandavasi be
comes "Wandiwash : &*S*t& Hiroda is turned into Errode.

ON PEONOUNS.

213

Eight points of the compass are named as follows :


North. &jtfsS, also called S6~23'|& because its regent ia
Plutus the god of wealth.
North-East. -^;Sg:Sxr>, ruled by the Destroyer.
East. raf^. Sometimes called 3i0le^L, as its regent is Ju
piter.
South-East. 69-"^d6s&rt> its regent being Vulcan.
South. s&-rajfej. Sometimes c*6s>e&S its regent being Pluto.
South-west 2**) 5Sxr'e' This is often written wrongly
2L?>8, or 2lx>9. f is named after a regent named F>tf)9
whose name also is written PLwidS or f>z3r8.
West s&Ss&tJ (Genitive s&sb 43, western: Loc. a&fis&i) in the
west) which is occasionally called ^oSreBSS. as Neptune is the
regent.
North-west, -zr-ti&tig s&re) the regent being JEolus.

ON PEONOUNS.
Pronouns, as ' he, she, they' and possessives as ' My, his, their1
are not so often used as in English. Thus es^^T6
(he)
told (it) to (his) brother. & o{&$
1 father came' may mean my,
your, or his father.
The singular pronouns >3>'thou' r>'thy,' Pf^'thee,' are
in colloquial English rendered as plurals, ' You, your, you,' as
3
as^jftf -where (is) your brother.
But the plural pronouns ^r-Bo ' those men,'
' these men'
when used to denote honour, become singular in English. Thus
5t"<>sS;&j 73^80 liis honour is coming : literally, ' They are coming."
The pronouns of the 3d person are these. sri 'he,'

or

yr>oa& 1 they.' (a feminine or neuter affix) is contracted from a


1 she or it,' the neuter plural affix a is contracted from a ' those
things.' These may be added to the relative participles, and some
other words : and then denote man, woman or thing.

214

SYNTAX OF

Thus. 5SrrJ> 1 my man.' sr^o<5& 'my people,' 'my rela


tions.' 63 _43sr#b ' a man of that place :' USDS'eS^SS a clever
man' sS8\|S*r'oa& those who came. ro"^ro2> 'those who are
there.' Trp3r'>os>, ' ~>p?r>oi)' those who came not ; absentees,
l*5-~lr4fc a writer. fcSeSps5o63sra a man like him. "3i&Xo'sr&o,
a Telugu man. ~&ex>fo-sr>os&} Telugu people.
sri> and ^r*1^' sometimes denote disrespect. Thus >i|jrS6
a boy, t?^a^J*> a fellow of that place. But in the plural disres
pect is not always implied: thus ssjr'sroSa my people, f^j3"*
children.
sr0o or tpcS) denotes respect. "S9t^roo wise men : S"7r*6
my honored mother So^St"!*) his father, or my father never
io^3-"03. <Sts~rc& or "^o$5"0o Your honor, my lord. <StS
frp7^& honored madam.
[The word ' Mother' is always used to denote homage. &rl? 8 0
' You are my mother,' signifies ' You are my all in all.' &>^
-cr^ra
i Sanscrit is the mother' that is ' We cannot do without
Sanscrit.' This has been wrongly understood as though it meant
that the Telugu language was the daughter of Sanscrit.]
TT'aSb or ~s"*2Sb is always used disrespectfully fdTvsfc that man,
g-^Tv^eSo a man of peevish temper, &otsivi> a handsome man,
fr>Kfo rsSo a pretty fellow.
The neuter affix is , plural S> ; for wa it, tsa those things.
tsSpa his. -^Xilj^ fcop& this horse is his ^^jonyp
these jewels are her's.
Sometimes this affix comes before the noun.
a cow of his

Thus wS^S^S"

i3"eHo & -2r&<ix> four guns of mine.

The affixes of pronouns may be added to postpositions. Thus


from <s^F>, (inflection of e^*, 'in') -&og> es-S^tJer-^a these
fruits are from that garden.
one, that is the lower one.

2t& 8 lose, This is the upper

PEONOUNS.

215

Of feminine pronouns, a is equally used for all grades. It


is contracted into e, as s&o) a good woman
an old
woman,
a girl, "SS^^S a clever woman s^^iSS a bramin
woman, x^pa sho that is not como.
63- 1j, $3-~&i denote respect as vy&~?rX> a bramhan
woman.
In poetry
eta is used as an affix denoting slight, as
a milk maid
a fish woman.
and
are used respectfully for ' He.'
he who is the junior. "5iTjV95 the senior. Of^e^iS the young
gentleman '^"g'c,cfs the old gentleman.
f^csfiiS a man of
sense.
Contrast this with the disrespectful plural. aS*^X"(&>0 an ac
tress : plural (feminine) &*X'or>oz&> dancers. So f^tS, or
r^ifciSsr'afc a shopkeeper ; in the plural F"cA<*rop.
Elder relations address their juniors as 'thou' (en tutoyant is
the French phrase :) who in reply say ' you.' Every woman
(unless when talking aiFectionately, or to a servant) addresses
every man as
or &s*tfi ' you' or ' your honour.'
The common respectful address of a woman to a stranger is
Wdr-g Sir, or Father. Other men are saluted as
elder
brother or
younger brother: according to his age. Women
are saluted as^J mother! or
elder sister!
In poetry P\) thou is much used : especially as expressing love
or honour- In H. D. 2. 151 the wife addressing her husband with
affectionate reverence styles him " Thou."
[Some plural forms are peculiar to poetry, as ^rSex>, Stfew
Also some contractions, as &8 for ois5S to t>4) whom ?]
A pronoun which in English applies to one person, often changes
in Telugu into another. Thus ' They asked him who he was' be
comes r>>
fcsa^F!S) ' they asked him saying who art
thou.'
1 They discouraged me in this business' becomes
dp f>
vtfF^Jfi < They said this work is not (possible) to thee.'

216

SYNTAX OF PRONOUNS.

So in the Gospels ; Mark. XI. 24. ' Believe that ye shall receive
them, and^e shall receive them, incorrectly rendered sS>jSsSx> sJPo
efiasbj&j'IS^^oa,

tr-iSp cp>t> inoBbebiSt

Believe saying 'to*

shall receive them' and ye shall receive them.


The various degrees of respect denoted by pronouns can be
learnt only by practice. We may say to a footman ^ftj) PSxuo^
'call the doctor.' He replies ^""^su-^ep bOO-pr-fSo 'I have
called bis reverence.'
The English pronoun sometimes denotes the mind, as " they are
angry" or the body, as " I am hot." But in Telugu and its sister
languages the word body or mind must be expressed: thus t^lS
& T^f-ir gjS^a (my body is hot : i. e.) lam hot ^P "?!>&SS
efc*"g4fe. he is ill. -appsfciS
E-^sSmtv $j6^a (it ia angrily
with her mind : i. e.) she is angry "%)^;"3S)csCi5'i6'wc. or tr
cJi^ab^&S. he fell down senseless.
The relative words who, when, where, &c. when combined with a
negative must be rendered ("not any") nobody, never, nowhere, &c.
Thus
where
nowhere ; <^a&^o when ^<6-jJSir"^
t& never ;
who JsS&^ift nobody ;
what axl5(& nothing.
When we translate from Greek or from English, the relative
pronouns, ' who, which,' must often be rendered by direct pro
nouns. 4 He, She, they, or, ' and he,' ' and they.' Thus in the
135th Psalm, in the first chapter of the Epistle to the Hebrews,
and elsewhere, the pronoun ' who' must be translated 3-c*6;S He.
The pronoun
self, or I, is thus used ; w fr&_l&-p*fip
WjT^jJSa he says he was there literally ; " he says I (or self) was
there."
When in English the phrase is " He said that he went " the
Telugu phrase is He spoke saying I went " &*o7rjSF>w -pr^So."
For the word d-soMfr>j>fc 73^26 would mean that he who went
was not the speaker. Thus <Sr'&Tr<S pts
he said they had
seen (it) "^^8(6 ptsjDofc she said she had gone. Lit. she spoke
Baying I went "^sSi&i 73-^8 sfcp Wjr^S they said they would
come next day : lit. they said we will come to-morrow.

PEONOUNS.

217

The pronoun
' he,' in composition is translated ' A man.'
Thus sfcoSsT'iSb a good man, ^srisb my man, my relation. >o
>jto^o good men sSr>sros>b my people. *?>K'5J"'>oj old men.
So in the feminine 8 ' She' is translated a woman : being
contracted into S. Thus sftc&> a good woman,
she or it;
She belongs to us.
The neuter pronoun W8 " it" it, forming 3) < those' in the
plural, are contracted in to and 3 thus, ws^r-pa ' that is his,'
tsasr-j&a ' they are his.'
These affixes may be added even to the words in, from, &c. as
es-$"i*fxs5&s4erep8 that story is from the Bhagavatam.
[In poetry the spelling of pronouns is sometimes altered to
suit the metre. N>, Pflyu i6^,
may become P, Pfr,
sS>:S. Thus
(for ^6^i6(S^ss.sS) the ill thou hast
done. H. D. I. 1987. The word s&s&^u ' us' may change into
s>iSe>. Eadha 1. 49. Tor sn&P, imp (those things, these
things) the poets use ^? and
In Vasu 3. 189 are three
instances. In Gr. 1. 284. S^tSwXej^p, K*&r&Xo?r>p, r*s&>oj
?fe)srp^^sfe)j& y01l should not trust those [creatures] which
have tusks, or claws or horns.' The possessives, T^s^ mine and
r>s> thine, are peculiar to poetry and have no plural form : thus
?rdS>rtro*oe <my hands' Adhyatma EK. 399.]
wS'That' added to a p|| forms a noun- Thus Lp*j6e>that
which is written ; or, that which writes w*6 *^a SSatb^t&
when is he coming. As here shewn, it is translated by a verb. It
may be conveniently considered as an Infinitive : and it has no
plural. It is also used in the Negative. \j&i>d>p8) that which is
not written.
Such nouna are in English governed by a genitive. Thus
efisS^jSa his coming' but the Telugu uses a Nominative ' he
arrival' not ' his.'
This subject will be more fully explained under the Infinitive
in DI.
0. P. Brown's Telugu Grammar.
j> d

218

PEONOTJNS.

Some other words admit of gender and therefore may be consi


dered with pronouns. >& ' where' (with the hard D) is mascu
line, and &8 ' where' (with the soft D) is feminine ; thus ; &o\&
' where is my father' SSoSoQ where is my mother.
In addressing a superior, the Hindus use the respectful pro
nouns aT*tf> 'you' or &s>tfc self, selves. But in respectful affection
or strong devotion $ ' Thou' is the only phrase. So in poetry,
(H. D. 2. 151.) the wife addresses her husband with reverence
as r>6 Thou.
In addressing a respectable native (particularly a paid tutor)
Scp>S) You is the proper word. But in conversation we may gra
dually learn how to avoid pronouns : thus instead of \jr>$7r
hast thou written it ? we can say lTT#&8j$"CT is it written ? In
stead of *ax>^S&g go (thou) and tell him, we can say d*o^3^i
sS*>8$& ilfaut dire. But the niceties of conversational style can
only be acquired by closely observing the manner in which natives
express themselves. There are delicate points of politeness which
cannot be defined in rules.
Eelative pronouns are sometimes translated without the rela
tive form Thus ~tt>#> So^Co cSjj ^(^c6? Did anybody
(quis) do anything (quid) to the box ? Lit. Who did what ?
The defective pronoun tsofc5 (noticed under the Adverbial
declension) may be added as a gerund to any past or Aorist p||
thus ; ssa^oiSbjS ' by coming' Tr;5os>iS < by not coming,' sSa^So
for having come. And it uses a plural dative form TrXeio
eSbeSS (ad veniendum) that (he) may be able to come.
Eelative words (who, where, which, wherefore,) must often be
turned into Telugu by ' he, they, there, it, therefore ? In the
135th Psalm, in the first chapter of the Epistle to the Hebrews,
as also in many parts of the Liturgy, a series of relative pronouns
cannot be translated intelligibly into Telugu Tamil or Cannadi
without such an alteration.

BOOK SEVENTH
SYNTAX OF THE TELUGU VERB.

The following Table exhibits the principal parts of those


Telugu Verbs which have been already conjugated.

220

TABLE OF THE PRINCIPAL

Infinitive
In TA.

In A.

In Damu. In E'DI.

Fibst Conjugation.
a&o^&>
C>6i
affct)
^F&iJ
lTfrl>
a&ssoib
6caoi)
e>$4j or
g"oMo4j

To send
Read
Hear
Buy '
(The Middle Voice)
Fall

os -a
?S
r
AH

Go
Be, Stay.
or tsKoio Become
Be, Happen.

&o"3a

Second Conjugation.
^3<s6>fc> or x3*j
Lsp><sSj*j or ljp%&>
iJ&cJ53o4j or 8i&fa>&
iedt&>iJ or ^^o*J

3^>a

Do
"Write
Be wet
Must

aa-^a

Thihd Conjugation.
"woiitj
SojO^otSiAj
*61.oC&i>

"so^a

Rear
Forgive
66oLo*5
Try
si

sst^i>

a^a

Give
SS(d5jgJJsSxi

itf^tj

Come

sS^a

PARTS OF VERBS.

Aefibmative.

221

Negative.

p||
Past p| | Rel.p|| Aoriat p|| Neg.
in Ka.

Neg.
Neg.
Verbal
Rel. pi| Noun.

6oa6f

S^p r-fts,*-^!
none
none
a&ajS,
*a

none

none
s&ar
c

Soa?,^

&oar

&oaao

none
3H>
Da
#a?>

aa^
none

none

none

tiOXSp
&f>^oilp

55 So

TABLE OF THE PRINCIPAL

222

Present Tense.

I send

Past Tense.

Future Tense.

I sent

I shall send
i5a"3Sj4>, i:a~5j5i

0043(6, 3(3^S>
none

none

none

<feo"3aia>, &0CfS>

none

none

noDe

s&>

( s& jt>^^

s5t>^9
must
(In French, II faut
In Latin, Debut.)

nono

PAETS OF VEEBS.
AORIST.
Affirmative.

.Negative.

I send

I send not
5JSS>f>

223

Imperative.

Prohibitive.

Send thou

Send not thou

3j4S5
~osSb,S>
none

none

r^ss

sfr6 or Jb"i&2
feojjf3oor"^fi)
TTS5
"ewXoS
geafc, S"e> it is,
there is

none

it is not

l_rdSo5o
j5"3 + pS>, must

must not

none

none

\ -Si, OUT
TP/So

TP S3

224

SYNTAX.

OF THE VERB.
All verbs are Transitive (Active) governing an accusative ; as
i$r)trr& I saw, *>E>in>> he called: or Intransitive (likewise
called Neuter) governing no accusative; as fc9)<ii6&jSS it appeared.
Verbs ofgoing or arriving generally understand to or at. Thus
2>r>&*cxafy> So to what village has he gone ? s^^^Qw^ he
arrived at home.
Verbs of descending &c. generally understand from : thus X>(tf
sS9* alighting from his horse. fi*SS"3J"3 he went forth from
the town. 53-6"* it>"3iSS descending from on the impaling spike.
In English ' To Have' is an active verb, but in Telugu there is
no such verb. It's place is supplied by the verb ' To Be' (^ossbfci
Uunduta or S"euXo*j Kaluguta) Thus sSg >> Si^?
' have you a gun ?' SS lew ^p' ? ' have you dogs : Lit.' By
thee is there a gun: are there dogs ?
}SoojS~i'XQ ~te&>
(Vema) he who hath nothing shall receive nothing.' "31)3 Tfeisr*
(gala) one who has sense. "38fi
srt& ' one who has no
sense.'
The Passive voice merely adds
(to fall) to the root in A.
Thus tfo^j 'to kill' TjosSts5&4> ' to be killed' 2>ebk 'to
call' S>e>;Sbib or
'to be called.'
The passive voice with an active sense is used even with some
verbs as ' Be,' ' Bend,' and ' Hear' : and sometimes is applied to
active verbs without giving them a passive sense. Thus &oc
wtra> for & o&fy>i> ' he was': iSofcjS and o>ffc>J equally mean,
bended, stooping. afJ^i* and a^ws'fS) equally mean I heard.
(TSc>cfcS8&> SoiMj^S, or, atfwSo&^a, 'music hears tome' that
is ' is heard by me'That is, I hear some music. (See Telugu
Dialogues.)
(act p||) and t^*85* (passive p||) equally mean
' Arrived, come.' ^t^^d^-^^pos and ^rkS^Cwtf^ tp e equally
mean. The witnesses whom I called. t3o&jr<>i& and "s^w^as

ON YES AND NO.

225

equally mean He became. "39dB&Ji> and "3>d6 4fc *J equally mean


To appear, become known.*
It sometimes bears either sense : tlius i?cSTj^'^SoS' a fearful
antelope, sf^&'&i&ti. a fearful tiger : one word meaning timid;
the other meaning terrible. cf<Jf> *"asp?>- gfa^^H SUpk. You
should fear him who is to be dreaded. e?'ci<6'Sfcp2 2^d3j^s"Qf&
you should be afraid where there is cause for fear.
Sometimes the active form is used when the sense is passive :
Thus sr>f) 555"A3 ^31^ "3 sSS'^aoisx^fii when you say one
thing to him another thing is heard : that is, ' he is deaf and hears
wrong. Thus ao<ix>pjjto ' it hears,' is used for apUiSbSbi^fii ' it ia
heard. 'f
ON YES AND NO.
If a question is put with a noun, as
^St^TS" < (i8) he
your brother?' the answer 'yes' is the same noun ; as " p~0ss*>
*> ;" or else with the intensive accent, p^S^;. yes. Or else,
fc)fS>, the aorist of
The negative would be 7rbnilfc~s~*C& or ~5~*&> No.
If the question includes a verb, as ssOj-p^TS0 1 Did lie come ?'
the reply " yes" repeats that verb : &>^y[ye& yes : or else,
It is so. 'iJT'tU(3- 'is it enough, ^r-ex/S)' 'yes' W"> <n0-'
If the question is regarding a future occurrence, the reply
merely repeats the phrase : thus : d^xe-sr- " cnn y0H g0 ?" j^xti
f& ' I can go ;" "S^sr "will you bring it?'' "3ss>i& "I will bring
it." In such instances ts&ffc cannot be used.

* Virgil uses penetrabile for penetrans ; G. 1. 93. Mn. X. 481.


t In the Greek verb the active and passive senses are sometimes
undistinguished. In English we sometimes use the passive for
the active. Thus we say ' they were gone' : meaning ' they had
gone.' In Shakespeare (In Romeo, 4. '2.) Juliet says " lecomed
love" for becoming. And the foot note says, ' One participle for
the other ; a frequent practice with our author.'
O. P. Brown's Telugu Grammar.
e e

22G

SYNTAX OF YES AND NO.

This happens in other oriental languages. But Telugu has


no separate word for ' yes' or ' no.' Compare Genesis xlii. 11,
and xliv. 28.
Some interjections are used in conversation, to express yes ! Thus
ftJ-^aha or 53-S3-aye, aye! Elsewhere somenouns are used to denote
reverence : as iMfS or
escjfirsj yes sir, (your pleasure !) or &<$&a
which bears the same meaning. The words
'the same!'
the very thing !' 1^6 < right !' s&>6 ' aye !' "F^aSoSo ' why not ?'
are also used.
An easy hum or grunt, mh, mh, with a shake of the head
" Humphj" denotes ' No.' In the negative the lips are closed :
but in the affirmative ' aha' the lips are not closed.

ON THE DIEEEEENCE BETWEEN


T'te KaDTJ AND ~^&> IiEDtT.
The verb fc?$i> < to become' connects two nominative cases : or
a nominative and an adjective, as we^S Tti> it is not mine
&{psSx> 5&>oaa-s-ab the horse is not a good one. So 5*
a dog is not a lion. Here we see two nominative cases connected.
The verb &ot>k> 'to dwell' always implies a locative; in a
place, or at a time. Thus s^** F^f1^ ' is he at home ?' is ho
alive ?
pF^sb (lit. ' he is') yes.
he is not. This locative
is often understood, not expressed.
Kadu denotes kind, quality, or condition ; Ledu denies ' life'
and ' locality.'
Thus much is sufficient for the learner : but after some pro
gress' has been made in the language the following statements
will be found useful. Meantime he may pass by these rules with
out perusal.
The verb
Ledu is the Negative Aorist of &co4j To Be,
dwell, remain' : and is also the negative Aorist of "ex>?<o4j to be or
accrue.'
it is,
it is not. The affirmative is S"e>>, con

tracted into

KADU AND LEDU.


227
Thus *><Sri't&i I cannot tell whether it is there

or not. tS^sSS'esk there is a road. &*~c: there is no road.


[So Horace says " Quod versu dicere non est." And in one
of the epodes Neque est levare tenta spiritu prsecordia. Thus
Shakespeare says " This is no place." (As you like it, Act 2,
Scene 3).]
Again <isS8S au>$ to whom dost thou give it ? teo~$j> to
no one.

This is contracted for otaet ox>^J "e5a>.

It is often joined to the root in A, to denote the past tense : as


si^lfiS) (he) did not give, a&oab-^ & (we) did not send it. This
is alike in all persons.
The word ~$~i&> is the negative aorist of **

to become, turn

into, be done or finished. This is often rendered in English ' To


be.' Thus W8 t?g|b Xo(tfk>
that is not his horse.
T"
fifc, srtk>) it was not I but he. 2>9&i$8 j-i> "s^dSb it was not he
who called. iSfS^ "s^eSb not me. ^f> "^ca not to him.
^
sr&p. ? ~ra5 Is this your statement? No. wSo oao^jiS tfc35
"5n,S> he gave it (but) not to us. 53- "oa ^og auc^r^aJ) that
marriage did not take place in their house. C3-^?>
^o*?
"s~sfc (contracted for w^gfi "S^efc) that work cannot be effected
unless you send me. -&wo& &o'fii~5~cS> this carriage is not to
be sent.
In a few instances ~s^S> may be used for
Thus tpsJo
S^e (you) must come: of which the Negative may be either
-cre>8$> "eifio or TT,s$)^a ~5-<Sb. Again:
sSc&il "o>o*V>
"5- to* ? If you bend it thus is not there pain ? Here we may
say
instead of ^"""S". Again
or, ss ^-s-"^ it is not
practicable.
Occasionally a masculine noun takes a neuter verb. Thus eSb&
e&TT'fiS) if is not a bad man. &a dp-sr-cft s~t&> (for "s^aSo) he is
not a (good) workman. sSj'WjS^ifc, or, sfr4*fj3ao my brother is
not here.

22S

SYNTAX

The two verbs are contrasted in these phrases- F* ot?*fe>


^e&i it is not my horse, "?r i(j5^ e6 my horse is not here.
"S^e& or ~3tZ>, when joined with an instrumental ("by") may
imply possibility. Thus SjS -sr-p^^ fcf^o^ei this can be effected
by him.
^e5"5"<5b it cannot be done by him. j?*sSv~3{&> it
cannot be effected by me. T3^&>o4Sb&>
T^^aSa I cannot say.
ON THE INFINITIVE.
The Infinitive form of verbs, as shewn in the Dictionary, ends
in k> ; as Ao^jJAj pamputa,
povuta, sS&^iJ vaccuta. Some
have called this the Root.
It is declined as a noun of the third declension: thus; N. *o
i4l*J sending, Dative *o-^AjSS. Abla. jfeo^^sro^, for sending.
Acc. *o^)iji.. Ins. a&o^ij^tf, Ao-^tiXo, by sending. Loc.
a&o^ker* in sending. Plural Ao^ixtx the sendings.
Another form of the Infinitive ends in Adamu. This is a noun
of the second declension. Thus N. &o&sZx> sending. D. 4sc&&
iSKjS^ or ^o3fc-csj5S5 or <6o<>;&)i6j? for sending. Acc. c6o*
sending. Ins. a&oa&Ss&o^sSt* or a)oK6gsfco;6 or 6oa6^sSx^o ) by
sending. Loc. sSOie;Se5v-i in sending. Plural. ^oafrjssSooew the
sendings.
This is sometimes wrongly spelt *jsS, thus a&oi6ijs&o pampatamu.
Another form of the Infinitive ends in E'DI and is declined liko
the pronoun
'that:' N. &o~a the sending. D. #ow-Br>pg
orato"Sip?il for sending. Acc. Ao-^ny'P^ the sending: Instr.
8&o"w-st"P^5> by sending. Loc. S&o w-Gr{DeH in sending. This has
no Genitive, nor a plural.
The noun endiDg in DI is declined in the same manner. Thus
N. &oi>$& the sending. Dat. *cfc;S-cp[6 fop sending: Ins.
i&o>iS TTPp^sS by sending.
The negative ending in MI is similarly declined. *os6s the
not sending. s)oifcStox!j5 by not sending. Plural. <6o*tfxew.

THE INFINITIVE.

229

The negative noun ending in AN1DI is similarly declined. N.


afco 6 f>e> the not sending. Instr. to^p^'p^ti by not sending.*
In English these infinitives are generally translated by tenses :
Thus
TA. ^^.fk
pnx> It is true that (he) called (his) sister,
syofifk S&o^!)*j3 tSS'&SXi or, 'sr0^i3o &o sio;656 waeSoSo
' what prevented (your) sending them ?' Lit. ' for sending them
hindrance what ?' w8 o^>)k>e
Lit. their sendings
are thus !
DAMU. eS" ?6 t.ewrf^js psssS The same.
!ol^5&r& *o^jgsi>3 -gjfo (He) will not send (his) horse. Lit.
horse sending is not. ^9 ^o*2Js5xtw ox^er^a (the same) This
implies that they sent nothing.
si^
This is my departure : I am now going. Lit. this
(is) going.
Ljp>c*fd;Sx> fcSox>) Writing is finished; that is, (I) have written.
refe -o^^e^sSsS sS^i$ by his not coming.
jjf&j 6ccoSco sie> by sending me.
DAMU. NbltfafS> a&oabSer' in sending the horse.
DI, a&otjS, <s&o<6p&, "3Ddt6fc (I) do not know whether (they)
will send (him) or not. Lit. the sending, the not sending, is
unknown.
* In considering the Infinitive as a noun, we are justified by
some English Grammarians. See article 'Grammar' in third Edi
tion of the Encyclopaedia Britannica (83) where the critic shews
that " the Infinitive is no mode of the verb but an abstract noun."
So in Latin, ' Non est vivere sed valere vita.' ' Dulce et decorum
est pro patria mori;' and in English 'To err is human, to forgive
divine.' So in Greek (Acts XX. 35) ' It is more blessed to give
than to receive.' So in French 'baiser' to kiss is also the noun
* a kiss.' The same principle is found in Persian and in Hindus
tani. And see Lee's Hebrew Grammar, note on Article 145. And
as to the negative noun see Ovid " lieu quam difficile est crimen
non prodere vultu."

230

SYNTAX OF INFINITIVES.

EDI. Mo&p o3a:^o afco sLa *38oSjaSb It ia not known when the
carriage is to be sent.
DI. sr-sfc sSxS^S fiK^he will really come: lit. His coming is sure.
r*iScSoPi> afco^-typS ^)8>y(TiSo he agreed to send (lit. for the
sending) (his) son.
woap a&ot^'wpS ^sfcp-^jfc -what did he say about sending
the carriage ?
ato&fSa 7TSS H8c*5osS> I did not know'of your sending it.
ljT^a (j^f?^ what I have written I have written.
is&o&jSQ'Sosivi it was we that sent it.
o-"S's5r*ooo(6&
it was he that came not : i. e. he failed to
come.
aboijjS t^'Pji ESyj!ysr do you observe their sending this ?
p,A^3l)oi,p-cyp ^)5$3r^5j5S) what did he say to (my) sending
you ?
pfS^ c & -sr" p eJ""8 <xo8
sS^^fe all the uproar wss
caused by (our) sending you. Lit. Thee in sending, this confusion
happened.
Sis&^sSx) afeo^pS Pa S it is true that (they) did not send the
rice.
ko[jS,t> s&o^pfii iSt;3o?S> they know that (you) did not send
the horse. Lit, ' horse not-sending is known.
i6-S"e)f5j a)o |D-crf>! by reason of (your) not sending the
money.
DI. jtjtrj!>a-s"sS> thou not coming, (it) cannot (be done,) that
is, how (can it be done) unless you come ?
It has been shewn that the ' Root in Adamu' has a dative case.
Thus
forms in the dative &o&ti&$$> ' for staying.'
And this may be changed int the ' root in A.' Thus &cjjrf
;6S6"3tfe 1 being afraid to stay,' becomes
"35 S. Examples:
"sr-Koij v. n. 'To hide.'
sxSoMfyiSb may become
xy>K &soxt-pvi& 'he went to hide. 03-<&6j to play, to dance.
^stojSSo -jSfl^a, or, es-le^a < she learned to dance.' &$t> to
come. Root in A xrsi- uxH&s&xiji&
or, xr'&pSiSi there

THE INFINITIVE.

231

is no occasion to come.
to rise. Root in A
; hence
-cr>j6SK)^f), or "t^s^S I Was going to rise.
to go. Root in
A sS"6^ or
; hence "CPfS> ^i*> coming and going, ~c^r&> J^ffc >B
ftfSj&ieu &h3$> It will take ten days to go and return.
Verbs which have monosyllabic imperatives, insert V and Y ;
thus.
Imperative. Inf in UTA. Inf in ADAMU.
^T8
s^&ij
^'sSobsfco pd-v-adamu to go.
&
&jm4o
&dZ<&&n ti-y-adamu to take,
none
tftS^Aj
WsSeSsSw ca-vadamu to die.
"tl
"Ssfc^t)
"<i?;S;5S
te-v adamu to get.
&
ma^t,
S^^j i-yy-adamu) ^ g{ye
or Si^SjSxi 5 i-vv-adamu (
These infinitives, as already shewn, are translated by tenses : as
-ft& Xtt ^er -p^vstodb this day my hopes are fulfilled : Lit.
' to-day, indeed, my wish successful being.'
"Sxcsiu
~rr ever since hearing it.
o.x>_&S :&y&ifcn what means your
coming here ? Lit, ' thy coming here, how ?'
Substantive nouns are governed by genitives, as 7rox><M my
house, f>^>&> your name, srp?> his business : but verbal nouns
take a nominative : thus Sto^&o
oaoafr^ssb when are you
coming? Lit. You coming when? *r-ct>
tt-jS&sSm they
are coming to-morrow : Lit. they arrival to morrow.
ON THE INFINITIVE IN A, OR "ROOT IN A."
If the Infinitive sign TJTA is dropped, and A is substituted,
this is called the Boot in A. It is the adverbial form. Thus &o
eSoej unduta becomes
unda. d-6^)^) povuta becomes s^sS
pova; or, by contraction,
po.
And this is translated as an infinitive, thus &cti sSv&fr!i he
thought to stay. sfr*pOjiar2 he let (them) go: he suffered them
to go.

232

SYNTAX OF INF. IN A; OR, ROOT IN A.

The syllables s-, fr, X,


^ i_,
^ i&, and with a
suuna preceding these
07T1, c^r, &c may be added to the
infinitive, -without altering the sense : and these are used both in
prose, and verse. Thus in the various dialects, &o, ^'oSr,
(So^, &0aV( &o%-iv;
&o&-Tr-t &o&xfr,&o&-!r$>l
(&o^oX') &oo~a-, ^c^oxr, ^ojJo-rr'r-5 <So&oX'i?C>, &co-K^f
These arc exemplified by adding another verb. Thus, ;6ex>SSJ ><to
sp?ak" iherootinA\s&v%,
fr+vtX.&vt-Kv^vtXe-,
8&e)rTVTg_)*e)5'X?i>) 3t> ej S" "7V-?6 a&OuS'f-, s&OvrfS) &c. S&oS'ox', vo
-A~, <<yS'ox'g_, s&tS'oTT'g-, ^uS'oK^ sfcej^OTv^pfc. and by contrac
tion,

*e;_7f,

&c.

The shortest of these forms is in daily use. Thus from Ij'S&k)


vray-uta, 1 to write' by substituting A for UTA, l_pci vray-a is
' to write.' Thus \jra&&s&x> icSo he was going to write. \jf
cJSoTrs& (you) must not write. ljp-cJsS)iSQ (you or he) must
write.
Elsewhere N is inserted because the next word begins with a
vowel. Thus fc'&^l^'c*6"^" atla vray-an-ela, ' why write thus ?'
Lory ;*:> -jo-" solo's vray-an-arambhinche ' he began to write.'
"Where the N (called 'o' sunna) is optional, as &o7r undaga
or (&o#oTr"; undanga, some modern grammarians propose the
(arddha bindu) semicircle or dot ; as <&oSc"7r. 13 ut the semicircle
has never come into general use : and the few who use it, particu
larly the printers of Telugu newspapers, are in error. Sound
scholars declare that the semicircle ought never to be used in
prose. The ^^f^t^ semicircle does not appear in ancient
manuscripts, nor in the common writing of learned men. But the
circle is often written instead. Thus we sometimes see s^osso
vandu while the proper spelling is sr><3o vadu, ' he.' The vulgar
speak much through the nose.
The affix ty has an adverbial force. Thus $8, (adj.) right,
1& 6 -a-" rightly.
back. S$$7^ backwards. 3*j error, tfabjTf
erroneously.

EOOT IN A.

233

The ' root in A' may sometimes be considered as a noun, and


governed by a&g By, through. Thus from
the 'root
in A' is T* whence "s^to^ by being so ; Therefore. And the 'root
in A' of &obi> is
whence &owg by his being there. ~P&
oM4Svr'jt) wo& c&bsi Had not I been there they would have
died.
l^ifaotfMg (Lila XIV. 7.) by his being born there.
From "3
to bring
(the same as ~d&^$&f>) by bring
ing. "B-e)sS is&_fs5aoTv &t$w43 (i.e. fefljSoifcjS) as the season
turned out well. fr*5'eos,'wt3 by having money.
The root in A of some verbs has an adverbial force as
for a&TSijfejaTV when joined with another verb. Thus.
Inf. inUTA. Boot in A. Adverb.
Examples.
abao*j to fall
down *tfST,totj
to knock down.
Ti3bi> to rise
up
"i3;S"^s&t>
to lift up.
o3os>&> to dry v. n. do hotly lo~S>&i>
to sun.
to gather v. n.
together r,"5*i5 to save.
"3oi> to snap
breaking "3 Kfi^^tJ
to cut off.
peutS>&> to stand f>v standing pesS "3 fei> to raise up.
^KeuiJ to break v. n. a&Tfe in bits a&X'e>r"jua4j to break topieces.
5*c>i> to run
>^5 through 5rSf5eSbt> to read over.
away
:5o?<>4j to stoop ssojf down
ji-?foi> to go on fToX" on

^>s"^>i>
to throw away.
5$oX"3
to bow down.
-frox^oi^ij to send on.

X&oSofc> to redden doti redly


S&li to go
off

^o^^^iSft it is red hot.


3?r*to4j to drive off.

&4>t> to become loose


loosely *JS"',*i>
fi6t> to descend >< away
ax'fyjfcij
3j-<Jot> to fall
down
Sj-e)!6^t>
8cn>e><S'|6 i>
$3oij to end v.n.
finally &tftfSa pra&
C. P. Brown's Telugu Grammar.

to knock owtf.
to leave.
to fall down.
to knock down.
he read to the end.
r f

234

SYNTAX OF THE INFINITIVE.

The Precatory or Imprecatory forms, used in blessing and curs


ing whether in prose or verse belong to the Koot in A. Thus ;
KErpsa "S^r (from >S sense and Tt4j to burn) 'perish his
"wisdom!' or, 'tfp sS4JsS (face) ~3"er may his form perish, or
let hia face be cursed. e*-c*6iS Wf*> l*
f*vn Be then his love
accurs'd (Paradise Lost, IV. 69) These are equivalent to the
phrase in "ff as
e^jTrr may it be so ! ljd*;^ S"euo
Iff Mayest thou be happy ! ff*P ckwo^8 j*"(|aSS"3co)vr (from
May the wild tree grow over his house : i. e. May
he be ruined. $> jSMfc a& I wish you the lock jaw. &**>
Soo7T Perish thy pride ! These exclamations are in common
use.
ON THE INFINITIVE IN TJ.
This is formed by dropping the sign *> ; so from ^d&i>, &fe^t>,
"Sfc^otfciJ, are formed
sSxfc^, "St^otSs. But
forms it
irregularly ^r6^ or
It is often used as an imperative : as *s|ltf"^>* put (it) there.
S)jf_tf$o6 Stay here.
Elsewhere this form ending in U is the 3d person singular
aorist ; as $ *> S&"C6j he will grant, 3^ he will give, ir8^) he will go.
This is also used as an aorist participle : thus lr*cu7*iSb j3
the same as \jsr,1^rS& he who writes. d*!dsr>oe> for sS'^'g
3-ob those who go. &9-"a>W-fcsSr>*Je for e9-"3sSrAju>> the words
she said. &^p>jSifeSci3MtyosSj$ for SS9ii>ffoi55SjS like a torrent
of rain. Lit. like the raining of a heavy shower.
[This form is Druta : and accordingly uses N to prevent elision
of the vowel. Thus s^iS-f-t^Jfe becomes sfr^jS^SS But this
N is never used unless in poetry, so ^ew^^iSo N. D. 3. 102.
for ^O^fasVj*. M. 5. 4. 86. ^^tf^ and in M. XIN. 3. 103.
tTo"afc(S*3. in modern Telugu these would be written tfotiSg.]

IRREGULAE VERBALS.

235

[ The verb wxiu ' to become' retains this form **xi in poetry,
bearing the same sense as **oj6 Thus 85'i&J6'33-tf for tf&'doosjiS
s&>4>5>3 her lovely face ]
ON IRREGULAR VERBAL NOUNS.
It has been seen that the Infinitive is a noun. Thus from Q3-t>
t> to dance or play is derived &-&ti&x> 'dancing,' 'playing'
(saltatio, ludus.) This is a regular form. But there is an irregu
lar form
which equally means ' a play, a game.'
The phrase ' Irregular is objectionable :' but it is the only word
in use for " the minor portion ; the smaller number." According
to their principles all these are quite regular.
The Regular forms, already exhibited, as &-&SZ&x>, 63- fi, mso
*J are common to all verbs : but some have peculiar verbals.
To exemplify this in English : To arrive ' To receive' ' to conr
trive' make ' arriving' ' receiving,' ' contriving' which are regular :
and 1 arrival' ' reception,' ''contrivance' which are irregular. And
in words of Saxon origin, ' To Live, to Grow, to Die,' make
' Living, growing, dying,' which are regular, and ' life, growth,
death,' which are irregular. [Thus in Greek Kpivw, Xtyw, irpaow,
have the derivatives npiaig, Xt&j, n-paZis.']
These Irregular nouns form a convenient vocabulary of words
which are in daily use.
Class Ending in A.
to fruit
-b-*<3$>,
a green fruit.
to bind
S"*J,
a bundle.
Ending in AKA.
to come
"oS"
arrival.
to go
K^6*
going.
to be angry
anger.
to be hot
T r
heat or fever.
to plunge
S jSS"
a plunge.
CopcitCok)
to break
So^S"
a bit.
to know
oJootf
knowledge.

236

SYNTAX OF

Ending in IKA. To these also the Negative participle in AKA


will be subjoined for the sake of contrast.
These nouns ending in IKA. being nominatives are therefore
Cala
words. But the Negative participle in AKA, like
the infinitive in GA, is a Drutu word. Thus tr'S'j&fJ-^sfc. He
comes not.
Infinitive.
Noun.
Negative PJ|
TA
IKA
AKA.
to believe ;S J^S" what is believed ; $ jS^S* not believing,
belief
5oj>c&i> to settle 30382* settlement
SoatfS" not settled.
ci/Ss^j to think ^>P^J thinking
Aj>jf without thinking.
fc9ex>4j to plait wOS" plaiting
t>a 5" without plaiting,
sst&osfcij to fit v. n. s^SS" fitting
s^saaf without fitting.
rdSbi> to use
*st*&s custom
sr>!i without using.
^iui> to resemble
resemblance
s^eS" not resembling.
MbiJ to bear
^tS" endurance
LAS' not enduring.
Sx>i> to weary v>n>S weariness
aj^oS" not wearied.
Class Ending in Akamu.
Plural.
i6otSb4j
S&o*5'i$x>
to share
sharing,
to believe
belief.
r i
to sell
selling, sale,
to cook
food.
Ending in KADA plural Z&w.
to stand
steadfastness,
to come
tyS'JS
coming.
Ending in IKIplural Kw.
to dwell
v&pi
to plough
to hear

>S_
s>F>

being, remaining,
, absence.
absence.
ploughing,
hearsay.

IEEEGUliAE VEEBAL NOUNS.

237

In.TA. These are distinct from the Infinitive in TA ; which,


as already shewn, is common to all verbs, and is here placed in the
first column. Plurals *o4jaj( soje &c.
to fruit
to boil
to sing

ttot)
ssc&>
d'io

to play

a crop,
cookery,
a song,
play, sport.

J TCT plural to TLTJ.

to fall
to rebel
to return

-ir-Aoj, ir>4
Btsxzrbz
t&>&xybx>

to ruin
to cast

fall, trouble,
rebellionreturn.
ruin plu :
a blow, a shot, a hit,
plural

Ending in DIplural 4e or

conduct.

to walk
to eat
to rob

or

>

CO

diet.
plunder.

rubbing.
to rub
reign.
to rule
tillage.
to extend
income.
to come
Ending in TA plurals Jjr8e Sfc (jsr,cx>i> to tcrite \jenlS
writing.
E*aok> to reap
reaping.
Sj-cifiiij to cry
a cry.
&c.
&c.
&a.
And some of the third conjugation change IN9U. *nto 1NTA
thus.
w^?tot&fc>
to deliver
wa^otf
delivery.

238

SYNTAX OP IREEGTJLAR VERBALS.


Ending in FU or FFJJ plurals a6^tu.
to owe

^3 S5i&tj

Tr-

debt.

to produce
productiveness,
to see
-Sr^ sight.
to ruin
^(S^) ruin.
&c.
&c.
&C.
Ending in W.
to serve
tr'aj^)
employ.
to stand
P^iS
a man's height.
to die
death.
Ending In VA.
te descend
S?o55
the lower part,
to mount
djfcsS
upper part,
to subside
fcSrei55:S humiliation.
Ending in VI.
to give
-Sia

gift.
knowledge.
The Middle verb in KONTJ sometimes makes the verbal in
-3ooSbr^4j
to wail
""^S8^^
lamentations.
to know

"3Sa

S(iSxr*fS>tJ

to give

S)xS^r^&

givings..

^iiiS^r'jfctj
oie&c&^f5oij

to receive
to meet

^^^K1
oiifecor6^

receivings.
meetings.

The regular verb "i**J ' To Take' never has this form.
It will be observed that some verbs take two or three different
forms in the noun : some of which have various senses. Thus ;
~ax>l3 To cast
~$ha
hunting, a shot.
f>ei>fc> to stand
P*$} po
height, steadfastness.
}SJfctf>*> to walk
iSSS",
^Scg^ar conduct.
53cS>4j to arrive
tS*3S
nearness.
jSrfo^i) to trust
rSs^5", P^skp trust.

NEGATIVE VEEBAL.

VEEBS IN IN^U.

239

All these classes are peculiar to nouns of Telugu origin : these


nouns are derivedfrom the verbs : but in words of Sanscrit origin
the noun is the root and the verb is the derivative. Thus SJ-jSoBsSn
rejoicing <5S-#oOOxki> to rejoice. *6J&. Examination afcOoLo^ij
to examine. ^oS^s.tfx> pleasure, #o^o-;S3i> to be pleased.
On the NEGATIVE VEEBAL in MI.
This is derived from the Infinitive in DAMU. Thus ;

x3dSJ5aa

*****

coming
being
doing
knowing
seeing
agreeing

TPSo the not coming, non arrival.


"3 So
the not being, want.
ySaSiSX) the not doing.
ignorance.
blindness.
enmity.

AO
settling
unsettledness.
arriving
the non arrival.
It i3 governed by a nominative, not by a genitive ; as 7rex>
my house. Yayati 3. 126 wtfaoTPStoStf"^ grieving at his non
arrival.
On verbs in IN<?UTA, IMPUTA, and ILLUTA.
Some of these which end in IN$TJTA are derivatives : others
are causals. The form illuta is used only with a few verbs and
never gives the causal sense.
The affix incuta sometimes changes a noun into a verb. Thus
"3j&Xo the name of this language ; Ui&^oi&Aj to Telugu : that is,
to turn (or translate) into Telugu. Some Sanscrit words are thus
formed into Telugu verbs:
creation,
to create ;
8tf_S reasoning, ?^8_ot3i4j to reason or argue; ^o'"6sS>sSx>
pleasure ^OfSfe2>.OT&> (or in poetry, ^io$J>w3*j) to rejoice, ^i^sfca
a curse if 8>oi>i> to curse. The noun
^ the root of
to bloom. From tfr^r- fainting, s&r^E-eoi} t0 faint.

240

SYNTAX.

IN<?U.

The form IN9U sometimes changes U into ^) ; thus.


^aofSj^tJ^fSo ks>oi&)
I bless.
^LosS3&iT^&=^^o^bi^?> I will protect.
^^oikifcp^r&rr^^o^tfcTsr^S)
I will pardon.
sr^ox&'p^rfe;T8o^ifc7J^lfSj
I will do away.
A few verbs admit
or 4) u or
isotbii or oi^)i>
jSeoi33t> or i5eM^)t>
o-tfb*j or Soi^ij

Pu at pleasure.
to pound.
to crush.
to tear.

tJoxkAj or "3o^4j to break,


a&ocfc^j or i6o^)t>
to share.
The negative aorist i3 sa^oiJjSa or $b$3o&> < it does not happen.'
Some verbs insert G before IN9TJ. Thus from fA&o anger
r*8fcAoxS>t) y. n. to be angry ; 6*&&x> fury 6^sS.*otSDt> to rage;
wosSi prettiness woesfcoskij to be pretty. But the learned
condemn this form as inelegant.
The middle sign
is added to the verb incu, as Ut^cKSJS"'
ffck but never to the form which ends in impu.
The vowel that precedes incu is sometimes either A or I at
pleasure. Thus &v<xo&> pola-incu or ^PSomotSj poli-incu. Ac
cordingly if one form does not appear in the Dictionary we must
turn to the other. Only a few verbs are thus uncertain in
spelling.
SYNTAX OF CAUSAL VERBS.
The causal* adds incu to the root of regular verbs. Thus ^Sd&> i>
chey-uta to do forms "3<xoii> chey-incuta to have it done : cause
him to do. lrctfio4j to write ljTaotf>4j vray-incuta to get it
written : cause it to be written. In old English " to cause write"
was the form.
* The original grammarians call the causal eSaotf U<* Nij-antacriya : i. e. the verb which ends in the vowel si which i3 techni
cally called
Nich.

CAUSAL VERB.

241

Verbs ending in cu, as ^>t> to boil, form the causal in ^) as


T'&oifoi} 0 jjavo jt bojied. 8s
to occur to the mind S^fco
**>*J to remind : "3**^, to come ff&joabij to summon, or cause to
come.
v. a. to settle, decide. &8y3tS>^ to get it decided.
&?S^i> to do away sfc*p^ob4j to get it done away.
Sometimes the causal form gives a passive sense. p'SSegrsap
SjoOjjS it sounded so to me, is the same as a*>#8 it was heard.
u
In English the causal verb governs the agent, as I made him
write : they caused him to sell it. But in Telugu (as in other
modern languages of India) it governs the object, as
(jtom
%P I got the letter written. >S ofifj*fj I got it sold, s*'*'*'
goOfr?fc I got the house built.
In such places English uses the accusative as ' I made him go :'
but Telugu uses the nominative
s^^jgen-xb "dc^p. And
"^jfcar'Mi (jT"^erb ^ijyiS} he made I (me) write the letter.
The Telugu frequently uses the causal form where the English
omits it. "I built a house" would in Telugu be 6"*3oa-fTffc
I caused it to be built. " He wrote me a letter" is often (respect
fully) expressed ijr-oMoOfP'asb " he had a letter written to me."
S)oe&^Xb8oa er"a3(_sr<xoa w&p^OaoooS^ ?>p I wrote a letter
and gave it him.
So in English ' I wish you to have this done' denotes ' I desire
you to do it.' ino&b < to get' ^o&:&iitstix>r,oGio>TSvfr I got
them a cargo. I enabled them to obtain cargo " Thou hast slain
him by their sword" would become tfo2> jba thou hast caused
him to be slain.
The Causal is often expressed in English by using the neuter
verb with the active sense* :Thus.

* Native grammarians disapprove of the mode in which this


rule is stated. They would say ' Some neuter verbs are changed
into actives thus :' For they do not call these verbs causals.
C. P. Brown's Telugu Grammar.
Q g

242

SYNTAX OP CAUSALS.

"5~Xoi> v. n. To boil
^Xoti v. n. To break

MIDDLE.

Tfc*j v. a. To boil
Hoi&>b y. a. To break

rr>i(iL> y. n. To hide
T5t&tJ v. a. To hide
s-tv&> v. 11. To burn
T^ewEfcij v. a. To burn
T3Sbfc> v. n. To spoil
^eot&k) v. a. To spoil
9-j4j v. n. To play
e3-aoTfc> v. a. To play
ej&jfci) v. n. To tear
Qo-Ebk v. a. To tear
Some verbs adopt the past Eel. Participle or causal form at
pleasure : thus :3jD?Sjn>$'eo or :38offi(6r5'tu the money paid.
&o%>$irzx> or oho&$t?*n the letter sent. -558 (SSi^, or tfJJoajS
the seed sown.
Some verba are changed into the Causal, by using the Boot with
the addition of ^csSwAj or some other auxiliary : as in English I
made him write it. Thus ;
to give, 3)S)^o-Efak> or S3^fc>|^
f&>t> to make him give; have it delivered ; cause it to be given.
sS-Efc^fc) to come, e^ocfot) or "traofoi> to sendfor; s$T3^sr"?<o*5cs&>t>
get him to come. l_srcs&*j to write ljrQuotb&>) get it written
csfi^dSjjt) get him to write, have it written. "^eriSb4j v. n. To
hang, "^er4J
(act) to hang. ~ir>&b> to flow, or run, v. n.
ir-ti steaks to make it flow or run. S"uoX>ii to happen SeJf
to cause, effect, bring about. &0&fc> v. n. to end
2
cJSSjAj v. a. to end. ^*j to go, rir*S"fo3i> To drive away, to lose.
To burst v. n. i>8tr*kai> v. a. To burst or shatter.
*j to come Tr>ahai> v. a. To receive, ssi^cs&aj 0r Si&^&*i>fc> v. n.
To break or split. s^csfifPtok). v. a. To break or split. $o'fi&&&i
to make good, to turn to profit. e>i6tf
to strengthen.
Thus Srtf^oa*j To sit forms ^tfo>&~3teok3 To seat, XoXib
to stoop down, sSoK^^vii) to make him stoop. j>b*j v. n. To
extend forms ^^oiSsiJ, jb-x"3<s&>4j or
o^j)&> to send away.
ON THE MIDDLE VOICE.
The following rules for the Middle voice may at first be passed
over with a simple perusal : as we acquire more familiarity with
the language the principles will become clear.

ON THE MIDDLE VOICE.

243

The middle voice is formed by adding 6"* r&t> KONU or (less


often) *3>fc> KUNIT or 5" KA to the verb. The verb being either
in the past participle as (jp,^"*j&fc> (almost peculiar to poems)
or else changing the final I of that participle into TJ viz. [r
^> Thus from "3*^. to bring "3s^o-8b~jS>Aj or "3^oar*(3i*j to
procure. #So*J to ask, e>aoXbr*ifc> 0r 5^r $>t> to request.
^^yi> to say ^^^f&t) or TSi^SSj&Sj to say. dSx>fc> to take,
kfioZ-u* bring it S^S"^ take it away. r"|x>-s~.54j to wriggle, to
wince (formed from ^
and 69- Safe) is also written r*irjr*
e6*J. From a.tf<s&>*J comes a-e^S"^^ to be bruised. Lila
XIX. 169. ftwtkrss ^ he called and brought her (Badha I. 81.)
From ^sfeij comes ?s'a^r^S'irso^a the well has fallen in.
asb?r_a yrjjSfc they tore and devoured it.
Verbs of the 2d Conjugation end in
Tu or & SIT thus x3c3j
*j or ^i&i>. But in forming the Middle voice the only shape
used is
SU viz. ^^r(S>J, (_sr^roi&>iJ! l^r*^ neYer
"gisf&r*^ &e.
The verb "*i&i> to buy (like aff>i> to hear) is a Eegular verb.
But S""r& the sign of the Middle voice is in some tenses irregular.
Thus the Inf. in A. of "fb<J To buy would be S~;S KONA; but
the Inf. of the middle verb is
Ko. Thus rfi8t>&-p& he
proposed (or thought) to buy it : but (jsr#5?~c3e>S7P,K> he propos
ed to write it. S~$$$JS~&i&> Cona-N-accara ledu; there is no
occasion to buy it. But ;&>rc;S|f_S'^S> Tisuco N-accara ledu
there is no occasion to take it.
When the Middle verb is added to the root in A, such verbs as
end in S" or f often double that letter. Thus S"*pk*J to buy,
makes rffc|pS)4J : and erKoii to pull, makes e^>tf>r*i&4j or err^
JS*J : and &arbr*iS>iJ or &*|r>fc>.
[The Middle verb answers to the French Eeciprocal verb in se.
Thus : II se maria, ' he married.' ' lis sont jaloux et se battent,'
meaning They fought together. Napoleon said to Lord Whitworth
' si vous voulez armer, j'armerai aussi : si vous voulez vous battre, je me battrai aussi. (Gent. Mag. 1803, vol. 73, part 1, p. 580 )

244

SYNTAX.

This verb "*i&Aj originally meant to take ; and in Hindustani


the verb lena is used in a similar phrase. Thus woh apne ap mar
llya bJ.U^I^Uj he killed himself; tfj&xtfo^rV^Sb. Here
Lena is the same as "*<&*>.]
The force of the middle voice is seen in these phrases. ^S*3^
jy& they built the house ; Sjew^gofi-jycfi they got a house built ;
eiejo ?4r*(5^jt> they built a house for themselves ; s$ S'go-Efc
g^p7^_Sb they got a house built for themselves. 5x&g*3;&>*J to kill,
sS-gig ^r*jji3 to kill himself; fatw&*K^tertr-S> I lost my
money ; ?r> Hr-ftxi s^^g^r"^ he lost my money, sjew es&o r*
t^JSS he sold hi8 own house ; V9 cxoeu ea^-jyesb he sold my
house. The word
green or yellow also signifies tattooed marks
on the skin ; a)tf^<fr&S>o-a> *j to tattoo another person; a&iJ^sJr0*
&OT&e',>fr^5> he got himself tattooed. SSsfeS'w'^sr-asb he who
mortgages. &5sSbsS"S>*33S"*"^,CTSi> he who lends upon mortgage.
7ffc in>Spr,;S> I saw wgstotf-* "^^ *SrK$>r"o*3p I saw myself in
the glass. ^o r>8?> fra%o&?r>s& he had them shaved
fr
e?iOtfc"-iT^i he got himself shaved. W*j*o*b to give charge :
e^oT&r0 fSifc) to take charge.
The Middle voice usually denotes volition : that which is done
by choice, or, for one's own good : not what is done either by
command, or for the good of another person.' The robbers plun
dered the town' <S's&r''-j3^t> ; here the middle voice is used :
but 'the troops plundered it' is <S*&p*&: without the middle
voice. Rut "fS ^ 3e> cor. tt>& e>oX& "90^6" jS^Q < the ship
broke away from her anchor.' Here the noun is neuter : there is
no volition : and there is no advantage. Yet, as in English, the
ship is spoken of as a female.
The middle voice alters the meaning of the verb according to
circumstances. Some verbs always use it : some as ^iS^, sfrs, <^o
5, never do : some use it only in poetry : others only in prose.

MIDDLE VOICE.

245

The brief remarks found in the older grammars were insuffici


ent to explain the use of the Middle voice. In the course of reading
I formed the following classification which appears to me to em
brace all the senses of this verb. The reader may refer to this
statement when requisite.
Instance of change of sense so great that a separate English
verb is used to translate the middle voice. &r'br'&ti v. n. to
speak; sSr<b*sS5S"*A>k v. a. to bargain for. fc*^*J to owe, w*j
to pay. fcSi&*J to say, w^S""^ to suppose : toS^ss3ot>
to protect, give shelter or refuge ; tsoS^^jg^j&t) to take shelter
or refuge, seek protection. i&xk&> to see ; iiri&>'",r>6j to tend
^y^Aj to send, ^S^fii) to take.
to pull, &^r'i&t>
to take. frjC^dBfcij to pour, S>&&VoH&k to bathe in. To be
pregnant as es-Oj^S >ft(fr&r*pd3ajj6>La she is pregnant. "^5*J
to put, t)Ma^#>4j to put on, or wear.
v. n. to heal,
^f)Aj y. n. to desist. fcsa&jfto-cki) to deliver over, give into his
charge ; dV>-ffi><^jato to take charge of, take into his own
hands. 5"r&*J to bear or bring forth, ^ffc^^t) to perceive. *P
i>oi& to appear, S"ps>oSk rffcAj to visit: (see the Reader, p. 68,
line 19.) i*abtf>*J to walk, ?Safc3 g^jsfcfej to behave. Ivfr^Zo
tfc&> to rear a child ; but l)gi?6'aoiS:rt'(S>iJ to adopt a child.
It gives a Neuter sense to some transitive verbs : as "*44> v.
a. to beat
y. n. to play or beat, as the pulse "ir'Soti
v. a. to fix
85
v. n. to take root, to fix or become fix
ed. Sr'Cfi^t) v. a. to join, set; p,8a^S"76fc> v. n. to sit down.
Sometimes the sense is reflective or reciprocal, Thus a.S'8^5'
CoS'*|~*i3r^l8o they fought together, they beat each other. And
in such phrases the nominative is sometimes neuter; as XtitsfitS
&S~*po& the tide rose :
SO fi^S ^ nouse caUght fire Xoot>
poSbr^jBoS the pit filled, t?o^cifi)i> to prop. ^foS^^r^jbtJ
to lean against, lean on.

246

SYNTAX.

"Wherever self is intended this middle verb is usedso


txi3fc>&* put on your jacket. "7r*cJ6!ST3 J^sfe he gave a wound :
TT-cssio^^r'-fr^ he wounded himself. irt&&'?>Fi6 he applied
charcoal sS^^sgT^r*]^* he blackened himself with charcoal.
-r,e^2r6oa>-5-ewNir'p^aifr'2fe he went out shooting and got shot.
The imperative rarely uses the middle form : only if a benefit is
intended to the doer or to them to whom the act is done. Thus
dj Lift it up ! never oisfcr^. A mere command never ought
to use the middle voice. SS-iT6 <!r*6t&-&frbx> put the nail into
the wall: not S""**^.
The middle voice is very vague in its application, and the dic
tionary and general custom furnished the only guides ; the poets
also sometimes deviate from common usage.
In the following instances
is simply the verb To take : it
is not the middle voice. It changes some nouns into verbs. &*>
n. s. the head, tfeg-ffcAj to begin.
a whirl &irffc&> to whirl.
a stream, i3*tt>~,f>iJ (Vasu 2. 101) to form aline. &^
heap Sod6jeff*f6*> (P. 1. 670) to form heaps. "Sx>55e commence
ment. -aeu"*ffcfc> to begin.
a prop, *&r>fc> to be sup
ported,
a turn, Ekx>'~''j4>k> to surround. "&oi&> opportunity.
"(Sos-pS>&) to seize the opportunity. S*B" without *b5o>Aj
to do without, to be quite.2 above,
to mount V*
within,
to submit (Tara 2. 75) sSbOoew love) s&>&tx>r
f6i> to make love.

PAETICIPLES.

247

BOOK EIGHTH.
ON PAETICIPLES.
The Participles are (as in English) indeclinable, being applied
without change to all cases (,) numbers, genders, and persons.
They are present, past, past Relative (,) aorist, and negative as
already shewn : the aorist and the past Relative participles have
relative forms : Examples.
Present P|| &oi^)tS>, sending.
Past P|| *ol> having sent.
PastEelativerel P[| *o&i6, INA, who sent, as s6o!j$sr>Sb
he who sent.
Aorist P|| *o^S> who sends, as *o"wtj>.
Neg. p|[ in Ka a&oabS" without sending.
Negative P|| *o*p, ANI, who sends not, as op?r'i,
he who sends not.
The passive verb and participles are formed by adding the verb
a&sbk> 'to fall' to the root in A of another verb ; as 8&o^4j
' to send,' s&oS&wjSoAj < to be sent.' aboa&w&jS 'who was sent.'
When two nouns are connected, one being the agent and one
the subject, the English phrase varies thus; from S&KoAj v. n.
* to break,' T"ew38AiS ra> ' a man whose leg is broken ;' lit. ' a
leg broken man.' From sr&fc> v, n. ' To swell,' ^3agarC^a ' a
woman whose hand is swollen ;' Lit : ' a hand swollen one.' And
the same words may mean ; ' The hand is swollen ;' From ^ct>
'to do,' foS^"!*p 'the work thou dost;' From &oJfc4-> ' to be,'
>^)jo'S;pj) 'the town in which thou livest ;' From tf&$*J ' to
read,' ^f^CSajj (xPo$s&)oeS> ' in the book which I was reading.'
$$)Tr>e>%>$-:$ ' the time at which you must come ;' From
' to go,'
j^sfcooj^SS (P. 3. 199) ' the day after his going

248

SYNTAX.

there;' Prom
'to go,'
7** 8^* S3 d*aM^vtJg$
(Anirud. 3. 66.) ' the matter regarding which he went on my
account;' From &ojfc4j 'to be' >$)$i&8''r* 'as if you were
there ;' From iS0oSofc> < to cut' '3|?>8;Sir,SS the axe with which
he felled the tree :' here both nouns are in the Nominative form
though one has the Instrumental sense; From ^'EJ^*J 'to die'
tfoiatfa^fce) 'a child whose father is dead,' or #o\aiJ^;6a
' she whose father is dead,'here though the verb is masculine
(tfC^far'SS) the form is neuter ; From &&Ko&t3 ' to deliver'
Sr.3oLa-7roo F55 ea&^fcofijsa 'These are the things which
your father committed to me.'
"When two similar nouns are thus connected, one of them may
be translated by the Instrumental or locative case ; Thus
^pcxoeu ' a house wherein there is nobody.' Lit. ' Any one nothouse.' left's Sf^sSwlS a seal whereupon no name is engraven'
(a blank seal) lit : 'a name unengraven seal ;' For tS^L? is the
neg., rel., p|| of ^356 ' to engrave.'
In the English Telugu Dictionary it will be seen that many
participles (both active and passive) are translated by words dif
ferent from the English verb to which they belong.
The word &x>fi>^) 'before' may govern an affirmative or a nega
tive participle at pleasure. Thus w&jfc-u^s&si&'S ' before he
came,' (lit. before his not coming.) And (in the affirmative form)
sS^iJosSj&SsSxjfl*^ has the same meaning.
The P|| is often translated by a tense, particularly when fol
lowed by fcJs6jjJfc < then' or any word of reference. Thus S"r&k>
i to see ;' but S"p^ ^afc ' when he perceived,' S>9&iS i^SS ' when he
called,' fcBftjS^ei 'on his calling.' -jSpk^jSl^iJ 'after I came'
&8i&lS#y)&o 3A>a&jiSo ' when he sent me.'
The Past Rel: p|| is sometimes used as a gerund and translated
'of,' or 'for ;'aa &&[*r$$&*oisti ' the trouble of writing it.'
siSS|3(S$oK9 < the circumstance of (his) building the house.'

PAETICIPLES.

249

"When verbs are compounded, they are generally Past Parti


ciples except the last one. Thus from "Stfi-efck v. a. ' To open,'
Hea^ftM^ 'to lay open.' jSr^&Sfi
'he called and said to
me.* Literally, Having called, he said.' sr^abS^ Sb&>Seu^
"38-0 003045"* xT*Si'3> he got over the wall, opened the door, and
entered into the house.

When the word jtfox'Q < matter,' is added to a participle, it is


usually left untranslated. Thus e{SaS^S*taoX' 'what he said'
gb [nBSfiioKS -tJC^jS^oKS "3Dc*"gaS>. I know not whether
he is alive or dead.'
Present, Past, and Negative participles are governed by the
next verbjthus. Present. wcfci&xksS'B^s- ' it came roaring.' S"&iS>
*r*6fc>~ ' he went beating it.' Past. p8a^3S>^8 'they stopped and
said this.' Negative in KA. =rbo"ga139dt6S':fr6Sja ' I vrent with
out knowing that he was there.' OiS5'*ai3-o he did not eat,'
lit : ' he went without eating.' cr5'^o7rao ' he did not come'. |b$
sfr*S'~s"sS> 'unless you go there, it cannot be done.' t>&9*7tiSo
'he failed to come.' ^^ffsSr-?^ ' he did not say.'
'I
cannot avoid going.' s^*^"305^, "^S'sSr"^^. ' give them to me or it
won't do.' S(d8ktf'd*'sr'? ' If you will not give it no matter.'
tt S"jg) pJ^JSb < he came not,' Lit : ' he was without coming.'
The Past Eelative, Negative Relative and Aorist participles as
well as the 'root in A' of a verb ending in have the liberty of
using certain affixes. Thus. i>|, 4, wfcoSotS as r*e;6A (and)
jfcoJjfcfeM, 55)j;6fo3;S043 and these are translated by verbs; thus
two s&U'jjbij&&jS! or Ijf^^g^a f^r3* ' I heard that they were
in trouble.' B-atf^fi^StoafT^rfc I heard that he arrived.'
P^^^^'^C^ or ^3&i$^53 t7^?* ' I heard that the business is
ruined.' 69-"> rfcl6}S<fnSi>to afr^So ' I heard she grieves for it.'
This is the same as the Latin fecisse, venisse, periisse. "tr-jSto
C. P. Brown's Telugu Grammar.

h h

250 SYNTAX OP PARTICIPLES; PRESENT; PAST.


sSoiS that did not come, is the same as to* p. "s^iMsSotf 'which
is not done ;' is the same as
ON THE PRESENT PARTICIPLE.
This is formed from the root by adding
TU, or
$TJ, or
STTJ. The final TJ is lengthened at pleasure. The form in *
is pedantic, unless in poetry. Thus e3-5)&rirsber:5a^;f5S 'she
came dancing and singing.' "*3o&r84a>r ' beating and scolding.'
In the rustic dialect the * or & (U or TP) often changes into
A' : thus
(TU)
'she is sewing' becomes S***^*
(TA') e&a.
It adds
UNNA or feo^ TTNDA. (which are from <&osS*j
To Be) at pleasure : thus ^(J^SoT&tibi^jDg (M. 1.1. 210.) 'to
him who was angry :' si'JfitejSjw** he who sings. jb&3c3Sf_$Sjo
~&&p ' the business which you have here.'
The Present Tense (as shewn in the conjugation) is formed
from the present p||. The present Tense is, as in other languages,
often used with a future sense : Thus
j&>rr.jjfc 'he is coming
to-morrow.'
immediately.'

&

~?^f& (vulgarly I?***) ' I will write it

ON THE PAST PARTICIPLE.


This always ends in I; thus &oi> pampi, having sent; ^J" cheti,
having done.
Verbs in YTU form the past P|| in SSI, as =&jg*J, to be
wearied, S ^ DASSI ' being wearied' Prom afccs&gt^ to pene
trate e&3^, having penetrated.
Compound tenses are formed by adding auxiliary verbs to the
past p|| ; thus from ^tfi*J to arrive' ^O^F^!*3 he has arrived :
lit. heis having arrived. Prom \jrcsfioj 'to write' L?'?>>FJJ.#>
' I have written.' lit. ' I am having written.' Prom &oifc4j 1 to
be, or stay' w^^oa^-p^JSb ' he actually is there.'

ON THE COMPOUND NEGATIVE.

251

On the Compound NEGATIVE Tenset.


The compound forms of the Negative verbs are formed by
adding some Negative verbs to the root in " A" of another verb
and to the Neg. p|| in Ka as *S or o&S.S" from
to fall. Lr5-"*6
or ljEr,a33' from Lsr-j&t) to write.
or
from "^&i> to rise.
Thus
or
it is not or I was not of 6oJfci) to be
eSb, \jr-as>^!&)
(I) did not fall, write, rise or a6<5~3i&,
\_src3'^;6, n^s"^fS> I cannot fall, write, rise (see page 160.) Thus
one refers to act and the other to ability. S"ooXitJ, <Ene*j, 1/i^)4j,
to be, to suffice, to bear, are used to express can, and negatively
cannot. Thus lj-T"<*6x'e>o, [jncKJ^rajfSi, \jr*cs>~?xr>it(!)fr all mean,
he can write and \jr-df>~i&! (rrcB3vP,e)fc, (_jrd*"pw^^ifc all
mean he cannot write. In the last of these vraya-n-opadu, the
N is inserted to prevent elision. "^<$ or "^Bffc an irregular negative
of iStSnfctJ to learn. s^tf or &*~$Gp> I cannot go,
or ^tJf*l cannot do so rr^S& they cannot come, and from
i> to go <&ofc*j to stay, s&i**J to refrain, tf*^ to fail &c. Thus
\jrc*SS'd'*o8 they failed to write ; lj3"SiffS>oS (j8o they re
mained without writing; \jj-c*6S'sSt'^ he abstained from writing,
Ijr-cBjS"
he missed writing.
For these the Telugu uses the negative form while in English
as here shewn, we use the affirmative form.
The difference in spelling, between the aff. and neg. partici
ples, is in many verbs slight and scarcely perceptible. Thus
8oQ;6oj>rS vicharinchi nanduna, ' by examining' OO'OoiJiSoa&jS
vicharinqa nanduna, ' by not examining.' &o%$o&$ pampinanduna, 'by sending.' a&OijioS)j5 pampananduna, 'by not
sending.'
Whether the intensive accent is on the past p|| or on the auxi
liary verb, it gives the same meaning. Thus ^"5 07*^*6, chere unnadu; or else ^ogj-jo^'S cheri unnade, 'he actually has arrived.'
See pages 18 and 33.

252

SYNTAX OF PAETICIPLE.
ON THE PAST B.ELATIYE PAETICIPLE.

This ending in sj?5 IN A, as


vrasina ' written' : or the
passive form 4j badda as |wci* ' vrat/abadda" 'written' are
used as adjectives without reference to gender, number, case or
tense. Thus \jnt^'S^i6iSx>i or (jrd6S -r!#sS 'a written
paper.'
But when the A at the end of
or
is lengthened, it gives
the meaning of *"&i<SSP4. ' though', as &;&ljr^r ' though you
wrote.' fc*>l53-cx6Tr* < although it was written.' In such phrases
it has no relative force.
And it may denote ' whether' as rJ^^-^, fcd&^sSe^pT"
whether you or your brother come.
The following expressions are in daily use : they shew the vari
ous senses of one word ; Lp^^i the past rel. p|| of Ijstc8EAj.
T"*o \j=r-;5 j-b
tr'ta \*r-9$ srog6
rak ^f>^ s^ta
"^ffe sr'Ko^jsr'^iS ^r*0o

he who wrote the letter.


they who wrote the letter.
the letter which he wrote,
the town at which I wrote the letter.

st^mo \2>^;$
sfKo ^arS^ *p

the date on which I wrote the letter.


the matter about which I wrote
the letter.
the palm leaf on which the letter
was written.
the iron pen with which the letter

yao lrfi;S'?'4S3-&
Xo4jiS
afws tjrf>jS >&>jsS

was written.
the reason for writing it.

And from U9csS>ij to be known, the past rel. p|| being "38f>jS :
"3Sfjji-53-JSb
he who knows.
5Tj0l "3S^;isSj4j
what he knows.
In such phrases the passive form may be used without altering
the sense : thus rljp*r&e'<ij^fc i jje wj10 wrote the letter.'
sn&^frf^KtZtrm 1 the letter which he wrote.'

PAST EELATIVE AOEIST.

253

Certain affixes can be used with the past Rel. p|| ; one is
s5o43 or w&osots such (in Latin ' Talis') Thus 3^, ssa^sS&n
3otS or 3<>^(i*>sSo43 equally mean ' That came,' or 'which came'
tt"P, trjStosSoiS or "a,'i6s*5^o4S 'that did not come.'
The affixes woa>(5, wosSb^y or wocfc^'iS ' thereby' or ie>
'therein' (See page 65) are also added thus: :S 0^6 o
by
coming,' Tr>jSosk;4 'by his not coming,' sSfi^iSoafcsSe) 'by coming,'
"^jSossbjS 'by his not being there.'*
fc^&Ss^owjSajSe) ' 0n
my going there.'
This or the aorist p|| may be changed into a verb without
altering the import ; as sS4JstoKrB<Sw2> < the man whose face is
swollen,' ^paao^jSaoa-"^, his face is swollen, 8|eu~s-,iSjSsr4>)
'the man whose house was burnt.' ^rPox>ta "S^DjSa, hia house
was burnt, sScxn-dSb^exiE- &%~i&S>*>, 'a kettle in which three seers
may be boiled.' 3*#2>e>s5otf'>~;oo6- ^^^Soi^S ' this pot boils
three seers of rice.' That is ' three seers may be boiled in it.'
ON THE EELATIVE AOBIST PABTICIPLE.
This usually terminates in E' Thus from
coru-ta ' to
desire' S"*"6r-Jfc core-vadu he who desires, ~fir&>S~i~&X!i\JStix> ' the
horse which I desire,' (or) 'which I ask for'; So from ^oSst>)
' to be, to dwell,' fc3o)o"doMto ' the house in which he lives.'
Erom ^cSwiJ ' to do' Ssroo^"fi*p ' the business in which you are
engaged.' Erom cS"c>t> to be got, ss\8<5^a"iwa'^sS> ' there is no
means of getting it.' Erom C^^jio ' to read,' TS8~r*i> he who
reads. Erom sS-sk\i> to come t9 5f_S:S^aso;S(6 or fc?|f_&S;$^
=r>eoaiS5c who is he that comes there ? from fi&fc> to say tt;s
a^wiSb, a man called Kama, tSj^"^"5~:?gS, a poem called
the Magha, JfOTCsSsoW^pSS a village called Gangavaram.

* See Wilson's Sanscrit Grammar, p. 413, note.

254 SYNTAX OF THE EELATIVE AORIST PAETICIPLE.


There are some affixes added to E', Thus, efosSotf,
thus
6o"3ijfcs5o43, 6oc!*3, ' such as stay or remain.' From :S&^i>
' to come' S^i^foasSoiS, ^43, " coming." from *5i6^*j to say,
3^&>&osSoi3, t3^o^43 saying.*
Another form of this is the Root in U as s^^.f
Thus from sfr* Saj to go, ^Ssr'Jfc he who goes, d^iS^S she
who goes, sr^o ah
the way they go. From a&oafc*j to be
ripe, 6ofe"3"^le> ripe (i. e. bright) moon light : from Si6^*-> to fail,
S$i6vjs$ri> a falsehood. tf^yfcsSr*j, a wrong expression. From
^ja&^jtj to say, :3&a&6*Jt (literally the said words) backbiting.
From "tioiSatj to rear, o^i)ot$cnji a nursing father. From

* In poems there are other affixes :


Thus & 3&,
or &o"3j>. Each of these is the same as ^oo, Hence come &o"3
6srJSo; or ^o"a5s7{Sb he who is. f&o'B&Q, or &o"e43S she who
is. tfj6&o"3afc^ob 'those who did not go.' UT%jSUT-Bb>!^
<r*d>$~ like the bowls of a balance. From *euso*J to speak,
narrate, &0"B& ifXS&aili, riSgo^&^^TFribip'Lsfcotf t>. The
poem now written is the Bhagavat and he who inspires it is
Kama the blessed.
t As this is a Druta word it inserts N when it is followed by a
word beginning with a vowel. Thus. S]| g^iSS a ; S"ss;6|

' Liberality alone is wisdom : [nothing but] entering the com


bat is bravery : criticism is a right relishing of good poets : med
dling with gramels [causes] grief. [The remaining words merely
fill the metre.]'
[The verses of Sumati ^83'SS'sioand Bhascara V^tf^
are popular books in Hindu Schools : but we should not attempt
them until we have mastered Vemana.]

NEGATIVE PAETICIPLE.

255

to mount, .isfc 2>XoLtfs a saddle horse. From s!raSbifct> to pierce,


in&ty&sbfiitu taunting words, from oifc> to beat with
a pestle. iSo?(i!>Sc8>to ponnded rice.
The verb $"e^X>4j forms the Ao P|| in X*>. Thus TrXvsr*i& one
who can come. &^cooooa^d&^^l3.&^i5b^^x'er'e3>L I am ready
to receive it whenever you give it. ^ftyXvoaazB a house that
has a thatched roof. ^ ^"^F10"^ a house that has not a
thatched roof. H)SX,e)riSb one who has sense. "S8a"Spsrab
he who has no sense.
ON THE JTEGATIVE PAETICIPLE " AKA."
This is formed by adding " to the root in A, and is translated
" without" as 3d3coi> to Do; root ^<*> ; and hence ^cXiS" ' cheyaka" without doing, w^^c*?" without doing so. From &ofc*j
to be (,) the neg. p|] is
without. Thus JSr-S'eu'Ss' 'without
money,' or 'for want of money? CT'euk < to suffice' 0*0 S- < without
sufficing. JO Lcs =E3-e>5" for want of sleep.' ~B"5' ia the neg. from
**>4j to become. Thence s!r'^>g*Joa>5bsSe>"7r*5' being unable to go.
In a few phrases the affirmative and the neg. p|| give the same
sense in English. Thus "How long is it since the house was
painted? It was painted two years ago" : may be thus expressed
sioiSlsstf S igr-f^jar^goM^a "this house having been painted
how long?" or S(o*3SsSca e-foo!g-cKS5'653-r3^L$ 'this house without
painting, how long ?' Again :' How long is it since he came'
w&dfc:5^ otoT^^ ' he having come, how many days?' Or
wifcTT'S'ofci'i^L & ' ne no* having come, how long ?'
Sometimes the a before is lengthened as wf*8" see the rules
for emphasis.
Some verbs form an irregular noun (see p. 235) spelt the same
as this participle. Thus iy'^,
Tvii afc a S" mean ' without
coming,' ' without going,' ' without becoming,' without falling.'

256 SYNTAX; NEGATIVE RELATIVE PAETICIPLE, AKA.


But as nouns, they signify coining, (arrival) going, (departure)
heat, a bed.*
The affixes :Sx>oS>( sSoff, sSf6^i), (meaning Before) govern
the neg. p|| in f Ka : thus "cr5'sSi&>~i before he comes: lit. be
fore he come not. \jnas>&Doi&> (lit. before it -was not written)
before it was written, ^3^5"tfos before he said.f
On the Negative Relative Participle in NI.
This is formed by adding P NI to the Root. Thus
utukuta 'to wash,' &6S;5 utikina washed &8p utacani ' unwash
ed.' s5^*j 1 to come,' Root, -o*, Neg. P|| TP ' who comes not,'
'that came not.' sF>&~&p&&i& ' on his not coming.' Trpr>aS5
' he who is absent'
' to become,' or ' be :' (the root of this
is T") Neg. P|| Tp ' that is not done,' 'which cannot be done.'
~srppzdi3t>&fui>~*& ' why do you fret yourself for that which
cannot be effected ?' TV2P~s~p?j"tS3 ' onejwho is not a king' ^3
~v*P ' unhandy.' wfSnSba"^?)^? ' at an unfit time.' "&>5&>i6-!y
>e>;S-g-jt>sr4->"30f> ' when he learned that we were innocent.'

*But this part of speech (p||) is Druta, inserting N :whereas


those nouns, being Nominatives are Kala : thus cS'sSaSto or
tyi^sx> raca-n-emi why should not (you &c.) come tt&>o~cI&> he
was without coming t5^ ^c*6S"?s&> (Do so to be sure) why
should (you &c) not do so ? lit. "Without doing what ?
whereas the nouns [which are Kala words] would be thus formed
without the
N. V**- &o^L&>Zx> what [do you mean by]
saying heat? not T'f o"&^oX for here the N if inserted would
be the sign of the accusative, T^ffc.
t In French we sometimes find a negative which in English is
rendered by an affirmative. Thus ' Ayez pitie d'un homme qui a
vecu plus long tems qu 'il ne croyait.' Have pity on one who has
lived longer than he expected, (lit : than he expected not.) And
in Persian Gulistan 1.18. "danah ta Na yafshani" until thou
sow the seed. Lit : until thou sow not the grain.

NEGATIVE KELATIVE PAKTICIPLE IN NI.

257

fc>to-"3~p!6,.js>odS> i in tne event of it's not being bo.' ' Should it


not be so.'

(j$^^a3tf^co~s^f>s5?Sjsib;S3 aJ)i&-crSj-&

' hia statement that the signature on the bond is not his, cannot
avail him.' ^oJSbt) < to be, to dwell ;' Eoot in A ^otf . Neg. P||
&op or ~&P-sroifcwS^tf "3;soj!jS < as he was not there.'
p=r>& ' he who is devoid of sense.' S>&g~$Per>i& 'he who is fault
less.' tr"gf)CT'56 ' he who is unable to come.' rioi^^sWjjBgjifo^
* it is very true that there is no crop.' Tzr,&>t>>o&l>oi&>$ 'as he
would not stay there.' 8&Xoi> to return. Root, in A, OB*. Neg. P||
QGXP unreturning.' (Childe Harold. III. 27.) tfKp^a&Jfcj
a curse that will not fail, ^o'&h to love. Boot in A,
Neg. P||
$op or Xvgp 'unloving.' (Padma Puran III. 62.) ^t&rrp&p
' the thing that ought not to be done.'
Verbs in & can form the root in or ^ as 73T,|;^*J, "5**^^.
To wear' ; hence the Negative P|| is in like manner, formed, in
or
Thus the Neg. P|| trv^p or Tjy^P ' unwearing,
unworn.' (Tara 2.)
The Neg. P|| is translated ' un' or 'in' as Sf&b 'to hear' 3(5
^ ' audible' a$*>tp, S^w^-o'P, 'inaudible, unheard.' ^3*^*^ 'to
say,' B^TPpsSSfijexi < unutterable words.' "3)dSi> ' to be under
stood' "39<ssip ' unknown, incomprehensible, unintelligible.' LF"
&>t> 'to write' [rdsip~5' jj^ew 'unwritten papers.' i6^fc> 'to
suffer' i6STrp^& 'intolerable trouble.' E. 3. 64.
' into
lerable, unsufferable.' Thus Horace uses amabilem for amandum :
and Virgil uses non imitabilefulmen for non imitandum, and venardbile for venerandum.
ON THE CONDITIONAL AORIST.
This is translated If or when. It is formed by adding '' ~3"
to the past p|| whatever be the Nominative case. Prom S^tfi
S6*j to bite, ~6Sll if (it) bites, from l^fcti to drink
if (he)
drinks, from fr&ot> to pierce
if (vou) ns it in the earth.
C. P. Brown's Tclugu Grammar.
i i

258

SYNTAX OF THE CONDITIONAL AOEIST.

but when the root of a verb ends in

cs&fo, or

the affix

"S is changed into %, as "S^iftij to boil, "^""S or "3"!^ ifit was


boiled. From |_st<3&>Aj or l_oTf^t>, to write L?7"^1 if (I, you, he,
they,) write.
The verb &os>Aj to be and some other verbs ending in ?*> NIT,
as f
to say, &i&t> to hear, &i&&> to eat, change the NU into
(Sunna) and have the form in ^cfj if (I, thou, he,) remain &o~i>
ifyou say,
if you hear,
if you eat. But when the
first letter of the verb ending in NU is long as in f^ffc^ to soak,
sSriS>fc> to cease, or be healed, these have the form in as T^f"^,
'if it was soaked,' sSrp"tj} 'if it were healed' W-plJ if it was
touched, i$rf>~v if he takes.
It is also formed by adding &?> (,) wo"> to the past tense and
fciJcxull to the Past Eel. p|| and to the Aoristp||. Thus, w&JfcsS
^"^P if he comes, st^sfo om_^s5o"&, if you give it now, >j^^
;S&5coo"e$ or ^SsStS^AjIjom"^ if you were to come.
And it is formed by changing Sj i or & U into 55- A' which is
at the end of the past tense. Thus o>i2>s$_^*r if you come, "^i&^Sjj
7^ if I promise. ^a>sS-D-)-j3-<>T t3-&p^i&&*$#> if he comes (lit.
Did he come?) the business would be ruined. "^PosS^"!^ if
I come.
It is often translated by a tense. Thus s5r"rt'o&. q0 if (you)
choose (Lit. if you go, go), s
Soft come if (you) are coming,
(srojol sr>ox, write it if you choose. i38a*f3a& Eead it if you like.
&o"f)g)2Sb stay if you choose.
The phrase &ox~& when used after a noun, differs from the
sense "If" It is rendered, Indeed. Thus "^j6ow"$3 js>p I indeed
came. ^5tx"S
As to them they did not come. (sJr'goo^
5rs.ifS> indeed it is getting late, to be sure it is late.
The phrase &x>~& used separately means " But" The literal
sense being, ' Should it be so.'

THE IMPEEATIVE.

259

ON THE IMPEEATIVE.
The common forms of the imperative have been exemplified in
the various conjugations, ^csfio&s Do thou' singular ends
in UMU. But if ' Wffc to say' is added, UMU. changes into AM.
Thus from "3^*J ' to say' the imperative is ^^sSm cheppumu,
'say thou' but t3^*P cheppamani "saying tell thou," from
^r&>*J 'to do' ^cs&jjSm chey-umu, 'Do thou' ^ScBSsfc?) cheyamani
' saying Do thou.' frtafc to become ^)6so agumu, ' become thou'
D. E. P. 436. wofi^si&DiS^osS^sSb^^8 "In wrath he said
become a pariah ! and I became one""cr2? amicable settlement
tj*2Sf&ip^h^Tr&, They desired me to come to terms with them :
but in common life either in speaking or writing, only these
forms are used.
(which is the Inf. in U) or t3^sS for the
singular; and ^3^oS for the plural. So ^',,
and
Some forms are colloquial (though used in poems) and cannot
be reduced to rule. Some of these regard the 1st person. Thus
fc5fa-=3^iS let ua do so, ^st&o ITTAMU Let us give. Pal. 53.
line 8. tSt>'S^6x: let us see. SJ&)'5r,,sS let us read. Observe
(page 229 line 3.) S"oessS iefs see.
for "3^Sx> let us cast.
The 1st person plural has an irregular form. Erom sfr*5)fc> to
go, it makes s^'CT'sSo, and colloquially *6es or &*"crskoi6 iet's g0_
Some forms even of the 2nd person are irregular. From
to put, forms "3o, veyi, 'put it.' SSte^^dtfijs&n' 0 do thus ! "S^,
s^, rise and come to me.
on. Stop. K. P. 5. 52. &e>> for
^?oa stop. M. 4. 3. 194.
There are poetical forms of the 3d person: as -&>tD8g~ May he
bestow ! w*mtt,,|$&- so be it ! These are irregular and therefore
are placed in the Dictionary. These are in the colloquial form
s>$G> as
s>r>3>.
If two or more imperative verbs come together, and form a
sentence, the last alone bears that form, the others being parti

260

SYNTAX OF THE IMPERATIVE.

ciples, either past or present. Thus s^ooo, wg^^s^, Go and


tell him.
But a serious of imperatives, not so connected, may retain the
imperative form, as in the following version of (Luke XI. 2.)
the Lord's prayer.

fc536^6S

&>sSr>.

5&jD&-p "&>so 5>.a50O(TsS KjiS" (,) sSr 3rj6jSe)j&

ON THE AORIST.

261

BOOK NINTH

SYNTAX OF THE TENSES.


THE AOEIST.
The Telugu Aorist is often translated by the present tense,
as e*-<8A8"?)r'<5fc>r<sa& (from S"o*bfc>.) ' There is a garden
near the town.' &B7r& that is mine (Here the verb to be ia
understood,) 6rr,a-r"& 'that is not mine' (from 334-> to
become) w^i>:38&^jSS'g> 'it is usual to say so.' ~$-fi&)&&&>
' I know.' "j^lStf X"ffc ' I know nothing :' this is the phrase used for
pleading " Not guilty."
Elsewhere it is translated by the Future : as T?^:Stfi^i& he will
come to-morrow. &Tr,SlS8&j& I will bring it afterwards.
Or it implies doubt : as eg^jgjoSb/S) it may perhaps be so.
In a few instances it may have a past sense : as Sosj^sgeo
cor.^p8"5n,4>e"5-0J Their forefathers were not inhabitants of
this place.
It is sometimes translated would, should, could, as wfcn>:3&>Tr>
would they do so ? **ofi&c&>eoXi5>c> Every body would know it.
Or it is translated ' Can,' as ts^ts p*"0 Can it be so ?
I will add a few instances of the Aorist : which the advancing
student will find useful in solving doubts. But the beginner has
no occasion to read them.
* It is rendered in Latin by the Potential or Subjunctive : thus ' Trojaque
nunc stares Priamique aux alta maneres' ' thou would still be standing.'
And in Ovid &c. Metam. VII. 677. " Certe si fraxinus esset (if it were
ashen) fulna colore foret (it would be yellow) si cornu nodus inesset (if it
were cherry there would be knots.) Again. XIV. 650. lecturum pomaputores,
you would fancy, you might have thought. Elsewhere this has the force of
the past, as in the Eclogues Mirabar cur maista " Deos !" Amarylli vocans
I wondered why you exclaimed " Mon Dieu !"

2G2

SYNTAX OF THE AOEIST.

The Aoriat is used to denote perpetual action. I copy the follow


ing from the ^(>osSC#S'jSm which is in print : it is a small poem
much admired and well depicts the superstitions which fill the
minds of Hindus.
3_gsfrg;$1^ 3L?f>Xo~&-B-"iO S&-*^^13|3;Sf^, sfe, SSj&^aS^aS.
No one brings
negative of ("3^*) wealth with him from
his mother's womb : nor does it follow him ("3o4oxre& neg. Aor.
of sS^i>) on the day when he departs. He may hoard up wealth
and pride himselfaa it but he
cannot consume the
goods he has laid up.
Or it has a Past sense. Thus -^og^SsSxkeuil&S'iS Did not
(those ancient heroes) the Pandavas suffer hardships ? r>>(0"5"~iS
(nivuniki cana) I did not see ("S"ffc*j to see,) that you were there.
(Wjfcijto say) ti^Tr
without contradicting her he spoke thus.
iSj&^sydSSjsS (Lila XII. 16) he never quitted my side. The follow
ing verse M. IV. 207 contains a series of verbs (here marked with
stars) which evidently have a past import.
tf|| ftse>ss>foaroj>*<&-<>ejo * aa;S*d&,&*13;SsS dr5S*p&eo
laua&jfc* ^e^o"3e 'SoeSsS53)fo8X"^8\k56fSyL'77,>
sS<ysSjSs&rfc"^sS$e 3c5i^;SiS>oX'e>)<bg~*-3&~WJSo"-*
In the following verse the Aorist is exemplified with a present
tense B. VII. 371.
V|| fio-Ebg- * s^e^Saeosuf^ea?^
E5l>.-oCSbi- * tf-aosfcoSSE-

ON THE AORIST.

263

The following well known stanza in the Gajendramoxam,


(a legend in the eighth book of the Bhagavat lately printed sepa
rate) uses a succession of verbs, (which I have marked with stars)
in the Aorist form, with the past sense. " The god" (says the
poet,) "heard his prayer,"
sS>[ SE~ "SK^So * #0$) t3\Z <S&>XtSx>G- Stf^aa $00&~ci
<6a=r-ffcsoi& &s& # [$rX&&o !fc8o!6-cs *re3e-To
a&S^er'O Tje)^;5 S ; *

[JFT?'S$T^ sr*^tr5}:>|]

" He spoke not to his spouse, he arrayed not himself with the
conch and discus : he called not his train ; he saddled not (his
steed) the feathered king, he tarried not even to bind up his clus
tering tresses, and even forgot that in his grasp he held the veil
of his queen ; as he descended in haste to rescue his suppliant in
the hour of need."
The Aorist denotes usage, or custom: thus &eail 3 83 S3 they
would come on being called, \^x&onij-$)i&& they used to
pass their time thus.

" "Women will lay down their very cloaks before the feet of a
money making husband ; they view him with all respect. But if
a husband be able to earn nothing, they will laugh at him and say
There comes, the walking corpse."

eJL&bc&b s>o8t5sS>3;S 23-eSo^||


(B. VII. 64. Tale of Prahlada.) " wealth may be safe in the
street under the care of providence : it may vanish out of the
purse. An infant left in the wilderness unprotected may [or often
will] thrive : while one duly tended in the palace expires."

264

SYNTAX OF THE AOEIST.

See further instances in L. VII. 40. -ESr-^" ^)** ^1


^csSjiSbsS Also for the Neg. Aor. feminine See Padma 3. 17.
describing Ahalya.

" She never turns her glance towards me : or if she looks, she
will not smile : if she smiles, she will not fall into conversation :
if she begins talking, she is not frank. No it is of no avail to set
my heart upon her : why did I give myself up to these thoughts ?
Love incited me to try every method to gain her : ah I had better
be dead!"
The following verse P. 2. 123 well exemplifies the Negative
Aor.
i5|| S>$l pS^csii Q eo> pSf Oo (,) gocftew ott>Hnv>
(,) SS"<6iJoi&> $&?C*cS&& (,)
SoS^eS Q &
tf_t$>&pirc& Q ea^sp sWcfc (,)
e^xi&sio
JSjSSS (,) S5i0|woSi) 13[T88o zT6 (.) 5S>i*(!>55s-ao86f)r ||
' When the noble behold a man of wealth they do not scorn him
because he listens not. They will not despise him though a blind
man : they will not gibe him on account of his paunch : if he has
lost his ears, they mill not avoid him. Though he be a dwarf they
will not depart, they will not quit him though he is sour minded
orignorant, nor shun him nor will they call him a wretched diseased
creature, and even though he be (a man of no morals) immoral,
they will not revile him, provided he be opulent.'
Or it has a future sense. Thus s(4>"cr,>-ci will not he come
again ? ^S68S they will come to-morrow. Ji^JifcJjS^'oe&sSwTj^
*j-S^s&x-o5& (for, r*ofi>i&and Sfr&fr) Ah ! when shall I em
brace him, when again shall I hear him speak ? In the Tale of
Tara (3. 87.) She says ;
"S|| oV4j)o ^r^oi&, >6x>tf^ki g^jasb xosb,

ON THE AORIST.

2G5

" Ah when shall I obtain him, when shall I enjoy sweet converse
with him, when shall I gain an interview, when shall I quench the
flame of desire ?"
Again : 3,3>io& I
state. "Bs^r* he will say (Luke XIII.
27. here the older English says, he shall say) i6o^S> fT shall I
send it ? Sie>3g'sS^T'X'<y it will be seen or made clear.
[The following occur in poems]
0&>jS>P)jS>L;rt5e> -r"5srSS
N. IX. They were indeed in hope of beholding him OrS6"?)='^fe?'^n>
$si"^4S> Nothing shall be impossible to you sS&iS Pray come
ssa^-cSi'&s&Tr'S' I hope you will come and see it &""'5j6Tr,^!)SOMi
8S'Scn'oX'<S^5tftj^ I Will you ruin the family which is in a
flourishing state ? '0(J shall I come 'O'S wilt not thou come
S^sSe* W. I. VII. 174. I should like to hear that story.
In some of these, it will be observed that though a question ia
intended, the sign of interrogation is omitted.
It may have either a past or future sense. Thus oJsf_&fJiofi!S
oi3T_&?d-'>5&':ky (Tales of a Parrot p. 40.) Where have you
come from ? where are you going ? whence are you and where are
you going -^v^sr-pasS^, ^So^t^ottog-oefcjS) < if he knew the
language, I would get him teach it me.'
Verbs that end in N as

0,&fcJ, r"i&*J &c. use a contract

ed form in the 3d pers. Masc. plu. Thus fS>&& they probably


may perceive, becomes Zo\s& and fsfc& they perhaps will say,
becomes ssc^jfc never otfj Vaisaianti. 3. 23. Thus So<&sScr> tinduma shall we eat it ? This is vulgarly written oasr tindama.
from ^a&rfo',
Pancb. P. 1. 366. Shall we go?
Some critics think that the form r*&sr> (du) is " Can" " we
go?" But sfrK>> (da) denotes " shall wo go"? see P. 1. 366.
But the colloquial form is ^"^s^ (da.) So ao(s6; oksSt-,
Oo-cj*& shall we eat ? so tSf&sfc*, tf^sSr* or OjJ"& shall we
die ?*
7. P. Brown's Telugu Grammar.

k k

266

SYNTAX OF THE AOEIST.

The Aorist Tense sometimes has an Optative sense. Thus


(from t&ifcp'tf\*j To bestow, confer) ^^^L*$=3> may the
Lord bestow ! This phrase occurs at the close of each canto of the
LHa.
iSy&$)Tr pray come and look at it ! or plural,
St* Si Oo "AT" 5 !
And it may have an Imperative sense Se&i^o-o I wish you
would come! $j>~3pcxx> I wish you would give it! ^*^,5S>5
I wish you would tell me. I hope you will explain it.
Yemana says 425. &o Soo^i&o^ r"Jc sSjiS^esSjo'^b, gja&j
os5r3jftolS. They call a pot, ' olla' and a hill, ' collis,' and salt,
' sal.'*
By adding Tvp the Aor. takes a precative sense. Sar. dwi.
188. ^tt,cot*tS3<x)Sx''&d$"7v*p Mayest thou enjoy the fruit
hereof.
The verb S"e>Jot> has these irregular forms : ?o;So he is or was
a<&> or f& it is or was S'eitS there are, they are, Xog, neuter.
Some forma are peculiar to poetry. Thus fXosSbffc I become
SrS>wx$Sotf;SXifi>o (Vishn. P. 3. 402.) 'Iam Rubhu byname.'
s&oaS'c5&-^L (Bhasc. 60) ' would it not flame ?'

* Sir William Jones has spoken of the mystic obscurity in which the sutras
or metrical Aphorisms of Sanscrit Grammar are involved. The treatises writ
ten in Sanscrit verse by Nannaya, and his commentators, on Telugu Gram
mar, are equally abstruse, and the rules on EDI. (Chap, LXXVII,) are peculi
arly intricate. Every Telugu rule is laboriously deduced from a Sanscrit
canon; the connection of which with the Telugu language, is not easily dis
cernible. That arrangement is, to an English enquirer, illogical, and were
Nannaya and his laborious commentators translated into plain English, the
rules would still remain nearly unavailable. Happily for the English reader,
Mr. Campbell's Telugu Grammar contains all the more useful rules ; he has
excluded much that was unprofitable, and I have yet further abridged the old
rules while I have added many that are new.
The Grammar written by Nannaia Bhatta (who is also called Annaparyulu
W^ir0f>gtnJ) has the title ' Andhra Sabda Chintamani,' Or, The Etymolo
gical Standard. It passes over, with very brief notice, those niceties regarding
ardha bindu, and tacata Repl.a in which modern pedants waste all their strength.

ON THE PRESENT TENSE.

267

The middle voice uses


& thus ^^3) thou wilt not take.
The 3d person singular Masc. may insert N if the metre re
quires it ^3oX"^ becomes oJ&XosSb Kalahasti 3. 58. He knows not.
THE PRESENT TENSE.
The present tense, as in English, often has a future import :
thus "^T^Sl&fr^ta They are coming to-morrow.
Some contract forms of the 1st person singular though condemn
ed as inelegant are in daily use : thus "StS^iSJfJ^ffi. I bring, or I
will bring, becomes "3** testa or "3s^f& and ISJ^o^tkp-^jfc be
comes "3^5^ or Hj^-c^fk and StS^fkpry.fk becomes
or
s5^roS> ; These are only used in conversation.
In the 1st conjugation likewise are used ^Z^w for ^3^So
(T^?S> I will tell you. And this is even pronounced 'B^.
Instances. jf_eeKy^3 'jackals howl.' M-SSwcr-exjaa 'leaves
fall' 8&oifct>;i5gK*T3J 'girls laugh.' These phrases use the
p8g^^s&j6ss or habitual present: but the ptfgs5_KsSj'^tf or
T'i5^85':Sj*sr;S:i) or
JSJf Srj5d (the occasional present
tense,) is exemplified in the following expressions. wc5o^(S^J>,Tr'ew
^i^S, ;S (5&o p^S) denote they are howling, falling, laughing :
these are marked by the longer form of the verb, rendered in
English by the affix " ing." Thus one denotes habit, the other
present act. And the habitual present is equivalent to the Aorist
participle; thus W-SoeuTP-^S), j6 5^tuW0^3, afrSb ^mfrH^-oyfr.
The forms &jr^i& and &o&n> have different senses. Thus
<fe(3^s> may be either (present or past :) thus ' Here is (or here
was) a man :' but &o&r<3i> denotes (present and Future) ' He
stays, remains,' or else, ' he will stay ;' 'will remain.' "^jsfc-sSTa"7r
o S^S^-fr^SS 'when I saw him he was there.' e5-ao43er*^)04r>
e&cfr'&b ' he will be in the house : you go and see,' *3o&<r*$u>}&
cf)'Fr"jLf^> 'There are (or were) four persons therein.' but 6o&r
t> denotes that ' four dwell (or will dwell, or stay) therein.'

In

268

SYNTAX OF THE FUTUEE TENSE,

like manner
6,J> &c. often convey &past sense ; but 60
i>8, 60*00, for dtofcsji^ft, i&otoi^a often bear a future meaning.
Thus in English, he goes, Tie eats, is often used with reference to
a past act : but he is going, often conveys a future import.
Thus
may be considered Preterit: Thus ^jiTrxeS
fc>^_fi5Si^La 'when I was coming it remained there:' and the
lengthened form is ^o^P,
3~v& it remains, it goes. [Thus in
the Parujat. 1. 114.
Ss&iiS^P.] The forms

(J'SC^^^iJoS^i&^^-p'^S, i. e.
he is coming, Ue
it is Known,

wherein unnadi changes into


6 are considered inelegant : and
the vulgar (but very common) forms
^Oa, S^^1*, **rc>,
or ? Ant{6 are equivalent with the antiquated English expressions
" he goeth" " he speaketh." Instead of d^Sij^Cf) they are going.
The expression ^cxaXirefr for sJr^sS^ Tr^jfc ' I will go and
return,' is the colloquial phrase : as the other word d*tf>^L?&
' I depart' is imagined to mean ominously ' I am departing' or
* I die.* Thus Zo^iPonttiTrsp after his father's death.
FUTUEE TENSE.
The first person singular may as usual drop the NU at pleasure ;
^"S^ai&or^^S * I wiH tell you;' S}^aiS> or
'Iwillgive.'
S>lZ_i&cX>&-XiS (M. XIII. 2. 178.) ' I will ask you one thing.'
if^Hi^a 'I will die with my husband.' (P. 3. 303.)
In the second person jj"^_a>w&" ^> what wilt thou ask me ?'
(Kira Bahattari. p. 61.) 3"
Lila (L. XIX. 198) 'thou
wilt see,' ^1S *j*p?* ^aaSTgr-^og^ Take care or you will
tell him.'
Colloquially, the present tense is much used instead of the
future : thus &pkac>es>><o'S'ig) what will you ask for this ?' *ir
'I will come,' sfr^fSi 'I will go ; (or) lam going' ffcO*Bo'tJT'tf
' Let us examine it.'

ON THE PAST TENSE.

269

The two forms, ending in EDANTj and E'NU are alike in


meaning: thus **&"5CHj& or BSipii 'I will ask' s^3j?6 or
' I will give.'
Or the future is expressed by
' can,' from 6"eM?foi> (page
120,) which is added to the Root in A. Thus ^abXefh ' I can
or will do it.' oS>&
"S^r'x'osntfsfaa ' We will abide by
that decision.'
Instead of this, the indeclinable affix I'NI, -&f> ia sometimes
used : and this is the same in all genders, persons and numbers.
Thus t*^>t9ootr^?> atla ayy-ini 'it may be so.' "^esgss>ooj-f& < you
will surely perceive, or, will know.' tt csrgf> ' he probably will
come.' r*car p poyy-ini ' He shall go' ' they must go,' ts?f_i)0
hp He (she, it, they) may be there.' *ptf_i6can>p the
business will be settled,' sfcftSaotitow^p 'then it will (or may)
be ten o'clock.'
Or FNI has an imperative sense: as W- $&bp let the command be executed' or ' it shall or will be executed.'
THE PAST TENSE.
1st. As to its fobm. Contraction takes place. Thus
may become
it happened and A>~3,
said.
The termination N is dropped at pleasure. Thus 606^ ^oS
7**i&, ^jo'Bfjo, or by dropping N, &o&G,
jr*t &o~5 I -was,
it was.
In the 2d person singular also, the termination VI, is often
omitted. . Thus from >e&> to rule, S>SO becomes
thou didst
rule.
And if the sign of interrogation is added, A may become E' ;
thus -SrfiOCT may become
"3 didst thou see ?.'
The 2d person singular in poetry may be thus contracted. ~jS0i>
83 +
may become ^6t8 * thou hast taught.' M. 5. 3. 234.

270

SYNTAX OF THE PAST TENSE.

Contraction is used in poetry even when E' or 0' (see page


172.) is added. Thus ^~$>P for ^Q~p 'even though thou
do so.' Thus 3owoifcr&i_l5jD for |.S^jt) (M. X. 3. 34) ' if
thou fail to effect this.' ssOyr* for
(Bhadra Parin. 3. 93.)
' Perhaps you came,' ' I suppose you came,' ' I imagine you came'
ss>80"3 for s&ess^ have you forgotten. M. XV. 1. 137. 3o-> for
8043^, ' didst thou hear ?' &o&$* for efcoSa-^r possibly you
were there.
(Tara 4. 107.) for ^g"%r ' surely you were
born there !' W^oCS"* for
o ftS-%r (Ellana 1. 254) 'hast
thou learned ?'
Eadha. 1. 93. i. e. s^fr-aa^ < 3Urely
thou didst reject (my advice.)
In poems the final N of the third person often drops its vowel.
s^^5j<>,
poyenu, chesenu, become sH^o^-, ^"^r~ poyen,
chesen- This N is sometimes written o (Sunna) as 'Wo^oOS
for "7fo^3f&Sg ' the child saw ;' or else the N is entirely dropped,
(if metre requires a short syllable) as tvo^D^. Those gramma
rians who approve of the semicircle, use it in such places : thus,
If the metre requires it the N may be doubled: thus '3"5>jr&,
?-c*6jS may be written ^"^F^cs&jS he said.
2ndly. As to the meaning : some verbs (particularly those of
seeing, hearing and thinking) use the past for the present tense.
Thus -e$t*J^ ' do you see ?' ' didst thou perceive ?' "SE^rS'sr1 < do
(did) you understand it ?' "33>?>a < Yes,' "^^J
'if yOU caine
to-morrow.' Lit. ' Didst thou come to-morrow.'
$ff_S> 'Idie,
I die, !' or, ' I shall die'
1 O I shall fall,'
' I'll come,' or
' I'm coming,' tor-&o&'t?t&omGr ' do you think so ?' ZfrJfotf r
&o<& ! Lila XV. 117. ' I behold thee ! I live again !' ^/abw^cssi
jSNl3dSi'ejfi> 'I do thee no wrong.' W~% (Pal. 319) ' it has hit
him' i. e. ' it assuredly will hit him.' -r*j5>2o (pal. 500) I will
spare his life.'

ON THE POETICAL DIALECT.

271

In such places were the present used, it would give a future


sense. Horace says ' Tempus erat dapibus sodales :' ' it it
time for a feast.'
Additional examples, w J_&SsS_S-5r < if you come.' ^o^^a^Tr*
' should they come ;' ' if they come.'
< do you hear ?' s&>
' what do you say?' lit, ' what didst thou say?' p>& ^K$sr' does the water (Plural) boil ?' "S^b, ' Yes' &3oO fT5S < we bless
you' (a phrase common in letters) ^ 1 I'm coming.' BiSK^ow^
' Here ! I'll give it you.' P^ii6 ^F1?^ ' I rely on you alone.' Lit :
' I have trusted thee.' l5>^yri3a^;S!>j> 'when he comes to
morrow.' Lit. 'when he came.' yTSr^tf Jb 'Oh I shall die'
('Horatio I am dead !' says Hamlet.) WArr.a^aoO pr>tfc ' he is
of this opinion:' 'such is his belief e> (J*?; ' what think
you?'
CC^Tr-peT6 &t%r*ox>jr'e3 he is breaking his
heart about the death of-his son.' 3-c*>iS5o "&>jSgofe e> |b rrSs&
' we are (were) his brothers.' ;Sbsa^=K0 7r
' I forget,' Lit. ' I
have forgotten' ^ris tfowfS a 'it turns (turned) out to be
the very book,' eSS^e it is wet.
It has already been noticed that in rustic talking the N of the
past tense is sometimes slurred. (In the W-Aj^XsSg^otu or come
dies such irregularities occur in verse describing rural conversa
tion) Thus >^fr>=r vaccjnava is written ^t3^st vucc'ava.
The poets use some anomalous words which are referred to the
past tense : thus 63
he said Ac. ^^-S*^7^ on his saying
bo and T^j6i63kjg Chenna. B. P. 4. 82. ' he appeared' ["rjS3a>g
' he did not see'.]
ON THE POETICAL DIALECT.
" What an excellent horse do they lose through want of address
and boldness how to manage him !" says Alexander concerning
Bucephalus. (Plutarch.)
The Poetical dialect varies in several points from the ordinary
colloquial Telugu in orthography, syntax, and phrase.

272

ON ORTHOGRAPHY.
I.

IX ORTHOGRAPHY.

As a short vowel (laghii) becomes long (guru) when followed by


two consonants, the letter N (sunna) is frequently inserted for
the purpose of lengthening a short syllable when the metre re
quires it. Thus feSJ> atadu becomes f#o4ft atandu, and
evadu. becomes ds5oa> eVvandii.
polati becomes r*t>o<3}
poTintl So*, veladi "SuoS, velandi e>o, alati tseos, Slanti.
In like manner, in the 3d pers. sing. masc. of the Negative, U
3 JSo ' he reads not' ^sSSb ' he goes not' &o3fc ' he stays not,'
are in poetry occasionally spelt iSessSo^, sir6:5oSo, 6ooJ$b.
The sunna thus inserted is called SS-ttfrj^ ' the optional N.'
The insertion of N in poetry is more fully described in the
nest chapter, on Druta.
Words commencing with I, I', E, E,' IT, U,' O, O,' AU are in
poetry, as in the Dictionary written with Q
<^ S>, 6 *, a. L, 17
as ^t$'&> 'he,' oi^5> ' who' but in the ordinary style of every day
like these are changed into *>, ow, Sj, ^j,
~>t
an(j
^6 : Thus oco-=JSb ' age' is in the Dictionary written
and 4r*
5)8 ' breath,' is shaped S*S>8.
But in words of Sanscrit origin, as s^fte$sS,
SsragsSw,
efe^x-tfas, S*??-!k>, Lrsio and ^S^rg^ the vowels
&c.
ought not to be written thus , cw &c.
The semicircle (^^^J., or w^f^^tf^ viz c ) is a charac
ter invented by the learned, and much used in printing. But it
has never come into general vogue, and we need not either use it
or regard it. It represents the circle : thus, traoQ, "3oe>, fc>#o
&c. noticed above, are supposed to be the original or full forms,
and 3"e>S, '3aS>j ts^sSS to be contracted forms : wherefore they
are written ir,e>cQ> SacS, wtfcSb &c.
But the simple forms devoid of both circle and semicircle are
original. The circle was introduced only to lengthen the preced
ing short syllable : as atudii, atandu.

ON IMPERSONAL VERBS.
[Another alteration in the verb occurs in the 3d pers. sing,
m. f. aorist. 5"j3 becomes S"p6k 'he saw' S"""^ cone ' he bought'
becomes r*pa> coniye. This form is only used in poetry.]
In Tenses :occasionally the present is used for the past : thus
Parvati Kalyan. 2. 43.
*&&>-p^&r> 'To which,
what replies he ?'
In pronouns : thus
(Hunc me) KP. 3. 31. " This me."
Some poetical forms as o*8r,igpf are now vulgar : Thus in English
' To Ketch' is very vulgar and is used in Spenser 3. VI. 37. Thus
in every language some vulgarisms are merely the antique forms.
Peculiar contractions are used in the verb : thus
for
a8"0BS4-^So KP. 3. 18.
Several words drop the final vowel : particularly U. Thus a**3
becomes S~, S"i5>,
?fo^/sStu; xj^tfsSM^, wossCopi, tJooOos-,

ON IMPERSONAL VERBS.
In Telugu as in other languages there are impersonal verbs :
that is verbs which use only the third person singular : as it seems,
it rains, it ought, it must, it should.
Examples : from "383>*j to appear "3eWJfSjiS. it seems US^Q
it appeared, it is evident, I know. Aorist.

or "3tu&; the

same. These may often be governed, as usual, by a dative : thus


77so"3o)^Ji6^fi> it seem^ so to me, I am of opinion. ^SiHew^u^S
you see it sr>oSi>"39cs&> they cannot see it. s$e>&k This verb
originally meant To love, but as an impersonal denotes Must,
should, serf's;* (Aorist) must go tss~s& must come. The nomi
native may be any word, singular or plural. Thus
~& ffi
(we) must go Br*d*
(you) must go. Past tense sSeSjSa
thus s^rfe^iSa (you, we, he, it, &c.) must go. The aorist and the
past are in English translated by the present equivalent to il
fallait in French.
C. P. Brown's Telugu Grammar.
L 1

274

ON IMPERSONAL VERBS.

The negative is (Aorist) sSw : thus S o sfc (it ne faut pas Tenir)
must not come, or, Tr>jse)S^S-r,,cf>. Or by contraction
as
7r:Sfi> Dont come -&r>j&sSTs* Do not you want this water ?
Another word of the same import is borrowed from
to
come. Aor. ^^i*. Neg. Aor. ~tr&. thus TT,3-i5i>yS> may come
s^ttf ta^?> may go wwsh must not come, cannot come ^"CJS)
must not go, cannot go. Thus SiP'Si'D'S-S^ffc Tou may come
:Tc^btr"-cr,s& they are not to Come.
The neuter verb S^So^j to fit, to meet, is thus used.
is it meet (Aor.) to go ?
it is not proper to go
fc?;SScr,') it is wrong or impossible, to say so ttsj-5" as he
could not come : as coming was out of his power.
The verb a.<6^t> opputa to suit. The initial being a vowel, the
drita N is inserted. Thus &gi$d&rfx>&-jy js it fit to do so?
2-i6^f&yeS
no.
The verb "3e> wooia to dawn, appears to be impersonal: thus
"3 ^roj&f^a it is dawning
r-a;Sa it has dawned, it is day
"So rsE'tfp>"w before it dawned. In fact it is (albescere) from
"5^> white, and
paruta to flow.
In English we say day dawned or morning dawned, but in Telugu
it is strictly impersonal. Thus also in Sanscrit Ramayan. 1.
XVII. 21.
cB3-^
iSb^iSxo &>|j^y^ (6Tifi!S>. This day has
my night given way to a most auspicious ' dawn." Here Carey's
note points out that instead of morning dawns, the Hindu phrase
is that night dawns.
The verb (of Sanscrit origin) e-^soifc4j 0r e^sS>^5&>$fc>
it grows to evening (vesperascit) Lit : to set. Thus fcJj6aoosrS's
before sunset.

The verb tJ?S>> to go, may be used impersonally : thus Vishnu


Pur. 4. 257. sSr-p^OjS^iSn.^)*! | ul>s>iSir>at5<4i& it is improper
to behold these.

DEFECTIVES, ETC.

275

The verb S'twNok with ita derivatives may often be impersonal.


Thus *SAiS<&;jb when he is wealthy, instead of $ jSJfcoS'SAiS^ab
when he has wealth. This and a few other verbs only seem to be
impersonal, because the object is not mentioned. Thus s^e^*
it happens among us, instead of sagx*^ dAStSaataiA and ~s~P
^ga a thing of nought: for &o>e>T>p>f)i&i and 't-^D^eb not
to-morrow: for ~& c6)t3<s&5So(SS~5~*j>.
DEFECTIVES.
There are a few Defective verbs among the Auxiliaries. Thus
^BF& (an irregular Aorist of
I cannot 2
3 3 ltfo,
"fStSsb l ^as$ 2, 3 "jStf Oo.
The Sanscrit Interjection (peculiar to poems) wSip^cfe Listen !
give ear ! is generally considered defective, (see the Chintamani,
Chapter 86.)
ON THE FORM USED IN PEAYER.
[" Oh bestow this ?"] is much used in entreaty. Thus DRB.
277. ^"3 Deign to reveal this ! S(3s$dS M. 1. 5. 220. Deign to
hear me : also in the introductory prayer to the Sadguru Bodha.
ir>-&ci>t> | raSSsr^O The feminine forms O Madam, &c
are c*^, a^^, &c. and the plural jStf<sBS, nr'StfcsOg. CBP.
4. 154.]

276 ON CEKTAIN VERBS USED AS AUXILIARIES.

BOOK

TENTH.

ON CERTAIN VERBS USED AS AUXILIARIES.


The verbs ofc> to fall "3dSs>4j to cast 8~*4) to strike rgj*J
to go, and a few more are used as Auxiliaries, being added to the
Boot in A of other verbs ; or else, they are added to Participles :
thus
or &>?>62&4j equally mean. To start or to be startled,
to joy or be overjoyed. Some alter the meaning, others do not.
Thus f'csfciij to cut, by adding "acsSMi> to the Past Participle
forms e^S^cs&itJ to cut off. This is equivalent to dalna to " cast"
in Hindustani. Thus marna is to strike or kill ; and mardalna to
kill. Likhna and Likh-dalna equally mean to write and bear
nearly similar senses. In translating into English we generally
omit such auxiliaries.
To go, as an Auxiliary generally denotes completeness :
or alters the sense otherwise. Thus ^ft^a it is spoilt or ruined.
^a^oM^a it is spoilt or injured.
to fall j6ad^A> to fall
down. &>\j&eox>Ty& they are already come. Thus xSfy<j~tri& or
Sja^^aur^cS he died. " The phantom's sex was chang'd and
gone" Lady of the Lake.
Added to the Inf. in A it denotes attempt: thus ^B^d^oajjSo
when I was going to tell you. *<d*8?> I was just falling.
(This may be called the Inchoative. See Adam Clarke on Luke.
V. 6. which would be expressed s^sSr-a jo.) Thus Wfa^-3^ar*55
do not attempt to say so. tpsS^So D0 not think of coming ^4*
<xo^oe$er* just as I was thinking of coming : as I was about
to come.
sSiS^ij To come "3>#jSS or "3e)c8os5fi^;Sft it became known.
es-sSjriJSHaiS^s^a or aw& the words were heard or became
audible.

ON CERTAIN VERBS USED AS AUXILIARIES. 277


55e>&*j is an Auxiliary used impersonally. Tlius sJ^^^S is
must, ought, shall, and the negative (irregular) is
contracted
into g> must not, shall not. Or else tfifc (the negative of S^t>
to come) is used. Examples Wjl>Ticsfis5"Si& you (&c.) must do so.
fe3r^3SS;S^is8 the same ; (you, he, &e.) must, shall, shalt do so.
fe>4x^<ssj-cra$> (you, &c.) must not, cannot do so. Thus S^oXQcrt
tcsSi Thou, (&c.) shalt not steal.
7c>iS>4j v. n. To be able eS^^s^B* I am unable to do it.
It answers to can (anciently ken or know) c^efS) I cannot
come "^EJS'iSJjp I did it unintentionally. USc<fc^5eT3 ;S (Vem.)
if they cannot understand this. ~fi$>iSri~fi&'$ Can I endure
to behold it ?
To be able, to be possible. &*Txr.*?> I cannot go. w&
OM^_JSfSjoaS"?>3-'6dS) it cannot be here.
Sr"i<b v. n. To be fit, be possible. &,>&^&eb This is out of
the question: it is unfit. ^er*a&o~i> If this is impracticable.
tJfan.^tsfigj-'SsS) (Tara. 3. 75.) you must not do so. I hope (you)
will not do so. ^oi&nr* 8
Fail not of doing this. Lit:
herein failure will not do. w^&Stt' Solas' as I could not go there.
sjo'*i!>53o|r_S? ^ysj-afc rr> was such a thing ever known ?
These are added even to nouns. Thus 6&d is ' a gleam,
a flash.' By adding "i*t> is formed a verb as 8
< To be
dazzled.' PL? sleep Plx^&to to sleep $&z<&x> fear "cKja&st>
to fear srfS> a tree sri&i&oi> to be stunned.
This liberty however has its limits. Thus sfr^k To go is used
in many various senses as an Auxiliary. And yet the verbs ~3$
i) or
which mean ' To go' can never be used as auxiliaries.
In hasty talking they often drop the verb and merely use the
auxiliary. For !&xn>$~3ox> they merely say "3<*og as 8<x>-)~3oxg
for ^ew^55bT^"3oMg Shut the door.
It would be easy to extend this list of Auxiliary verbs : but
these will suffice : the rest will be found in the Dictionary.

278 ON THE FORMATION OF VERBS FROM NOUNS,ETC.


ON THE FORMATION OF YERBS FROM NOUNS.
Many verbs are directly borrowed from nouns. Thus from
t> n. s. form &sfcoo4j y. n. To form, and causally &B8cb*a v. a.
To form.
Others are derived from Sanscrit. Thus from
En
trance (2. W. 580) by addingineu l*"^ocx>&> v. n. To enter. And
hence the causal ul&'^S' + 'Sfasfc pravesa + pettuta, to admit or
introduce. The affix MU being omitted.
So from j&o's&& pleasure (2"W) is formed. ffcoS^L.ottiej to
feel pleasure, to joy, and j6oeTs?>.o>oi53k> Santos-impingu or
5S."w4ij Santosha + pettuta to please, delight, charm, v. a.
MISCELLANEOUS RULES.
The Rules contained in the following pages govern all parts
of speech.
They originate in principles which may at first appear anoma
lous : but pervade all the languages of India.
ON REITERATION.
The principle of reiterating a word is found in every part of
Telugu Grammar and calls for particular explanation, because in
translating it is requisite to convey the intended import without
using a repetition which varies from English idiom.*
When a noun is reiterated, the words are in the nominative
though a dative affix is added. Thus st^^033^ room by room,
house for house: every house : not Wlob3%ox>ot&! d&ew&a&eu every
tooth, not 8&o43o63g.
* The principle of reiteration often occurs in Hebrew. So in Gen. XXXII.
16. oder oder, "drove by drove" In VII. 2. sabaa sabaa "by sevens" In
Psalm LXXV1I. 9. ledor wcdor " for ever and ever" " to generation and gene
ration, in Deut. XXVI. 2. eben we eben, a stone and a stone : i. e. different
weights. Thus in St.Mark. VI. 39. avynroaia ov/moata, -paaiai irpaaiat,
companies (and) companies; ranks (by) ranks. So in Psalm 40, Waiting,
I waited. And in Luke XXII. 15. Desiring I have desired. So in Sanscrit
Kj"^rK^"^r in every house.

ON REITERATION.

279

Reiteration of a noun sometimes denotes Every. Thus S*S> a


village ^c^Sf to every village. -po*SiioiSo&. q. y. to every fair.
Reiteration is frequently used in poetry as also in daily conver
sation and writing. [But in Telugu the Sanscrit words are not
often reiterated.]
I. Reiteration of an Article gives a distributive sense. Thus
CS-csS^oMoiSer* in those different houses : in every house : lit : in
those and those houses ^AtS^^^
6* wherever they
searched, Lit : in which and which places they looked.
S"^ss>eSj
sS^osS> at various times &"S"'>"?S"3~e>!Sj6o4k atone hour, at some
one time.
II. Reiteration of an Adjective gives it a superlative sense.
The noun is invariably plural.
Thus sioo)s&>o-&*oa>o very fine fruit: the finest fruit. (Lit.
Good good fruits.) Or it denotes some, a few, as ^i^Jp^S^
^ ^ several royal
some (several, or very) little children w o **
tigers, or very large tigers.
III. When a pronoun is reiterated the second is rendered
respective : as ftS-W-cxooeSb the respective houses i^iS*"6*^ in which
and which places, s&'s&'^jfr our various names: (Lit: our and
our names.) sr8,sr8~s!o To all of them. sr'O^-sr'OiSb^Sv^sfcvjjSi
when the different people came. (Lit : when they and they came.)
^s38K>j*k> ^y&^^sSejt j6S Let each speak for himself: (Lit:
whose speech they must say.) ^sS&&z^rt>\jS~-fr^8H; >5o'3eM
fr>~F Do you know what particular articles each of them took.
(Lit : who what took ; knowest thou ?) ^^^Ss^-^^va^
ftaga their wages per month were duly paid.
The pronoun
is self : and if doubled thus, (first Dative
then nominative) ^^&^'^s5S^7TxS) it implies, He came of his
own accord: of himself. So in the plural o5&Si"er""& and in the
neuter t^pieSTS, plural ^*35W3.
IV. The word ^S" *3 One, takes a different sense when reiterated.

2$0

ON REITERATION.

a,s'43-r^e)?^oa >"?>r43 &&S-|& sS^fr-^ I wanted one and


you have brought another. (Lit : One was wanted ; thou one hast
brought.) 2.rsSL-j&"3& "^rsSr-M
the roots of each
tree were twisted into those of another.
p~)XtssSx>-&r'':tS$)&
c&n>K jcO!f_"(3sfi we had no opportunity of seeing each other 3-'43
SoS-A-'?)5'43^faoaisa it was one thing and he took it for an
other : it was entirely different from what he supposed. a.S'ep^S'
B5SiSr,^6^.aSo when we met : (Lit : when we, one and one saw.)
in one place or another a-ftf Sb one man here and
there. &|T_*j co,3) i&
*;$j3;So atone time he will listen;
and at another he will not.
V. The word ^fl^ ' where' is repeated (as happens in Sanscrit,
in Hindustani, &c.) to denote wide difference, or contempt (so in
Psalm 42, where is now thy God.) as p>"3if_ie3-cSiiS3a|^# where art
thou and where is he : i. e. what comparison can there be between
you and him. Compare H. D. I. 257 and I. 1023. A learned man
speaking to me on the vast inferiority of Telugu to Sanscrit ex
claimed >^>sf_S'^)0^>^_ where is the cat, where is the tiger !
VI. The doubling a question implies Or: as ^"z^Sts* He ?
or he ? i. e. This man ? or that man ? And also if the sign of doubt
is used, as
whether it was this or that man. In such
places
what, may be used, as f>3d&>zvfr&&&> whether to
thee or to me. Both to thee and to me.
VII. If Adverbs are reiterated, the sense changes. ^^J* there,
but ejTtfjTa here and there ; w^Sa then, but wa&^g^so now
and then,
^J4^ the same
at times, occasionally ;
ee^oese^e), or, B^'S^a quicker and quicker.
"When the second adverb ends in "k^, it denotes safety or entireness : as (^^^""^"^iS'ti?. The property is untouched or safe
t3-&>$3-&-T^&*ox$> the entire leaf is missing sr-poxoo snpocoai
TT'igiSjS! no one has meddled with his house.

ON REITERATION.

281

The Locative Case is generally considered an adverb. ^o43ot>


fSjfSjSj'^uj the wells iu the different houses.
~ VIII. A Nominative case is reiterated to denote pre-eminence
whether the first one has or has not the intensive E'.*
Thus TP^a^oMSo-^oWKix) or Tr\s-6oK>3iio-powS!& The even
ing rite is the rite ! i. e. ia most worth beholding or the finest
part of the festival is what takes place at night. ^8x'js3a)|ws&&
>oi6ffi^oa& Vema. 2. 202. to grow old together is the boon of
boons! sr3Sb^e*-ioS e5-*j,_^>aofi-irtj He plays the play, he
sings the tune : i. e. All he does is right, all he says is law ! (a
taunting proverb) ftS-tS'iiSs' (Herein the first word has the inten
sive E'.) That is indeed a tica, or commentary.
The following instances occur in a page of the Bhagavat VII.
194 (printed) being an extasy in applause of the god Vishnu by
Plahlada.

So i&> Sj&oo&ffcaj s&#>'13QliS>8$ 5o;6!S;fc;5jS

SSo$jb$"S'ja ?6Co2fcxoSc
A nominative case used adverbially is reiterated to denote con
tinued action. Thus as^tosr'toTV drop by drop.
IX. Elsewhere a Nominative is repeated to denote distinction.
Thus fcsaug'rs; cxa^)g'g'$ That is one story and this is one
story i. e. That^story (or account) is quite different from this one

[* As in Othello, though that his joy be joy. i. e. be supreme.


Again, in Hamlet, and say to all mankind This icas a man.]
C. P. Brown's Telugu Grammar.
u m

282
^aSl&Soo

ON REITERATION.
They are certain persons and we are cer

tain persons. That is, we are quite separate from them.


X. The reiteration of a number implies difference. ' Thus *3o
l8l~So&$g sSneu The two have two colours i. e. each of them is
of a different colour S*)8 5fo3-Sb

The three have three

names i. e. each of the three bears a different name. $vofo&Tr*ex>


Xn&&zo$r*ax,d The four men went four ways : i. e. each of the
four went a different way.
XI. Sometimes the first noun is Locative plural. Thus ^s>
*&<yej"-<6ii> (Vema. 647.) She is the girl of girls (this is an
allegorical description of wisdom as a female.)
XII. Sometimes the last vowel of the first noun is made long ;
as <S"TTiS'*tfeB) kings of kings, rulers of rulers.
A verb may be reiterated, using the Boot in A, or Q-A twice.
Thus (A. D. C. 484.) ^sr<sfc
or (jr-dsSTr' \jr~d>-rr a3
he contiuued to write t5es sS iJasS or fJasS~7v tSissStv as he went
on reading.
The second verb with an emphasis denotes assurance : thus
s^oMfSsr-sSo sirSaufS r-S he is assuredly gone forever: (Lit. He
who is gone is really he who is gone.) ^r&fjSjfii tsj^lS I as
suredly said so.
But with an emphasis preceding it, the particle w| denotes
as it was. Thus ^&^$jjt*&> ^^^"JjOa^^sSb sitting as he
was, he died.
The Past Relative Participle with the same particle preceding
a past p|| denotes pretence. Thus *""c3i5"fed^oo3 pretending that
he was going s^"f} ouSj pretending that he was giving
something.
Or the radical form of the verb may be combined with a Tense :
thus feoH't &$j> unda-ne-unnadi, 'it assuredly (or already) is
there' "e^-gd&, or,
Not at all. Sfif?>sS>&,
t &
)r'oktf> Hearing ye shall hear and seeing ye shall tee, \r<sfi"^

ON REITERATION.

283

l5r_~r^> I 'will certainly write tr^si j?r>o he is positively coming.


Negatively, tp ^tt& they are positively not come : they certainly
will not come.
Reiteration of a participle denotes continued action : thus
(jar*$r (jsr^-. as jje continued to write a pap continually hearing.
Lila. XIV. 9. Parama Yogi, page 411. c8x>(5so ^s^t^ Anirud.
4. 20. continually waging war w&oJSan>cxo43 s5&p>;Sfi^frJSb he
came often, or was in the habit of coming ^*o iJro going again
and again. There are now no points left unexplained.
A verb or p|j used first affirmatively and then negatively denotes
uncertainty. ti^S^rrS^ he may perhaps come: lit. he comes
or comes not. tsp9t9oMi<S^"s^><S^ I do not know whether it is
his or not. ^J&S5t> v. n. To boil. i&^g&aS'p boiling and not
boiling, i. e. half boiled. >^?$> type whether arrived or not.
5tfS'^)^ljS the work is and is not finished: is as good as
finished
fciof^j^Si they are and are not at enmity. &oeS
p^ "gpeip^ 7rS>~33d*4) I do not know whether (lie, they, it, &c.)
be there or not iSr-csJSr-iSfc,5~ (Tice UR. 5. 69.) the seeing
and not seeing ~Qi>$!$'!)3&'*i'$>Tr&> he did it unwittingly, or
aware and unaware
53
"c&atfiSiS^? the child's teeth
are incomplete : lit. have come and have not come iST>ir&&oi>
he pretends not to see him. Vem. 1. 39.
Occasionally two verbs are contrasted instead of a negative.
Thus iS^\Q^fr>sSx> we were half dead: Lit. having died we
have lived 69-i6p&oafo*r''S)^ri5j? that affair is half settled :
lit. it sinks and it floats.
Sometimes the negative noun (in MI see page) is used: as
ftgAtJsSw'-uTt'^'fr^iS) They are hardly on good terms
being
the neg. noun of
"3S<s&>Aj To be known fPitstfS iSxU
S^UDsfijSto^iS^S He may be said to know Tamil. Lit. It is and
is not known to him &oaSb*jTo be &o&$op ta^^^cfc their
being there is of no use vTet> To suffice, v. n. P& vrO^askMyj

284

ON PAETICLES.

~k*&$?> There is hardly water enough. a&Xoi) v. n. To go on


wr_aej8ftistsx-!&>e>3& As I was hardly able to live ^here. Lit.
by thriving and not thriving.
The Aor. P|| may be prefixed to the verb. Thus sSj2T7', or, ^ ft
&o%tj*, come, if you like ^32>y5 3^ Tell him, if you choose ^"S
sS*o& Go, if you like. ^So'lj^oS^ejfJiSa stay if you choose, or
if you think fit. "S^sS^^^iSi perhaps I shall come to-morrow.
-$fr~dQ-?r'--Zr<&>,
-gr^ "8

not awake me.

o36 If I awake, well, otherwise do

ON PAETICLES.
A few words are used which may be considered adverbs or
auxiliaries. These will be arranged alphabetically.
1. Wo*jis a contraction for $so&r>i>} or any other portion of
the verb P>4o to say : and is equivalent to They say : it is said.
It may also drop N becoming w *->. It sometimes has a taunting
sense : as ^6ax>fylo&r' I tell you he is gone.
2. fc?o"i) This is merely the conditional of the same verb.
sfco-ij ' That is'1 id est.' s50yE&fieo-f, If you will only come
and see.
3 fcSoS This is a plural vocative " Sirs" or Sir : as ~io& No sir
& rr^tfoa They are here, Sir. [4.
See on WoAj.]
4.
(the past p|| of fcs?&k> to say) Having said. This is often
used in combination with 'Bi6^t)) j6ewSo4>, &c. meaning the same.
Thus tf^sp:3k)^r=& he desired [me] to come. Lit. Come thou
saying he said. Other remarks on this verb are placed under the
syntax of the past and aor. participles. The past rel. p|| ffS^ is
rendered " called" : as ~i&$rglttn>% Veman'anna yogi, " Vema
the philosopher."
5. w6j*Sl^L E^en when. This is the dative of w^Sb then.
Added to a Eel P|| it implies Although. Thus 6o&jSs&}43^ Even

ON PAETICLES.

28^

though he was there "S(5*3f!^ Though he was not there.


i$^4SI^I_ Happen as it may.
6. SS-O-es-, or
Aye, ayeThese are conversational
interjections.
7. ea-er-^ Just so. Very well. Be it so.
8. gfc> By, At the rate of FewftoAjHoi?3oiS>*J to multiply by
four.
9. s\o431 At the rate of Xzj^r^o^lSJoS at how much per
yard iSwjj?01"0*3-^^8 about forty men came.
10. si^> Here, hither. Added to numerals, this changes them
into adverbs. 6S-6 4J Sixthly, in the sixth place.
11. oib The affix ' ful' as a cupful, a bagful ; but it is generally
untranslated. Thus &~l~*pi> a coss-ful: i. e. the distance of two
miles -f>~B<3i a seerful: i. e. the quantity of two pounds. i&y>~8i>
a cubit's length. Xo w&b a basketful.
12. &?> At, at therateof F"'"^^ at four, four at once. x"o^^f>
by basketfulls.
13. i (or less correctly o) Just, exactly ^&X'o4oe>S'r Just
at ten o'clock. s&>iS&s5a>iiS"|> e> Just as he pleased tf&^s&jfio
Even when he asked aT^prer<S"t>g5?> (Luke XI. 10.) He
that seeketh shall ' even' find.
14.
or Sisdo Though ? What? sS^~dp even though they come.
jSKu^fio What, wont you believe me.
15. X-cy Contracted from ~3~-5S is it not so ?' tiZ^V&X-a*
He is come you know. t5^,"s^&X"cr> I tell you it is not so. ^r2
<S^oXXix I fear, he is a rogue
Xcsdi> pray look, Sir. 6euSic$
$$o%*Xis' Vasu 2. 103. Tou see that what I said is true.
S^oi An affix, like
able, fit sidSgr^oj fit to be given <S"
B^exs procurable wOs^g^ew violent, forcible >6<&jr*ex> in heaps,
bountifullyan affix likeness. The plural is r^fk ; ^Ek^o)
acceptation ^^^^^^J Giving in marriage and taking in
marriage.

28G

ON (ANUCARANAMU) ADVERBIAL PAETICLES.

tfj6ss An affix like ness. 5fco>S;5ss goodness. This is with


Telugu nouns equivalent to 8&a in Sanscrit nouns : as 'jtiSs^ste.
sfcS, s>e^, *>8cKm But, yet, also, besides. ~&, "305, "So-cy
(Derived from "^**-> to rise) Get out of the way ! rise! also
" Of course, or You see." #3 "Well, right.
Sfsr( or st8 5^0 Exclamations like Oh rnon dieu ! generally
denoting horror.
ON (ANUCAEANAMU) ADVERBIAL PARTICLES.
Simple adverbs call for few rules and have been already noticed
(pages 131, 132, 167.) Of these, some are Sanscrit: as
On a sudden. fr<&t$s through Justice, i.e. Justly. ts^^lSS
ignorantly. But Anukaranams or Adverbial Particles call for
separate notice. They are used in Sanscrit, in Hindustani, and in
all the modern languages of India. Being purely idiomatical, they
are not easily translated. They may generally be considered as
interjections.
Dr. Johnson calls such words (in his remark, in the dictionary,
on Milton's use of Sheer, adv.) " Cant terms or proverbial expres
sions, not now in use except in low language." His coadjutor
Steevens in a note on Shakespear's Richard III. (Act I. Sc. 4.)
designates them as '' words of mere enforcement with different
shades of meaning, subject to no obvious principle yet certain
in their import." These allow of much latitude in translation,
and we are often obliged to omit them ; because like some Greek
particles, they have no definable meaning.
Some precede : others follow the words to which they belong.
Some are used as nouns and have plural forms : others appear as
adjectives or adverbs.
Some are altered at pleasure in spelling, to suit the metre or to
give emphasis. This is generally done by lengthening the second
vowel. Thus S^aS" becomes a-^ar, and ^S"sfer becomes ^^sbS".
The various words '%wrTr"^rKr>d-ir} tivofi,
and some others mean Violently: being equivalent with the
English words Bang! all at once, slapdash, &c. GS-zya^Tj", cs&aH,

ON (ANUCARANAMU) ADVERBIAL PARTICLES.


sg> all mean helter, skelter x"K#,

287

-when connected

with the verbs To tremble merely mean violently, excessively.


And to Tinkle is expressed tftSofSato, yjfSaiv&t), XnKm&fr>i}.
The words X's&X'-fc, ^Sxisfc.^0555, mean finely, sweetly, nicely,
prettily, fragrantly. The phrase buzsiu i3 melodiously, audibly,
aloud.The word&QStf, or &reG>tS means round and round:
spinningly. "ax>^"S^ or Wor"Ss> \er* aloud (of howling).
QjtjiSss fiercely ja5*yw^3^ft They wept bitterly i^X^K aloud
roaringly tftftftf,
glitteringly. W^pt-iv* "Vastly, hugely,
terribly.
Some nouns admit at pleasure a second word. Thus "3ij. butter
W-Sb leaf ^3^ a tree
water tt-om a stono ~^*>$ butter oil
(ghee) are often called "S^^gr*-^,
tse);S, "3*^ "3s>,fcft
pa,_xr^o tf ^,_^Q^to)_in all which, the second word has
no meaning and nearly answers to etcetera ; 6"*
X"6 to millions
upon millions.
i)os> a boil ^osSbfcod&6$oao"t5> there was no boil or anything
of the sort. "^<%J^*\ q. v. Art and cunning ^(xr-ew^ljcpto
horses, &c. So in English, wear and tear, odds and ends, house and
home. So in Lila XIX. 139. sSr>^<sfi, siojSb^j^s^ denoting
scornSometimes the anucaranam like bag and baggage, wear and tear,
house and home, has a meaning, but must not be literally translated.
Thus
a house *rSQ a door. But s*esT*a means House and
home. <&8PSo*:ex>-c&-s^t~sii he has neither house nor home.
g^cS^S merely means "A garden, &c."
Some precede the word. Thus ~x s> is speed &-X~iXx>~!r very
speedily
a pilgrim WB"^5 a&8"^# a rover and rambler uctfi
ew the outside ;MciSieu the very outside sfr*cS3 delusion >fes>y
<s> strong delusion sS.-*JSo*j and
Lila 19. 35 to struggle
violently. s^g> nice, pleasant. een>&iSog> or
delightful.

288

ON (ANUOABANAMU) ADVERBIAL PARTICLES.

All such imitative phrases are called a^Jto|tffJS)'$c6S or


Fabrications. Thus in English, piping hot, spick and span new.
Many such phrases, now considered inelegant are found in the
most popular English poets.
Some add the verb f&AJ with an adverbial force. Thus
Ghummana (sweetly) "P^otf Khanill-ana shrilly "t>* "^j
Phela-phelam-anuta to explode with a loud sound ; the expressions
St^cT" or tJTXF'ejS, x'yo^j $&p are merely words for violently
or suddenly.
Others add <"?*>. Thus a*&as> sharply asSO^r-p smarting.
Or "8y>^> To give or
to put : as SSoa>gS4j or Soo*>g"344j
to give a shriek.Or ^g5^ Thus & 65 a sound imitative of
lowing or bellowing ST'ivjAj To lowSome colloquial phrasea
or interjections, as d"6 go to ! "O* come ! ~8 up ! are equally
untranslateable expletives, such as occur in all languages.
Some few phrases are used in poetry (as happens in Greek and
Persian) merely to fill up the metre ; accordingly they are called
-iyB;gr 85"soeu pada-purnaca or pegs to " fill the line" : such are
2.*, L9, t$X, r^r, "3-^, ice-, Sje>, 9y<oWt s&e, ssbtr. SOme of these
have indeed a meaning, as in the earth, in the world, well, fitly, &c.
But, as used in verse, they are mere pegs. Some similar words
are borrowed from verbs ; as Suf, 12oo<t a-^jj, ^^s- ,,C- an(j are
often interpreted as meaning l_a&"5"5ois6Tr* shining ; But in truth,
they mean nothing.
Ordinary bramin tutors are content to use [At^^sSxi brightness
for any noun and l^>^*oi&4J 0r ^^jAj To shine, for any verb,
the meaning for which they cannot precisely express. They also
use
(see T. E. D. in 'SoS'-^'eM) to explain any noun
unknown to them.
Many similar phrases will be found in the Dictionary. In
Anirud IV. 58 is a curious string of these phrases. Indeed such
will be found in Hindustani and in every language of India, as also
in French and English.

ON SOME WOBDS USED IDIOMATICALLY.

289

Though so fond of imitative sounds, the poets have never


adopted the (onomatopoeia) method of letting the sound correspond
with the sense : a rhetorical device which is equally used in
Sanscrit and in Latin.
Under this class of indistinct expressions may be placed the
indistinct sounds like hum, humph, ah, aha, &c. which in Telugu
conversation denote that what is said has been understood.
ON SOME WOEDS USED IDIOMATICALLY.
In translating from Telugu into English, we are constrained
to omit particular words, the meaning of which is purely
idiomatical.
The word "&oXd sangati, affair, or
pani, work, denote ' thing'
and here the English uses the pronoun alone. Thus -^-^oxopKb
80S regarding ' this' Lit. 'regarding this affair or circumstance'
-^afcjsp^Ooi) has the same import -rr-o^^-^oXhUr-^ it is
certain that they will come &&i&Tr'e>s>f>&p% regarding the neces
sity of his coming.
The word
hand is omitted. Thus tstfp385a_y> I gave
it to him. Lit : to his hand.
The word
word, news, matter, affair is like
omitted.
Thus -SisS>tJ"3S>S> or 3*#oX'd'oaj> when I heard of this
"3? jSsWj
It is ascertained that he went
&&xrfr
e>Sn~s^?)^T4i"33J) as he knew (or when he learned) that we
were not guilty. This is equivalent to "&>:Swi6-cr$fce)tfu-s~,jS*
In English, we say A dozen or a score or a hundred, meaning
an indefinite number. The Telugus generally use the word four.
Thus t>tx>fo&&fgL^c-X& a matter known to half a dozen people
fyeuXotJO on all sides : lit : on four sides f|| i5 twNb3o(Tai?<>as6 e>,
iSu^&ZiSy& Vish. Puran VI. 56.

Four people on four sides

lifted up their heads, That is, all persons around her. Iu similar
manner *Q ten may be used instead of <A)?<oOo or f"*eo four.
C. P. BrowtCs Teluju Grammar.
n n

290

ON SOME TC'OKDS USED IDIOMATICALLY

The wrong uses of ' body" and " belly" have been alreadynoticed in page 121-122, The learner will also meet with a few
expressions, wherein Hindu simplicity sees no harm whatever,
while to our notions they are, however harmless, very disgusting.
But we, on the other hand, unintentionally offend the Hindus
(who warily conceal their annoyance) by many trivial acts or ex
pressions wherein we perceive no impropriety.
"Words of relationship are often applied in a manner at variance
with the notions of Europeans.
The words chiefly used are eSo^S father #Jj mother
elder
brother
younger brother j_ elder sister ^s^tu younger
Bister J* mother in-law sro father-in-law.
But some idioms exist regarding these,
great is used for
Senior : thus '^t,i5jL the eldest among my elder brothers : It is
also contracted. Thus "SKao^ urfS become "wJ|o(_a father's
elder brother ">J father's elder brother's wife.
OitJ. little, is used for Junior. Thus 8^^ the junior among
my elder brothers.
My father's brothers and their wives are styled my fathers
and mothers.
The respectful affix i^tSo " They" somewhat like " his honour"
is used regarding all my seniors. Thus
Ob my honoured :
my reverend mother,
Uncles and their wives with fathers are perpetually through
affection styled fathers and mothers : nephews and nieces are
styled sons and daughters : while cousins are called brothers and
sisters : the marriage prohibitions among Hindus being very
extensive. In the Palnati Charitra page 322, the Lady says to
her son " Your seven fathers are gone to this war." Thi3 pecu
liarity of idiom sometimes misleads us in reading the evidence
given by witnesses who when desired to specify which, they mean
call one S^^o^i the father by blood as opposed to sS:l6o(Jk
the father by affinity. The feeling of oneness in a family goes
so far that a man will depose that he was alone, whereas, it soon
after appears that his wife, children and perhaps other relations

ON EULES FOE FINDING "WORDS IN THE DICTIOx\ARY. 291


were present. In such cases, we should be in error, were we to
condemn his statement as false.
The rules here given may facilitate the translation of Telugu
into English, but let us not imagine that translating English into
Telugu will be an easy undertaking.
EULES FOE FINDING WORDS IN THE DICTIONARY.
In the Telugu Dictionary, Sanscrit words we easily found as
they retain one uniform mode of spelling. Telugu words admit
many changes. First as to vowels.The compound vowels ai
and au are at pleasure written as one or as two syllables. Thus
2 pai or
payi T^hB kaugili or
& cavugili an embrace.
In the Dictionary, the monosyllabic form,
IT* is retained and
5'^;. are excluded. Each form is equally good: but the
monosyllabic form is preferable because used in all words whether
Sanscrit or Telugu : while the other form is not so generally used.
The remainder is given under Alphabet.

END OF THE GEAMMAE.

BOOK

XI.

ON PEOSODT.
oSsSis, or ^ofi^,)

" Thou art arriv'd where of itself, my ken


' No further reaches. I with skill and art
' Thus far have drawn thee. Now thy pleasure take
' For guide. Thou hast o'ercome the steeper way
' O'er come the straiter. Lo ! the sun that darts
' His beam upon thy forehead."
DANTE, PUEGATOEY CANTO XXVII.

Telugu literature being principally in verse, a knowledge of pro


sody is requisite as a guide in enunciation : the natives rarely
study this art because they are in childhood taught the traditionally
proper mode of reading. But those who study the language at a
later period of life will find a knowledge of (^ossto, chhandamu,
^ob^ chhandas) prosody profitable as a guide in accent.
I acknowledge that I was reluctant to study the art, and was per
suaded to do so only because I was shown it's utility in under
standing the proper stops : and in reading so as to be intelligible
to others. To use the words of Pope.
"What will a child learn sooner than a song ?
What better teach a foreigner the tongue ?
What's long or short, each accent where to place.
And speak in public with some sort ofgrace?
But the literature of a foreign country furnishes the means of
attaining a higher object : for it gives us an insight into the minds

294

ON PROSODY.

<i7id feelings of the people. "We live among them, to use their
own metaphor, like oil on water: we have little confidential
intercourse with them and after a residence of many years in
India, few of our countrymen can answer easy questions regarding
the Hindus. Missionaries enjoy, because they seek greater faci
lities : and those Christian teachers who have resided among the
Hindus (chiefly Roman Catholic priests though a few Pro
testants have done the same) confess that they have derived
much benefit from such studies. I for my part can avow that
when I commenced tlie study of Telugu authors, I was already
acquainted with what was already printed on Hinduism, both
in English and French : and yet I was progressively taught
notions entertained by the Hindus or customs observed among
them which were entirely novel to me. This experience has
shewn me that we cannot understand the peculiarities of any
nation unless we not only live among them (and as a magistrate,
I had much intercourse with all classes) but also study a few
volumes of the literature they cultivate. Such study however has
its inconveiiiencie3 : natives who make much progress in English
are looked upon as almost Heretics : and equally mild is the
epithet bestowed on those who have devoted some attention to
Hindu literature.
In other languages, we may safely neglect prosody : but in Telu
gu almost "every thing is taught in verse : indeed grammars, vo
cabularies, school books, rules of arithmetic and mensuration,
all are in rhyme.
But the prosody may fairly be discriminated as Common,
Rare, and Fantastic : the first class is short and easy : the second
is still more concise : and the third (which I exclude) forms the
bulk of the vernacular treatises on the art.
Even in the first class, I have omitted about three quarters
of the rules : retaining only what a learner requires : thus much
may easily be learnt in a few days : the remainder embraced a
variety of precepts intended to guide (in reality to shackle) ver
sifiers: for were we to believe these pedants, it is almost impos
sible to compose a truly correct line : or a stanza free from ill
omened letters.

ON THE DRAWLING STYLE OF READING.

295

Even in the simplest chapters, every difficulty is conjured up :


we are assured that there are fifty species of feet, forty five modes
of rhyme, and more than a thousand sorts of metre: besides the
art of composing verses in fanciful shapes (as that of a chess
board, a sword or a serpent) and writing so that a stanza may be
scanned two different ways. I mention these follies because native
assistants are fond of pressing them on our notice to magnify the
difficulty of their favourite art. Tet the mode of suiting the sound
to the sense, so common in other languages has been totally
neglected.
The few rules that are requisite may be easily acquired as soon
as we have learnt the alphabet : and the beginner should accord
ingly devote some attention to prosody.
The first part of the Prosody is borrowed from Sanscrit : the
second (on changing metres) is entirely foreign to that language.
ON THE DRAWLING STYLE OF READING.
It is the custom to read verse in a loud tone with strong into
nation : and regardless of the subject : for every thing is read
alike. This is also the custom in Italy. Made, de Stael, in Corinno
chap III. says regarding Improvisation. ' In reading verse, most
Italians use a monotonous chant called cantilena which destroys
every emotion. No matter how different the words are, the ac
cent never changes.'
Suiting sound to sense so fondly described in Rambler 92 is
unknown.
SECTION FIRST.

ON FEET.

Every syllable is distinctly either long or short as it appears to


the eye : none are doubtful : every vowel is pronounced as it is in
the alphabet. *S, %
a, i, 11, &c. being short, and
6*
a, T, u, &c, being invariably long.
A vowel that is short becomes long, if followed by two conso
nants (just as in Latin): thus
accada, there, has the first
vowel long by position though short by nature.

>

20G

ON FEET.

Even if the double letter begins another word. But, as in


Jtukmang 5. 63 tanudwijudu, if one word is Telugu, this is need
less, also Naish 5. 8. nalnpra.
If a consonant is silent, it lengthens the preceding vowel. Thus
in the words a&S~r- paliken, or T&&>S~ chetul, the final syllable
becomes long.
A short vowel is called e>o laghu or (jfH^s&a hraswamu
(meaning light) while a long syllable is called
(meaning
heavy) whether it be
e~j long by nature or long by position.*
The quantity being always visible to the eye, marks are seldom
used : and we may conveniently retainfor long and \j for short :
but in the native treatises, the semi circle *j which we use for short
denotes long : while an upright line I denotes short. Thus the
dactyl (instead of v w ) is written " w I I " I shall endeavour to
dispense with these marks.
Poets sometimes insert the circle (sunna) to lengthen the pre
ceding syllable. Thus f Si& atadu becomes &tiol& atandu ; )X>&3
virudu becomes >cfcos> virandu ; elsewhere they write ^3^*j for
^3^>t> and S'i* for S"f*3t inserting or dropping a double conso
nant when the metre requires a change.
The letter chh is always considered to be double: thus in
the word ^^om (more correctly "$^0s) the first syllable is
lengthened, thus swa-chhand. The letter v>x> aain [& 5^ pracriti
is considered a vowel : and does not lengthen the preceding syllable.
The letter 2 always lengthens the preceding short vowel.
T hus
is swatah : but prosidially the second short is reckoned
long. Colloquially this is pronounced ^5S!i* swa-ta-ha: but
this is wrong.
In verse a word is often divided : part being in one line and
part in the next.
(* In the Eambler, No. 90. regarding English Prosody, Johnson
instead of longs, and shorts uses the better words strong and weak
syllables. And I should prefer these expressions were they in
general use.)

ON FEET.

29&

A line is called
padamu or O 6"sS charan'amu, meaning
a foot : of which each i6gsSco padyamu or stanza has four. A foot
(as it is called in Latin) is tfresSw ganamu, and consists of two,
three or four syllables. A syllable is called fcl>.efao axaramu, i. e.
letter. Thus l# ft-titf mjSk try-axara-sabdamu means a word of three
syllables, like '^D'^-^lS:o Sam-scru-tamu, the Sanscrit language.
Prose, called sSO^sio vachanamu, is in most of the poems, in
terspersed among the stanzas : it is harmoniously modulated
(somewhat like that in Lalla Rookh) or Terentian iambics but
is not under any law of scansion. The letter *|| (meaning vacha
namu) is placed at the beginning of each passage of prose:
which is entirely different from the prose of every day life.
The Feet are denoted by letters, Ma, Ta, Ea, Sa, Ta, Ja, Bha,
Na : which were selected by the ancient grammarians and are
invariably retained in every Hindu language that uses the Sans
crit alphabet.
To facilitate recollection, I have in the following table placed
opposite each ganam a Sanscrit and a Latin word containing the
requisite syllables and beginning with the letter that denotes the
foot. The ancient prosodians have so arranged this table that
the first column contains alternately a long and a short : the
second has two : and the third has four of each.
This table is called x'rs^-s-=tJj&o or Basis of numbers: Ganam
and Rhythmus have the same meaning, Number (Zeunius in
Anabas. Index : and Cleveland de Rhythmo. p. 95. 96.)
Sanscrit Name
Memorial Words.
and Maris.
M uww
s&>o\is^rs,o Maecenas
df>&rJ
' Tmetto
x | uu
CJ &<sr
Reddidi
R v I vj
S | | w
Similes
T wuI
Tentare
ess-* 16
J I u I
Juvabit
if r*
B u| I
Bucula
Nivea
N 1 1 1
C. P. Brown's Telugu Grammar.

Latin marks
and Name.
Molossus.
w
Bacchic.
w Cretic.
Anapoest.
w Antibacchic.
u w
Amphibrach.
WW Dactyl.
w v u Tribrach.
0 0

297

ON THE UNIFOEM METEES.


FEET HAVING TWO SYLLABLES IN EACH.

X, or K u w
LL
|1
GLorHul
LGorVlw

Xo-^
e>^>
Kok
otfo

Xerxes
Liber
\j u
Hoesit
w
Vagans w

Spondee.
Pyrrhic.
Trochee.
Iambus.

(* Native writers on prosody often express the XX" by tv and


the > by w. Thus also ff* Ja would denote " two amphibrachs."
Syllables being used to denote feet as ut, re, mi, &c. in the gamut
signify notes.)
SECTION II. ON THE UNIFORM METEES.
The learned assert that there are many thousand uniform me
tres: but in fact only tenor twelve are in common use.
The Regular or uniform metres have the four lines of the
stanza alike : in the following instance, as in some English
verses, there is a long and a short syllable alternately : the
star denotes the yate or pause (caesura) in each line.
~2o<x) ao*S sr^a^a: * s^a t^sossya^

Eamabhyud. V. 213. Again, in the novel of Bhanumanta


(5. 112.)
dboasr8-(Tes8o> * sr-i$ 'SiO|&r8er

SfOff-sr-OfiesftAM
6} * 8koTT>8!5e>
J
V".
T
This metre, called Hamsa-yana is the same as the Greek Te
trameter Catalectic or the common ballad metre.
"What though silent is my anguish
Or breath' d only to the air

ON THE UNIFORM METRES.

298

In all these stanzas, it is evident that the line is divided at the


Yati into two unequal parts : of which the initials rhyme to
gether. There is also the prasa rhyme, which connects all four
lines. The prasa is " the consonant or consonants standing be
tween the two first vowels in a line of verse." Accordingly in
the first verse now cited, "Sow, &c. L is the prasa : in the second,
sfco, Ac. the letters NCH: in the third
&c. R is the
prasa being alike in all the lines.' The vowel is of importance in
the Yati rhyme but not in the prasa.
It may be thought that N is a consonant, but this is Sunna
which is regarded merely as an adjunct to a vowel.
It is evident that some of these Uniform metres may be scan
ned with feet of two syllables : but the native custom is to scan
every fixed line with feet of three syllables disregarding the
harmony : this strictness renders many metres intricate : which
otherwise would present no difficulty.
In the uniform metres, each line must end with a long
syllable. There is no liberty whatever should it be short by
nature (as * pa at the end of the 2d line in the last verse exhi
bited) it is long by position : because the next line begins with
a double consonant.
As exemplified in the same word, it is often convenient to
divide a word, between two lines.
The above metres are placed first because particularly easy : but
they are not in common use : the four most used are the following :
and will be found to be in truth but two : from which, the other
two deviate only in the first syllable.
The utpala-mala or " chain of violets" runs thus : yati falling
on the tenth syllable.
B

LG

That is
-UU I -U- |UUU|*-UU|-UU|-U-|UA id the Champaca-mala or Tulip-wreath is the same, excepting

209

ON THE UNIFORM METEE3.

that the first syllable of one metre is long and in the other is di
vided into two shorts. Thus yati falls on the eleventh syllable.
NL
R
N
B
B
E
LG
*5S?fe> | sgr>sso |
\ *t3^Z | *Snr | ^S-j"?^ | t"*^
That is
UUUU|-U-[UUU|*-UU|-UUj-U-|U
Herein the first foot, consisting of four short syllables is
marked NL denoting N the tribrach to which is added L, being
one short syllable. Such a foot of four shorts, (in Greek called
proceleusmatic) is in Sanscrit and Telugu called j6e>i Nalamu,
If the Champacamala is according to native custom, scanned
by feet of three syllables, the names of the feet will of course be
different :thus,
N
J
B
J
J
J
E
Sx" | eKgre> | SOS3 | "Bff jSj | rtSr-S | C^3l | Tr^cKrbut the metre never varies and we may divide it in either manner
at pleasure.
The following verses are written in these metres.
IJTPALAMALA.

" Can acquired honours remain permanent in bloom, as in


trinsic merit ? They may endure for a while but soon perish. The
hire of gold remains bright for ever : a piece of iron may be polish
ed and flash for a while : but how long will that brilliancy last ?
Oh Bhascara!"
CHAMPACAMALA METEE.

ON THE UNIFORM METRES.

300

" If a distinguished man fall into difficulties, he may indeed be


raised by a potent protector, but can the insignificant, however
numerous, aid him ? when a lake is dried up, a cloud may re
plenish it, but what would avail a million drops of dew ? Oh
Bhascara."*
In these verses, the star points out the yati rhymes : some of
these are obvious, thus in the second line VE answers to VE.
But in the first line, HA answers to tiram * AIna. Thus we find
the same vowel in each : for ai is a compound of two vowels. The
prasa is obvious. In the first verse, it falls on L, in the second on
N ; which letters stand second in each of the four lines.
In the third line L is doubled : this is considered somewhat
irregular : as the prasa consonant ought to be the same in each line.
The four syllables preceding the four prasas are required to be
alike : all long or all short : each of the six stanzas already pro
duced exemplifies this priaciple. Each line ends with a long syllable.
These remarks apply equally to all metres and the reader will
therefore revert to them though in the following pages I shall not
weary him by reiterating them.
The next pair of metres is of Sanscrit origin. The Sardula
runs thus
Votfos-- $$pi>* 8-3jjf :Se)Ty
MS JS
# Wtfroo alia W
TT G
having yati on the thirteenth syllable : and by dividing the initial,
the Mattebha is -formed : having yati on the fourteenth.
sfcssr-6o 1&K-3 jfrso4j,
S GSJ S
* s&Jy aja ^
TTG
The yati and prasa rhymes are placed as usual ; whenever a
stanza is written, it is the custom to prefix the initial that denotes
the metre.
The following description of a Hindu beauty is given in the
Cala Piirno dayam : it is in the Sardula metre : I have divided
each line at the yati rhyme.
* The Bhascara Satacam which furnishes the two last verses is
a common school book and is admired as displaying much genius.

ON THE CANDA PADTAM.

SOI

T"Xol\aJ -r!)o"S>o

(V)
5"oafcoso S^fcr'Si 63-

This verse is cited by Appa Cavi 3,377 to show that in the 4th
line, the prasa sometimes is slightly changed. Though quoted from
the Kala Purno dayam, it does not appear in that poem.
Here every line, or couplet, contains the feet m,
s, t, t,g.
The Mattebha is exemplified in the following verse, in the
(Bhagavat) Gajendra Moxam.
ssb|| *ase-

tfo.vtfljrcs&x'j&or-

, 3&Do*-ts r<?3E-"S-o
T 4
V 0
(J^Otf (IsoiS*-*

The four fixed metres now described are in constant use : others
which more rarely occur will be placed in a future page. It is
evident that the Fixed or Uniform Metres are (like the first ode
of Horace) alike in every line. The variable metres proceed on a
different principle. The first of these is the Canda padyam.
SECTION III. THE CANDA PADYAM.
The S'osa&H^tfo Canda Padyamu (for which the sign is
admits those feet which are equal to four short syllables. These
are (K, B, J, S, and NL)the Spondee, Dactyl, amphibrach, ana

ON THE CANDA PADYAM.

302

poest, and proceleusmatic : this last consisting of four short syl


lables: as homimbus, or fSps. *
THE FOLLOWING IS AN INSTANCE.
1
2
3
raw B"j5g& jStxj^oo
4
5
6
7
8
1 3B;S Soa$" to-O'S * Xsrxdo AoTT'
1
2
3
TiZvt o-fftjfe "Xjoaotf
4
d63~3

6
7
8
oifca * sS)"3 S>lSj-dr.

SBNL
N L, S J S K
NL,NL,NL
S S J S S

Thus each stanza has sixteen feet : three in the uneven lines
and five in those which are (second and fourth) even. Eight feet
form the half verse. The feet are shewn in the margin.
The prasa as usual connects the four lines : and in this in
stance, the prasa is the consonant V. In the first and third (the
odd) lines, there is no yati. In the even lines the yati, as shewn
by the star falls on the fourth foot : which is the seventh foot
of the couplet.
The sixth foot of each couplet must be either J or NL. In the
following verses, these feet are specified.
The foot J is inadmissible in the uneven seats: being the 1st,
3d, 5th and 7th.
The last syllable ofeach half must be long : accordingly S and
K are the only feet admissible in the eighth place.
The following popular stanzas written in this metre are taken
from the Sumati Satacam, a common school book. Each stanza
ends with the word Sumati, or Oh wise man ! (Sixth foot.)

* When I commenced the study of prosody thirty years ago,


to aid memory I framed the rules in Latin : with these five words
to exemplify the feet. SylvTs opaca colui diilcia tacitagne. Citing
as instances the Iliad, B. 39. rjrruv e/ieAAtv aAyea, (TTova-^as
adding irepK^pacris.

303
no

OS_

no-

ON THE CANDA PADYAM.


?>T5 (j^TS" -qftisin
-^~6 tf^^ra
* ,s>jS;^e)

Sii'AjSS ^^rasS ^!egsS


r*ij5 ^rao ao&^rt) * r*43 ooa&r-

NL

fc3j6r af&!S <S^.


qSjS"So "SoK Hsiao's # SJdxT' "Do'So

(T-BSiS ^9oo AjiSioS * "jJoeefc

liScFo srs&xi ijTr-r * s&>f>~$ "s^afoo

aa-^r tJ,Srli5ci85 BT'tf<S5'


rssb-^ ^stfbs a^a^ * ~^e^o wy^
ooo^-r" tfg"3jo * ^SSoOo f&sfcl.

nl
J

( * This line shews that a final syllable of a teluou word may


remain short though the nest word begins with a double con
sonant.)
TEANSLATION.
10. All living beings are sustained by water alone ; out of the
mouth alone come words expressive of all feelings : woman is the
one masterpiece of the human race : and her chief ornament is
her veil.

ON THE CANDA PADYAM.

304

16. Truth is the soul of speech. The soul of a fort is the host
of stout soldiers. The soul of a woman is modesty : and the
signature
is the soul of a letter.
o
18. Listen 0 holy one ! To him who is vested with office, will
accrue wealth and glory, but likewise death. And he who is out
of employment gains neither wealth nor fame ;yet death is
equally certain !
31. Never quarrel with your honorable wife, nor lay empty
faults on her ; if tears gush from the eyes of a sweet-voiced
woman, Fortune shall never remain in that house.
42. If a Carnam (or attorney) were to trust a carnam, he might
look upon his days as ended ; he never could survive it : a car
nam can only live by excluding from his confidence his brother
carnam.
If you will not bear delay nor put up with expense, but burst
out hastily in impatience, can the work prosper ? If you will
allow time and afford the cost, any undertaking, though ruined,
may be accomplished.
The Canda verse is a variety of the Sanscrit Arya a very
melodious metre constantly used in poems and plays : it is the
metre employed by Nannaya Bhatta in his Chintamani, or
treatise on Telugu grammar : for instance, in the Introduction
that author says
1
2
3
*S|"
KJK
4
5
6
7
8
^jso-y -^oS"
eu$ dfcg
SK JB&
1
4
2^"

2
5

3
6
7
8
P^f e^55* <s6

Swa sthana veshabhasha


Bhimatassantorasapralubdhadhiyah
Lokebahumanyante
Vaieritacavya nich anyad apaha ya
C. P. Brawn's Telugu Grammar.
pp

BKJSL

305

ON THE TELUGU CHANGING METEES.

The wise love the abode, the dress, and the polished language
which appertain to their own nation : such take pleasure in the
poetry of their own land, rather than in that which is foreign.
It will be perceived that the Arya in one of its varieties is the
harmonious rhythm used by Horace.
Miserarum est neque amori
Dare luium neque dulci mala-vino
lavere autexanimari
Metuentes patruseverberalinguae

SBK
SBGBK
SBK
SBGBK

Because in the sixth foot, the Sanscrit uses a single syllable,


either long or short : a liberty not known in Telugu.
SECTION IV. ON THE TELUGU CHANGING METEES.
The Changing or Upajati metres ^AafQ:^ jsSe originate in
the Kannadi language. These were at first regulated by harmony
alone but were afterwards limited by certain rules.
It would seem that before the introduction of Sanscrit learning,
the oldest Telugu metres were mere x"Se Harmonies, or
vnelodiet, such as will be described in a future page. In the
course of time, prosodians observed that in these songs the dactyl,
cretic and antibacchic (BET, remembered by the word
Bharata) were prevalent feet : and that, to vary the rhythm, the
initial long syllable of each foot was divided into two shorts : this
principle has already been noticed, with regard to the Champacamala and Mattebha metres. Hereby B the dactyl became NL
the procelleusmatic : while E became NG, the cretic being con
verted into the pceon quartus : and T the antibacchic became SL
the pceon tertius.
Thus three feet were changed so as to furnish a larger number :
and the poet was left at liberty to use whichever was most con
venient : having the choice of six varieties. These metres thus
being particularly easy to compose, the greater part of Telugu
literature is written in upajatis.
Arranged on the original plan, these feet stand thus.
pair, M and Y are rejected as in harmonious.

The first

ON THE TELUGU CHANGING METRES.

306

Indian Notation.
Latin Notation.
Marks.
Same.
Marks.
Some.
B
Cretic
\j
\J | \J
j$KS
NG
uuu
Poeon 4tus
III*
T
Anti bacchic
o
e>sS
SL
Poeon 3tius
>j v \j
1 M
B
Dactyl
II
NL
Proceleusmaticus w ^ w u
1 1 1 1
Here a short syllable being prefixed to each foot that had a
short initial, makes that foot equal to the one above it.
At first sight, this ancient mode of arrangement may appear
fanciful : but is convenient as fixing the feet in the recollection.
The six feet thus formed are denominated S(o[KX'>:SNe Indra
feet; Indra being a name of Jupiter: which we may conveniently
call the greater feet. The Greek would call them Dactylic.
If we take the first couple of these,
Bu|u and NG | | | vj, and drop the last syllable, we have two
"lesser" feet which are called &n>t$)frSx>iD or Apollonian.
Accordingly the Surya feet (or Trochaicks) are
GL or H u | or the Trochee \j
N
III the Tribrach u \j <j
The Indra and surya feet, (or, greater and lesser feet) are used
in all the Telugu Changing Metres. The Chandra feet are found
only in a few metres which will be afterwards noticed.
The Uniform metres, as already shewn, require particular feet
in particular places ; but the changing metres admit any Indra foot
in the Indra seats and any Surya foot in the Surya places.
[Every line in the Changing metres ends with a Surya foot :
and as the Surya feet end in shorts, every changing metre has the
final syllable short : whereas the fixed metres have it long.f
* Poot note.And if we add a syllable to any Indra foot, this is
called, a t5o[MX're8S or Adonian. That is Choriambic. The
syllable thus added is, as far as I have observed, always short :
but this is not stated in the treatises on prosody.
f But in all manuscripts of poems, the final short syllables are
wrongly written long : because in reading, it is usual to draw out
the final vowel in a sort of whire or drawling tone.

307

ON THE TELUGU CHANGING METEES.

There are also peculiarities in the rhyme. The Dwipada uses


both yati and prasa: as do also the Bagada, Taruvaja, Utsaha
and Accara. But in the simpler metres (Giti and Sisa) the yati
rhyme is requisite but prasa is needless.
But sometimes instead of yati, prasa is used in the same line :
this will be afterwards explained.
Thus some of the Changing metres have a. fixed prasa and
others an optional prasa (l^^csCO.) No metre that uses thefixed
ought to use the other kind : but many poets break this rule.
Thefixed prasa is always used in combination with yati : the op
tional prasa is used instead of yati.]
These remarks will be understood better when we have examined
the verses now to be cited.
To aid the memory, we may observe that some of the Indra feet
have four syllables and others three : and one Surya foot having
three syllables and the other two : the longer foot of each kind
has a short initial. In other words, if any Indra foot begins with
a long syllable, it has three syllables : but four if the initial is
short : a Surya that begins with a long has two syllables : the
one beginning with a short has three.
The commonest upajati Metres are called Giti, Sisa, and
Dwipada. The Giti Metres &8aS\Jf*t. Two metres are known
by this name: the Ataveladi -fc>-3e>a and the Tetagiti
both of which are denoted by the initial
The Ataveladi has, both in the first and third lines, three
Suryas and two Indras : the second and fourth lines have five
Suryas in each. In all four lines, the yati rhyme falls on the fourth
foot, denoted by the asterisk. The following Ataveladi is in the
Vishnu Puran. VII. 227.
$3 essfcew
* ptf er
hnh * rr
dBS-r -(&o zj" * jS" om|
hhh * nh
S\j< <3-ow "go * saatS ^l^i5
hhh *ngt
cSmSS 5jS rfg * ofcr.A aT*^
hhh * hh
Devoid of clouds, the azure sky
In stainless glory shone

ON THE TELUGU CHANGING METEES.

308

Like souls that idolhomage fly


And worship God alone.
The other Giti metre,
Tetagiti has in each line one
Surya, two Indras and lastly two Suryas : having five feet in a line.
In the following instances prasa yati occurs and is denoted
by P.
11 2^2* Sx>r 43 c&-^p * iito go&sS>
hbt * nn
a-a Tories ^Tbo"^ P
e&.-e>
38fr nSoTT-j!) e e^ji *
rfsSjroes Ti-=)sS * ^ot$

nbt, P, nh
nslng * nn
hslb * hh

Sunanda Parinayam. 4. 22.


" In spring, the earth is adorned with every flower save the
''jasmine: spring rejoices the heart of all living creaturessave
"the lovelorn maid."
1}J| ~o9S " r*^e) CsS^sfc^" p afoSO SID
8so s&r^P ^aAj * "^6^ oSob
^JSfc &;S8br& 8>jl|!> * <rew5S i$>o
;S8?> <rV (<: s * dSXo-A jSpaa

nbr P nh
nbb * hh
nnlr * nh
ntb * nn

VISHNU PUEAN II. 16 (LEGEND OP DHETJVA.)


" His mother wiped away the boy's tears and putting her face
" to his head as she embraced him, she calmed his grief, while her
" own eyes brimmed with tears : and in a voice broken with sobs
"she exclaimed, &c."
In all these verses there is no regular prasa, but where prasa
yati occurs, the poet has found it more convenient to use prasa
instead of yati.
The Sisa metre f)-^ tfgsfcn consists of four lines : of eight feet
m each : but each may be conveniently divided into a couplet,
of which the first half has four Indra feet with two Indras and
two Suryas in the second. Six varieties of the Sisa are defined
by Telugu prosodians but it is needless to describe them as the
fundamental rule explains them all.
Each of the eight half lines has a separate yati : or else a prasa :
dividing it in the middle : and the third foot rhymes to the initial.

309

ON THE TELUGU CHANGING METEES.

The following instance occurs in the legend of Bharata in the


Vishnu Puran book 3, verse 290.
|>|| sgr>6"& a6KB3 * arso"3 w^SfcoSo
rsl * rsl
Xbewi$
* 68a sS-^
frvlS-p-* "BSSa-ts* * (jfsfc-^&p. a)owoj5

nib * nh
rng * Dgb

jCoSbew * (J^cBm tkojSS


s&-,e>dSMx5j sS^S"6 * sSoa^oK dSxitf^owo

rb * hh
nlr * slfc

^S"^ s& fijCDfo p ficn>8 &oo^


-awir-p 55cau;6 P i^XcOu*. tfXi&oa
-3x5$o^b ^S>2 p us5S ^oE&

rng P hh
tb * rsl
tngP hh

If grazing on the distant plain


The fawn a tiger spied
All timid she would turn again
And near the hermit hide
She frolic danc'd about his bower,
And, at the stilly vesper hour,
While mute he sat and pray'd,
Approaching close, with gesture bland
In his soft lap beneath his hand
Her forehead fair she laid.
But a Sisa verse is not complete without the addition of a Giti
verse, in either of the metres already described : such a choru3
is called d&^a and that attached to the verse now cited is in the
Ataveladi metre.
afrS T1!) {Ska # jSo$<yo -3A?&
hhh * nib
~a go;S sg-8 *
-^csfc)
hhh * hh
ej&S jSotxj pkx> * o-jfcjJf 'J'jsoa)
nhh * bt
aSg) -Sv^} i>oSb * sfoofSs; tSoi6So
hhh * nn
On dewy buds she still would graze
His hermitage around
And woo'd her fostering master's gaze
With high elastic bound.
The closing foot of the giti verse being always a Surya is of
course short : but in reading or reciting, it is customary to draw

ON THE DWIPADA.

310

out the final in a monotonous drawl or whine : and hence tran


scribers ignorant of prosody usually make all these syllables long.
ON THE DWIPADA.
The Dwipada or Common Metre is written in couplets, each of
which is connected by prasa. The learned despise couplets be
cause the poems thus written are in a flowing easy Btyle which
uneducated persons read with enjoyment. They resemble the
Latin iambic of Terence, using colloquial expressions (sermoni
proprioraj such as Horace found most suitable to his satires. Sir
Samuel Eomilly (in a letter dated 13th October, 1810,) speaking
of the Lady of the Lake, observes that it hardly can be viewed
as a poem. All this I notice that we may not be led,to despise
a class of literature which though unpretending is peculiarly
profitable to a student. Natives admire pendantry of all sorts :
but to a taste formed on English authors, the couplet style of
Telugu verse is more agreeable than compositions of more
pretence.
The dwipada has in each line three Indra feet and one Surya,
with yati in the middle. Some ancient poets, as the author of
the Basava Puran, use prasa yati at pleasure : but in more correct
compositions of modern date, prasa yati is forbidden in all verse
that uses the regular prasa.
In the Lila l^^DoxSe, canto XI. the poet describes a beauti
ful garden the retreat of a hermit, and then 'proceeds thus
65-3jSo "o^cMm #
now

311

ON SOME UNUSUAL METEES.

tf o^aMaST- i5j!)l_pJ'e)f)e))) &c. &c.


The prasa rhyme duly connects every couplet : thus in the first
it falls on the letter V. in the next, st, in the third, N. &c. Oc
casionally we find three lines rhyming together : and elsewhere
poets indulge in rhyming terminations : thus in the Dwipada
Bamayan, Yuddha, P. 2178.

3 It&3 TS~
BJ
^
v TrPrasa yati is used in some Dwipada poems of ancient date, but
is considered inelegant.
By adding these, the poet has employed eight rhymes in each
couplet.
If Prasa is not used, the metre is denominated sok6 Manjari. In this metre is written that entertaining historical romance
the Av^&hS^SQ[p or Legends of Palnaud.
SECTION V. ON SOME UNUSUAL METEES.
There are a few uniform metres which call for explanation
because they occasionally occur : and the reader may revert to
them after acquiring a little familiarity with the prosody. These
are chiefly borrowed from Sanscrit.
The Sragdhara : which divides the line of twenty-one syllables
into three parts : and the yati comes thrice. Prasa as usual. The
following, in the Sura Bhand Eswaram, is evidently translated
from a verse in the Amrugam which is in the metre. But the
Sanscrit metre commences with a long syllable which the Telugu
divides into two shorts.
aS)ex>sr>c~" -ESr-ajj^g"
1 8tgg
* (jfTifca&ScB5sfc;o~
ring

ON SOME UNUSUAL METEES.

312

* $r'i!>!&oe&>&^<soi3)g-

rrg

Be^cj3Sog-^fl'3ydbnse~
a$s>-&figas>
j0&,aoi3s3 Igacja^a3E-l3;Sg-aoJSbr*

2 stgg
nng
rrg
3 Bt &c. &c.

e>csSuS--Er,o &otfcS~

4 Bt &c.

Each line consists of the feet ERG * STGG * NNG * REG.


Maha Srag. E. 6. 81.
Another metre is the Matta cokila: the following occurs in
the Bamabhyudayam VI. 79.

-li^^resSr^SBof-^O * oeoo'Oo-7r*e>!&>osSS^;6g-.
Herein each line may be scanned, either in the ancient mode,
ESJJBE or, more harmoniously thus, Kb, lib, hbr, with trochees
and dactyls alternately.
The name ^>f this metre may be recollected by the following
line.
sS^3:r>5^fi&&otf tfsfc jjr^eaoiSsr' and if the first syllable
is divided into two shorts, the metre is called #0? Tarala, of which
tho memorial line is
iJSe eHff,S S^to r*8&e>
NBHB
* e^otf aofi;S 6ft7T
HBR
M. I. VIII. 106. E. 6. 80.
The following instance occurs in the Vira Bhadra Vijayam
written by Potu Eaju I. 41.

C. P. Brown's Telugu Grammar.

q q

813

ON SOME UNUSUAL METEES.

4>tx3BaB<ps&->&iJ(St*>j> * ifsfcE-ocitpoB(&>2,
See Yayati 3. 73.
But in Vasu 5. 148 it is a little different. It is called in the
margin Tarala but appears in no treatise on prosody either Sans
crit or Telugu.
There are a few other uniform metres which occasionally occur
in poems, but do not require explanation, the ear always furnishing
a sufficient guide : in fact these are in general mere choruses full
of pedantic phrases.
Maha Sragd. Swa. 4. 134.
X$
pSgtf
r^p*^
Prithwi. Swa. IV. 139.

X-n-^SI fy_^ JToSr a>80yiy

Pancha Chamaram. Swa. 4. 137. tr*$TS$ TrKeFfi *&T3 TixnO


Layavibhati. Swa. 4. 169.

$X$X?>^&&Si?>Xpxpt&ce$i&)
BKixTSTCSSs- fSXoSb 8?fc"^Xo-S

Layagrahi. Swa. 5. 37.

w^tfsfce^KBtfiajS^x-ria l^fco
js-^x- 1) r*t>soSs3-=>Lx'jfc r^^^The Manini sSx*$p a dactylic metre runs thus

'Er,8SaDe>E~a*j-tS-eftf-(Jn>ejS' * Cosj6'^43ejtre:e>i6

Nelluri Harisch. 3. 87.


This evidently resembles the song
" Come to the cliff where the beacon is blazing
Come with the buckler the lance and the bow.
Another instance of the Manini in M. 1. IV. 24.

ON SOME UNUSUAL METRES.

314,

This is nearly the metre of the English ballad :Pity kind


gentle folks, friends of humanity.
The Pancha Chamara metre is purely Iambic, having a short
and long syllable alternately.
^e)OOer8ooj-a/Sioa |6jS3Lxr8otTi^L'$

Surya Tanaya 2. 53.


" O ladies, when you went hence last night, I lay down in my
bed without a single anxious thought, and fell asleep : but in the
morning watch, I saw a portentous visionI will describe it.
All metre in Telugu except Dwip requires rhyme: the
terminations of the lines do not rhyme together as in English
(unless by chance or caprice) but the rhyme falls on the
initials. The first syllable, or vowel, of a line rhymes to some one
syllable (not always the beginning of a word) in that line : which
rhyme is called yati. Again if the second syllable (more strictly, the
consonant that is between the two first vowels) rhymes to the
second of the next line, this if called prasa. Such rhymes
were used in Saxon and our oldest English poet Spenser says
FQ 1. XII. 23.
The blazing brightness of her beauty's beam
And glorious light of her sunshining face
To tell, were as to strive against the stream
My ragged rhymes are all too rude and base.
And see also 2. VI. 16. The lilly, &c.
Prior useB quadruple rhymes : in " an English Padlock"
Be to her virtues very kind
Be to her faults a little blind
Let all her ways be unconfin'd
And clap your padlock on her mind.
See also Penny Cyclop, on Alliteration and Quarterly Review
1826, vol. 34, p. 14. Such alliteration is used in Icelandic and in
deed throughout the Gothic languages. See account of versifica
tion in Tymwhitt's Introduction to Chancer. Gray uses it.
Buin seize thee ruthless king, &c. And Byron So darkly deeply

315

ON MUSICAL METRES.

beautifully blue. The yati " Asonancia" is used in Spanish verse.


See Penny Cyclop, in " Spain" p. 302.
Scotfc uses quadruple rhymes
O in that day that dreadful day
"When man to judgment wakes from clay
What power shall be the siners stay
When heaven and earth shall pass away.
Shakespeare uses quadruple rhymes (prasa) in Merchant of
Venice, Act 5.
But here the same word is reiterated as is the Fersian custom :
whereas in Telugu this i3 not allowed.
The following, in Paidimarri 3. 8. gives a clear view of yati
and prasa.

SECTION VI. ON MUSICAL METRES.


All the more useful part %f Telugu prosody has now been
described : a few metres remain to be noticed which use four and
even five syllables in a foot. Some of these are melodious and
all are very easy. Being derived from certain tunes (laya) some
retain that word in the denomination, as Layagrahi, Layahari,
Layavibhati, &c.
An instance of the Laya-grahi occurs in the Tale of Tara
(Book V. 137.) in the description of the battle of the gods.
Ramabhyu. V. 19. 28. Radha Samagamam. 3. 112.
Parijata 2. 122 wo***, &c. or ya8Ui 2. 38. K P. 6. 263. or
Sarang Pad. I. 85.
* * ^8sS# &os&> * * P'SsSsfc sj*&c.
Herein the line of thirty syllables is divided into eight feet ; of
which seven contain each (BL) a dactyl and short syllable.
The rhyme as here shewn falls in four places in the line : and
this is a prasa not a yati. Thus each line has four rhymes : the
last foot is a spondee.

ON THE EAGADA METEE.

31G

There are many varieties of this chiming metre. If the foot


BL is used six times, with the yati after every eight syllables, it
is called the TJ'SufcSs^
If all the longs except the two last
of the Laya-grahi are resolved into two shorts each (like a-chime
of 4 bells) the metre is named Laya-vibhati, of which there is
an instance at the close of the Bhanumad Vijayam, one line run
ning thus :
* s5-8s5oB;S s>;S-*tfs<& * >8jfcrtf-qrsSj'.
The Laya-vibhati would be thus arranged.
UUU UU-UUUIUUU UU-UUUIUUU UU-UUUIUUU UU-having 34 syllables in the line, divided into four portions, and the
second syllable of each portion being prasahere denoted by
a star. It is a smooth melodious chiming metre Take the
following example Vizaia Vil. 3. 88.
1st line Soodoixip HtjSff-j9 XsvogrtZ
2d line

fejSxe sr653co5' ~3t)&3v vxr-'^ifjoZ

ej3id-.a V"ii.|> E'e>C)l6Do 8 3jr


3d line &&5'&>a
In the Telugu Pancha Tantram, and the Eama Stava Eajam,
several other varieties occur. But in principle these are per
fectly easy, for the rhythm is evident to the ear ; and whenever
an unusual metre is used, the name is appended. Vencat Arya
page 177. Sragdhara KP. 6. 280. Manigana nicaratn KP. 6. 283.
ON THE EAGADA METEE.
The Eagada is a melody, similar to the descanta or tirades (as
they are termed) in French poetry. (See New Monthly Magazine
1827, page 78.) Prosodians have laboured to reduce these harmonies
to metrical rule, and have invented many names for various species :
calling some, the " Amble, the Elephant pace, the Swan," &c.
but these are superfluous : the Eagada usually is mentioned in
poems without any such epithet.

317

ON THE RAGADA METRE.

It is a " carol" ditty* or harmony tbat occurs in most poems


or romances, in the passages that describe rural scenes and plea
sures. It uses both the yati, the prasa, and the (wofigpc&sSijSM)
rhyming terminations. The feet are very irregular, and some
erroneously imagine they may be measured by the " Chandra"
feet (see page 234.) The fact is that the composer's ear is the
only criterion, and the sense is not always clear. For, as their
own criticks remark, a Ragada or melody, is as independant of
sense as a bird's song is of words. In fact this is in verse what
the capriccio is in music : though wild, it is the result of premedi
tation. The following are instances.
rSTSBJeoBUej St>g^oiSHx>
J}>&9c35e8oo * 2S~Sa
i u^OtSsSs
pQ ^MJfcot>iSj> * f3-8SKt"fcrS> &C &C.
Tale of Tara. 11. 135.
But the favourite sort is the following:
\jv8;3>K",o"a>-- * BoJfb3t>SoX'iSKe

X-Btyor-lSaQ-r Si-*jtSe>Sr'*jSSi-.e)
Oe"S iSrfcro * rre>!Se)r>t>!S <&c &C.
Bhanumati Parinayam 11. 92.
The ear will easily perceive the prosody of these verses : in the
first instance the lines may be measured by dactyls : or by four
feet of four short syllables (proceleusma) which are equivalent to
dactyls : in the second each line has four feet and each foot is
equal to five short syllables, That is, a dactyl with a short added :
or, five breves.
Different sorts of Ragadas are marked with various fanciful
names: of which nine are given in books of prosody, such as the
*" Ditty" see Paradise Lost XI. 584. and 1.449 Caroll" ib
XII. 367. A Melody. See Midsummer Nights Dream.

ON THE EAGADA METEE.

318

sfciJoStfOSX'jS, the 6SB<8HK,a &c. &c. i. e. the sweet-pacer, the


elephant pace, the horse pace, &c. &c. which I omit because they
are not in use even among good scholars : every poet uses any
name he thinkB suitable.
The &tssSx> or carol appears in several of those poems which are
written in -^ofcgsin musical measures. Thus in the ^S^^s&ersc*
s, cSii&.Tr'jS:s page 35.

ir*gi>T^&8 r~v tf-4^8dr.sj| It ia evident that each of these


lines consists of four surya feet and eight such feet form a couplet :
with Tati and prasa as usual. Such metres are regulated by the
ear alone and have no well known name : though various prosodians have attempted to discriminate one as the horse's amble a&sx'
JCQ3X and other the lions pace, &c. borrowed from a fancied
analogy to the tread of various animals.
The Eagada appears to have originated in the *MS$o-i**jso 0r
jr*3o^)e$sSeu ballads which on particular feasts are sung by
choruses of children in the Btreets. These antiquated ditties have a
loose rhythm which generally may be scanned with four Indra
feet in a line : they use or neglect alliteration at pleasure. See TT
(paper) 497 page 32 where are these lines in the Woa-f^iJej^a.^
soogsd,
SoiJ?i6 er*S8 >o?f^;6&ae

&*o-po jSSe> jS> s5&Soorxo a Co

It will be observed that the last couplet is regularly formed of


four Indra feet, with prasa, and with yati (as in Dwipada) in the
middle. These rude ballads which often use fescennine expressions,
appear to be remnants of the primitive Telugu : and the Eagada

ON THE DANDACAM.

319

metre appears to be the modernized form : while the same basis


(as Greek prosodians term it) with an abbreviation of the fourth
foot formed the Dwipada. Thus some metres which at first sight
appear refined and intricate prove to be merely musical melodies
reduced to rule.
Other verses denominated 1 $ hymn, i^ocfts^ chant, c&&.~k~'$
Ac odes VtfsS ts sS chorus,' &c. appertain to# ok
musi
cal composition and deviate widely from the laws of prosody. For
they pay no regard to quantity ': the word Krishna becomes an iam
bus, (LG) and the word JT'aoa Govinda (T) becomes (S) Govinda
<^~S $> becomes
fa ekkenu i6j>a B=f PTiS=M Kama, Rama.
Some attempts have been made to write Christian Hymns in
Telugu metre : not the metres already known in the language
but new ones moulded to English tunes. These will I hope suc
ceed ultimately though we must look for a few failures before
the work is well executed. The plan has succeeded in other
languages.
Suiting the sound to the senses so fondly described in Rambler
92 is unknown.
ON THE DANDACAM.
The Dandacam or chant or blank verse is a measured prose,
consisting of one short and two long syllables alternately. It may
therefore be looked upon as a Series of bacchicks (Y) or (T) antibacchicks. At the close of the paragraph, one or two long syllables
are added. Sometimes the first six syllables are short. This
metre is conveniently transcribed in lines, of which each
contains four or five feet. The following instance occurs in the
Bhagavat.

?erj

sfc]5 jSsfcj^Ssfcs.

ON THE TAEUVAJA, UTSAHA AND ACCAEA. 320


But a more free style of blank verse is used in poems, under
the denomination of eabssa prose. In this, feet are not scanned,
but the whole is constructed with a certain melodious flow ut
terly different from common verse. In English, we have in
stances of this in Lalla Booth. To write it well is considered
more difficult than composing verse. Grammarians remark that
in Vachanam the semicircle (arddha bindu) is inadmissible. But
in ignorance of this rule, we may observe its use in nearly all the
modern printed Telugu prose. This is certainly erroneous.
SECT. VII. ON THE TAEUVAJA, TJTSAHA AND ACCAEA.
A few metres imitated from those in the Cannadi language
have been introduced but have never become popular or common.
One of these is the
Taruvaja : the Dwipada has three
Indras and one Surya in each line : but two such lines form one
Taruvaja line : four of which form one stanza, governed as usual
by prasa. The Taruvaja may otherwise be defined as having
eight Dwipada lines, of which prasa governs the irregular (1st,
3d, 5th and 7th) lines : while each line has yati four times repeat
ed : this as usual will be pointed out by a star. Though so hard
to define the verse is easy to read and the harmony is easily per
ceived. The following occurs in the first book of the Mahabharat, (canto 2, verse 152, of the printed edition.)

* $Qg^&sSol(ZT$>lS^ * dfioX'OM>;So&

Tr-

Herein we may observe that the lines (here placed as alternate


lines) have N as prasa and the poet has thought fit to use the
same yati rhyme throughout.
C. P. Brown's Telugu, Grammar.
b r

321

ON THE TARUVAJA, UTSAHA AND ACCAEA.

The JJtsaha is merely a yariety of the Hanisa-yana already


described : it is composed of seven Surya feet and a long syllable :
whereas most of the Changing metres end in a short syllable : the
yati falls on the fifth foot and the prasa is as usual. The following
instance is in the Vishnu Puran. 2. 58.
cS&'sSa

~L& c'SsSa * sS^e?" d*Oa

&

See a better instance in Kala Purnodayam 3. 238.

And in the same poem. eo&X.

CEO"

Also Padma 8. 118.


The last changing Metre to be described is the
Accara
which is used only by Tfannaya Bhatt, and one or two imitators.
The poet himself uses only two varieties ; which he calls by the
one name Accara : but the prosodians not only have given sepa
rate names to these two, but have named four others : of which
I have met no instances. In all probability, these were mere Melo
dies like the Ragada ; or like some songs in Moore and Byron ; they
were experiments in metre which have not attained popularity.
These metres use the Chandra feet : that is, an Indra foot to
which a syllable (usually short) is added. The first is called the
^V^ILtf Madhy'accara ; wherein the line consists of two equal
portions j or, we may consider it as eight lines ; each containing

ON THE TAEUVAJA, TJTSAHA AND ACCAEA.

322

two Indras and one Surya. Yati falls on the fourth foot, as
shewn by the asterisk. The prasa is as usual.
Or else ; as occurs in these instances, the poet has capriciously
made the yati fall on the fifth foot.
INSTANCES OF

Adi Parvam. Book VI. 303.

Book VII. 162.


The Accara is in truth a kannadi metre and has been natura
lized in very few Telugu poems.
The other species, called Madhur-accara is defined as contain
ing one Surya foot, four Indras, and an additional syllable : or, in
the usual phrase, one Surya, three Indras, and one Chandra.
The prasa as usual : the yati falls on the initial of the third
Indra. Instances

jSj6$ cSSja&jSooa rfdKborfcjD * tSo&m -qr^ * So oJSo

Adi Parvam, IV. 49.

Aranya Parvam, VI. 377.

323

ON EHTME.
SECTION VIII. ON EIIYME.

In rhyme, the Telugu rules are precise and simple. As to Prasa,


entire uniformity of the consonant is the principal requisite.
But occasionally a slight license occurs.
In the yati rhyme, it is necessary for the vowels* to correspond,
as well as the consonants. The prasa allows K (for instance)
to rhyme to no other letter : Tati will allow it to rhyme to Kha,
Ga, and Gha. Eor a perfect uniformity is needless and it is
enough if a consonant rhymes to any letter in the same line (or
class) of the alphabet. Thus
f, and 5 are alike ; J,
es
and
are alike and S S> if are alike. The letter f,
not
only rhyme to each other, but also to *5 , &c. The letter <&.
rhymes both to S" and also to and also to
chha.
The sunna rhymes to
s&. The sunna also preceding any
letter of a class, is allowed to rhyme to the nasal of that class.
Thus oiS may rhyme to because this is the nasal of the class
to which & belongs.
The letters R, viz. 8 and are in the older writers not suffered
to rhyme ; because the e was harsher in sound than S and there
fore was discordant. But the later poets for three centuries past
have dropped the m wholly and to revive this letter is absurd.
Regarding Welsh rhymes, see the treatise in Newcastle Maga
zine for 1822, penes me and Penny Cycl. in "Welsh, p. 218219.
Christian hymns generally deviate from the prosody of the
secular poets. Thus Prudentius uses metres suited to tunes and
disregards quantity.
In his song on Beatrice, Benedick calls scorn and horn a hard
rhyme (Much Ado. 5. 2.) but in modern days, we see the ear
perceives no difference.
The rules regarding vowels are equally easy. The short and
long sounds of each vowel correspond. Thus ii rhymes to a &c.

* Similar to the Spanish rhymes called Assonants : See that


article in the Penny Cyclopcedia, Or Icelandic Rhyme, See Edinb.
Rev. 1805. p. 384.

ON EHTME.

324

Compound vowels (ai, au, the diphthongs) rhyme to either of


the letters with which they are compounded.
The vowels aix> Eu zxxr ru and "2 lu are often considered as
consonants : but being rarely used, merely as a feat, they are not
worth notice. When they are used in prasa, they are disregarded
because reckoned as vowels, and the prasa requires uniformity of
consonants alone. Thus in prasa, $ and ^) would rhyme, but 3"
or Sj would not rhyme with \$ because E is a consonant, and
if one prasa line uses f or Ijf, the other must use the same letter.
These rules are obvious. Others can only be acquired by
practice. Of these, the most remarkable is regarding initial
vowels. In the word u?>6 to him, and the word Sob under,
the same consonant and vowel 8 occur, nor is it any objection
that one is at the beginning and the other at the end of a word.
Tet these two can never rhyme.
This and similar points are mere matters of taste, interesting
to learned natives who write in verse and are experienced in its
principles : but unprofitable to a foreigner, as he will never be
expected to compose in Telugu metre.
The rales for rhyme furnish a valuable criterion in orthography.
Thus the word jwSb&iJ To live is also spelt 1_ms&S5Aj a peculiarity
which the prasa rhyme demonstrates : because it answers to
another word which uses D. Many quotations in the Telugu
dictionary now ready for printing are marked " yati" or "prasa"
denoting that the passage so noted proves the spelling. For
instance the words ^*>5o and
now adduced. Also
sS (Tadbhavam of "^.g**5*1) which some erroneously write
^r'X'sio chhagamu : also sfcC^ ffs&J q. v.
Some verses occur with Antya niyamam thboughottt as
Kanyaca VIII. 316 and Manu 3. 30
&c.
Though accuracy of rhyme is studied, the most celebrated poems
furnish instances of careless rhymes. Thus in the Vasu Charitra
3. 152.
The second line has chi rhyming to zathus
fij6So fr&r>faTT'%>&ox> * g^j0^3o<S^5$, &c. Both the ancient com
mentators insist much on matters of prosody and rhyme : Yet
on this remarkable deviation both are silent.

325

ON ETYMOLOGY.
CHAPTEK XII. ON ETYMOLOGY.

Motto"Woodhouses Trigonometry, page 216.


The exact formulae with which the foreign treatises abound are
formuloe of curiosity. They are tools finer than is required for
the work to be done.
Some points remain to be considered, which are interesting
only to those learned natives who write in the poetical dialect.
These rules are of small advantage to foreigners. In modern
days even poets, as already noticed have relaxed in regard to
them : but they will now be given entire without regarding
whether some have already been explained or otherwise.
The ancient Telugu grammarians place these abstruse subjects
immediately after remarks on the Alphabet. For they wrote only
on a few disputed points to aid the judgment of poets already
familiar with Sanscrit and Telugu. And as these topics can
be understood only after we know every part of the grammar, and
have made some progress in reading the Poems, it seems reason
able to place this chapter merely as a supplement to the
Grammar.
s
Among living native grammarians many rely confidently on the
brief rules regarding Cala and Druta, framed by Nannaya Bhatt.
More learned men are less confident. Indeed Appa Cavi the
Aristarchus of the language says (Book 5, 43.) " To determine
regarding some words whether they are Druta or not, is an
arduous task : if indeed it be at all possible (Literally, arduous
even to Bramha). In the Cavi Siro Bhushanam (see printed
Essays on Telugu Literature) the critic remarks that " deviations
from the rules of Cala are allowable only if poetical authority be
discovered." Let this form an apology for any obscurity that
may rest on the subject.
This discussion is restricted to poets alone : even those natives
who read and enjoy the poems, safely neglect the abstruse rules
of Cala and Druta " AndhraSandhi" and saral-adesam. Few
will own their ignorance of these superfluous matters, but still
fewer can prove their acquaintance with the principles now to be
described.

ON DETJTA WOEDS.

326

It is particularly to be borne in mind that the rules for alter


ation of initials, for elision and for permutation though indispensible in poetry are inapplicable in common life and ought not to
be used. The dialect used in talking, in common writing,
and in ordinary books of morals or education, excludes these
poetical customs ; unless in a few obvious words established by
custom. Native critics teach the poetical dialect alone : and our
native assistants inconsiderately reject the common dialect.
They insist on poetical spelling, and yet will not themselves use
it in common talking or writing. Thus the words fS\osSiS"7P'
&sx> Chhandamu anaga emi ? (what is Prosody) would according
to the poetical method be written $ oowox"^aj Chhandamb'
anangan'emi : a form which in common life is unintelligible.
Here place tho Lists of Verbals which were printed in,
See page 139, 144,
Although I have used a new mode of expressing these principles,
I have in the chapter on elision and permutation followed Mr.
Campbell's grammar ; having found, on comparison that it cor
rectly stated all the more important rules given in the ancient
philological treatises.
ON DETTTA WOEDS.

The name Drutam is given to the letter N when used to prevent


elision. This is used frequently in verse, as M. Dro. 2. 141.
Efcr-asSiiSSb^e) manaku-N-ela vpt^&sr* inka-N-epudo ; at some
other time ; but in common talking and writing, the N is omitted,
thus qoZob&sr* or ojol^SjcS'* is the usual mode of spelling.
The following instances may suffice. SaeJ^iS ffc^^euxiew
M. 12. 3. 308. Valalona-N-unna wtfp^S jSSsioaa ata-nichetaN-adiginchiri. M. 8. 2. 272. X^-bH^o^?.* tS^&i&K Gamdastram besina N-acceruvuga. In talking, in common letters
or ordinary papers, we drop the N and say t>8p^# esao

327

ON DETTTA WORDS.

EjdsSu pfcoSs^oMiS Tra> itivala-n-undi, &c. the late king. Z&X


fro~&$> cadaga-n-undenu, he stood aloof. ts^^lS?)^ ataniche-nichi giving ii; to him. "?SfS>oMf^;58 >30~f ~7bo- ^j5w|D ^fa"!-^
cheteke-n-o. I gave it either to you or to your brother,
ts (y^c*6s&ofjSS er*j6ou anyayamunaku lo-n-ai ; having come into
the plot. k^!SB(6 in his life, a^sfaj^jjr janmamuna-n-a in his
life ? The sign of question (A'see page) being added, N is insert
ed. The root of the verb, which ends in U being Druta, wid
may become &Xz~. Thus br*>S>fo;S*3=reS ghanud-agu-n-atti
vadu, (Bhascara Satacam. 99.) one who is noble.
IN THE VISH P. VIII. 141.

p * tefr Here the letter N is inserted where the star is placed,


viz. Emiyu Nanaka nagucu N ilracunde vara-la to-N-itlanu.
The same words in common life would not use N being written
thus oSoSadHSa fcS;S
-Bo ^S^o'3sTtJe)(5r6 cw>T3f*.
The classical or poetical usage differs so far from the spoken
dialect (as it does in English) that what is right in one would be
wrong, or in bad taste in the other. In the common dialect, druta
is almost entirely excluded, and even in verse it is avoided.
There are some portions of the verb to which N (either NI or
NU) may be added. All these are Druta. Thus, in the Past Tense
&**p I went, *So*&> he, she, it, they (neuter) went. In the
Puture **S3gS*fS) I shall go. d*a>Vp he, she, it, they (neut.)
will go. In the Aorist sfr*iS>*f&I may go. s**Sfr& he, she, it, they
(neut.) may go. In the Negative Aorist Jfr^sS*^ I shall not go.
In the infinitive the form which ends in A as ^cS>, "c,
<tr* to which N may be added. Thus xt*"^ * s> ra-n-opadu.
Also the forms ending in EDI and EDU (see page 137, 180)
as s&'Saff-, o&'Sssofg-.
Also the Eoot,
&c. when used instead of a participle
(see page 135.) Thus sfr^jS&JSb povu-n-atadu for d^SSagwHo he
who goes.

ON CALA WOEDS.

828

Also the Root, in A viz. ** or riwSV, &o&-** 0r AoSnT.


These forms are peculiar to poetry.
ON CALA WOEDS.
The Druta words being those to which N can be added to pre
vent elision, the Cala words are those to which the letter N can
not be added for this pubpose : as has been remarked in
page 180.
All Nominative cases except
I and Wt& Self, [the rule is
vrfrlfr6^sSx2;s \6$sSj*ots*s S^-^^S.] are cala. Thus
fc5&jSb+ d3-o&7Te> he was there, may become fc9Ss>o&(TJSc> atad'
undi-nadu. But not &tS&r&o& F'ifc atadu-n-undi-nadu.

bed
there is, becomes &l&ciiQS> there is a bed; never
rfiJ.S' + ffcfS^Gi padaca-n-unnadi.
If the N were thus inserted, it would be the sign of conjunc
tion (See page 180.)
Should it be requisite to prevent elision in some places, the
letter Y may be used: or else Vulgarly V. Thus sfcSodi&o'3i3o
my uncle was or srsk$o'3&.
The Second person singular or plural of any verb or the verbs
of any person ending in S or & are Cala. Thus &*f*ofiQa or sHL.o
SSSS Thou or you protected him. The verbs ending in tf, s^t-o
t&ifctr^jfc or sl^oftd They protect or protected him, in
sfr*
L-otS-EfcTy^sSM or s^2>.o&0&> "We protect or protected him.
The Genitive sign ^>J. is Cala (This is stated in page 198.)
Thus CT|Bo3Mjf_fcsj&?<oex> his footsteps, may by inserting Y become
wpo3jT_<sCa&Kit vani-yocca-Y-adugulu : but never (by insert
ing n) isrp5io^_^Sioiuo.
The Infinitive forms in UTA, EDI, and ADAM (page 136,
138) and all the verbals (139) are considered to be nouns : and
therefore when they are in the Nominative case, they are cala.
Accordingly "3i^oiSJ4jc*fiioa> (not "t$fc^oiS;4>jSce>) {n fringing.
C. P. Brown's Telugu Grammar.
S s

ON CALA WORDS.
3^~S&jM& (not sS"5^&"^^*>) when will you com Tf^JjiSoe?
(not TyjSSJfos^o) why do you come.
The words fi6>jb then t^j6 now <^^sfc when, are always
specified to he cala.
The Past Participle is Cala. Thus ^?>, r6ox>, a&a &c. may add
N when connected into the Relative participle, hut never can use
N to prevent elision. Thus ^c'SiF',^ can never become
The same rule applies to the affixes f^oS, or ?*>& from,
or Ko9o concerning
or 8&|o& through,
from, all of which
are in truth the past participles of certain verbs meaning &oAj
to leave Xzdo&to to concern ^^a*3 to hold ^d&&> to make. Thus
t^t^e|^)(o8oOci35Sft(T,' f&> can never become toOoOfSSftrJ'rfc.
It has already been pointed out (page 216.) that some portions
of the verb have borrowed the terminations of the nominative case
of pronouns. Now these terminations being borrowed from No
minatives, are included under the first rule of Cala, whereby all
nominatives are Cala. Thus ^'jar^asb+tsp maj become &jrt*T>
never ^T^i^>^P.
All indeclinable words are Cala : such as the particles fc4->, wo*j,
X-cy, j&8, ^othS", woS &c. with all interjections and vocative
eases. Such as ? 9 !
well, well done ! ttotto, egjb ! Alas I
w^jtf, W-si* Ah, Aha ! ^uoess O my friend ! For, all these are
considered equivalent to Nominatives- Thus y,owp*aib-f-**> may
become s^wfj'^ij never (b^owp'efcjSij.
The Negative participle in KA (see page 175) is also a Cala
word: but in particular passages is Druta: that is, the N is
inserted when requisite : thus tf*S'+&043p may become "C&o3p
or uS'i&o4Sp I did not come. ^SS"?ij>o43p I did not fall.
But other words ending in KA, which are nouns derived from
verbs are often in the nominative case and therefore, being
Cala cannot add N. Thus tp* coming &r"cp 5"awgQ not sxj*"cf*
Jfpge.
going &Ts^S'oa>*wo'3 not rd*5'jt>4eMo'3.

ON SOFTENING INITIAL CONSONANTS IN POETEY. 330


[Concluding remark on Cala and Druta] The learned assert
that the rules of Cala and Druta must be followed in all compo
sitions. But experience may lead us to dissent from this doctrine.
And that for the following reasons. These rules were strictly
observed by some (not all) poets in the earliest ages. Several of
the most popular Telugu poets of the last and present century
deviate from these rules at pleasure : even that rule is neglected
which requires the final vowel U to be elided in metre : and they
unscrupulously insert N to prevent elision in several places where
in rule would forbid such a convenience.
The rule regarding Cala goes on a principle that may be under
stood if we consider what has happened in the English language.
Saxon made much use of the letter N as a termination. This is
sufficiently shewn in any page of Saxon : as for instance what is
given in Johnson's Dictionary.
ON SOFTENING INITIAL CONSONANTS IN POETRY.
In a few compound nouns, initial consonants are softened. Thus
K becomes G as tsfiiT^Jfieu the share both of the government and
of the inhabitants. T becomes D as
a brother e^jS^essto a
brothers &{& father. Hence SBKo^iSocu mother and father. Cha
becomes ja. Thus ^f!"3 a yeung sister ts^_^^^> akka-jellendlu,
more properly t?^_'Tl^0^>. sisters. ~s-&~&tu hands and feet
more properly -rifc-f>*e. P. becomes B. Thus
becomes V. Thus &cS>:S'3ew villages and hamlets.

I said. P.

In all these places, we perceive the change though the reason


is not obvious.* The following rules are intended to convey the

[* Native tutors are fond of insisting greatly on these changes :


but so little are these rules regarded that in common MSS. of
poems, the spelling is devoid of rule. E. g. in M. XV. 2. 7. S the
word
is spelt in these ways in various MSS. ^3 TT*f

331 ON SOFTENING INITIAL CONSONANTS IN POETEY.


principles of this alteration. They are of avail to poets but are
wholly superfluous to those who are not called upon to write
Telugu poetry.
These rules are very rarely applied to Sanscrit words. Indeed
some learned men disapprove of softening the initial in any Sans
crit word whatever. In modern Telugu poetry, they are frequently
neglected even as regards Telugu words. Sanscrit Grammarians
have arranged the alphabet in two classes as follows.
Hard a&cfi^ew Soft i>iS$o3
r 4
K
a
Guttural
y e>s$gsst
M
at
Palatals
c
&
n
b ar
Cerebrals
*

Dentals
*
M V
Labials
6.
Sibilants
*>
The remaining letters are not classed and may belong to either
species.
The letters S" iS 4j e s6 which in the alphabet form the first
column, are designated (by Grammarians alone) as ^>tsS. parusha
hard ; and when any of these happens to be the initial of a Telugu
word in poetry ; and is not the initial of a Sanscrit word but fol
lows another Telugu word, these letters are liable to change.
That is they are dropped, and the letters in the third column
f b fi s a (which are called "fltftf soft) are substituted. If a
druta word is followed by a hard letter, this must be softened : but
this is peculiar to poetry ; thus j6i*>lT$r,fi seeing me becomes
or tf&Qpti*),
or ji^fa". ^^S'jJT'oji becomes
KS<^>fjS-s-oa( sSi3^oX'ji"S-o*, jj^f-jCjST'oji, or sS^i&x'?s-r>'o*
the damsel came.
The sunna 63- gS^&<l thus inserted is contracted for Nu, thus
<S"tf e>p> acc. plu. of <S"tf a master and (S^tf e?Si+ ^8^3 he served
the rulers, may by softening become 3'1>tfe>jS>fr'3^3 dorala-nu-golicheh or, by dropping the vowel. iS-ffer-JTSB or <STtSeoir8:S
doralan-golicheh or by dropping N <5"tfe>r*):3 dorala-golicheh :

ON CONTRACTION IN POETRY.

332

in which last form some grammarians wish to use the semicircle


<5"tse>o?f013 a refinement that never has become popular.
The hard initials 5" Aj S A following the Nominative are sub
stituted by the softening initials X "6 & B 3. Thus sfr6&7J^LbS'
e>9 becomes sir^T&'pr^JSbx'ed the robber is going.
O r&"3 o^S be
comes s5-0 $ i*>"3 o ^3 Hari is gone s; ifc
fS>he is gone now "o* sS
^r*tf S" s becomes ^sSw'S'ra'og'sSjD we wholly depend upon Rama.
If two Tadbhavam words come together, as Sj^Bb + XcfieSo^S
(for S'&eSo^) softening is requisite: but if the first word is
Telugu, as doja-f S"{fc3o ^3 Such a change does not take place :
as 3oL-tjyr:S_a father is a king, notl6^r^_8. sni&^s&tS
he is Vishnu, not
(S-ip2Sc> Such refinements are worth the
attention of poets alone : a foreigner should never use the softened
initial in such places.
These rules have little claim to a place in Grammar ; for they
more properly belong to a treatise on versification ; a subject with
which we, as foreigners have no concern. It has however hitherto
been the custom not only to describe them in native Grammars,
but to give them a very prominent place. I would willingly omit
them, were it not that the student requires to be warned that
many words which occur in poems have the initial altered. Thus
the word
chepputa to say, is often spelt "2^*-> jepputa
and even "^^tj and even Sepputa.
It is obvious that these niceties though important to poets are
of no use to men who study a language only with a view to public
business. Even among the poets themselves, there is some discre
pancy of opinion. Eor these changes are regulated rather by taste
than by any fixed rule. (See page 41.)
ON CONTRACTION IN POETRY.
Some Sanscrit mahat nouns (see page 31, 221) as ttSsSS
Ramudu (a well known proper name) can in poetry form the ac
cusative by dropping
or else by substituting p. Thus "cr^o
"*0fi8 or TriS3opr*3fi6 they honoured Rama. And though "wsfco
ends in II, the form "CSooi* is not admissible.

833

ON ELISION AND CHANGE OF VOWELS.

This mode of contraction is peculiar to poetry : wherein it fre


quently occurs. It is only applicable to Tatsama Sanscrit words.
e>tfs&8 T3&$v jSokoS pS^3
er^S" 5"o^S5 TS&^er* paoS-otS &c.
Here the words 5"4jSs and
are *n the accusative singular.
Nouns ending in iyamu as ssJ3tfS3tf, muttiyamu, a pearl, may
contract this into stojS&o muttemu, or into s&>&gS muttyamu.
And nouns in iya as xS^aa (a poetical name for damsel) may
contract this into
Some Sanscrit and some Telugu words may drop the final ^
even when compounded with Telugu words. Thus sjro&sSw fear
tp<jS>~t>kx>ii to frighten i*Xo or -pXsSxi half x"5aMgsr) mid
night : or the hour of half night.
In poetry, the phrase ? fii2Ss&> by dropping the vowel U, be
comes ?"?>^s>.
ON ELISION AND CHANGE OP VOWELS.
Few of the following rules are used unless by those who have
occasion to write in Telugu verse. For this reason, I have placed
them at the end of the grammar.
When an open vowel occurs, that is when a short final vowel
is followed by a word beginning with a vowel, either the final
vowel is dropped, or some consonant is inserted to prevent
such a change. In regard to (Sandhi,) elision, the Sanscrit vowels
zwo Eu, and
Rfl are considered as consonants : but require
no notice.
The words already described as druta require the insertion of
N (as happens in Greek, or an for the article in English :) but
other words insert Y in certain places. Either elision is required
or else the insertion of a specified letter to prevent elision is
prescribed : there is very little room for option.
The final short U, as sr'c>, &,~4>)e& &c. being always subject to
elision, it is not allowed to insert N, or Y, to prevent this.

ON ELISION AND CHANGE OF VOWELS.

334

Sanscrit words either neuter as c>bS4> o pain, or masculine


as [Xotf 2 a book t&4f a country or I3"ss>8 a village, equally become
i>S4)sS, (2fo$5S, "^sSm, Ijt's&s&d in Telugu. Herein the sylla
ble MTJ is an affix, and may be dropt if another word follows, as
JjfoijS S + 1 o& tf jfc> = \Xot?o&G tSx>, 5"S + WoS BsSc =t T'oti 5 sS,
^TV'sfcS -f t9otftSjSn = lTr55>otjsS, But this happens only if both
words are Sanscrit. For instance \Xoif too +
(where is the
book ?) may become l_x"o$"aj|_S but never can become \Xo~$_
as the word L^o^sSm ia become a Telugu word ending in
; for
in such places MTJ is radical. Thus Ho|ff2S+^^8S gurramuewaridi (whose is the horse) can become
"&>558S gurram'
evvaridi, but never Xo(j3sS8> gurr'evvaridi. In common talking
and writing, the more easy form Xb|_8osa^8 gurram-yevvaridi
is often used though ^US^s^eS i8 owned to be best. It is
particularly to be observed that such Sanscrit words sometimes
form the inflection in PU as sfcS^^), [Xoifi^) according to tha
second Telugu declension, but more usually use no inflection and
therefore fall under the third declension. Thus 69- [Xo$ sS"w(fi
the name of that book, likewise in the Dative; Lx"o$;Sm;s8S (ac
cording to the 2d Declension) or (jCo$sSK> (according to the 3d)
being equally admissible in common prose : while in verse such
words are considered to belong to the 2d Declension alone.
The three first short vowels A, I, IT are generally liable to eli
sion. The others rarely are elided. Long vowels are never elided.
If Druta, they insert N : if kala, they insert T.
The vowel ** A is elided at pleasure ; that is we may either
drop it or insert a letter to prevent elision. Thus "&>cojk> to graze
forms the past rel. P[|
to which, if we add
the words
"&>|>;6 + eS-t5 mesina-a'vu, the cow that grazed, may by dropping
A, become "Sa^fT0 mesin'avu ; or, by inserting T, may become
"&>^jSd&'^) mesina-y-avu. The letter N cannot be inserted ; be
cause the past rel. P|| is one of the Cala words.
But druta words that end in A, never lose it by elision. Ex

335

ON ELISION AND CHANGE OE VOWELS.

eepting the word ^ot inca more ; which may drop the A in 3
~&> inc'emi, or retain it, inserting N, thus sjoS"^o.
Vocative cases that end in short A, particularly certain Telugu
poetical words for woman, and a Sf^sfc word i. e. a Sanscrit word
with a termination altered, may lose that letter by elision. As
these are Cala words, they can insert T. Thus
+ Si^*6 The
damsel bestowed it, may become "pa&aM^iSj nelata-y-icchenu,
but cannot, by elision become ?&8^r&. The vocative ^fj^
O Krishna! and gS^atfs&o come here, make (by inserting T)
^j^Sojj S^Stfs&ij but do not by elision take the form ^f^^Krishnud'iccadici-rammu. :3-ol3 + &a where is the swan,
may become s$-o^cSofi> but not K5^o"fifi'. rsi5^-f&> where is the
grass, may become estf^^> not
sW5-t-&l?r& Vishnu went,
may become s3-85o~5??i not
"Slink.
"Words ending in 3| do not in general admit of elision. Thus
S'J* a knife, combined with ^^Ls where, may become i OSatjS
catti-y-eccada, where is the knife ? but cannot, by elision become
S'JJJs'S katt'eccada. Because the word
being in the Nomina
tive case is a Cala word.
But some parts of the Past tense which end in s$ as &*& or
825 thou wentest. sfr*8 you went, always elide the final 3 : thus
EST" j3 -t-tSfT^L may become '^r
custiv'anna, do you see,
brother ?
But in this tense the first and last words, viz. s&"8f> I went,
and r^ox>5 they went, retain or drop the final vowel at pleasure.
Thus C&"ao + wjf. i& I saw his sister, may become asr&&|T_iS> 0r
else iSr&dfi_t& cbuchiti-n-accanu. So in the 3d person plural
US^e + WjS^sS they brought the dinner, may become
j^sto
or Sa^ecsOjSjs&j in the former instance N is inserted because the
first person ending in N belongs to the Druta class. In the second
instance Y is inserted (tecchiri-y annamunu) because the 3d
person is a Cala word.

ON ELISION AND CHANGE OF VOWELS.

336

Pronouns which end in % as , si,


a, S(S, &a also
the words
what, and **>8 again, and the dative affix have or
neglect elision at pleasure. Thus S+ >&> 0r t^So what is that?
If elision is not used, Yis inserted. Thus mSdSoSj.
But if a word ending in s? is followed by <^otf enta how much ?
the elision is used : or prevented (by inserting Y) at pleasure.
Thus &o4 + oJo& becomes 4>o"Bo'3 or t>o&6&>o.
Final s\ ought (in poetry) to be elided Thus fc^>Bo|0 -(-wtJMoso
==Xicf>lS88owo M. 7. 4, 52. ^*3 + -&=W&rSSa palm leaf, ~^i&>
8 + wj6tt,="5^sSisSw iSTT* But inmost manuscripts, there are
erroneously written <F""i>&, -s-i&^^f8-7r Or ever '3'*&riSS, TP>;S>

Pinal U, is almost invariably elided. Thus w#a + JsS^asS be


comes w&"3sSSs>. In common talking and writing, however the
Y is often inserted. Thus td6+5Bo^6 who is he ?
Such is the rule as regards a nominative word ending in U, but
such elision is optional as regards words which are not nominative.
Thus the accusative
me,
thee,
himself,
them,
sosfc^ us,
you; also the affixes g^sS5 for, & to, as well
as the words &oe&t s$ot>; Ao& (see page 65, No, 16. and page
58 :) also the present participle ending in <S> (page 163.) All
these when followed by a vowel may at option use the elision,
or substitute N to prevent it. Thus $&>X me, followed by
to rule, may become P^ew^nann-elum'a. Bule thou me ; or #
j3o3sScT nannu-n-elum'a. Likewise wf** speaking, + si>P6&i thus
he said, may become. !&&&>p&3 anu9'itl-aniye* he said (literally,
laying he said) or Wi&tSbpfo jt>a\ Again : T3*jiS>+ &?r^_ab he is
saying, may become (in common Telugu) 'S^&bF^Jfc but in the

* Not anuchitla. The letter ch when followed by I would be


pronounced chi, but when followed by U the sound would be soft ;
viz. anucu and though the final U is elided, the same sound is
retained.
C. P. Brown's Telugu Grammar.
t t

337

ON ELISION AND CHANGE OF VOWELS.

poetical style, if the metre requires it ^^-eS^f0,^ The N is thus


inserted because the preceding words belong to the Druta class.
See a remarkable instance in M. Asw. 1. 191. S" 11II &&S"So^^a&a
D
C
ptn. | rir_88 Here Kuttuka-ku N adda padi and in Vish. P. 2.
308. wa*r5Slt3f adinaku Netiki (entered in T E D in oSotfS.)
It has been shewn (page 235) that the Sisa, Gita and Dwipada
metres end each line with a short syllable : (the last foot being a
Surya.^) If the final vowel is liable to elision that is if the next
line begins with a vowel, poets often neglect such elision. But
this depends upon the sense of the passage, and rarely occurs.
The following words never admit of elision although they end in
U. Accordingly N is inserted.
Examples 3& + g*^s> I will come now, may become S&p
Also rf^ + ^^JSb he will come now, may become
p^asS. tewiSD or ^e^aSb calling, wgp him (Acc. of Iswara, God :)
and trfi'(Tj& I saw, will in a compound phrase, become fctu-Sa
j5e&3ir'ffi"(T',|& or ?>e)^3jb^ele^$ra r^i* I saw him who called.
In the same manner, the word sevacu assuming the accusative
form "f)s55b and having no druta affix, if combined with a word
commencing with a vowel, as -&&o^3p& he saw, may become "f'SS
&3jb X-OT3Pk he beheld the servant.
Words which end in the short vowels A, I, TJ drop these vowels
if followed by certain words. These are
wotf, &f>; and
words denoting kinsfolk, as
o&g, e> j$, w^,
ss &c. Thus t^tf a fathom er+oisSb=,y'B^-afathom's length.
"^5 the palm. 3tf + =is6=^~3& a hand full.
a nut s^rog
as large as a nut. oijDs&e eight. J>pSx>~$ at the rate of eight.
5 e>|^, "it>. &e. are names of women and adding ws&j (equiva
lent to Mrs. or Miss,) the words are spelt'
&c. To the
word
(mentioned above) by adding
brother, (a word
equivalent to Mr.) forms t^&cQ. In some common expressions,
the Sanscrit mode is wrongfully used. Thus Stf-f 65-^t>tf should
be i)xriiiSs>.

ON SOME CONTRACTIONS.

338

All words ending with vowels except U have no elision ; but


the letter Y is inserted. Thus ?5;Ser-|-3|a becomes i$roMa
this is a woman s5-8 -f tsfSsfe becomes 5r8<sfi&* he is Vishnu
(gj, + st:3^ becomes I^om^ fortune favoured him ^1^+^ 3 be
comes &-a^S be yelled
^ becomes 85 1^.^5^ a coloured
cloth "3 +- do& becomes "^Ssoas moonlight ^j + '^s^) becomes
oix>a^) the beauty of the person.
The words
or *> when followed by some other words, the
letter A is elided and the letter T is inserted. Thus JT^+esa
or a becomes K^tyS or K~ty<s&&. fT^a or JT^ciOa a large
one or large ones. fi-rB8 or **3 becomes r>8 or >ci&a; &a or r><*S
S yours. pT' + wa becomes F'cssos mine. -r^ + fcse becomes T"
sba or
a farmer's wife.
Cala words that end in U when used in forming compounds,
may insert N. Thus Tr>tix>-\-Ash,=v*&v~:fi&k> fronting Kama,
or in his presence. Also
a snake+^$5itw=,^roi;S'^^
a snake's bones.
The words ending in TJ when preceded with a word beginning
with a vowel, admit the letter T. Thus Q;6t + 69- KS to becomes
^i8E)ta'SSe the young leaves
+
becomes
a
male fly. S'C&Sa + tssSw e becomes S"Sb3k>5Se sharp arrows.
^e^-l-e3-i) becomes ~&>&r><& the cow of plenty.
Usually the last short vowel in a line of verse must be elided :
but even the best poets sometimes neglect this : and that it is.
optional, is stated in the Chintamani.
ON SOME CONTEACTIONS.
Verbs in

as wj&iJ to say, 3?*>4j to hear, may in the present

participle change f& into sunna. That is the two last vowelg
being alike the first of them maybe dropped. Accordingly t^ta
anucu, saying, becomes *sot& an'cu, SJr&tSs vinu9u hearing,
becomes ao-&> vin'cu. And as shewn above, this is sometimes
(in poetry) written Bf^,
This is a mere nicety apper
taining to a rhyme : wherein some prosodians attempt to draw

339

ON SANSCEIT ELISION AND PERMUTATION.

distinctions between the souods of


s-, O ; all of which are
merely modes of writing the letter N.
Some of the third conjugation which have IT in the two last
syllables of the Infinitive in U, as
educu, to weep, "S> pfc-tSa
to plait, may be contracted into k^S-^ ed'cu,
pen'$u. Other
verbs, as &e&&i> to wipe b*S)i> to walk, cannot be thus con
tracted in poetry : but in common writing, such words are often
written in the contract form (see page 39,) though pronounced
without any contraction.
The words s)^)b now ts^)*o then oi^jifc when, can (in poetry
alone) drop the penultimate T7 when the metre requires it. Thus
w^b apudu may become
ap'du.
Nouns of three syllables which have U as the second vowel,
can in poetry drop this. Thus *euS' becomes ej_ a parrot. "8"*
becomes ">" a watercourse.
And in some compound words, the final U of the first, is dropped
even though the second begins with a consonant. Thus "E^eS
black
a male buffalo, forms "5"<r^& a wild buffalo.
M. 1. 8, 271.
Those who wish to extend their enquiries in Etymology further
after perming the poets will be amply satisfied in the learned
treatises written by Appa Cavi and Ahobala Pandit. Observing
that these rules were framed for the guidance of poets alone, I
would willingly have omitted them in this volume which is intend
ed solely to assist beginners in the study of Telugu.
ON SANSCEIT ELISION AND PERMUTATION.
Sanscrit words used in Telugu sometimes adhere to Sanscrit
principles and elsewhere deviate. No Telugu grammarian has
specified the instances wherein the phrase adheres to Sanscrit
ride or those wherein it adopts a new course.
Sanscrit words, if two occur together, may be united in the
Sanscrit manner : thus maha+unnata may become &~*fwfa&
mahonnata ; but in common life, elision is not allowed : thus
s&o(j}-(- &&*X&a "the office of minister of state" is always
written tfao^S'S^gX'sS never aboljfcg^tffiw which is the proper
Sanscrit form.

PEKMUTATION OF VOWELS.

340

The Sanscrit comparative and superlative forms are sometimes


used (as in English inferior, or superior:) thus
very
hard. 5j5eStJ
very noble. The word fc>G low, may use the
superlative (btf&sss which is thus used with a masculine termina
tion. M. 3. 5. 138.
JDS Ji8r* [fifes'o~& ^tfSsSwiSo
A bramin whose acts are sinful is lower than a Sudra.
In this passage the poet has used the superlative form whereas
grammarians would prefer the comparative. The poet however is
Nannaya himself.
It may be useful here to give a short abstract of the Sanscrit
rules (borrowed from Wilkins's Grammar) with a view to point
ing out the variations that exist between the two languages.
PEKMUTATION OF VOWELS.
When any simple vowel opens upon another simple vowel
similar to itself, the two shall be resolved into one long. Thus if
65 opens upon ** or 63-, or 63- upon 63- or the two coalesce and
form one long vowel ; namely 63-. The same rule serves for sst and
& and
each pair being considered one power, differing only
in duration of sound.
The final M dropped, if a Sanscrit word follows, is retained, if
a Telugu word follows. Thus TS*" sS+ w osStf 5S=^ros5s5S but
^cSw-f-o^ea may become ra^^ea never cT^aa Thus
4jjsrii_j_$9^jc'iSj3=3}
ijfs&o but ^25&>4-**3pa would become
4>jsS>$p8 and this contraction, used in poetry is inadmissible in
common prose, wherein we must write "^if s&cassSoa an& 4js&j
Thus KosSao a stick and wijCs&s the end, form eso-Bo(X';S the
end of a stick.
charioteer of the sun &c*SsS rising, forms
esfi&rf^JScSisto the dawn of the day.
[In Telugu only those Sanscrit compounds are used, which have
a noun or adjective as component parts. Those wherein a Sans
crit verb is united with a noun are not used : and I accordingly
omit such examples. Thus k*> + 63-J!> our property, may in poema

341

EXCEPTIONS AND ANOMALIES.

become
dSr'_^, or colloquially remains unaltered ; being written
i;Se3- jb. It can never become &
Any simple vowel excepting f and 63- opening upon any dissi
milar vowel, simple or compound is (in Sanscrit) changed to a
semivowel congenial to itself. Thus 31, & are changed into T. ^>
S* into V. Thus ^"8 +
becomes ^tfgljS ; *s>/S>-f woStSsto
becomes s(SoSSsfo.->.
The simple vowels a and a coming in a state to unite with any
dissimilar vowel, simple or compound, undergo the following
changes.
7CoTV + ^M5'o=foir*a5'o Gange's water.
33-1- 17a^o=3-yaaigo Thy rectitude.
The Kur 1. 175 actually spells tpet-r thus tt>8o2>. with oo
and writes s5-6os.o for 5-sS-e~o.
[But supposing the first word is Telugu, no such change takes
place. Thus (SsSer* -t-fc?"^srAJ " The word navala" may become
(in poetry) ;Ss!ercsS'^sSy*j but no other change is allowable.
Colloquially even this Y is excluded and the words are written, as
above. ^^ero"^sSr4j.] But the phrase ^^sstfo which all use
clearly breaks this rule. Ex-obverse #e^)ex> q. v. and s&eu-yso.
EXCEPTIONS AND ANOMALIES.
, an ox, requires the introduction of a 3 before
2 an
eye, &c. thus forming the compound terms
+ **S>.o = )foTlSxS a
bull's eye (a small window) JT*+ ssio^s=)f"So[B a lord of kine.
i. e. a bull K"* + &fio=X-sn?5#o an oxhide."
" & and
being in a state to form a compound with k&S lip,
may be dropped.Thus forming Oor*|>. Cherry-lipped: for So"
4But if the word be of a nature not to admit of their form
ing a compound, the union is different. Thus
s5-|-ig-o=8"3^
f o thy lip."
[The Telugu poets sometimes deviate from rule even in pure
Sanscrit words thus. Custom sanctions that we should say
tre3 a host, not &6Xrei. They however prefer the latter
spelling.]

COALITION OP CONSONANTS, &c.

342

COALITION OP CONSONANTS.
[The following few rules borrowed from the same Grammar
have their use in Telugu where Sanscrit compounds occur.]
Each of the consonants called $ *J & * has a soft sound, viz.
Jf es & is and the first letter changes into the soft before any
Bonant letter whether vowel or consonant as in these examples
sr>*$-sss eloquence; for ^Fa^S ; wkocSs "ending in ach"
for ach-antah, W6&<$sthe passions, for eS.&T + ssog. es-afcs^o
>S he who aids in distress, for &-S~ -f-Woi>8.
" 5" 4j 8 may not only change to their respective sonants before
a nasal, by the preceding rule, but also to their proper nasals ;
that is, K, to g or ng ; k to & or re ; {$ to s or : as ^s^so
deposition, for *rKr^e>o ; sSkSs^^u Magha, the merchant for ^rf
i-4-sSr-&. *.3 8 for &&TS>8 Se&T?e, or 8fS>xre for
x>
tt6 That Murari." The preceding rule ; as, S^csfio intelligent,
rational, for <5~sSixsfio.
The fourth or dental class of consonants 8 5> S? besides
being subject to the above general rules are changeable to palatals
before palatals and to cerebrals before cerebrals. The palatals are
% a &p sf- and the cerebrals t> 5T & t$ re ; (the letter 6. being
excepted.) Examples ; SQ^jjSo that wonder, for 8<~ &\po} StJ^
^Jofor ZS'^^Jo that art. Again, 8ga8o that liveth, for 8<5~ +

MUTATIONS OP SIBILANTS.
The letter 3" preceded by 5" 'C *j 8 (6 may be changed into tf\
or not. Thus, for ^T*F"+tfr>ffS they also write ^FiSr^itfg, -sr^w^SS and for S<5" -j-rtsg that hero, they write e5-tfr^ss.
MUTATION OP g VISAEGAH.
The of the word *S, day, being the final of that word is
changed into E before the initial of any word excepting Tr>\Q
(and a few others beginning with U) when the change is as
follows.

U3

ON COMPOUND "WORDS.

oj^tfjSg for e^g^sg the god of day, the sun,


wsfr^rsg for fsj-Stfrag the days.
Exceptions t>-^y^>rr[&o for w^Stp(So Day and night.
The visarga " 8" preceded by a and followed by a, ha, or any
sonant, changes into U ; and a and u make (as in the French
language) 5. Thus sfciSSts^S becomes s&>TbfB#sS\ The word so
jantuh becomes o&*&jantuvu a beast. Kodanda XV. *^:S^3
for ftsgS&p.
The above short abstract is intended to assist such learners as
may not have read the Sanscrit Grammar from which these parti
culars are transcribed.
The rules regarding Samisa in Sanscrit Grammar being those
regarding compound words, should be carefully studied, as
many of them, (nearly one-half) are commonly required with
regard to the Sanscrit words used in Telugu.
ON COMPOUND WORDS.
If Sanscrit words are compounded with Sanscrit words, the
Sanscrit rules are observed : as (Jfo-t^tf csp"o But to say (^o$"
(5 would be wrong. And AayiT'ti though a common phrase is
not rightUnless it be an Exception.
The tract on Samasas, called ^sSr^i5o(e>S' has been printed in
Sanscrit in the Grandha character by Harkness and should be
reprinted in the Telugu character.
Grammarians require a very strict observance of these rules,
but they are often broken by poets. Thus in the popular tale or
comedy of Garudachalam, which is a common school book, we find
the phrase Sfs5ofcrS'+"&geM+jrE<^:J5SMe which is condemned
also, in the next page ^oeMsfcoeeoKomo "^,Sj
this
is a similar false compound :. the first word being Sanscrit and
the second Telugu.
The rules of Sanscrit elision are clearly defined in the grammars
of that language and therefore present no difficulties. Those
Telugu rules which are in this grammar placed with the alphabet,
are easy, and in common use. The remaining Telugu rules now
exhibited would change
into "f>i6&S are obsolete ac
cording to some learned men, but maintained by others. A de-

ON COMPOUND WOEDS.

344

cision on these matters can interest those learned bramins alone


who write Telugu poetry. To a foreigner, they are useless and
I have therefore compressed into five or six pages all that is of
any avail in the old grammarians, who have multiplied rules
and exceptions in such profusion that according to them, no author
is entirely correct.
CHAOS, UMPIRE SITS.
And by decision more embroils the fray.
The principle of altering initials according to certain rules of
syntax is found in all the languages of the Celtic family. Owen
states in his Welsh Grammar that the mutable consonants are
thus classed.
Radical, K, P, B, D ; (The Telugu hard)
Light, G,B, V, Z; (The Telugu soft)
Aspirate, ngh, nh, m, n;
Soft
9,
th.
The principal rules for the assumption of the soft sound are
these. 1 . After all verbs except those in the infinitive mood.
After interjections, &c. 2. After personal pronouns ; after thy,
mine, thine ; after ei when it denotes his and its, but not when it
denotes her. 3. The participial sign yu makes the initial of the
object light, &c.
Such are the rules in Welsh, and the similarity to the Telugu
rules is remarkable. In both languages, these rules are intended
for the guidance of poets alone. We even find in Welsh as in
Telugu, the initial sound of J changes into S. Thus George be
comes Seorus. In Gaelic also James becomes Shemus.
It will be observed that the letters PKT which Greek grammar
calls soft, are in Sanscrit called hard ; and the Greek middle
letters BGD take the name sarala, soft. Thus what is in one
language called hardening a letter is in the other called
softening it.
The initial rhyme, already described (page 227,) as Tati,
which is sometimes called Alliteration, is found in Icelandic ; in
Finnish (see "Eastern Europe" 1846, vol. 2. p. 170.) and indeed
throughout the Gothic languages, and in our oldest English
C. P. Brown's Telugu Grammar.
v u

ON COMPOUND WOEDS.
poets, coeval with the first Telugu authors. The proofs will be
found in the account of English versification given in the Intro
duction to Chaucer.
On both Tati and prasa in Saxon, the reader is referred to the
Gentleman's Magazine for 1822, page 396. And on Dryden's use
of both, see Quarterly Eeview 1826, vol. 34, p. 14.
The principle of softening initials is used in Cannadi likewise.
Also in Italy where Wolf and Waiblingen were changed into
Guelf and Ghibelline. See Campbell's Petrarch, p. 19.
Not only does primitive English occasionally soften initials,
(as also German does) but it even inserts E, and thus resembles
Telugu in a most remarkable peculiarity. Thus Toil and Droil
are in Johnson shewn from Spenser and Milton to be the same
word. In our dictionaries and in the ancient English Bible
(as Crudens Concordance and an ancient Ainsworth will shew)
a gin or snare was spelt grin. Eor curl, thorpe (i. e. village) thirBfc
birds, third, Chaucer writes crull, thrope, briddes, thrist, thriddle.
The words Couch and crouch are the same word ; Cave and grave,
Cove and grove each mean a hollow : Johnson and Ainsworth
Bhew thrill and thirl, crud and curd to be the same word.

APPENDIX.

ON ARITHMETICAL MARKS.
The Hindus use the number sixteen as a general divider : a
sixteenth of a pagoda (eight shillings, nearly) and of various mea
sures, is called >#:S a viss : a sixteenth of the Rupee (which
coin the Maliomedans introduced) is called by the Hindustani
name
ana, or 59-T31 anna. Thus "S>" denotes one anrta (or
viss, one sixteenth, or 6-J-,per cent.) and ""8" denotes One
and a sixteenth. "tSn-oS" is one rupee and one anna.
One-eighth, or two arinas " =" is written
called ^CS".
Three annas (or three viss) are S>_ called 5SkS#sS: four of these
make the quarter (four annas) named ~5"ex> which is noted by an
upright line (I). This being doubled, forms M called
half.
Three such lines ^ are SoTe three quarters (twelve annas).
Thus the table of annas runs as follows:
One anna is called
: for which the mark is &-8 "" a
single line.
2 annas are called tftfff.
Sx 8 23

8L
4 "5^ew fr.irt5 or -^sSer* a quarter. 8 1
5
6
^

^SF^^
-^s^a&er.
ir*Q~!^ito>&^tSx>.

8*1
8 128 IS-

8
9
10
ll
12

..

W, Half.
wu-S-^skD.
eTT=a&ssWTr-sSnS^sto.
STre, Three quarters.

8
8
8
8
8

M
M
M^M_
u\

347

ON ARITHMETICAL MARKS.

13 annas are called sS**^0-r!>-sS.


14'
tf*aT*8r.
is
S*^GT**aofeij*8S.
16 annas form the Rupee.
The Anna or sixteenth part is divided by four:
sixty-fourth is called ~tr?> marked "
|." Of this,
is called a |J>cs6 Thus the following fractions are not

&* 8 u\
8 ims 8 i^iand the one
one quarter
now in use.

1256th part is a priya


marked ^t>
Twice
which is &6TT*p do.
L?> 2Three
times is
sS|8>c6 do.
L?> Four priyas thus form one Cani - - T*
,

The priya again is divided by four: thus.


One 1024th part of unity is >tf marked
|
Two of these are (one, 512th) ~Bot>fre<ix
M
Three
sSxrb jSotJejo fki^
Pour suras form the - - - - \8><jfi
\

And the sura being divided into quarters;


One of these, i. e. l-4096th is one K*iSV*p marked K"6
Two of these are written thus 'Boojr5'8"r fisos do.
Sr*Three of these
do.
sSoo-JSoK^re^i&ex) do.
K"6!Four forms one sura - -- -- -- -- - &>|
The sura-Cani merely means a farthingcent, a millionth of
a half penny.
Money accounts formerly were kept in gold Pagodas, of four
Rupees each. The present gold Pagoda is three Rupees and a
half : but the pagoda reckoning is now laid aside by the Eng
lish though retained by Hindus. The^ Pagoda is called ssffsr",
"the boar" which was the armorial bearing of the ancient Kings,
but is usually called hunn, S^nuffc^ which appears to be the same
as ^rai*>^ honnu or
ponnu :* meaning gold : for several

* Honnu is the ancient Cannadi word for gold : the old Telugn word is ponnu.
Varaha is said to be the name of a district near Surat. See Kelly's Cambist and
Major Jcivis's Ancient Records, page 42. Haughtou Bengali Diet. p. 2752
supposes honu to be coriupted from Hiranya.

ON ARITHMETICAL MARKS.

348

ancient Canada (or Canarese) words have been introduced into


Telugu, changing the initial H into P. This word hunn however
is usually supposed to be Hindustani.
But in accounts, as we use to denote pounds, so X a con
traction for Koasi a coin, is used for Pagoda. The plural is
marked KJf.
And the sign halli
shaped like the English numeral 8,
is used to separate between the integer and the fraction. Thus
tSbvl^S^ denotes, Rupees 55-2-0. This mark answers to the
cypher in the column of annas, and a cypher in the column of
pice, is, as in English accounts, a circle or sunna.
The silver Rupee 6r-i-c> is written
or oj-, oo^ and the
Fanam or fraction of the Pagoda is called JrS' an(j written <5~.
The Current Rupee is at present worth nearly two shillings.
But the Rupee is divided into 16 Annas and the Anna into
twelve pice. The pagoda of three Rupees and a half is reckoned
as forty-five fanams, and the Rupee as twelve fanams and sixty
"5" &exi cash : of which eighty are reckoned to the ruca or fanam.
The copper coin called ten cash is a half penny and the coin of
twenty cash was about a penny. For these, the pice is now
substituted and is of a different value. The gold rupee is called
Stet8 and is=15 silver rupees.
The fanam is now a mere nominal coin (like the crown in
England) and in accounts of Rupees is never retained for honest
purposes. In South Malabar, the fanam reckoning is still used :
but that bears a very different value : one thousand fanams of
Cochin (Malabar) being but Rupees 77-12-6.
Thus the calculation of Rupees, annas and pice is quite at vari
ance with that of Pagodas, fanams and "S^j&ew cash; which Go
vernment have abolished. The natives generally adhere to the anci
ent routine, wherein the pagoda equalled four rupees : but instead
of annas, they usually rate the rupee at so many
doods or
pence. This mode reckons about three
doods to the anna.

ON ARITHMETICAL MARKS.

349

(The (hod or farthing is in many parts of the country a mere


hammered bit of copper, and these copper bits are generally called
Khoordh, i. e. crumbs.)
At Madras, the rupee usually is worth one hundred doods ;
fifteen pice make one fanam : and twelve fanams and a make one
rupee. Three rupees and a half make one pagoda, which is worth
56 Annas : and this forms the basis of all native reckoning.
' The sixteenth part of a pagoda is called a >>fe>:S and mark
ed Jfo8wherein the < denotes that this reckoning is regarding
the varaha.
equal to
One dugalam
*o8 is called s&X'es&o. Ks. 0 3 6
2 or one eighth
Xo82- do.
BSesfco.
,,070
3
4 or quarter
8 or half
12 or three quarters

tfo8Xo |
Xo q
Ko

iSx&Kv&a.
"^S).
tSr..
S-A^Q.

0
0
1
2

10
14
12
10

6
0
0
0

And the mada or half pagoda denotes fifty per cent. Thus
srGe>oT3iDo-?}'(3"*r6 denotes, I paid fifty per cent. The word
S'ts" dokada is used for a cent or hundredth part &*&~GSvig)
T*tSo per cent iSrojfcer65'T5ex> is eleven-hundredth or, eleven
centesimal parts.
Interest is calculated per mensem. Thus one per cent in India
denotes twelve per cent per annum.
The word ~^*Ot or "^f signifies a quarter: and often de
notes 25 as a quarter of a hundred. Elsewhere it is a colloquial
phrase, like half a dozen. " He is one patica" denotes, he is
twenty-five years old. The fraction named patica is thus denoted,
when it is regarding a pagoda JC8o|. The subdivisions are
marked and named thus.
The
is written
Twice which is the Wtflj-^sfca,

jfo8o 8o |
Xo8o 8o M

Twice which is the &^&o or viss, ?(o8o 8


Twice which is one ^JffS'or
)Co8o8 2-

ON DIVISIONS OF MEASUEES.

350

The
or three-fourth of a fanam is marked
One quarter of a fanam being marked. <5~ I
The annas or sixteenths of a Eupee are thus marked.
One
Two
Three
Eour
Eight
Twelve

anna is ^t?

marked

ir'^ty.
wsSt^ocu.
S-ir,s5jer.
J

& 8
&o 8SK>o |
coo M

The quarter of a Jfr*? or fanam is called


W and marked 5~ I
which seems to be a contraction for the letter B with the silent
mark.
Two of these are
tsa&x<T q
Three quarters of a fanam
sSs^jStf
<5~ u|
A single fanam is called &t^6^S" a double famam is ~%>titnt,
kStS A nominal money used in Canarese accounts. One gold
cliacrum or Rdhti ruca is four chinna rucalu ; and four such rucas
(40 fanams) make one rakiti hoon. Eahti seems to mean hontaroy
There is another reckoning by Tancams. The fc>o5"jS ig an an
cient coin, not now found, and used only in accounts :it was
worth 16 dubs or four Bingle silver fanams. The half Tancam is
called
The quarter Tancam is called a f5a"3. The eighth
part is one i>*el The sixteenth is one
The thirty-second part
is one <3&*"7Ve3. The sixty-fourth part is one
Three sssfc^tu
dammams make one
dabbu. The gold fanam is also called tho
gold tancam, but is not now current in the Telugu country.
DIVISIONS OF MEASUEES.
The 4) & or candy is a measure answering to the ton of which
one-twentieth is called &ra toom or chaldron. In speaking, it
is called
but in writing * is used as the sign. Thus 4>o is
one putti or candy. The actual bulk of the putti varies in various

ON DIVISIONS OF MEASUEES.

351

places or in regard to various goods, as does also the English


stone. At Masulipatam, the candy of tobacco is 4801b : that of
metals and hard ware is 5001b. (which is the Madras rate) : that
of sugar, dates, and other soft articles 560, Applied to land,
the phrase ^"fcSja^'iT'ej^to^e) denotes that extent of land
which will be sown by that quantity of grain. The putty ranges
from 800 to 960 seers ; for the seer also is a variable measure.
The ^^^^ is divided into eighty SSotf sew ; thus a cuncam is
the fourth part of a toom. The sS>e>5^|3 or Malacca ton is
from 200 to 240 cuncams. The toom is denoted in accounts by $
(the letter N) at Masulipatam ; the reason of which I have not
learnt. At Madras it is marked thus.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

4>c|o
CS-oosSsa
4)0|_3
Vol i

^cqo

10
11
12

4>cq_

13

*oq3

14
15
16

a
a

18
19
20

io$-';&> 02SssS

ON DIVISIONS OF MEASURES.

352

Or the following arrangement may be more clear : it is the


native method wherein each line contains a different fraction of
one putty. Thus.
*o
One putty.
6o<SbtS
jpoqo
Half a putty.
&fcsSx>
*c|o
A quarter do.
sjg)^^
>v8 -smo or ;S -qo an 8th
do.
{r"3ij> 55o^32>
.poS<">|o or o|o one lGth
do.
^jc8oq_sqo or (^om_3l|o one 32d

do.

S3o^3!Sb s&"^So f^ife]


< f^^JSb j *8olo| or i40'0'0 one 64th
do.
or eS-OosSr'jOS'o ;
tf:^46s&jD-3e>fcie^-BJSc>>o88382- or o8382- one 128th
do.
Sxr.Sfs5$e*T3JSc>
^}o8o8<"iqoro8oqone 25Gth
do.
s&TT>acfHee>w&*'!|fc ^oSoSo^MOM or o8oujoq one 512th do.
&xn&6^jtio~^'<^%~5>c> 4jo8o8oj2_]o or j4o8o|2-|o one 1024th do.
There is another reckoning by sSjewKj or Maund's weight, viz.
Three quarters of thes&>e*>is called s&w "3 Sou; and marked*S>o^o.
Half of the
is called wBsSbrMXi and marked 6cqo.
One quarter of the
is called
<&oio.
o0r"3>t
One 8th of do. (five seers)
One 16th of do.
"!ooor"l3S'fc> *^olo
One 32d of do.
io
One 40th of do. is a seer
~3oq2_
One 64th of do.
fcSS
"<>
"^oqo
One 80th of do. is a half seer
"lo|o
One 160th of do. is a quartor seer
"lo82One 320th of the same
~3o8_
One 640th of the same
Eight maunds are called ^tftf 5S.
The calculation of SSotfsSwew is as follows. The 55otfS is
marked o 1 at Masulipatam. Elsewhere the mark </l is thu
C. P. Brown's Telugu Grammar.
w w

353

ON MEASUEES OF LENGTH.

used. Two cun$ams form the au8^ which is marked c* o 1 1 or,


at Madras J W. Three form the s&Sj written j1^. The division
of the &o?jjo (one quarter) is sometimes rated as follows.
The quarter of the cuncam is a manika
written sSro.
The half of this is an " adda" S which is written &*-a> or c 8 s>.
The three quarters (rf>T'JSos*rp"^ex) is written thus ^ 3 or $o8i
and the SSotjjS is marked (Solo.
The SSotfjSo of the l^?6>g is divided into five manikas : but
that of the ''Sig^yg ia divided into six manikas. The greater
toom is divided into 24 manikas and the smaller toom is divided
into 20 manikas. If the manika is divided into four parts, these
are called ft^oex) ; of which one sola is marked^* 1. Two solas are
one
tavva marked f^oqo. The three quarter manika is called
sSm-xJS^o&o and marked f^oujo.
Again the f^*a is divided into quarters called
One *g is
marked ft Two form the
ft*0 marked A = Three are called
t&xrt>?, rfvz and written thus
a
The Tola
or weight of one Rupee (one hundred and
eighty grains) is used regarding the post office, and in weighing
medicines. The pagoda weight ^es^s^ is used regarding the
gold, silver and medicines and is (52. 56) nearly 53 grains. The
Xd% or garce used regarding corn and rice is 3201b. Five
putties make one X8#.
MEASUEES OF LENGTH.
The fathom or
contains two *23sSe or yards. The yard
being two sfej-otfew or cubits. Three tsaiXoew orfeetform the yard.
This however is not a customary mode of reckoning. The inch is
called fcSo?<osSx>. The sSxp-if. or cubit is divided into two "ex>
or spans- The X^ojjs tfssto or great yard is equal to 90 square
feet being 30 feet in length and 3 in width. The "3l5i6 or
handbreadth is the third of a span.
The English yard and foot have come into use as well as the
English acre, which foreign phrase the natives spell thus csS"tj*1

ON POINTS OP THE COMPASS.

354

The measures of length depend upon the *6 S5?<>, or


coss
(parugu
literally means one run) which is a variable measure,
on a plain country ; it varies two miles or two miles and half: and
4 coss make one
or gow, which under the English Govern
ment is about 10 miles.
In square measurement, the SooiJ or Gunta (Literally, one
well) lorms the basis : it is a square measure of land, of which
there are two, the greater and the less. One
contains fifty
^.BSbot>eu or one hundred and twenty-five St^*o<jew. Then,
sixty four guntas make one *^t'. These measures vary in vari
ous parts of the country as the " field" ia the land which one
well can irrigate. At Bombay, it is a square chain of 1089 square
feet and 40 Guntas are one acre.
A book printed at Madras some years ago, and lately republish
ed, called the Commercial Eeady Assistant, reduces the Indian
to the English arithmetical procers.
POINTS OF THE COMPASS.
Sixteen points of the compass are reckoned and are universally
known by the names of the Genii supposed to rule them.
North
or
U
N. East
>'
eto(ae& .
East
>
S. East
ii
South
>i
S. West

West
ii
TrN. West
n
The name * Sao tf West,forms in the Genitive
Western, and
Locative
in the west. Plural &>-*e^*csS>Co East and West.
The name Nairruti is wrongly written ^U^oS or
The
error is of no consequence.
What we call the Northern Division, the people themselves
call
s the East. In fact, the shore runs in a N. E.
direction.

ON

ETYMOLOGY.

TATSAMAMU, TADBHAVAMU, DE'SYAMU, AND


GEAMYAMU.

Telugu Grammarians have discussed at great length some


points of Etymology which more properly appertain to a Dictionary
or separate philological treatise. The native mode of treating this
subject may be seen in the learned Mr. Ellis's note appended to
the Introduction to Mr. Campbell's Grammar. But the defi
nitions there extracted from Mamadi Vencaya and others, may I
believe, be rendered clear by another mode of statement.
These topics are allowed to retain a place in the grammar, be
cause learned natives are so much addicted to talking on etymo
logy : of which in general, they have no clear notions : I will
merely state enough to solve the riddle : while on the native mode,
this one .theme would occupy a whole volume : I recommend
the reader to pass over the subject entirely, until he has read
some volumes of the poems so as to acquire correct notions on
the matter.
ON TATSAMAMU.
Those Sanscrit words (including proper names) introduced into
Telugu are either unaltered or slightly changed : these are called
SS^sfcSe Tatsamamulu : wherein the termination alone
alters. Thus ^cfi "s usually, $80 personally,
(for
a woman,
(for .^,8) fortune. Thus in English we use odium,
ratio, momentum, Cicero, Venus &c. which are unaltered from a
Latin original.
The termination is considerably altered in many words. Thus
c^ar becomes
and sStfS becomes Oo#3, and % c$S5 becomes

ON TADBHAVAMU.

356

tfo^3. So from traditio, ratio, are formed the English words


tradition, ration.
Feminine nouns ending in long a or i, as %^,
make
those vowels short : thus
Thus in Latin fama and scena
hare short terminations though derived from Greek words ending
in long vowels.
But if these words occur in a Sanscrit compound, the long final
is unchanged. 59-^ becomes
but in a compound phrase,
the long final remains unaltered. Thus 89" V^cposto Panch.
2. 151.
ON TADBHAVAMU.
Words which are much altered are called Tadbhava Otf^sSfw&o
ew. Thus ^Js,
become o,
"Sfl^fo. So from
the Latin traditio, ratio, we form treason, reason.
Some of the Tadbhava words are derived through other lan
guages just as we derive reason, treason &c. from French words
(raison, trahison &c.) originally taken from Latin. So some
Sanscrit words are alleged to be derived through the medium of
the Canada (S^Ssko Canarese or Carnatic) or the Tamil. The
ulterior refinements denominated Sauraseni, Magadhi, Paisachica,
&c. learnedly discussed by Appa Cavi and others seem to be un
known and convey no definite information.
Several instances of the Paisachica &c. with the names of the
dialects specified are given in the preface to the "So2'ftTiJe)SSTs&*
^gsSsD and in the Parvata Puranam as also in the note in Camp
bell's Grammar taken from Dipica.
Learned Telugus are fond of tracing every word in their lan
guage to a Sanscrit root. Thus our older etymologists (as stated
in the Preface to Johnson's Dictionary) attempted to trace every
English word to a Latin root. The Telugu grammarians like
them.
" Delight to chase.
" A panting syllable through time and space"
Considering the meaning of the word unimportant provided any
resemblance can be found in the spelling.

357

ON DESYAMU, GRAMYAMU.
OjNT desyamu.

Desyamu : such words as J6|_tfsS, SS^l,


a horse,
dog. cat, town &c. being aboriginal, like the corresponding words
in English are called the Desya, country dialect, or language of
the land.
One class of these is denominated WjSgTltfoJSa anya-desyamu or
Dialect being local expressions peculiar to the foreign countries.
The following are instances. "3tS>, "&>i&, ^ew, "^SSrto, u&,
-q^S", &

~ Lip, body, milk, curd, place, inroad, a clever

woman, fineness.
Aqca Telugu GtS^TJU!6 ia " Pure Telugu" the name given to
a dialect used more or less in all poems, wherein the author shuns
Sanscrit words : or, if obliged to use them, softens the sound,
changing

Vishnu into "5?%l*> Yennudu, &c.


ON GRAMYAMU.

Another class is called \j^A^aaa Gramyamu, or Rustic being


the colloquial dialect embracing several words of Hindustani and
English origin : such as "^feoo, Natives! This is often used in
the Telugu newspaper with some (as jSJJS'sSm, tSjw^sS}
tSx>} t9%^6iSxi, r,e5^<s.) Such vulgarisms occur, as in Eng
lish, in the most highly admired poems : for instance &i2>,Sij
occurs in the Vasu Charitra. 3. 165.
Appa Cavi and other grammarians delight in such questions : thus
he changes the author of the Telugu naishadham with a rusticisin
in the exordium of that poem. But Livy sallust and Virgil (as
Quintition remarks) have fallen under the same censure : and
we even find Longinus (Chap. XXXI.) blaming Herodotus for
using low language.
Some forms of the noun are held to be rustic, and inadmissible
inverse. Thus # ^ a country, forms tfstojS 5S,
Ttf
'->:, which in the other mode tST'P?, ra^V,

are held

ON SOME ABBREVIATIONS.

358

to be inelegant : yet these " barbarisms" are in daily use and


occur in the best poems.
Some other words (styled %rllS&~iStx>) are coarse and indeli
cate : yet we often hear them used by men of education.
Another class of words is called ]3&"sfcr'>*-e Vaidica, or Clerkly,
scholarlike expressions being affected by the Vaidica bramins: these
are chiefly peculiar in an affected or effeminate lisping pronuncia
tion, wherein s^S^F'^, I go, becomes ir*^fS>or s^tr-r*. These
pretenders to learning are fond of talking about the arddha bindu,
the Sacata Repha and some other refinements, while they are
unable to scan or explain (correctly) a common passage of verse.
But men of sound learning have no such niceness of style and often
indulge in a simplicity or rudeness of dialect such as we meet in
the conversations of Johnson, Burke, or Milner.
ON SOME ABBREVIATIONS.
Though obliged to omit the greater part of the quotations,
I had collected in illustration of this Grammar I have retained
a few which are referred to as follows.
M denotes the Mahabharat: wherein M. 1. 1. 200, is verse
200 of the first aswasam or Canto of the " Adi Parvam" or Pirst
Book. Elsewhere the names are given, in the native mode.
Thus M. Aranya 1. 200 is a reference to Canto 1 of the Aranya
Parvam or Third Book and M Santi 1. 200 or M. XII. 1. 200
refers to the Twelfth Book.
The Mahabharat, the Bhagavat, and the Ramayan are not in
general referred to, among natives, by name. Thus " This occurs
in the Santi Parvam" denotes " This occurs in the twelfth book
of the Mahabharat" or " In the Aranya Parvam" denotes "In
the Third book of the Mahabharat.
Thus of the Ramayan : which is divided into portions called
Candas. " The Aranya Canda" denotes " The Third Book of
the Ramayau."
The Bhagavat is divided into books called by numerical names :
a volume superscribed K$&x> " Dasamam" would in English
style be, The Tenth book of the Bhagavat : and " Uttara
Dasamam" denotes, " The second part of the Tenth Book." The

359

ON EXAMINATION QUESTIONS.

Tenth Book, containing the Life of Krishna is perhaps the most


popular volume in the language. In these titles, the word
" Bhagavat" is omitted.
The eighteen books of the Mahabharat are named 1. Adi Par
vam, 2. Sabha Parvam, 3. Aranya Parvam orVana, P. 4. Virata P.
5. Udyoga, P. 6. Bhishma, P. 7. Drona, P. 8. Carna, P. 9. Salya, P.
10. Sauptica, P. 11. Stri P. 12. Santi P. 13. Anusasanica, P. 14.
Aswamedha, P. 15. Asramavasa, P. 16. Mosala, P. 17. MahaPrasthanica, P. and 18. Swarga Rohana, P.In the Telugu version, the
translators have greatly abridged the story, and setting aside the
original division into W^gcsS sSw (adhyayams) have divided
the whole into sixty-three es-^^sto*) Cantos.
The six books of the Eamayan are called the 1. Bala Canda.
2. Ayodhya Canda, 3. Aranya, C. 4. Kishkindha, C. 5- Sundara C.
6. Yuddha C. This sixth book is in extent equal to the preceding
five. The TJttara Eamayan is a separate poem.
The following Abbreviations are also used.
E being the mark for the Eamayan.
DE is the Dwipada Eamayan.
BR the Bhascara Eamayan.
TJE the Uttara Eamayan.
DEY the Yuddha Canda or Sixth book of the Dwipada Eamayan.
BEB the Bala Canda or first book of the Bhascara Eamayan.

SKETCH OF EXAMINATION QUESTIONS


IN TELUGU GRAMMAR.
CHAPTER I.
Translatsthe following Pages of Reader 1, 10, 20, 25, 30.
I put no questions regarding the Telugu alphabet, spelling,
etymology, sandhi, saral-adesam, Kala, or Druta. Natives when
they examine, delight in distressing students with such matters :
under native tutors some learners have proved expert in these
things : but remained ignorant of all that is useful.
I therefore put few questions regarding the first book.

ON EXAMINATION QUESTIONS.

360

BOOK II.
Describe the declensions.
To which declension do these belong ? ts e j> a son-in-law
a cord (Jfotf&a a book t>o"cp&) a wife 5"t5rajS a clerk s>;Sj&>
the mind <* f|l an elder brother ^r*&. the eye
(6sS"a^ew a grand
daughter frK&>& a belle; state the Genitive and the Plural
of each?
Specify the various classes of the third Declension.
What is the rule regarding Hindustani and other foreign words?
BOOK in.
State the usual pronouns mentioning the Genitive and Plural
forms. Specify the peculiarities of
State any remarks on Adjectives ?
Describe the Adverts and the words thence derived.
Give a few remarks on the semicircle.
BOOK IV.
State the conjugations of verbs with an instance of each : both
regular and irregular.
Can verbs change out of one conjugation into another? give
instances.
State the leading tenses (only 3d person singular) of &*&i>
to go and &ctot> to take out, and
to come.
State the infinitive forms of ^o^)*}) i&t&ij, and Sv&vi>. viz. :
the forms in A, in Adamu, in UTA, in EDI.
Define the causal voice. How do you translate J6l_tStfnf ^
How are Compound tenses formed ?
Define the Aorist, both affirmative, and negative?
Explain
and
Translate these phrases into Telugu.
This is my horse.
This is not his horse.
C. P. Brown's Telugu Grammar.
xx

S61

ON EXAMINATION QUESTIONS.

My horse is here.
His carriage is not here.
He is here.
He is not here.
She is my elder sister.
She is not my younger sister.
He is my elder brother.
He is not my younger brother.
They are our relations.
They are not merchants.
How do you reconcile the phrases W Uzb^^ 'S~i&j ^ro JSb ~5~

BOOK V.
SYNTAX.
Give short explanation of softening initial consonants.
Explain Conjunctions.
Explain the affixes A' E' 0'
Explain the prefixes A' I' E'
BOOK VI.
Describe Telugu and Sanscrit Adjectives?
Explain the Comparative and Superlatives.
State briefly any observations on plurals ?
State the plural form of water?
Is the Nominative ever used for other cases ? For which :
with all nouns ?
Can pronouns do this?
Is the Genitive ever like the Nominative ?
How are nouns and pronouns compounded? as, I am his
brother, &c.
State the various senses of the Dative ?
Can the nominative be used for the accusative?
How would you say bring the horses ?
Can the nominative be used for the Vocative?

ON EXAMINATION QUESTIONS.

362

Describe the Instrumental and Local Ablatives ?


State a few of the rules regarding Proper names?
BOOK VII.
Which verb governs an Accusative, which not ?
Which verbs understand to or from ?
By what Telugu verbs, is the verb to have supplied ? give
instances ?
What does the Passive voice add to the root in A ?
With what verbs, is the Passive voice used with an active
sense ?
What does the verb "*"*iSb deny?
What does the verb ~$&> deny?
Translate the following phrases into Telugu.
There is no road.
He is not my brother.
It was not he who called.
If you bend it thus, is there not pain ?
Decline the infinitive ending in EDI.
What are the plural forms of the middle verbs in KONU
What are the negative forms of the words ~T'SStsSx>} &o2
What are the verbs ,that admit * or ^ at pleasure?
From what verb are the words rrf,
OvZ derived?
By adding what, is the middle voice formed?
BOOK VIII.
By adding what verb to the root in A of another verb, are
the passive verb and participles formed?
How do you form the Present, Past, and Negative participles
of the verb ~|i> ?
With what letter does the Relative Aorist participle terminate?
give some instances.

3G3

ON EXAMINATION QUESTIONS.

By adding what to the root in A, is the Negative participle


formed ? give some instances.
By adding what to the root, is the Negative Belative Parti
ciple formed?
Can you give some instances ?
How do you form the Conditional Aorist of the verb S"0S
to bite?
Give the Singular and Plural forms of the Imperative of the
verb ^cSmj .
BOOK IX.
What would be the third person singular Aorist of the verbs
What is the third person singular present tense of the verb
5$?5^*j ?
What is the first person, singular future tense of the verbs
^3^4j, 8\^*j ?
BOOK X.
Add the auxiliary verb 3s64j3 Scs&ia, or S^^a*3, to the root
of some other verbs.
Could you reiterate the adjectives sfcoS, &|5^, or ~g with a
noun at the end?
The Questions may easily be extended.

THE END.