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GAMES:

A TRIGGER TO
C O N V E R S AT I O N P R A C T I C E
ALINE MORAES DE CARVALHO
JESSICA NUNES CALDEIRA CUNHA
M A RG A RE T M A R I E PA L M E R

SUMMARY
1. Definition of Games
2. Types of Language Games
3. Game I Who am I? / Game II Colorful Questions /Game III Thw WH
dice
4. Why are Games a Good Idea in an English Class?
5. What should we consider when planning a game?
6. Challenges
7. Game IV Truth or Dare? / Game V Fortune Teller / Game VI Board Games
8. Questions

WHAT ARE
GAMES?

WHAT ARE GAMES?


A game is a system in which players engage in
an artificial conflict, defined by rules, that results
in a quantifiable outcome.
(Salen & Zimmerman, 2003)

WHAT ARE GAMES?

A way of behaving in play, which conforms to a pattern and is


governed by a set of rules. It includes a challenge against either
a task or an opponent.
(Hunt and Cain, 1950)

WHAT ARE GAMES?


form of play governed by rules. (Rixon, 1991)
an activity with rules, a goal and an element of fun. (Hadfield,
1990)
Games are an agreeable way of getting a class to use its initiative
in English. (Haycraft, 1978)

games are activities carried out by cooperating or competing


decision makers, seeking to achieve, within a set of rules, their
objectives. (Gibbs, 1978)
(apud. YOLAGELDL; ARIKAN, 2011)

T YPES OF
L ANGUAGE
GAMES

TYPES OF LANGUAGE GAMES


COMMUNICATIVE: focus on successful communication not on grammatical
accuracy, output is unprescribed (e.g., narrations, descriptions, requests,
etc.)
PRE-COMMUNICATIVE: focus on accuracy and correctness, development of
syntactic patterns, output is close-ended

COOPERATIVE: players work together towards a common goal


COMPETITIVE: players work competing against each other
(LITTLEWOOD, 1981; HADFIELD, 1996)

GAME I

WHO AM I?

INSTRUCTIONS
Ask students to sit in pairs or very small groups;
Place the card with a famous person/character on each students
forehead;

Tell students they are supposed to guess who they are by asking yes or
no questions to check nationality, physical appearance, occupation, etc.;
Cards include: actor/actress, singer, tv host, journalist, politician, soccer
player, scientist, cartoon character (superhero, animal) and folklore
character.

POST-GAME QUESTIONS
1. How would you classify this game?
2. What is the purpose of the game?
3. What is a good audience for this game?
4. What are some adaptations that can be made?

GAME II

COLORFUL QUESTIONS

INSTRUCTIONS
Ask students to sit in a circle or around a table;
Give each student a plastic cup with candies;

Tell students they will get one candy and, according to its colour, they
must pick a card with a question and answer it;
They will take turns getting the candies and answering the questions.

POST-GAME QUESTIONS
1. How would you classify this game?
2. What is the purpose of the game?
3. What is a good audience for this game?
4. What are some adaptations that can be made?

GAME III

THE WH DICE

INSTRUCTIONS
One student rolls the dice;
According to the result, he/she must make a question to the
person who is sitting right after him/her;
Students take turns making and answering questions

POST-GAME QUESTIONS
1. How would you classify this game?
2. What is the purpose of the game?
3. What is a good audience for this game?
4. What are some adaptations that can be made?

WHY ARE GAMES


A GOOD IDEA IN
AN ENGLISH
CLASS?

WHY ARE GAMES A GOOD IDEA?


C R E AT E C O N T E X T F O R
M E A N I N G F U L C O M M U N I C AT I O N

ADD INTEREST

(SIMPSON, 2015)

WHY ARE GAMES A GOOD IDEA?


CAN BE USED WITH ALL SKILLS

OFFER A FUN EXPERIENCE

(SIMPSON, 2015)

WHY ARE GAMES A GOOD IDEA?


E N C O U R AG E PA RT I C I PAT I O N F R O M
ALL LEARNERS

ARE LEARNER-CENTERED

(SIMPSON, 2015)

WHY ARE GAMES A GOOD IDEA?


P R O M OT E C O O P E R AT I V E L E A R N I N G

F I T I N TO M U LT I P L E I N T E L L I G E N C E
T H E O RY

(SIMPSON, 2015)

BENEFITS
AFFECTIVE

COGNITIVE

games lower the affective filter

games reinforce learning

they encourage creative and


spontaneous use of language

they both review and extend learning

they also promote communicative


competence

games focus on grammar in a


communicative manner

games are both motivating and fun

(LENGELING; MALARCHER, 1997)

BENEFITS
CL ASS DYNAMICS

A DA P TA B I L I T Y

games are extremely student centered


the teacher acts only as facilitator

games can be easily adjusted for age,


level, and interests

games build class cohesion

they utilize all four skills

they can foster whole class


participation

games require minimum preparation


after the initial development stage

games promote healthy competition


(LENGELING; MALARCHER, 1997)

W H AT S H O U L D
WE CONSIDER
WHEN PLANNING
A GAME?

PURPOSE
MAKE AIMS CLEAR

LEVEL
ANXIETY

ESSENTIAL OR MARGINAL
MEANINGFULNESS

COMPETITION
FREQUENCY

CHALLENGES

1. STUDENTS WILLINGNESS TO PARTICIPATE


Age
Level
Personality
Lack of comprehension of the purpose of the activity
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

EMBARRASSMENT
UNHEALTHY COMPETITION
REWARDS
NUMBER OF STUDENTS
SIZE AND ARRANGEMENT OF THE ROOM

GAME IV

TRUTH OR DARE?

INSTRUCTIONS
Ask students to sit together;
Tell students they will roll the dice;

According to the result, they must pick the corresponding card and
answer or do what is written on it;
Students take turns rolling the dice.

POST-GAME QUESTIONS
1. How would you classify this game?
2. What is the purpose of the game?
3. What is a good audience for this game?
4. What are some adaptations that can be made?

5. What problems could happen during this activity? How can


the teacher be prepared?

GAME V

FORTUNE TELLER

INSTRUCTIONS
Place students in small groups;
Give them a set of tarot cards;

Tell students they will predict their classmates future according to what
they see on the cards;
Predictions can be literal or more subjective;

Students are supposed to use the future tenses and expressions of


probability.

POST-GAME QUESTIONS
1. How would you classify this game?
2. What is the purpose of the game?
3. What is a good audience for this game?
4. What are some adaptations that can be made?

GAME VI

BOARD GAMES

INSTRUCTIONS
Ask students to sit together;
Ask each one to take a small object to represent them while moving
through the board game (it is going to work as their game piece);
Tell students they will roll the dice, move on the board game according
to the number they get, and answer the question on the space they
stop.

POST-GAME QUESTIONS
1. How would you classify this game?
2. What is the purpose of the game?
3. What is a good audience for this game?
4. What are some adaptations that can be made?

CONCLUSION
Games are important because they have certain features in common
with real communicative events-there is a purpose to the exchange.
(Larsen-Freeman, 2002)

* Suitability & Frequency.

QUESTIONS?

THANK YOU VERY


MUCH!
alinecarvalho.tur@gmail.com
jessicancc@gmail.com

maggiempalmer@gmail.com

REFERENCES
AL-NAFISAH, K. I. Utilization of Instructional Games in EFL Teaching: A Case Study of Saudi
Intermediate Schools. Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy
Studies, vol. 3, n.1, 2012.
HADFIELD, J. Elementary communication games: A collection of games and activities for
elementary students of English. England: Wesley Longman, 1996.
HUNT, S. E., & CAIN, E. Games - the world around: Four hundred folk games. New York: A.
S. Barnes Com, 1950.
LARSEN-FREEMAN, D. Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching. Oxford University
Press, 2002.
LITTLEWOOD, W. Communicative language teaching. Cambridge. Cambridge University
Press, 1981.

REFERENCES
LENGELING. M. M.; MALARCHER, C. Index Cards: A Natural Resource for Teachers. 'Forum' Vol. 35 No 4,
1997.
REZAPANAH, F.; HAMIDI, H. Investigating the Effects of Word Games on Iranian EFL Learners Application
of the Words in Writing Paragraph Essays. International Journal of Applied Linguistics & English Literature,
vol. 2, n. 1, January 2013.
SALEN, K.; ZIMMERMAN, E. Rules of Play: Game Design Fundamentals. The MIT Press, 2003.
SIMPSON, A. Using Games in the Language Classroom. Available at:
http://www.teachthemenglish.com/2015/03/14/free-e-book-using-games-in-the-language-classroom/.
2015.
VAHDAT, S.; BEHBAHANI, A. R. The Effect of Video Games on Iranian EFL Learners Vocabulary Learning.
The Reading Matrix, vol. 13, n. 1, April 2013.
YOLAGELDL, G.; ARIKAN, A. Effectiveness of Using Games in Teaching Grammar to Young Learners.
Elementary Education Online, v. 10, n. 1, 2011.
ZOLNIER, M. C.A. P. Jogos nas Aulas de Ingls. (no prelo)