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Fill all of the question as follow , complete it all question with systematic and structured your
1. Arrester is one of the important system protective relaying , to maintain the reliabilty and
sustainability need another support of system protective in the transmission line. Give a
description , chart of all system which a equipment is a main role and function to reduce and
avoid from over current and power loss?

1. There are several equipment in order to protect transmission line from overcurrents
and power losses, i.e.,
a. Fuse
Fuses are the oldest protective device which can prevent line from overcurrent
fault. Fuses allow normal current to flow, but it will melt if current flow
exceed a certain magnitude for a certain amount of time, thus it will breaking
the circuit and protect the line.

Fig. 1. Current and Time Characteristic of Fuse

b. Overcurrent Relay
Overcurrent relay is a device which can detect a certain value of current in a
system by using current transformer. OCR has two setting, the time setting
which decide operating time of relay and plug setting which decide the value
of current when relay should operate. There are three type of overcurrent relay,
1) Instantenous Relay
This relay will operate with no intentional time delay when a certain
value of current exceed its setting value. This relay need a certain
amunt of time to operate, such as 10ms to 20ms.


Fig, 2. Instantenous Relay Characteristic

2) Definite-Time Relay
A definite time over-current relay can be adjusted to issue a trip output
at a definite (and adjustable) amount of time, after it picks up. Thus, it
has a time-setting adjustment and pick-up adjustment. Characteristic
and the block diagram are shown in figure below.

Fig. 3. Definite-Time Relay Characteristic

3) Inverse Relay
The characteristic is inverse in the initial part, which tends to a definite
minimum operating time as the current becomes very high. The reason
for the operating time becoming definite minimum, at high values of
current, is that in the electromechanical relays the flux saturates at high
values of current and the relay operating torque, which is proportional
to the square of the flux, does not increase substantially after the
saturation sets in. There are three kind of invers overcurrent relay, i.e.
Standart invers
Very inverse
Extremely inverse


Fig. 4. Inverse Relay Characteritic

c. Differential Relay
Differential protection is based on the fact that any fault within an electrical
equipment would cause the current entering it, to be different, from that
leaving it. Thus, we can compare the two currents either in magnitude or in
phase or both and issue a trip output if the difference exceeds a predetermined
set value

Fig. 5. Wiring of Differential Relay

In other case, to reduce power losses in a transmission line, we can use such a large
conductor, thus the impedance will be lower, hence the power losses will reduce. Or,
by using multiple line in a transmission system, thus because of its configuration, the
total impedance will be lower, hence the power losses will be reduce.