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RISK ASSESSMENT ON COMBINED CYCLE POWER PLANT

MECHANICAL MAINTENANCE

HAWFORD HAROLD SINPONG

Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka

SUPERVISOR DECLARATION

I hereby declare that I have read this thesis and in my opinion this report is
sufficient in terms of scope and quality for the award of the degree of Bachelor of
Mechanical Engineering (Plant and Maintenance)

Signature :

..

Supervisor : DR. ABDUL MUNIR HIDAYAT SYAH LUBIS


Date:

..

RISK ASSESSMENT ON COMBINED CYCLE POWER PLANT MECHANICAL


MAINTENANANCE

HAWFORD HAROLD SINPONG

This report is submitted in partial fulfilment of requirement for Degree of Bachelor


of Mechanical Engineering (Plant and Maintenance)

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering


University Teknikal Malaysia Melaka

JUNE 2015

DECLARATION

I hereby declare that the work in this report is my own except for summaries and
quotation which have been duly acknowledge.

Signature

: ..

Author

: HAWFORD HAROLD SINPONG

Date

: ..

I dedicate my final year project to my beloved parent, Mr Harold Sinpong for his
encouragement, support and undesired love throughout my study.

ii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Special thanks dedicated to all individual that helped directly or in directly


on accomplishing my Final Year Project.
My heartfelt thanks to my supervisor Dr. Abdul Munir Hidayat Syah Lubis for
giving me an opportunity to be taken under his brilliant guidance in preparing my
Final Year Project report. My sincere gratitude to Dr. Nona Merry Merpati Mintan
as my academic advisor whom given me a lot of advices throughout my study at the
university. In addition, a special appreciation to Mr. Charlie Oliver (Head of
Mechanical) and also to Mr.Abdul Hanif Mohd Helmi@Carl (Mechanical
Engineer) for guiding and assist me during my site visit at the combined cycle
power plant. Lastly, to my friend and family, thank you for the encouragement.

iii

ABSTRACT

This study is subjected to investigate risk and hazard exposed by employee of


mechanical maintenance department at the combined cycle power plant as well as
to assess risk probability and to study risk management of boiler, gas turbine and
water treatment plant maintenance activities at Kota Kinabalu Industrial Park
(KKIP), Sabah. The assessment was conducted based on HIRARC method which
typically used to identify hazards that will cause a threat to the operation and
maintenance of the plant. Three main stations were chosen for the study site in the
combined cycle power plant which were the boiler, gas turbine and water
treatment plant stations. Risk and hazard were determined based on these three
stations during the maintenance activities. The survey was conducted by work place
inspection scheme method that including interview, task observation, reviewing
standard operation procedure (SOP) as well as accident and incident investigation.
The hazards identification was analysed through risk evaluation based on likelihood
and severity of the hazards. A total of thirty-one hazards were identified in the
combined cycle power plant at the three stations maintenance activities. The data
acquired was summarized and categorized into three levels which were high,
medium and low risks. Generally, 6% of the hazards identified were at low risk,
84% at medium and 10 % at high risk. In addition, 88.2% of the hazards were at
medium risk at the gas-turbine station as well as at the boiler and water treatment
plant stations with 85.7% and 71.4% of the hazards were at medium risk. From the
results, the preventive or control measure such as elimination, substitution,
engineering and administrative control as well as personal protective equipment
(PPE) were recommended.

iv

ABSTRAK

Kajian ini adalah untuk mengkaji risiko dan bahaya terdedah oleh pekerja jabatan
penyelenggaraan mekanikal di loji kuasa kitaran gabungan dan juga untuk menilai
kebarangkalian risiko dan mengkaji pengurusan risiko aktiviti penyelenggaraan di
stesen dandang, turbin gas dan loji rawatan air di Taman Perindustrian Kota
Kinabalu (KKIP), Sabah. Penilaian ini dijalankan berdasarkan kaedah HIRARC
yang biasanya digunakan untuk mengenal pasti bahaya yang akan menyebabkan
ancaman kepada operasi dan penyelenggaraan loji tersebut. Tiga stesen utama telah
dipilih untuk dijadikan tapak kajian di loji kuasa kitaran gabungan iaitu stesen
dandang, gas - turbin dan loji rawatan air. Risiko dan bahaya akan dikaji
berdasarkan ketiga-tiga stesen ini semasa aktiviti penyelenggaraan. Kajian itu
dijalankan oleh dengan menggunakan kaedah pemeriksaan tempat kerja termasuk
temu bual, pemantauan kerja, mengkaji prosedur operasi sederhana (SOP) serta
mengkaji rekod kemalangan dan kejadian. Pengenalpastian bahaya dianalisis
melalui penilaian risiko berdasarkan kemungkinan dan tahap bahaya. Sebanyak tiga
puluh satu bahaya telah dikenal pasti di dalam loji kuasa kitaran gabungan pada
ketiga-tiga aktiviti penyelenggaraan di stesen tersebut. Data yang diperolehi telah
diringkaskan dan dikategorikan kepada tiga peringkat iaitu berisiko tinggi,
sederhana dan rendah. Secara umumnya, 6% daripada hazard yang dikenal pasti
berisiko rendah, 84% pada sederhana dan 10% berisiko tinggi. Di samping itu,
88.2% daripada bahaya di stesen gas turbin adalah berisiko sederhana, pada stesen
dandang dan loji rawatan air dengan 85.7% dan 71.4% juga adalah bahaya berisiko
sederhana. Daripada keputusan, langkah pencegahan atau kawalan seperti
penghapusan, penggantian, kawalan kejuruteraan dan pentadbiran serta peralatan
perlindungan peribadi (PPE) telah disyorkan.

TABLE OF CONTENT

CONTENT

PAGE

DECLARATION

DEDICATION

ii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

iii

ABSTRACT

iv

ABSTRAK

TABLE OF CONTENT

vi

LIST OF TABLES

ix

LIST OF FIGURES

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

xi

LIST OF APPENDIX

xii

SUMMARY

xiii

CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION
1.1

Study Background

1.2

Problem Statement

1.3

Objective

1.4

Scope

CHAPTER II : LITERATURE REVIEW


2.1

Introduction to Risk Assessment

2.1.1

Purpose of Risk Assessment

2.1.2

Risk Assessments Elements

2.1.2.1 Classification of Work Activities

2.1.2.2 Hazard Identification

vi

2.2

2.3

2.4

Building and Planning of Risk Assessment

10

2.2.1

Risk Assessment Process

11

2.2.2

Likelihood of Occurrence

14

2.2.3

Severity of Hazard

15

2.2.4

Risk Matrix

15

Risk Control, Risk Treatment or Preventive Control Measures

17

2.3.1

Selecting a Suitable Control

18

2.3.2

Hierarchy of Control

19

Type of Control

20

2.4.1

Risk Control at the Source of Hazard

20

2.4.2

Engineering Control

20

2.4.2.1 Process Control

21

2.4.2.2 Enclosure and Isolation

22

2.4.2.3 Ventilation

23

2.4.3

Administrative Control

23

2.4.4

Personal Protective Equipment

26

CHAPTER III: METHODOLOGY


3.1

Flow of Study

27

3.2

Survey Methods

28

3.3

Data Collection and Analysis

28

3.3.1

Hazard Identification

30

3.3.2

Risk Assessment using HIRARC Model

30

3.3.2.1 Likelihood, Severity and Risk Matrix


3.3.3

Risk Control

30
33

CHAPTER IV: RESULT AND DISCUSSION


4.1

Introduction

34

4.2

Risk Assessment Process

36

4.3

Implementation of Risk Control

42

4.3.1

HRSG (Boiler)

42

4.32

Gas Turbine

48

4.3.3

Water Treatment Plant (WTP)

63

vii

CHAPTER V : CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION


5.1

Conclusion

68

5.2

Recommendation

69

REFFERENCES

70

APPENDIX I

73

APPENDIX II

74

APPENDIX III

75

viii

LIST OF TABLES

NO

TITLE

PAGE

2.1

Likelihood Scale

14

2.2

Likelihood Scale

14

2.3

Severity of the Hazard

15

2.4

Risk Matrix

16

3.1

Likelihood Values in Hazard Identification

31

3.2

Severity Values in Hazard Identification

32

3.3

Risk Matrix Table

32

3.4

Elaboration of the Risk Level

32

4.1

Risk Matrix Table

37

4.2

Elaboration of the Risk Level

37

4.3

Hazards and the level of risk at WTP station maintenance

38

activities
4.4

Hazards and the level of risk at Boiler (HRSG) station

39

maintenance activities
4.5

Hazards and the level of risk at gas turbine station

40

maintenance activities
4.6

HIRARC form sheet for HRSG station

44

4.7

HIRARC form sheet for Gas Turbine station

50

4.8

HIRARC form sheet for Gas Turbine station

56

4.9

HIRARC form sheet at Water Treatment Plant

64

4.10

HIRARC form sheet at Water Treatment Plant

65

ix

LIST OF FIGURES

NO

TITLE

PAGE

2.1

Risk Management Process

2.2

Element in Conducting Risk Assessment

2.3

Content of Risk Assessment

10

2.4

Control Hierarchy Principle

19

2.5

Glove Box and Abrasive Blasting Cabinet

22

2.6

Ventilation System

23

2.7

Earmuff and Full Body Suit

26

2.8

Respirator

26

3.1

Flow Chart of Study

29

4.1

Illustration of the plan layout of modal of the power plant

35

4.2

Water Treatment Plant (Blue Roof Top)

35

4.3

HRSG (boiler) and Gas turbine deck

36

4.4

Percentage of risk levels of the maintenance activity

41

4.5

Percentage of risk levels according to station

41

4.6

Visual Inspection in boiler

47

4.7

Borescope Inspection and removing the insulator

48

4.8

Maintenance job in boiler

48

4.9

Rigging procedure of gas turbine rotor

58

4.10

Gas turbine rotor lifting using crane

59

4.11

Gas turbine rotor lifting to the gas turbine deck

60

4.12

Service and cleaning of the gas turbine rotor

60

4.13

Gas turbine main air inlet filter replacement/reinstallation

61

4.14

Inspection of the filter house

62

4.15

Repairing fiber in neutralized pit

67

4.16

Inside of the tank or vessel

67

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

DOSH

Department of Occupational Safety and Health, Malaysia

OSHA

Occupational Safety and Health Administrative

HIRARC

Hazard Identification, Risk Assessment, and Risk Control

HSE

Health and Safety Executive

PPE

Personal Protection Equipment

BIS

Bureau of India Standard

IS

Irish Standard

PSC

Public Safety Canada

CCOHS

Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety

ISO

International Standard Organization

SOP

Standard Operating Procedure

WTP

Water Treatment Plant

PTW

Permit to Work

HRSG

Heat Recovery Steam Generator

FMA

Factories and Machinery Act

xi

LIST OF APPENDIX

NO

TITLE

PAGE

Gant Chart for PSM I

71

II

Gant Chart for PSM II

72

III

HIRARC Form Sheet

73

xii

SUMMARY

Chapter I briefly elaborate background of study regarding the problem statements,


objectives of the study and lastly the scope related. The end result of the study is to
cover all the objective and scope mentioned as well as to solve the problem stated.

In chapter II, the related literatures are reviewed for better understanding towards the
study. The information gathered in this chapter was used to generate theory to
achieve the objectives of this project.

In chapter III, the flow and methods of study were explained. This also included on
how the data was collected through the survey and the method to use during the
survey. In the same time, the steps for HIRARC and risk evaluation also explained
briefly in the chapter.

Chapter IV presenting the finding of the research of risk assessment on combined


cycle power plant mechanical maintenance activities. The evaluation of the gathered
results shows the risks in maintenance activities and the control measures taken for
each activity.

Chapter V concluded the finding and recommendation towards the study conducted
on risk assessment at combined cycle power plant maintenance activities based on
the objectives of the study.

xiii

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

1.1

Study Background

Combined cycle plant for power generation is a plant that converting the
energy in natural gas/fuel into electrical power involves the creation of mechanical
work which is then transformed into electric power by a generator. The term
combined cycle referred to the multiple combination of thermodynamics cycle to
generate electricity. In Malaysia, combined cycle power plant has been the common
ways of generating electricity beside hydroelectric power generation and coal power
generation plants.

Power plants are much safer than they once were; however, employees still
encounter hazards. In order to operate without a threat to the employee and the
environment, it is undeniably essential to have a safety management system (SMS)
for a power plant. In concern with this, a strategy involving the identification and
evaluation of major hazards is essential in order to obtain and implement steps for
identifying risk elements during operation and maintenance as well as to predict their
likelihood and severity. The safety management system includes choosing risk
analysis methods and their outcomes in terms of frequency of occurrence and extent
of consequences (A.M. Saedi et al, 2014).

There are many formal techniques for the systematic analysis of occupational safety
and health in general, and risk analysis in particular for combine cycle power plant
(A.M. Saedi et al, 2014). One of the techniques is risk assessment. Risk assessment is
1

a form of documentation written to express an organizations dedication to employee


health, wellbeing and safety. It is the most common ways of ensuring a proper
workplace environment and to access the nature of risks and hazards in the
workplace.

The method chosen to conduct the risk assessment is the HIRARC model. Hazard
identification, risk assessment and risk control or HIRARC is a process in accessing
the risk as well as to determine the level of hazard and risk assessment in accordance
with Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA, 1994) for employer to provide a
safe workplace to employees under the responsibility of the employer (DOSH, 2008).

1.2

Problem Statement

Risk assessment is used for risk management decision to ensure the hazards
present in the plant industry are reduced or eliminated if possible, so that the risk
itself also deducted. However, this assessment was not conducted by all companies.
Study was conducted at an Independent Power Plant (IPP) in Sabah. Currently, this
company is the largest IPP in Sabah with total generating capacity of 380MW of
electricity by using two gas-fired combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) power plant
and contributed 43% to the maximum load demand to the Sabah grid. Maintenance
operation has occasionally being done, but there were no risk assessment has been
documented for this operation.

1.3

Objectives

This study is performed to conduct risk assessment in combined cycle power plant
industry to ensure risk exposed to the employee is reduced and threated during
operation and maintenance activities. Main objectives of the study are:
I.

To investigate risk and hazard exposed by employee of mechanical


maintenance department at the combined cycle power plant.

II.

To assess risk probability at boiler, gas turbine and water treatment plant
during maintenance.

III.

To study risk management of boiler, gas turbine and water treatment plant
maintenance.

1.4

Scope

The study focused on the accessed hazards exposed to the employee of mechanical
maintenance department during maintenance work in the combined cycle power
plant through systematic identification and documentation of the major hazard. The
study was done using Hazard Identification, Risk Assessment and Risk Control
(HIRARC) worksheet based on the information supplied or relevant experience from
the combined cycle power plant employee. In addition, the management of risks and
hazards was conducted by choosing the most reasonable preventive measures
through a rational judgement and modification of existing preventive measures
(control measure). The study was conducted to assess risk at certain station in the
power plant which is the boiler, gas turbine and water treatment plant.

CHAPTER II

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1

Introduction to Risk assessment

In the past several decades, power plant owners and industry in general have
been vastly improved employee safety (Hansen. T, 2005). Although power plant
safety is consider safer compare to a few decades ago, plant employee still encounter
numerous hazards. Thus, it is up to employers to implement program or policies
aimed to eliminate the hazards to reduce risks faces by the employee. Risk
assessment is a practice or program that changes the working practice of the
employees. It has become fundamental to the practice of planning, management and
the operation of a business as a basic of risk management (DOSH, 2008). Ongoing
hazard monitoring and effective control measures are essential to ensure that
improvement in occupational safety and health is continued (Smith, 2010). Through
risk assessment, employer can ensure that the hazard exposed by the employee is
reduced or perhaps the risk of causes by the hazard is controllable.

Risk assessment means the process of evaluating the risk to safety and health
arising from hazards at work. Risk assessment is the part of risk management. To be
exact, it is the second stage of the procedure towards risk management. Risk
management is basically the overall procedure correlated to identification of risk,
risk accessing, adapted control measure and the outcomes of it (DOSH, 2008).
Several common terms are defined below (Fred A. M, 2005):

Hazards are defined as the potential for harm. The dual nature of hazards must
be understood. Hazards include any aspect of technology or activity that
produces risk. Hazards include the characteristics of things and the actions or in
actions of people.

Risk is defined as a combination of the probability of a hazard-related incident


occurring and the severity of harm or damage that could result.

Probability is defined as the likelihood of a hazard being realized and initiating


an incident or series of incidents that could result in harm or damage for the
selected unit of time, events, population, items or activity being considered.

Severity is defined as the extent of harm or damage that could result from
hazard-related incident.

Figure 2.1: Risk Management Process (Source: British American Tobacco, Malaysia,
2014)

2.1.1

Purpose of Risk Assessment

Although risk assessment will not prevent any unwanted accidents, but it plays a
very crucial part in minimize the likelihood of the risk to be happened (Fred A. M,
2005). Risk assessment is legally required from an ethical perspective, the main
reason this assessment is carried out is to prevent or make sure that employee is not
killed, injured or become ill at the workplace.

Risk assessment also forms an integral part of a good occupational health and safety
management plan (DOSH, 2008).That helps to:

Create awareness of hazards and risks in workplace

Identify who may be at risk

Determine and modified the control measures

Prioritize hazards and control measures

Problems related to the hazards and risks in the industry are:

Maintenance activities risks associated with hazards that can cause injuries
such as accidents, health problem and other problem related to physical
hazards. Hazard is the major causes of the risks.

Exposure to long period of hazard area can resulted to decrease in working


performance, motivation and efficiency of the worker.

Occupational injuries and illness not only impact on safety and health but also
economics due to high costs related with work injuries (Pinto et al., 2011).
Therefore, the company needs to spend a lot on medical expenses to the
workers.

Occupational injuries of the employee will lead to production loss of the


industry due to lack of manpower for the maintenance job that may cause a
certain work related to maintenance is delayed.

2.1.2

Risk Assessments Elements

In conducting risk assessment, there are general elements that should be followed
based on International Organization of Standardization (ISO) which is the ISO
31000:2009 version. The Figure 2.2 below shows the elements in risk assessment
based on DOSH, Malaysia HIRARC guidelines which adapt ISO 3100.

Classify work activities


Employer Representative

Consultation

Worker Representative

Identify Hazards
Risk Assessment
Prepare Risk control
Implement

Figure 2.2: Elements in conducting Risk Assessment (DOSH, 2008).

2.1.2.1 Classification of Work Activities

In the beginning of risk assessment procedure, recorded activities of the employees


in concerned should be reviewed. From the survey, determination of either the tasks
or activities done is risky or not can be evaluated. The work activities can be
classified according to their similarity, for example:

Geographical area of the working station in power plant

Process flow of the production and maintenance.

Define tasks related to the work such as lifting, assembling, etc.

2.1.2.2 Hazard Identification

Hazard can be assigned as something that may cause potential harm or damage,
potential harm that contribute to any accident or mishap. Hazard can also assigned as
anything that can directly produce risks either action/inaction of people or
characteristic of things.
Hazard identification served the purpose of emphasizing the critical operations of
tasks or activities that possess significant risks to the health and safety of employee
or any related individual. In the same time, it also identify those hazards belong to
certain equipment due to energy sources, working conditions or activities performed
(DOSH, 2008).
Generally, hazards can be categorized into three major groups which are health
hazards, safety hazards and lastly environmental hazards.

i.

Health hazards

Health hazards defined as any agent that can lead to illness to an individual. It
may produce serious and immediate affects, or even lead to chronic problems
which affected all or certain part of the body. Someone with a job-related
illness may not notice the symptoms immediately. For example, noise-induced
hearing loss is often difficult for the affected individual to detect until it is well
advanced.
Heath related hazards itself can be divided into four groups which are
chemicals, biological, physical agents and lastly ergonomic.

Chemical Hazards substances in any forms of solid, liquid or gas


elements, compound or mixture that pose a wide range of health hazards
(such as irritation, sensitization, and carcinogenicity). Example: Battery
acid, solvents. Etc.