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18 Jul 2010

Colloquial

Greek
The Complete Course
for Beginners
Second Edition
Niki Watts

I ?!;nu

ONDON AND YORK

First edition published 1994


by Routledge
2 Park Square, Milton Park, Oxon, 14 4RN
Simultaneously published n the USA and Canada
by Routledge
270 Madison Ave, New York, 10016
Reprinted 1 995 , 1 997
Reprinted with corrections 1 998, 2000, 2001 , 2002
Second edition published 2004 by Routledge
Reprinted, 2005
Routledge is an imprint / the Taylor & Francis Group
2004 Niki Watts
Typeset n Times by
Florence Production Ltd, Stoodleigh, Devon
Printed and bound n Great Britain by
] International Ltd, Padstow, Cornwall
All rights reserved. part this book may be reprinted or
reproduced or utilised n any form or by any electronic,
mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented,
including photocopying and recording, or n any information
storage or retrieval system, without permission n writing from
the publishers.
British Library Cataloguing in Publction Data
catalogue record for this book is available from the
British Library
Library / Congress Cataloging in Publication Data
catalog record for this book has been requested
ISBN 0-415-32514-5
0-415-325 12-9
0-415-325 1 1 -0
0-415-325 13-7

( Book )
( CDs )
( Cassettes )
( Pack )

would like to thank Quentin Watts, Tina Lendari and Aglaia


Kasdagli for reading the book and for their helpful suggestions.
would also like to thank Richard Watts, whose computer expertise
was invaluable n the compilation of the Glossaries and the refer
ence sections of the book.
Niki Watts


Colloquial Greek

... !

Welcome to
Colloquial Greek
We hope you will enjoy it.

Contents

Preface
Suggestions for further reading
First steps
1 Reading and spea king Greek

1
7

2 Meeting people

20

3 Travel

33

4 The fa m ily

48

5 Entertainment

69

6 ...

86

Once n a time . . .

105

Have a good holiday

122

The world of business

142

Buy Greek

10

friend and a stranger

160

1 1 . ..

1 76

Get better soon

1 2 .. .

1 92

hea1thy mind . . .

1 3

208

Time is money

1 4 !

226

The lion's share!

1 5

241

1 6

259

Epilogue
Key to exercises
Greek-English g lossary
English-Greek glossary
Grammar index

277
279
328
348
354

Preface

Colloquial Greek has been written with the aim of helping the
student to learn Modern Greek through a balanced provision of
material which, inevitably, makes use of grammar order to
explain the intricacies of the language but without putting undue
emphasis grammatical jargon.
From the very beginning, the intention has been to provide a
clear explanation of the basic structures of the language, plenty of
examples to illustrate these structures, dialogues and narrative to
reinforce and exercises to help the student consolidate what has
been introduced.
The elements of the written and the spoken language are neatly
interwoven together through the combination of the book and the
audio material. The latter contains most of the dialogues and narra
tives the book and offers an excellent opportunity to listen care
fully and repeatedly to the native speakers guiding you smoothly
through Modern Greek pronunciation. Please, remember that a
language can best be learned through continuous repetition and
practice, and the dialogues and narratives the book provide
ample opportunity for this, further reinforced by the audio material.
With its clear explanations, ample exercises and key to exercises,
Colloquial Greek caters for the student learning the language
his or her own. However, view of the numbers of students
who have the opportunity to learn the language with the aid of a
teacher, exercises which offer the additional challenge of freer self
expression have also been provided.
The principle of discovery, widely used formal education,
has also been implemented sparingly by guiding students towards
discovering things for themselves as well as towards developing
techniques to tackle new structures and words when confronted
with them.

Every effort has been made to use authentic material wherever


possible and to cater for a wide range of interests. While not
neglecting the practical aspects, the reading material has been care
fully chosen to inform the student about things Greek general,
from Greek food and wine to Greek traditions.
Practical matters are the first concern when learning a language:
how to ask for things, how to change travellers' cheques, how to
reserve a room at an hotel. Increasingly challenging subjects are
tackled as the student acquires more confidence the language:
the landscape, the antiquities present every corner of Greece,
history, poetry and religion.
During this journey through the Greek language, do not forget
that the more exciting the journey the more adventure you will
encounter and the more persistence you will need. Take it easy,
stages, move at your own pace and repeat things when you need to,
not only when you are asked to.
the words of one of the best-known Greek poets, C. . Cavafy:
Pry tht your journey be long,
tht there my be mny summer mornings
when with wht joy, wht delight
you will enter hrbours you hve not seen before.
' .

,
.

Suggestions for
further reading

At various points n Colloquil Greek you wil1 find a recommen


dation that, should you wish further explanation, you might like to
consult a Greek dictionary or a Greek grammar. Being painful1y
aware how limited the choice both is, we hope that you wil1
find a few suggestions helpful.

Dictionaries
Any reasonably recent pocket dictionary (published n a new,
revised edition after 1982). The fol1owing are al1 short dictionaries
intended for general use. They offer Greek to English and English
to Greek sections.
Oxford University Press, Oxford Lerner's Pocket Dictionry,
D. . Stavropoulos, 1990
Oxford University Press, Oxford Greek Minidictionry, Niki
Watts, 1997, revised n 2002
Oxford University Press, Oxford Pperbck Greek Dictionry,
Niki Watts, 1997
The fol1owing two volumes are particularly useful as they give many
examples usage Greek and English words, although the first
the two has not had its accentuation or spel1ing updated.
Oxford University Press, Oxford English-Greek Lerner's
Dictionry, 1977
Oxford University Press, Oxford Greek-English Lerner's
Dictionry, 1987
Both volumes are by D . . Stavropoulos
There are two relatively recent excel1ent Greek dictionaries,
compiled with native Greek speakers n mind. benefit from

------

these the user needs to have a good command of Greek. They are
not suitable for beginners.
, . ,

and
, publshed by
( )
(Institute of
Modern Greek Studies of the Manolis Triantafyllidis Foundation of
the Aristotelian University of Thessaloniki)

Grammars
The subject of grammar reference books is more difficult. new
grammar has been published recently by Routledge. It will be of
particular interest to English native speakers since it is written
Englsh.
Routledge, Greek: An Essentil Grmmr / the Modern
Lnguge, David Holton, Peter Mackridge and Irene
Philppaki -Warburton, 2004
For a very practical solution to queries regarding Greek grammar
but which can l be used by those with a reasonable knowledge
of the language, there is the standard school grammar use
Greece, . 1t
has been written for use Greek secondary schools and as a result
its language and approach are quite accessible, but it is not suitable
for beginners.
useful book Modern Greek verbs, which contains many
examples of verbs and quite a good index to Greek verbs is
publshed by Patakis Publications Greece; it was written by
Anna Iordanidou, entitled ,
, .

General interest
Those who wish to take the study of Greek greater depth
might like to consider reading a book published by Oxford
University Press, The Modern Greek Lnguge by Peter Mackridge,

aailable paperback as well as hardback. This is probably the best


study of Modern Greek the English language but is written for
the academic reader.
If you hae a more general interest Greek literature, a book
published by Clarendon Press 1999, An Introduction ( Modern
Greek Literture by Roderick Beaton, is well worth reading.

The I nternet
The Internet is an excellent learning tool and can be useful
finding suitable reading material coering all kinds of interests.
Many Greek websites offer Greek and English ersions which can
be helpful to those learning Greek, when it comes to naigating
sites.
For Greek newspapers and related publications www.dol.gr
can be a useful resource. If you are particularly interested
Cyprus, you might like to try www.simerini.com.cy. For the website
of Technical Press SA ( ) which caters for
a wide range of interests, from motorcycles and cars to audio,
gardening, sailing, and een military aircraft and space, go to
www . technicalpress.gr .

The Greek alphabet


Letter upper
Name of letter
& lower
case
Trnslitertion
Greek

Sound of letter
of words

as n

Examples

alfa

vita

vase

g/y

again

gama

thelta

th

gal1ant/yet
the

epsilon

then

zita

zest

ita

ile

these

THita

theme

yiota

ile

these

kapa

klc

keep

lamtha

limit

mi

mother

00

xerox

00

omikron

opera

pope

ro

rol1

sigma

safe

taf

t-d

table

ipsilon

ile

these

fi

fire

hi

Bach

psi

ps

corpse

omega

opera

First steps

he introduction ll deal with :

the alphabet

a few common Greek expressions

We will be taking the first steps learning to read Greek, albeit


a simple form the initial stages. We will start with the alphabet
and we will proceed to learn a few basic phrases and words Greek
which will prove very useful both the lessons to come and
visits to Greece and Cyprus.
The use of the accompanying audio material will be invaluable
helping you take these first few steps. additional help will
be the transliteration ( the equivalent pronunciation the Latin
alphabet ) which you will be provided with, exceptionally, the
first lesson. Sound equivalences can be misleading, and the differ
ences can be just as revealing helping you try to pronounce the
language as closely as possible to an authentic pronunciation.
Possible equivalences and differences will be pointed out to you
the initial stages but, if you have the audio material, listen to it as
often as you can. Use it to learn, as well as to reinforce what you
have already learned.

The Greek a lphabet

t's Greek to me!'


The phrase may have come into being largely account of the
alphabet, since it tends to intimidate, looking so different from
the Latin alphabet. However, once you have mastered the various
letters, it is very easy to read. Unlike English, the same letter,

-----or combination of letters, is pronounced exactly the same way


wherever it occurs.

The vowels
These are:

pronounced as the English


pronounced as e

as gain
as then

The next three vowels may look very different but they are pro
nounced exactly the same way.

all pronounced as , the English e

as these

There is distinction between the short and longer as English


, e.g., 'ship' and 'sheep'. Modern Greek there are three single
letters , , all with the same sound.
The next two letters also share the same sound:

both pronounced

as opera

Exercise 1
The following letters are the upper-case ( capital ) equivalents of the
vowels you have just learned. They are not the correct order. See
if you can match them up correctly. Some are obvious, but you may
have some difficulty with others. ou can consult the alphabet chart
. .

The consonants
Some consonants are ery similar to those the Latin alphabet;
some are equialent appearance and sound, but some appear
ance l; this can be deceptie.
Let's begin with those that are ery similar to sounds you already
know from English.
Similar are:

Note:

pronounced as m
pronounced as n
pronounced as k or c, but
much softer
pronounced something between
the English t and d
pronounced as

The upper-case letters are the same as


lower-case ones.

as mother
as no
as keep and cat
as table but
much softer
as zest

the Latin alphabet, but

the

The following three letters are deceptiely similar appearance to


English letters but are pronounced quite differently.

pronounced as the English


pronounced as r

as ase
as roll

, may be the Greek equialent of the English r but it is a rolling


sound, far closer to the way this is spoken Scotland, if you are
familiar with Scottish pronunciation.

is the other hand a far gentler sound Greek,


as hae
more like the English h
as Bach
closer fact to the ch sound

far the largest category includes letters which look refreshingly


new:

is as g if followed by , or
but much softer
but as if followed by or
it has the sound of th
This can also be represented by th
This is similar to l
Similar to

as gallan t
as
as
as
as
as

yet
the
theme
limit
Xerox

like but much softer


as pope
(This fact has a sound between the English b and .)
is similar to s
as safe
( is used at the beginning and the middle of the
word and at the end; the latter is perhaps more
appropriately referred to as the final .)
pronounced as f
as fire
This may be a rather difficult sound.
as corpse
is like ps

It is the letter that has given us words like 'psychology' and 'psyche'
but has lost some of its initial harshness English by dropping the
sound of the .
Note:

The alphabet has not been given alphabetical order as we have concen
trated the sounds of the letters rather than their names. Refer to the alphabet
chart . xvi.

Expressions and the stress-accent

If you have the audio material, listen to the relevant section a few
times before moving to the next step to form words with the
sounds we have learned so far.
Greek word

Trnslitertion

Mening

h
siga
arakal
kal taXthi
kal rexi
malista
tta
kalimera

slowly or quietly
please
bon voyage
bon appetit
yes (certainly)
nothing
good morning


immediately

good night
good evening

kalimnta
kalispera
amesos

The stress-accent
From the above words and
phrases you will have noticed the
use the stress-accent. With a
few exceptions, it is used

every word with more than one


syllable, and nowadays simply has the function telling the
reader which syllable must be stressed.
Greek, far more than English, has a definite stressed syllable
every word with more than one syllable. This is placed over the
appropriate vowel lower-case, and beside it upper-case, like this:

The accents upper-case letters are used l the word is


upper and lower case. If a word is entirely upper-case letters, the
stress-accent is omitted altogether.
At times, the meaning otherwise identical words is determined
by the position the stress-accent.

to tam

the mosque

to tzami

the glass


but

to anTHos

the flower

as

the blossom

0*
but

yeros

the old man

*
but

ers

robust, sturdy

* Greek nouns will appear word lists with the relevant definite article, , ,
, which is the equivalent of 'the' English. Nouns English Wll not appear with
the definite article from now . This will help you to determine whether a noun is
masculine (), feminine () or neuter ().

The stress-accent may result a change the pronunciation a

------

word, as the case of



m-a
mia

one (feminine )
one (feminine )

The first is pronounced as two syllables with the stress , whle


the second one is pronounced as one syllable with stress.
It is vital to try to stress the correct syllables when reading or
speaking Greek. The stress-accent will guide you. This is an area
which native Englsh speakers may have particular difficulty.
Exercise 2
have already come across some of the following words but not
necessarily exact1y the same context. Can you give their
meaning?
, , , , , ,
How do you read the following two words which have exactly the
same meaning but differ pronunciation?

thio
thio

two
two

(Hint: How many syllables does each have? )

1 Reading and

speaking Greek

his lesson ll deal with:

more details of the Greek alphabet

signs

greetings and introductions

The aim this, the first lesson, is to help you consolidate what you
have learned about the Greek alphabet the Introduction. We
are going to do this through exercises and reading passages or
dialogues, during which we shall rely heavily the audio material.
the dialogues that follow, the purpose is to help you become
more familiar with the way the language sounds and to understand
the gist of what is being said. Do not be concerned with grammar
or punctuation at this stage as these will be dealt with later
lessons. What is important is to listen as much as you can, certainly
more than once, to the native speakers reading the words and
phrases of the exercises and the dialogues. For those of you who
have l bought the book, you will find the transliteration given
either the exercises themselves or the Key to Exercises at the
end of the book.
Let us begin with some signs which you are likely to see if you
go to Greece or Cyprus holiday.
Exercise 1

Can you read these signs your own and then transcribe them
lower-case letters? If you have the audio material, listen again and
put the stress-accents the correct syllable, i.e. the one that is
emphasized by the reader.

exothos
ahrta
trapeza
stasi
estat
ta
klnk
athr
ethrms
erga
aerolimenas
aerthrm
stams

exit
toilets
bank
stop ( e.g. bus stop )
restaurant
taxi
clinic
Gents ( toilets )
pedestrian area
road works
airport
airport
railway

Exercise 2
great many English words derive from Greek words. Can you

recognize the following Greek words well enough to suggest their


possible equivalents n English?






Exercise 3
Equally, there are many words n Greek n daily use which are
also used n English and are clearly recognizable as such or almost
identical to them. Can you match them with the correct English
word from the list that follows? Remember that the pronunciation
may well have changed and been adapted to the Greek alphabet
and pronunciation.

lso known s
but more often referred to
s in business
or

-----

also pronounced as



cinema, fax, canoe, milk shake, express, mini-dress or mini-skirt,
cafeteria, telex, video, salad.
Exercise 4
ou have already come across the individual words which can be
used to form the following short phrases. Using this knowledge, can
you express the following Greek?
a nice day, have a good journey, quietly please, enjoy your meal,
taxi please, good night, slowly please.

Double letters (vowels and consonants)


Double owels,

diphthongs

Sometimes two vowels or two consonants appear side by side and


are treated as a single letter terms of their sound. When two
vowels do this, they are known as diphthongs.
The thing to remember is that they are then pronounced as one
letter. These are:

They have the same sound a s the single vowels we have


already come across , , .
This i s pronounced the same a s an already familiar
sound .
is a new sound, however, similar to the 00 sound
English, as the word too.

has the sound , and has the sound e.


Both and can also be combined with to form two distinct
sounds:

pronounced
pronounced !

as
as

have
after

10

-------

pronounced ev
pronounced ef

as
as

ever
ejfect

the case of diphthongs where the stress-accent happens lie


the syllable of the diphthong, is placed the second vowel of
the two the pair, e.g. , .
If, however, the stress-accent falls the first of two vowels
which could be a diphthong, the two vowels are treated as two sepa
rate letters e.g. , .
Exercise 5

If you have the audio material, listen carefully the following


words. Read them aloud, referring the transliteration the Key
Exercises if you need to. Which English words do they remind
you of? Write them down and check your answers the Key
Exercises.




Double consonants
Certain combinations of consonants have a special sound when they
appear side by side.
pronounced as b at the beginning of a word
and as mb the middle of a word
pronounced
as d at the beginning of a word

and as nd the middle of a word


pronounced as g at the beginning of a word
and as ng the middle of a word
pronounced as ng
pronounced as ts
pronounced as tz

as bird
as bamboo
as demand
as dandelion
as goal
as anguish
as angle
as cats
as tzatziki

Double consonants such as , , are pronounced the same as a


single consonant:

elatha
elinas

Greece
Greek (man or boy)

11


Greek (woman or girl)


Greek (1anguage)
sea

elntha
ta elinika
THalasa

Exercise 6
an earlier exercise we looked at some simi1arities between
words used English and Greek. Appearances, however, can be

deceptive at times. If you go into a Greek electrical goods shop and


ask for
,

one)

it won't be a pickup truck. Or at a kiosk or supermarket you ask


for
,
What will you get?
When someone tells you that he has

he does not fact have a camera. What does he have?
the other hand, you will be quite safe knowing what you will
be enjoying you ask the barman for
,
or
,
Look the answers the Key to Exercises.
Exercise 7
Some the following words are known to you through their
English equivalents. Refer to their transliteration the Key to
Exercises. They are not necessari1y pronounced the same as
English. Give their meaning.



12

-------

Exercise 8
Here are a few more signs that will help you find your way about.
Pay particular attention to the stress-accent. help you, they are
given n both upper-case letters (n the form n which you are likely
to encounter them) and n lower case so that you can see where the
stress-accent falls.


AXV

ENTRANCE
TOILETS
LADIES
POST OFFICE
RESTAURANT
HOSPITAL
BUS
INFORMATION
BAKERY
TOBACCONIST
BUTCHER'S
GROCERYSHOP
BOOKSHOP
STATIONER'S
KIOSK

Exercise 9
What would you associate the following words with? Choose from
the list that follows.

transport, medicines, agreement, illness, eating, request, greeting,


leaving, business, drinking, refusal, buses.

Dialogue 1

Greetings

Two acquaintances meet each other on their way ( work

-
-

Kalimera
Kalimera

13
- ;
- ,
.

Pos ste?

E, tsi k etsi,

eflarst

Good morning
Good morning
How re you?
So so, thnks.
ess?
- ;
- , . Kala, eflarst

And you?
Fine, thnks.
New words:
How are you? ( polite plural)
you ( plural, here used as the polite plural)

Although there are only two people involved n this short exchange,
both the verb and the personal pronoun are n the
plural. This is because the two people involved are not well known
to each other and they are using the polite plural.

Dialogue 2

More greetings

In the next dilogue, simlr questions re sked but in different


wy, nd they receive different nswers.

;
, .
;
- , .
Good morning
Good morning
How re you doing?
Very well, thnk you.
And you?
m well, too, thnks.

Kalimera
Kalimera
kanete?
Pol kala, eflarst.
ss?
eg, eflarst

14

---

--

few new words have been introduced:

Dialogue 3

very
you do (polite plural)
how are you? / how are you doing? (polite
plural form)

I ntroductions

We can extend the next dialogue little further. 1t is evening, and the
person you are about to meet ( ) is accompanied by
female friend, u (Niki Stamatopoulou), whom
he will introduce to you. ou are only occasional acquaintances and
the 'polite plural' form is used. Unfortunately, Ms Stamatopoulou has
to leave hurry to catch her bus shortly after the introductions are
completed.

Vocabu/ary


()

sstn
na sas ssts
kia

introduce

let me introduce you


Mrs/Ms

15
( )

ks
hero l
ess

na
snm
to lef
to vrathi
kal vrathi

Mr
pleased to meet you
too, also
oh!
there, as n 'there it is'
excuse me
bus
the evening
have a good evening


Jones

.
, ;
. .
, Jones.
.
. ;
Jones
, . , ,
. .
Jones

.
-

Good evening
Good evening, how re you?
Very well. Let me introduce you. Mrs Stmtopoulou, , Jones
Plesed to meet you
Me too. How do you do?
Fine, thnk you. Oh, look the bus, excuse me. Goodnight.
Hve good evening.

Kalispera
Kalispera, kanete;
l kala. Na sas ssts . kra Stamatl u, kr s Jones.
hero l.
ess, pos ste;
kala, efharst. a, na to le f r , snm, kalinhta.
ka vrathi.

If you have the audio material, listen to the appropriate section. If


you do have them, refer the above for the transliteration.

16

-------

Points of interest
The Greek question-mark - ;
The Greek question-mark is just like the English semi-colon, which,
of course, means that the Greek semi-colon must be different, and
it is. It is like a full stop but placed higher up, like this
There are a number of hidden cu1tural peculiarities n this dialogue
worth noting and remembering. We have already encountered the
use of the 'polite plural' and, hand n hand with this, the form of
the introductions.
-

Names
Note that both the man and the woman are introduced to each
other using their surnames ( ,
Jones) , which befits a rather formal occasion. However, when two
people become better acquainted, they will tend to maintain the use
of the 'polite plural' but will indicate the change n their relation
ship by addressing each other using , but with their
first names, e.g. , David. When they become
much friendlier, they will then drop the 'polite plural' and address
each other as , David. The way they greet each other will also
change, as n the following dialogue.

Dialogue 4

Less formal ity

Two jriends pass each other in the street.

.
.
;

, ;
. .
.

Points of interest
,
'Hello', 'hi', but also 'bye-bye' .

Herete
Ya soo.
kanis?
E tsi k etsi, es?
eg. Ya soo
Herete

Hello.
. How
are you?
So so. ?
Me too. Bye.
Goodbye.

17

This is a general all purpose greeting that can be used when meeting
or departing at any time of the day or night. It can be used n a
formal or a less formal situation. However, the use of ,
or is more widespread.
;
Note the different form. Previously was ; now is used
n the second person singular ( i.e where one person is addressed as
'you' ) .

Dialogue 5 -
; Where is my passport7
the [ollowing passage the young woman is planning ( catch
plane but has just discovered that she has [orgotten essential item.

Vocabu/ar



;
;

friend
suitcase
passport
hotel
quick
which?
where is it?
car

driver

,
. , , .
, !

, .
, .
, .
, ,
;

18

----

! , , ; . . .
, , .
, , . ,
!

Points of i nterest
Punctuation
Another way presenting a dialogue is a follows:
- , .
- , .
Notice the use a dash indicating a change speaker.

"

The word is enclosed the Greek quotation marks.

The three dots indicate a certain hesitation speech missing a


text. Sometimes they are just used emphasis.
Linguistic
Note the use the words:
, es, madam
is used a formal situation, as English one would tend
to use es, Sir', but Greek can be used its own.
Generally is used es'.

Don't worry ( 1iterally, Don't go like this ) .

It is used as much to console as to reassure.



Earlier the lesson we said that, with exceptions, all words with
more than one syllable have one stress-accent. some cases we

19
may find stress-accent at all, or two as this case. The reasons
are rather complicated and outside the scope of this book. Both
syllables with stress-accents are stressed.
,

to

It is formed by and a form of the definite articles , , joined


together, this case to indicate movement towards.

Comprehension
Answer these questions English.
Who is at the airport and why are they there?
Why is one of them calling for a taxi?
Where does she ask the taxi-driver to take her?
What is the name of the hotel?
5 Why do you think the woman the dialogue has caught a taxi
and not a bus?
6 What does the taxi-driver mean by his last sentence
, ?
1
2
3
4

Exercise 10
What is the relationship, if any, between each pair of words that
follow:

2 Meeting people

this lesson ll learn about:

the verb to be
the pe rso n a l pro nouns, e.g.
possession - the possessive pronouns, e.g. my
the d efi n ite article, the , ,
the i n defi n ite a rticle, e.g. , , ,
h ow to fo rmulate q u estions
more useful p h rases when meet i n g people
shopping

Dialogue 1

. .

The ldy in front of you in the bus queue hs dropped her newspper
without relzing it.

Vocabu/ary




beg your pardon


excuse me
newspaper
not at all

, .
;
.
, .
.

21
Excuse me, your newspper.
beg your prdon?
our newspper.
Oh, yes; thnk you very much.
Not t .

Language points
1 Possession - possessive pronouns
n the dialogue above, the first speaker says ,
i.e. 'your newspaper'. The possessive pronoun is used to indicate
ownership. n Greek, the possessive pronouns are as follows:
Singulr

, ,

my
your
his, her, its

Plurl

our
your
their

n the examples that follow, note the position of the pronoun n


relation to the object concerned. n English we say my newspper,
his resturnt, our hospitl. n Greek the order is different:



Exercise 1
From the two columns of Greek words can you choose the correct
pairs which have the same meaning as the English short phrases
below? The first has been done for you:
(my sld)

22


my salad, their cinema, my photograph, our station, his stop, her


bookshop.
Exercise 2
The English phrases below explain which object belongs to whom.
The names of the objects are also listed Greek but not the
correct order. Can you select the correct form of the Greek
pronoun for each object, like this:
This is Maria's passport

her passport

Philip's and Peter's hotel


The woman's taxi
The aeroplane is mine
The restaurant belonged to a husband-and-wife team
Paul had an eventful journey to Corfu

2 he definite article

, ,

Lesson 1 it was pointed out that nouns will be appearing the


word lists this book with their appropriate definite article, e.g.
, , , , ,
, . Now it's time to explain why; the definite article
, , is the most clear indicator of the gender of a noun,
whether it is masculine, feminine or neuter. Greek this is
important because nouns are used with different endings according
to their context; the gender acts as a guide as to how these endings
change.
-

23
Masculne

Feminine

Neuter

Singular

Plural

The following are some examples of nouns with their appropriate


definite article:
Masculine

Feminine

Neuter

Exercise 3
We have already come across the words below with their definite
article. the gaps with the correct form of the definite article.
If you cannot remember, go back the previous pages or the
glossary and find what is.
_

Exercise 4
Draw a circle round the words which are usually preceded by the
definite article . Write them down together with their meaning
and check that you have remembered them correctly.

Once you have written them all down, have you noticed any
similarities about their endings? Make a mental note of these since
you will find them useful later .

24

-----

Dialogue 2 - Orderi ng a snack

Vocabu/ary






waiter
orangeade
coffee
instant coffee
small coffee ( usually used for Greek coffee,
which comes small cups )
cheese
tomato
medium

;
, .
;
,
.
;
, .

Yes, plese?
An orngede, plese.
Anything else?
Yes, tosted sndwich with cheese nd tomto [or the gentlemn,
nd co[[ee.
Greek co[[ee or instnt [or the gentlemn?
medium sweet. Thnk you.

Points of interest

Note its use here and compare it with its use . 20. Lesson 1
we came across it being used as the equivalent of plese English.
the dialogue . 20 it was used response to .
Here, it is used a phrase which is the equivalent of the English
phrase Yes, plese? one hears shops and restaurants.

---


This is reminiscent of the English word toast but it is used to mean
toasted sandwich while is used for toast.

Greece and Cyprus Greek coffee is served small cups with the
sugar already added before the coffee is served. When you order
Greek coffee you need to specify how sweet you want it. It comes
the following grades of sweetness, beginning with very sweet to
containing sugar at all:

very sweet
sweet
medium sweet
sugar added

You will hae noticed that a different form words is sometimes used when
ordering drinks and food from that given the vocabulary lists. This will be
explained later lessons.
Note:

Language points
3 The indefinite article

, ,

Like the definite article


, ,
the indefinite article also
has different forms according to the gender of the noun it defines.
We have already come across its feminine form ( ).
Remember the difference pronunciation between and ,
determined by the position of the accent? If not, go back to Lesson
1 and check it out.
-

Masculine

Feminine

Neuter

or

or

25

26
Exercise 5
the following list nouns are gien with their appropriate definite
article. Copy them, substituting the indefinite article instead.



Exercise 6

Look the glossary at the back the book for the meaning
these words. Put them into groups according to the form the
indefinite article, , , , they use and write down their
meaning beside them. Use the audio material, you hae it, to help
you with their pronunciation.


Ouestions

We hae already encountered the Greek questionmark (;) and


hae seen examples questions Greek. Basically, there are two
ways asking a question: Questions which begin with a question
word such as where , who , , , wht , etc.,
and questions which hae the same word order as sentences but are
followed by a question-mark and the appropriate tone inflection.
We hae seen some examples

both

these already:

' ;
;
Questions beginning with a question word:
, ;
;
;
Unlike English, the questions the first group hae the same word
order whether they are a sentence or a question. What distinguishes

----

a sentence from a question is the voice infiection if the question is


spoken, and the presence of the question-mark if it is written.
the case of questions beginning with a question word, the
latter simply begins the question.
The following are some examples of sentences and questions. If
you have the audio material, listen carefully to how a sentence is
intoned differently from the question. Repeat each one after the
native speaker you hear the audio material.
;
;
;
;

.
, .
, .
.
;
;
;
;

5 The verb to be
This is an irregular verb and has to be learned its own right. We
have already used three forms of it questions:
;
;
;
The first form is the informal way of addressing a friend, and the
second the more formal form of address directed at older people or
distant acquaintances.
Present
Singular


I am
you are
he/she/it is

Plural

we are
you are
they are

The first thing you will notice is that, whle English the personal
pronoun, , you, he, she, it, etc., is always used together with the verb
order to distinguish the person it is referring to, Greek this is
not necessary. The ending of the verb itself differs from the first per
son to the second and so , and this indicates whether the speaker
is referring to himself or herself, or to another person or persons.

27

28
Although the above example there may be cause for confu
sion the use of which could be applied to a man, a woman,
an object or a number of them, the case of most verbs each form
is different and is a clear indication itself.

6 The personal pronoun , , he, etc.


,

Although certain contexts it is not necessary to use the personal


pronoun , you, he, etc., with the verb, there are of course circum
stances where it is necessary to use the personal pronoun as, for
example, where the emphasis is placed the person rather than
the action taken.
Singular

you

, , he, she, it

Plural

, ,

we
you
they

Exercise 7
Answer the questions below, Greek, and check your answers
the Key to Exercises section.
;
;
;

, ;
;

Exercise 8
The dialogue below is incomplete. Can you provide the missing
parts? The word is the article used with feminine nouns; with
an accent means or and has the accent order to distinguish it from
the definite article. will see it used the dialogue.
- , .
- ;
- .
- , .

----

Exercise 9

The following sentences and questions have their words all jumbled
up. Can you sort them into the right order? Remember to put
the upper-case letter wherever appropriate. Greek, as
English, a sentence begins with an upper-case letter, and so do
names.
4
1 .
2 . 5 ;
6 .
3 ;
.
Exercise 10

are at a Greek coffee shop. want to order but the waiter


is not paying much attention to you. Try to attract his attention, and
once you do so order yourself a Greek coffee without sugar and a
glass of water. Then, turn to Key to Exercises to see some of the
possible ways of doing so.

Dialogue 3

Shopping

young lady is at an open market and is looking to buy vegetables


and fruit in season. It is summer.

, !

29

30

----

Essential vocabulary
( can look any other vocabulary you may need n the
Glossary at the back the book.)








August
morning
market
greengrocer's
euro
cent
kilo
half a kilo
altogether
here you are
then
fresh
immediately

n Greece, 1 euro has 100 lepta.

, . .








;
;
(90)
;
.
.
.
;
( 1 ,50) ,
1,50 .

;
.

, .
. .
.
;

31

Poi nts of interest


Linguistic


This is the same erb we encountered earlier but a different
context and a different form the phrases.
;
;

how are you? (informal)


how are you? (formal)

the phrase it means How much are they? If the


enquiry concerns just one item then the phrase would change to
; How much is it?

This is used roughly as the equialent of here, there English as


Here you are, There it is .


,

Here is the book


There is Nikos
,

exclamation intended to express surprise or admiration.

Comprehension
(a) Please answer the following questions English.
1
2
3
4

Is the weather cold or hot?


Where is she shopping?
What did she buy?
What was the total cost of the groceries?

(b) Please answer these questions Greek. Read the passage


again carefully and you will find the answers there.
1 What did the grocer say when he gae the customer her
groceries?
2 How many kilos of tomatoes did the customer buy?
3 What is the name of the lady doing the shopping?
4 Do we know the time of day the lady isited the market?

32
Exercise 1 1
lady has left the greengrocer's store forgetting to collect all her
shopping. She has left behind her yoghurt, . Write a
short dialogue of a possible exchange between them. The grocer
will need to attract her attention first. How will he do it if (a) he
does not know her name; (b) he knows her name is but she
is only an occasional customer?

might like to re-read the first dialogue before writing your own.

3 Travel

this lesson we ll look at:

the verb to have


verbs e n d i n g - a n d -
the p resent tense
e n d i ngs of neute r nouns
numbers
time
t ravel

Dialogue 1

Buying a tra in ticket

Vocabu/ary
,





employee (here at the ticket office)


ticket
one-way ticket
return ticket
Salonica
thirty fie
sixty
forty
a hundred euro note

, .
;

;

34

-------


. . . .
, , .
, .
.
, .
, .
!

ticket for Salonica, please.


Single or return?
How much is the single and how much the return?
The single to Salonica is 35 and the return 60 euros.
Then return, please.
60 euros please.
have one hundred euro note.
our change, 40 euros.
Thank you, bye.
Have pleasant journey!

La nguage point
7 The verb to have
Verbs are words which describe what we do, e.g. come, go, have,
write. n English, we will be listing erbs like this: to have, to write,
to go. n Greek we will be listing them n the first person singular
like this: , .
Present
Singular
-
-
-

hae
you hae
he/she/it has

Plural
-u
-
-u

w e hae
you hae
they hae

There are a number of things worth noting about :

( a ) It ends n -.
(b ) Its endings, separated from the main part of the erb, which
remains the same n the singular and the plural, are quite typical

------- 35
of the endings of other verbs ending - as distinct from verbs
ending - , which we will be discussing later this lesson.
(c) It refers to the present.
Let us look at some examples of its use. the dialogue above, the
passenger says:
.
Other examples:
.
.
.
Exercise 1 (1 )
Translate the above examples into English. If there are any words
you do not know, look them up the Glossary at the back of the
book.
Exercise 2 (2 )
Using the verb as an example, give the various present-tense
forms of the verb , meaning to tie or to bind as to tie
knot or ( bind book. Give all three forms the singular ( i.e. for
one person ) and the plural ( i.e. for more than one persons ) .
-

8 Numbers 1-20
We have already used some numbers between 1 and 20. The
following is a complete list of numbers 1-20.

1
2
3
4
5

6
7
8
9
10

( )
( )
( )

you may also come


across these forms

36

11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

( )
( )
( )

After twenty, we simply add numbers 1-9 after the 20, 3 0, 40, and
so , like this:

* is an abbreviation for and is the equivalent


ou

etc.

will find more numbers Lesson 4.

Exercise 3 (3 )
Give full the numbers listed below figures. Write them down,
followed by the words accompanying them. ou are familiar with
most the words but slightly different form. Do you recognize
them? Check your answers the Key to Exercises.
1 5
2 24
3 1 3

4 3
5 9
6 4

Now look up the singular form ( i.e. for one item l ) the
Glossary and make a list two columns:
for more than one items
for one item
( the form the glossary ) ( the form which they appear above )
Example:

Do you see any similarities?

37

9 Endings of neuter nouns, singu/ar and


p/ura/ forms
n Lesson 2 we talked about the definite article , , and gave
its plural forms , , .
n English we simply add an s at the end of a noun when we
speak about many objects, e.g. we say one desk, mny desks. Some
nouns, of course, form their plural forms differently, e.g. one mn,
mny men, but these are the exceptions rather than the rule.
n Greek, nouns also have different forms n the plural but,
although most of them fall into easy categories that follow certain
rules, the plural is not formed as simply as n English.
n Greek, some nouns are masculine, some feminine, while
others are neuter. n Lesson 2 we have already seen that all mascu
line nouns are preceded by the article , feminine nouns are
preceded by and neuter nouns by .
n Exercise 4, Lesson 2, and n Exercise 3 above you were asked
to see if you could establish any similarities n the endings of the
neuter nouns.
n Exercise 4, Lesson 2 they all ended n -:


n Exercise 3 above they fell into two categories. Some indeed


ended n - but others ended n - :

Most neuter nouns (i.e. those preceded by ) have these endings


but not all. We have already come across different endings, as n
, which ends n -.
n the plural (i.e. for more than one object) neuter nouns end n
-. So we have:

38

----

the first instance, the - ending was changed to - . the second


instance, an - was added to the case because the
stress-accent falls the last syllable it moves to the - , the last
letter.
-

Exercise 4 (4 )
Organize the neuter nouns listed below two groups according
their ending, i.e. those ending - and those ending - . Then
form their plural by following the rules outlined above and check
your answers the Key to Exercises. The meaning new words
is given beside them. will find them useful later this
lesson.


()

train
island
port
ship
child
bicycle
tyre
petrol station
garage ( for car repairs)
toy car ( compare with )
minute

Exercise 5 (5 )
Use the words listed below to make six sentences using the correct
form the verb and the form the numbers given below
figures. Decide the best position the sentence like
this: .
1 3 .

2 2 .
3 4

4 5 .
2.

-------

Dialogue 2

At the bus stop

tourist is t bus stop in the centre of Athens nd wnts to know


how to get to the Acropolis.

Vocabu/ary

tourist (female)
but
trolley bus
road
straight ahead
away
there
think
fifty

;
, ;
.
.
' , ;
.
;
, , .
. .

Is this the bus stop?


Yes, but where re you going?
the Acropolis.
Go by trolley bus to the Acropolis.
Where is the stop for the trolley bus, plese?
Stright hed.
Is it fr?
, fie to six minutes wy, look there.
Thnk you ery much, goodbye

39

40

----

Poi nts of interest


: , ,

The diaeresis, i.e. two dots oer a letter, is used with either the
letter the letter u. It has a special function. It tells us that this
letter is to be treated as a separate letter from the one coming
before it, other words it is to be pronounced as a separate letter
and not to be taken as part of a diphthong.
Examples:
the word , the initial letters - are treated as a
single sound, i.e. a diphthong
the word , is treated as one letter, i.e. a diph
thong because the stress-accent falls --.
the word , -- and -- are taken as two separate
letters because the stress-accent falls
the word the diaeresis oer the letter , - - indicates
that this letter is read as a separate sound from --
-

-.

Language poi nt
10 Now

the present tense

When discussing the erb we noted that it ended - and that


it describes actions that take place the present. We also made a
distinction between erbs ending - and those ending -.
The reason for this is that they follow different rules forming
their tenses, and we will be looking at these two major categories
of erbs throughout the book.
English we say go to work every day but am going ( work
now. other words, we distinguish between an action that takes
place habitually and an action that we are actually carrying out this
ery moment.
Greek, there is such distinction. The same form of the erb
is used to describe
(a) a habitual action, and
(b) an action am performing now.

41
So, English we would say et fish Fridys, but m eting
fish naw; Greek we say and
.
Now let's look at the other group of verbs ending - .
The present tense of the verb to answer.
Singulr
-
-
-

Plurl

answer
you answer
he/she/it answers

-
-
-

w e answer
you answer
they answer

Note the different endings when compared to verbs ending -


like .
Some verbs ending - form their present tense with some
differences, like to benefit.
Singulr

-
-
-

Plurl

benefit
you benefit
he/she/it benefits

-
-
-

we benefit
you benefit
they benefit

The differences are underlined. They apply to the present tense and
to tenses based the present tense which will be discussed further
the relevant lessons.
The reasons for these differences are historical origin and it
would not be helpful to explain this book. time you will remem
ber which verbs are conjugated like and which like .
Exercise 6 (6 )
back to the verb at the beginning of this lesson and to
and above and re-read them. this basis make
sentences with the verbs listed below, using the words given along
side each verb. addition you may need to use some of your own
words. The first one has been done for you.

to buy

( .)

to
to
to
to

ask
be late
love
travel

42

--

--

Exercise 7 (7 )
From the list of words below select those that may be related to
trvel. If there are any amongst them you do not know, look them
the Glossary at the back.

1 1 Numbers above 20
Earlier this chapter we dea1t with numbers from 1 to 20. Numbers
over 20 are easy, provided you know the appropriate number for
20, 30, etc. These are as follows:

20
30
40
50
60

70
80
90
100

express a number between 20 and 30, simply begin with 20 and


add the appropriate unit between 1 and 9, e.g.:

25
27
21
.

12 Forms of numbers
Some numbers, like nouns, have a masculine, a feminine and a
neuter form. The form which we have encountered them is their
neuter form. Numbers between 5 and 100 have only this one form.

-------

The number 2 also has l one form. Numbers 1 , 3 and 4 have a


different form according to whether the they describe is
masculine, feminine or neuter.
Msculine

Feminine

Neuter
(This is also the indefinite article )

Examples ():

13 The time

English we say five (minutes) pst ten, i.e. first we put the
minutes, followed by the hour. Greek it is the reverse. First we
put the hour and then the minutes past or to the hour.

past ( the hour ) ( We have already used it with the


meaning nd.)
to ( the hour )
minute

10.15
1 1 .30
9.45
4.40
12.05

When using the twelve-hour clock the abbreviation is used for


m and for pm. The Greek abbreviations stand for
() and (), i.e. before and
after respectively.
Exercise 8 (8 )
Which the times below are between midday and midnight?



43

44

-------

Exercise 9 (9 )
the left-hand column the words show action being taken: they
are verbs. The right-hand column includes words which may be
associated with such action. Pair them like this:
.




;

Narratie

While reading this narrative, concentrate getting used to the


sound of the language and to understanding the general gist.

Essential vocabulary

Athens
helicopter
but
first
then
magazine
boarding card
newspaper
pastry
Olympic Airways
London

, ,
, . . . .
.
,
. .

. , ,
. ,

------

,
.
,
327 .
. .

Poi nts of interest

this context it is used with the meaning of by ( e.g. by car, by bus ) :





,
Can be used to indicate place as well as movement to:
*
*
* This form
Lesson 4.

articles and

the nouns following them will be discussed


It iS used to form negative sentences, e.g. m not
going. ou will find more details Lesson 6.
Notices that are commonly encountered at Greek airports:

ARRIVALS
DEPARTURES
INTERNAL FLIGHTS
PASSPORT CONTROL
CHECK ( Luggage check-in )
CHECK (Ticket check-in )
LOUNGE
TAX-FREE GOODS
FOREIGN EXCHANGE
HOTEL RESERVATIONS

45

46

---

--

Comprehension
( a) Please answer the questions below n English.
1
2
3
4

Where is the airport?


How many people are actually travelling?
Where are they going?
How are they proposing get the airport?

(b ) Please answer these questions n Greek.


1 ;
2 ;
3 327;
Exercise 10 (1 )
are n the main lounge a Greek airport waiting hear the
final announcement board the plane. What do you have do
when you hear the following announcement made n Greek?
432 - 4.
.
Exercise 1 1 (1 1 )
have arrived at a Greek port aboard a Greek boat. have
been separated from the other members your party and now you
must make your own way n order find a taxi. List the signs
you will be looking for guide you a taxi rank. can
look at any previous part the book refresh your memory.
Exercise 12 (12 )
Answer the question below n English after looking carefully at the
picture.

47

. ,
;
=
= unleaded petrol.

4 The fa mily

This lesson ll deal with:

the future - the future tense of verbs


mascu l i n e nouns, i.e. those p receded by the article
fe m i n i n e nouns, i . e. th ose p receded by the a rticle
the use of n ouns to s h ow owne rs h i p, i . e. the gen itive case
the m o nths of the yea r
the seaso ns
the days of the week

Dialogue () 1 At the hotel

You have just arrived at hotel and you are asked


questions prior to registering.

Vocabulary ( )


,



hotel
at the hotel
receptionist
name
address
room
information

- ;
- , .
- .

to

answer few

49

- , ;
- Richard Brown.
- , . , .
- .
- . ;
- 1 6 Burleigh Close , .
- , Brown;
- . ,
;
- , ,
.
- .
- , .
Is this the hotel 'Acropols '?
Yes, it is.
have room for six days.
Your name?
name is Richard Brown.
Oh yes. Your passport, please.
Here you are.
Thank you. our address in England?
16 Burleigh Close, London.
How many days will you be with us, Mr Brown?
Six. And some information, please; is there bus to the beach?
From tomorrow bus will be going twice day, at nine in the
morning and at two in the afternoon.
Thank you.
Not at all, have nice holiday.

Points of interest
, ,
these nouns have two stress-accents whilst Lesson 1 we

learned that, Greek, the whole all words with more than one
syllable have one accent. Two accents are sometimes encountered,
and both accented syllables are stressed speech. The rule is rather
involved and beyond the scope this book.

50
Exercise 1 (1 )
n the dialogue n Greek above, there are two speakers, one is the
holidaymaker and the other the receptionist. Copy the dialogue
adding the speaker at the beginning each line i.e.


customer

La nguage poi nts


14 Action that will take place

the future

n English, actions that will take place n the future are preceded
by shll or will. n Greek the word is used before the verb, i.e.
the word describing the action.
There are two forms action n the future - the first describes
actions that will take place n the future repetitively and is known
as the future continuous. The following are a few examples n
English.
shll
ou

be going to the hospitl once week.


will be coming here fter school.

n Greek, this tense is formed with

the present tense

as we learned it n Lesson 3. Here are some examples:


, , , , ,

The following are full examples with two verbs - one ending n -
and the second ending n - .
Present
-
-
-

Future continuous
-
-
-

51
-u
-
-u

-u
-
-u

-
-
-
-
-
-

-
-
-
-
-
-

Exercise 2 (2 )
The following expressions are associated with repetition or the
duration of an action the future. They are:




from tomorrow
from the day after tomorrow
from next week
from now
every so often

Bearing these mind, put the following sentences into Greek. If


there are any words you do not know, look them up the Glossary
at the back of the book.
1 From next week shall be going to work by train.
2 Every so often shall be buying my newspaper the morning.
3 From the day after tomorrow she will be paying by credit card.
4 From now his wife will be going with him.
5 From tomorrow, he will be drinking only water.
Exercise 3 (3 )
Read the following passage and give a brief account of what its
author is planning to do and when. Please look up the Glossary
any words you don't know.
. .
. ,
, ,

.

52

:: o
\

./

"-

Poi nt of interest

This is an idiomatic phrase roughly equivalent to the English idiom
led the life of Rley. Look the Glossary the literal meaning
the words , or look at the illustration above.

15 Nouns
Gender (male

female)

We have been giving all nouns with their (definite) article, e.g.
, , , lists words order to
help you remember them together and make it easier when you
come to the point needing to know their gender order to use
them correctly.
The names people and animals are generally masculine when
referring to male members the species and feminine when
describing females.
So, English we use the word dog for the male the species
(masculine) and bitch for a female animal (feminine) .

53
Greek we have the dog, the bitch; there
iS also a neuter form when we are not sure of the sex of the animal,
.
Some other examples are:
cat
donkey

Words referring to men are masculine and words referring to


women are feminine:
father
mother

Nu mber (one

son
daughter

many)

Apart from a singular form, i.e. a form for one object, nouns also
have a plural form, i.e. for many objects. We have seen these two
different forms - singular and plural - the previous lesson with
reference to neuter nouns, e.g.:
Singular


Plural


Cases
Within the singular or plural, nouns are also used different forms
called cases. English this is not so apparent except such
phrases as Paul's book, Maria's car, the woman 's dress (the genitive
case).
the sentence Paul is here the word Paul is the nominative
case.
the sentence saw Paul the word Paul is the accusative case.
the phrase Paul, come here the word Paul is the vocative
case.
English, the difference among the cases can be seen more clearly
if we substitute for the name Paul the word he.
Nominative
Genitive

He is here
It's his book

54
saw him
It's used to attract attention or call somebody

Accusative
Vocative

n Greek, these differences are more apparent than n English, as


n the example above using he.

16 Masculine nouns
n this section we will deal with masculine nouns - those preceded
by . Some examples we have already used n this and previous
lessons are: , , , ,
, .
There are three principal categories of masculine nouns we will
deal with n this lesson - those ending n -, -, -. We will be
using the following examples: the sky, the
slor, the month:
-
Singulr
Nominative
Genitive

Accusative *
Vocative

Plurl
Nominative
Genitive

Accusative
Vocative

Note: ou

will have noticed that, apart from the changes to the endings each case,
some instances the stress-accent has a!so moved, e.g. the genitive p!ura! -
, , or , , . The ru!es
governing these changes are rather invo!ved and need not be exp!ained at this stage.
If you are interested, however, you cou!d consu!t a good ,modern Greek grammar
( see suggestions for Further Reading ) .

The cases of the mascu!ine artic!e are:


Singular

Nominative
Genitive
Accusative

Plural

Nominative
Genitive
Accusative

* This indicates that some cases appears as . The ru!es are beyond the
scope this book and can be found a good modern Greek grammar. P!ease
remember that sometimes you will see one, and sometimes the other, the two
forms the artic!e - i.e. .

55

The use of the cases Greek


We use the nominative, i.e. , , , when
the person or object is doing something, e.g.


The sai10r is buying lemons.
.
The month August has 31 days.
31 .
. The sky is blue.
We use the genitive, i.e. , , ,
to indicate possesion, e.g.:
The sailor's name is Nikos.

.
The colour the sky is blue.

.
. Father's car.
The accusative, i.e. , , , is used
when the is the thing or person the verb is acting (i.e. the
object the verb), e.g.:

.
.
.

am looking at the sky.


am asking the sailor.
love my father.

The vocative is used order to attract somebody's attention, e.g.:

, * .
, ;
, ;

Nikos, come here.


Where are you travelling to, sai1or?
Father, where are you?

* We know the vocative of nouns ending n - have the ending as n .


Some names, e.g. (George), (Peter), form their vocative ending
n -, e.g. you call them saying: , .
-

Exercise 4 (4 )
Below you will find various forms the article and some nouns.
Match the correct case the with the respective article, e.g.
, .

56

(man)

(friend)

()

Exercise 5 (5 )
Give a full list of the cases of the following masculine nouns singular and plural (first read again the examples given above):
the passenger, the father, the
doctor. Check your answers with those the Key to Exercises and
note the differences, if any.
Exercise 6 (6 )
There are mistakes the following short account of a telephone
conversation. These mistakes relate to the form of the nouns used.
Give the correct form. If necessary, go to the beginning of the
section nouns this lesson and check how each case is used by
100king again at the examples given English.
-

!
, .
, . ;
, .
, . , .
, ; ;
, ;
, .

Exercise 7 (7 )

means month. The months of the year are therefore


masculine and have a masculine ending, not necessarily the same
as . The first month of the year is
Look it the Glossary and add the correct ending to it. Once
you have done that, add the correct endings to all the other months
of the year which are listed below order. Write beside them their
equivalent names English.

-----

la _
_
_
_
_
l_

l_
_
_
_
_
_

Exercise 8 ( )
The months of the year also have an alternative form, more
common colloquially. la becomes -. What do
you think will be the endings of the other months?


_
_
_
l_

l_
_
_
_
_

is not included the alternative list above because it


has only one form.

Dialogue () 2 The passport

Greek cten s at office mkng lcatn [or Greek


passport.

Vocabu/ary ( )
10 give

10 send

10 expire

young
*
, ,
, , l * Greek
10morrow

10 fill n

Miss

husband

57

58

---

--

Crete
week



* adjectives will from now
discussed Lesson 7.

appear like this

word lists. The reason will be

, .
.

, ,



.
, .
.
.
;

.
.
;

.
.
;

.
.

;
25 2004.
.
!

!
.

, , ,
!
, , . 1 964 , 25
.
1 964.
;

.
.
, ;

, , .
.



.
want new passport, please. The one have expires tomorrow.
Yes, give us your detals, we will fill in this form and we will send
your new passport in few days. our name please.
Papadopoulou Efthymia.
Mrs or Miss?
Mrs.
Husband's name?
Miltiadis.

59
Name of father and mother?
Andreas and Evyenia.
Date of birth?
25 January 2004.
You are very young, Madam!
What are you saying, Sir?
am referring to your age, Mrs Papadopoulou, you are only few
months old.
Oh, am sorry, what am saying? 1 964, 25 January 1 964.
Place of birth?
Chania, Crete.
Nationality Greek, isn 't it?
Yes, of course, Greek.
ou must give us fifty euros and your old passport and we will send
your passport in two to three weeks.

Points of interest
Greek names
Note how Mrs Papadopoulou gives her name; she says
. She gives first her surname, then her
first name. The surname is the family name. the case a married
woman, it is the husband's surname, although there is an increasing
tendency for Greek women to adopt a double-barrelled surname
when they get married. More recently Greece the original family
name is kept after marriage. The husband's surname is still adopted
Cyprus.
It is also worth noting that the surname is the genitive, the
case that we use to indicate possession or ownership. man would
give his name as
the surname is
given the nominative.
-

The famly
Mrs Papadopoulou is also asked to give the names her father and
mother. fact Greek documents, full names are often followed
by the first names the father and mother, this order:
.
Nationa/ity
Nationality and religious denomination go hand hand. offi
cial documents both are shown and both are important elements

60
Greek identity. Far more importance is attached to religious
festials and religious institutions than some Western European
countries.

Language poi nts


1 7 Non-repetitive action the future
Earlier this lesson we dealt with actions taking place the future
repeatedly. this part of the lesson we shall deal with actions that
will take place l once at some future time, i.e. the simple future
tense. Some examples of this tense appear the dialogue aboe
and are underlined.
Further examples:

. will listen to my mother ( a


particular occasion) .
. will answer the question.
It is formed with and a form of the erb that is different from
those we hae encountered so far. Compare the present with the
future simple tense below.

Verbs ending -
Present
Singulr
-
-
-
Plurl
-
-
-

Future simple

-
-
-
-
-
-

Verbs like form the future simple with the same endings as
those like - , , ,
etc.
Things are a little more complicated for erbs ending -. They
form the future simple accordance with the following rules:

61
Verbs ending n

- - -
form the future simple with the ending -, i.e. , .
Verbs ending n

- - -
form the future simple with the ending -, i.e. ( cut
.

Verbs ending n

- - - -
form the future simple with the ending -, i.e. to push
.

Once the future simple stem has been formed, however, the
endings remain the same for all these verbs ending n -.

-
-
-
-
-
-

-
-
-
-
-
-

-
-
-
-
-
-

Exercise 9 (9 )
Bearing n mind the above rules, give the future simple form of the
following verbs. Refer to the above rules as frequently as you need
to:

Exercise 10 (10 )
The following words are associated with action taking place n the
future and occurring once.

tomorrow
the day after tomorrow

62

the coming week


next month
tonight
this afternoon

Use these phrases to make sentences with the verbs

Exercise 1 1 (1 1 )
Below are some new verbs the present tense. Give their future
continuous and future simple like this: , ,

to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to

cook
light
live
strike, to clink
celebrate
travel
drive
have fun
help
prepare
dye
hide
reside, live
carry , proceed

18 Feminine nouns, e.g. ,


,

Feminine nouns form their cases according to their endings, which


fall into two broad categories. There are others, of course, but for
the time being we will concentrate the two principal ones - those
ending - and those ending -, e.g. victory,
mother.

63
Singular
Nominative
Genitive
Accusative
Vocative

-
-
-
-

-
-
-
-

Plural
Nominative
Genitive
Accusative
Vocative

-
-
-
-

-
-
-
-

Note:

The word sometimes appears as . 1t is a simi!ar situation to that pointed


re!ation to , -.
the genitive p!ura! the position the stress-accent varies. There is hard and
fast ru!e; you will gradually !earn to remember the particu!ar instances. number
nouns, indeed, do not have a genitive p!ura! at a!l. This is again something you
will !earn as you go a!ong.
out

the last dialogue we made use of feminine nouns with a slightly


different way of forming the genitive singular and plural.
We have come across , and the nar
rative Lesson 3 we encountered the phrase .
Both these two feminine nouns, i.e. and ,
are words which can form their genitive differently, both the
singular and n the plural. The reasons are rather involved and
would rather confuse if introduced at this stage. may find them
a good modern Greek grammar (see suggestions for Further
Reading).
Singular


( )



( )

Plural


Note: There has been a shift the position the stress-accent. At this stage it will
suffice to note this and to be aware that it occurs.

64

----Exercise 12 (12 )

The word for dy is feminine. Most but not all days of the
week are also feminine. The days of the week are listed below. Put
the correct definite article, i.e. , , front of each of them like
this: . (Oint: Note their endings. )

Sunday
Monday
Tuesday
Wednesday
Thursday
Friday
Saturday

Exercise 13 (13 )

The Greek word for seson is . Not all seasons are, however,
feminine. They are listed below without the appropriate article.
Look at the ending and let it guide you as to the gender of each.
Add the appropriate definite article as the previous exercise
and check your answers the Key to Exercises.

winter
spring
summer
autumn

Exercise 14 (14 )
Fill the blanks the sentences below, choosing from the possible
answers which follow.

.

.


.
5 -
;

- .
6
. ;
1
2
3
4

___

----

Exercise 15 (15 )
The following questions are typical of those included cards often
handed out to tourists order to collect statistical data. Read
the instructions Greek and follow them. If you have difficulty
understanding them, look the translation the Key to
Exercises. Write your answers Greek.

_________________

___________________________________

_________________________

: ;

_________________________

_________________





__________

Narratie

Easter is a very important religious festival and family occasion


Greece and Cyprus, with many local customs and traditions being
honoured. It is a time when village life comes into its own, when
family members normally resident the towns return to celebrate
Easter the traditional way.

65

66

-------

EssentiaI vocabuIary
( )








, ,

, ,

family
to lve
two and a half
holday (i.e. day work), celebration
village
town
countryside
grandfather
grandmother
people
red
big, large
yard


.

.
,
, ,
.
.



.
.

.
,
,
, .

.

67
Additional ocabulary relating to the family you may wish to bear
mind or learn.

,
,
,


uncle
aunt
nephew
niece
cousin
brother
sister
dad
mum
son-in-law, brother-in-law ( also
bridegroom )
daughter-in-law, sister-in-law
( also bride )
fiancee
fiance
husband
wife

Points of i nterest
The glossary below is gien order to help you understand the
narratie. The terms included are of cultural interest and not
intended to be learned.

Easter
Good Friday

.e. the family home


a special soup eaten Easter Sunday; it
contains giblets, rice and green egetables
a special dish made from the meat and

testines of lamb cooked charcoal
charcoal

Easter Sunday, members of familes and
friends hae a competition during which
they strike Easter eggs, traditionally dyed
red, until one egg is left uncracked. Its
owner then claims ictory oer the others.
an idiomatic phrase meaning there's Bedlm

68

Christ has risen. The reply to this


He hs truly risen.

Mrs
Mr or Mrs

IS

Comprehension
(a) Answer the questions below English.
1 Where does the Papanikolaou family live?
2 What are the special preparations for Easter?
3 What is the traditional way of celebrating Easter Greece?
(b) Answer the following questions brief.y Greek.
1 What is the traditional greeting Easter Sunday?
2 What is it customary to do with eggs just before Easter and
Easter Sunday?
3 Where do the grandparents of this family live?
Exercise 16 (16 )
You are writing to a Greek friend just before Easter. You have told
him or her that you have started to learn Greek and want to end
your letter with an appropriate greeting Greek. Why not wish
him 'Happy Easter' ?
a n earlier chapter w e have already come across the phrase
Bon voyge. ou know the Greek word for 'Easter'
so write down the Greek equivalent for 'Happy Easter'. Check your
answer the Key to Exercises.

5 Entertainment

l this lesso we l l look at:

the expression of p u rpose


ne uter n o u n s (si n g u l a r and p l u ra l )
d i rections
n u m be rs h u n d reds and thousands
the u se of u pper- and l ower-case cha racters
some i rreg u l a r verbs
and l l a l so revise what h ave a l ready lea rned

Dialogue () -

.
.

Vocabu/ary ( )



,
,

journey, voyage
good morning to you
occasion
to be a hurry
to run
must
way, manner
island
fine, well
since, because, why

70



company friends
fishing
to fish
good mood
go , oh yes?

, .
. .
, .
'
.
, '
.
, ,
. .
, ;
, ! .
. . . !

Good morning to you, Aliki.


Hello, Yannis. Come, let's have cup of coffee.
Thanks, Aliki, some other time. am in hurry now; am running
around trying to jind way to leave for the island this afternoon.
Well, go by air; there must be flight today.
Sure there is, but must have my car because am with jriends. We
are going jishing.
Well, are you going to be jishing by car?
ou are in good mood jirst thing in the morning, Aliki! Bye.
Bon voyage . . . and have fun.

Language points
19 Purpose
n English, purpose is expressed with such phrases as want to go,
he is going home to watch television, etc.
n Greek, purpose is expressed by using the word and the
form of the verb we use to describe actions n the future. If our
purpose is to do something once only, then we use the simple form
of the verb. If our intention is to continue, then we use the contin
uous form of the verb, like this:

71
Future continuous
Singulr


Plurl


Future
continuous
Singulr


Purpose (continuous) **

Purpose
(continuous)

Future
continuous

Purpose
(continuous)

Plurl



Future simple


Purpose (simple)


Note: Verbs like form their future simple and therefore the expression
purpose n the simple tense the same as verbs like .

If you go back to the first dialogue n this lesson, you will see that
some of the verbs have been underlined. They are examples of the
use of verbs expressing purpose. Apart from those underlined,

72
there are others also expressing purpose which have not been
underlined because they form their tenses a different way; these
are known as 'irregular verbs'. Language point 20 below deals with
some irregular verbs.
Exercise 1 (1 )
Go back to the first dialogue and read it again. If possible listen to
it again the audio material and read it aloud. Now underline the
verbs which you think express purpose. (Hiot: they will normally
be preceded by the word .) Then make two lists of these verbs,
one of those expressing continuity and the second of those the
simple tense, like this:
Continuous

.
future must listen to my mother.
Simp/e

.
This time you must listen to what am saying.
Does this construction Greek i.e. + verb remind you of an
equivalent construction English and if so which one? Write down
what you think before referring to the Key to Exercises.

20 /rregu/ar verbs
to find, to leve, to drink, to go.
Future continuous



Future simple



Future simple
Singulr
-
-
-
-
-
-

-
-
-

-
-
-

73
Plurl
-
-
-

-
-
-

-
-
-

-
-
-

Exercise 2 (2 )
The following are expressions usually followed by
either the contillUOUS or simple form:

verb

want to
intend to
am the habit of
can
insist
it is difficult to

Make use of the aboe phrases translating the English sentences


below into Greek.
1 want to go fishing tomorrow.
Can you find Tina?
3 They insist your leaing too.
4 We are the habit of going to the islands the summer.
2

Exercise 3 (3 )
Can you explain why , , , ,
, , do not take a stress-accent while ,
, , do? Go back to Lesson 1 if you
cannot answer this question.
Exercise 4 (4 )

+ verb is also used giing directions and instructions, as this


exercise.
ou are at a illage to see the illage church, famous for its
frescoes. ou hae stopped at the cafe to ask for directions . Draw
a plan of the route including the arious landmarks mentioned
the directions: , , .
,
. ,
.

74

-------

' ,

.
Exercise 5 (5 )
This horserider iS asking for directions to help him reach his desti
nation. Which way is he going to go and what is he looking for?

- ; ! . . .

21

Upper- and lower-case letters

n other words, capital letters and small letters. n English there is


a tendency to use upper-case letters rather liberally. n Greek
upper-case letters are used as follows:
(a) At the beginning of names, e.g. , .
(b) At the beginning of the names of countries and nationalities,
e.g. , , , .
( c) The first letter of the days, months and holidays, e.g.
, .
Naturally, a new sentence begins with a capital letter.

-------

Exercise 6 (6 )

The passage below is all upper-case letters. Because of this the


stress-accents are not included.
Copy it using upper- and lower-case letters as appropriate and,
if you have the audio material, listen to one of the native speakers
reading Put the stress-accents where appropriate.


:
: .
1 .30 .
: .
6 .
: .
:
.
.
Exercise 7 (7 )
reply to the questions, complete the sentences below by choosing
an appropriate phrase from the alternatives offered, e.g. :
;




or


1 ;




2 ;


3 ;


75

76

----

4 ;


. .

5 ;



Language activity
Application form for a subscription to a magazine
wish to subscribe to a Greek magazine and
a letter and an application form

have received

Vocabu/ary ( )


subscriber
registration
form
know
magazine
list, catalogue
publish, issue
preference
, card
cheque
cash collection



.
.

.

77
,
.
Exercise 8 (8 )
Now you have read the covering letter, fill n the registration card.
Don't forget the all-important matter money !
:

--

: ( .)
:
:
- :
- :
:
:
: 256

__

.
:

Help () may find the following notes helpful n filling n the card.
Addresses:
n Greek the name of the street precedes the number and the post
code is given before the name of the town, e.g.:
24
1 1 3 1 2
The Greek equivalent of Street ( ) is often omitted. If included,
then it takes the form 24, but more often it appears
as 24.
However, if venue or
included, like this:

Square

is part of the address, this is usually


. 55
36
. 36

55 55, Queen Sophia venue


55, Queen Sophia v.
36, Omonia Square
36, Omonia Sq.

or

or

78
. .
iS a
=

a n abbreviation

more forma! word for house. informa! situations the word

is more customary.

La nguage poi nts


22 Neuter nouns - singu/ar and p/ura/
n the Language Activity section above a few nouns have been
underlined so as to draw your attention to them. n Lesson 3 we
dealt with neuter nouns, i.e. those preceded by the article and
ending n - and -.
n this lesson we will look at all the cases of these nouns n the
singular and plural. These are, n fact, the simplest of them all.

wter

cr

Singulr

-
-
-
-

-
-
-
-

Plurl

-
-
-
-
Note: the case

-
-
-
-

the stress-accent remains the !ast syllab!e

throughout. the case , however,

the stress-accent moves one

syllab!e two cases.

chld

summer

Singulr

-
-
-
-

-
-
-
-

79
Plural

-
-
-
-

-
-
-
-

Note: As the previous case, the sress-accent moves n certain cases the basis

the same guidelines as above, i.e. the last syllable has one the following
letters :

-, -, -.

Exercise 9 (9 )
Fill the blanks, selecting the correct form of the word from the
list that follows, e.g. is appropriate for this example, which
denotes possession, i.e. his car.

___

Ford Escort.

1
.

3

1 972.
4


.
5
4 .
2

_
__

, , , , ,
, .
Exercise 10 (10 )
the narrative at the end of the lesson a number of new words
will be introduced. The following are some of them, but they are
listed below the form which they occur the text itself.
order to find their meaning you will need to decide first the form
n which they will be listed the Glossary.
n the case of verbs it will be the first-person singular n the
present tense, e.g. , , .
the case of nouns it will be the nominative singular, i.e.
, , .
Decide which form they will be appearing the Glossary,
write it down and then look their meaning.

()

80

-------

Language points
23 Numbers - hundreds and thousands
n Lesson 3 we discussed numbers 1-100. n this lesson we will learn
the terms for hundreds and thousands .

H u ndreds
100
200
300
400
500
600

( )

( )

700
800
900
1000

Thousands

1000
1 000 000
2000 1 000 000 000
3000
4000
etc

As we saw n Lesson 3, some numbers have different forms when


used to refer to men, women and children (i . e . masculine, feminine
and neuter forms) .
These forms for the numbers we are dealing with n this lesson
are as follows:
Msculine

"
"
"

Feminine

"
"
"

Neuter

"
"
"

100
200
300
400
1000

After 1000 the same form is used for men, women and children .

81
Exercise 1 1 (1 1 )
Using the numbers gien Language Point 23, write down,
words, the following numbers the context gien:
5000 newspapers
6000 magazines
7000 cars

500 theatres
600 towns
700 arrials

Exercise 12 (12 )
Larger numbers are formed as we discussed Lesson 3: 1250
becomes . If it is used to refer to an object
or person, the form the numbers will change according to
whether the particu1ar person or object is masculine, feminine or
neuter, like this: 1325 women becomes
, but 1325 men becomes
.
The following sentences include numbers figures. Please copy
them replacing the numbers with words.
1
2
3
4

1 55 33 .
45.
1 .500 .
2 1 5 .

Exercise 13 (13 )
Join () the points with the following numbers turn to see
a picture emerges.

,
.
1

2
.
3 .
4

5
6 .

82

-----

There are two sets of numbers which hae been joined up.
Which are they?
13
4
27

1993

1 025 126

338

Narratie

short article a Greek daily about a Greek play has attracted


your attention. Read see if will be possible see being
performed this summer.

Essential vocabulary (
)



, ,

, ,

, ,
, ,

finally
later, after
National Theatre (state theatre)
coming, next
enough, sufficient
other, another
written
round, around

83

, ,

, ,

speech, word
alive
rich




.
( 1 1 - 1 5 l )
.
, , 1 2 1 4
.
1 600 ,
, :
.

Poi nts of i nterest



n the plural here it is neuter, but n the singu1ar it is masculine i.e.
. The word has two different meanings. It
means tense (as n grammar) as well as time and year. Its plural
forms have different meanings.

,
,

tense, tenses (e.g. future tense)


year, years

Exercise 14 (14 )
few words n the passage above have similarities to words n
current use n English; they may also have simi1ar not identical
meanings. Which English words are you reminded by the
following and what do you think are their meanings? Check your
answers n the Key to Exercises.

84

---

--

Comprehension
(a) Answer the questions below English or, where necessary,
Greek .
1 When will be performed?
2 Where will be performed for the first time?
3 From what you have read, do you think that is likely
to be a comedy or a tragedy?
4 The word 'comedy' also comes from Greek. Can you guess what
the Greek word is?
5 We came across the name an earlier lesson (Lesson 4)
but a slightly different form. Can you remember what it was?
(b) ..
: ;
)
)
:
)
)
)
2 ;
)
)
)
3 ;
)
)
)
4 ;
)
)
)
1

Exercise 15 (15 )
The following is an extract from a leaflet giving information an
arts festival. Read it carefully and answer English the questions
below.
1 Which days and dates can you book for ?
2 What time does the performance start?

---

3 How much are the tickets?


4 Where can you get tickets from?
5 ... stands for . What is
it n English?

330 -

II
1 3
1 4
1 5

24

1 1
1 2
1 4
1 5

20
21


1
2

21 . 1 5'
30 20 .
. ..
1 0.00'-1 3.00' 1 7 .00'- 1 9.00'.
(251 ) 223504.

85

. . .
,

Once n a ti me . .

Lesson 6 deals with:

d i m i n uties
the past tenses
sayi ng - d e n i a l a n d negatio n
s o m e com mon p h rases

Dialogue () 1 ; What happened7

50 , .

. .
. ,
.

Vocabu/ary ( )



, ,

()

o o , o K , o K o

to meet again
bell
to invite
to go out
rough sea
a great deal, much
weekend
last week
small harbour
entire, whole

---

.
. ;

.
, . . ;
, .
, ;
; .
.
, ;
,


.
- .
. . .
. .
- ;
;
, . . .
- !
, !
.

Good evening, Aliki.


Hello, Yanni. How come you are here?
Last week you invited me lor collee.
Oh yes, so did. Come in. Do you take your coffee medium sweet?
, without sugar.
Well, how was your jshing?
What jshing? We didn 't even go out the small jshing harbour.
We saw no jsh at all.
Why, what happened?
Well, the sea was rough a weekend. We didn 't even leave Master
Ilias 's tavern.
In other words, did you actually take look in the direction the
sea or was the sea 'rough ' just inside the tavern?
What do you mean ?
am just wondering whether the 'heavy sea ' you saw was due to the
ouzo Master Ilias serves.
Come off it.

87

88

Points of interest
,
This is a friendly welcome extended to a friend one is pleased to
see. The word is also used combination to give us
, welcome which you will encounter
often Greek-speaking areas.
come

means come in. ! here it is used as an


affectionate mild scolding. a similar situation English one
would say Come on! or Come off it! The word ,
, means poor one.
-


The word is an abbreviated form of . It is used only
cases where may seem too formal. It is best to be aware of
its meaning but to avoid using it.
by any chance
It is used when making an enquiry or for expressing puzzlement. It
can also be used when making an enquiry for which it is necessary
to be exceptionally polite. It is the equivalent of the English 'may
' or 'would you like me to', e.g. :


;

;

May perhaps help you?


Would you perhaps like another
orangeade?

Language points
24 Diminutives
the first dialogue this lesson, you will have noticed that some
words have been used a slight1y different form from that which
we encountered them before, e.g . :

coffee
fish

small coffee
small fish

89

harbour

small harbour
small

Greeks are very fond using diminutives everyday speech, and


not all of them have this ending; but be prepared to encounter
them, particular speech. Diminutives are used not only to
denote smaller size, like , the dialogue, but also
to show affection, e.g. means lamb, but when wanting to
emphasize the playfulness and innocence it the speaker might
prefer to use
All the examples we have come across here end - l. This
ending is more common when the original form the is
the neuter. We will come across different forms of diminutives
later lessons.

25 Action taking p/ace the past


Some verbs used the dialogue above have been underlined and
some have been underlined and emboldened. All these are the
past tense, other words they describe events which happened
the past.
Those simply underlined form their past tense accordance
with rules for regular verbs which we will discuss here. Those
emboldened and underlined are the past tenses irregular verbs
which you will find discussed Lessons 7 and 8.
English the past tense can be used to describe an action which
took place the past once, e.g. took the bus earlier this evening,
or a continuing past action, e.g. as was walking along the road.
There is a similar distinction Greek.

25a The past simp/e (an action taking


p/ace once the past)
the first dialogue this lesson we came across these examples:

.
.
.
They describe actions which took place once the past .

90

----

Verbs ending n -
The endings change and the stress-accent moves to the third
syllable from the end .
Present
-
-
-

Past simple
-
-
-

-
-
-

-
-
-

Note:

Verbs like

form the past simple exactly like

The following are examples verbs ending n - n the present and


past simple.
Present

Past simple

Verbs ending n

At this point it will be useful to recall the changes that occur n


verbs ending n - when they form the future simple tense. We dealt
with these n Lesson 4.
Present
-
-

Future simple
-
-

Past simple
- -
- -

----

-
-
-
-

-
-
-
-

--
()-
()-
--

Note the changes when compared to the present and future simple
tenses:

( a ) different endings
( b ) the of the future simple has been retained
( c) the stress falls the third syllable from the end. If necessary
an is added as a prefix to provide the third syllable e.g.
but .

The following are examples of verbs ending - the present


and the past simple. Their common feature is that they have three
syllables and therefore, unlike the example above, do not need to
acquire a prefix order to allow the migration of the stress-accent.
Present

Pst simple

Exercise 1 (1 )
Bearing mind the rules governing the formation of the past tense
for verbs ending -, give the past simple tense of the following.
may need to refer to Language Point 25a concerning the past
tense, and to the formation of the future simple Lesson 4.
Present

Pst simple

Present

Pst simple

91

92
Exercise 2 (2 )
Having checked your answers to the previous exercise the Key
to Exercises, see whether you can complete the list below how
the endings of verbs change the past simple, e.g. verbs ending n
- like take the ending - n the past simple.
Verbs ending n the present form the past simple with the
tense n
appropriate endings
-
-
-

-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Exercise 3 (3 )
number of words and phrases are associated with the description
of events which are recorded as simply having taken place n the
past. Below you will find a list of some of these.

( )
( )




( )
2000

yesterday
the day before yesterday
last month
last week
four years ago
five months ago
last year
2000

Below there are a few incomplete sentences. Fill n the gaps with
the correct phrase or word from the alternatives placed beside each
sentence, e.g. :

()
. . . .

, ,

------

1 . . . ,
.
2 . . . ,
4
3 . . . ,
2000
4
,
. . .
5
,
. . .

6 ,
. . .
Exercise 4 (4 )
Of the following pairs which is or are the odd pair(s) and why?

Dialogue () 2
(The accident)

psser-by gives policemn n ccount 0/ n ccident she


witnessed.

Vocabu/ary ( )




accident
police constable
shop window
dress
wedding
so
there
voice

93

94

-----

..

screeching
brake
people
corner
to walk
to know
to hear
to enter
beg your pardon
past tense of

, ;
, , .
, , .
, , ,
. , ,

' . . .

------

- ,
.
- , , .
, ,
.
. . . 8 MW.
.

Points of interest

We came across this word Lesson 1 . If you cannot recall how its
use differs from , go back to Lesson 1 and refresh your memory.
(Hint: witness a court of law would use rather than
when answering questions.)

The words , are also used with the job description
some circumstances which English one would use the words
sir or mdm. It is not uncommon to come across such uses as
, (Minister, Professor). It
is also used when the name of a person is not known and as a sign
of respect.

Translated word for word it means my she/he live long for you.
the context of the dialogue, English one would say 'congratula
tions' . This phrase and variations of it are commonly used. The
phrases , are used to congratulate the happy
couple just married, or somebody's birthday or nameday . the
parents of the newly married couple the phrase used is
.

It is an abbreviated form of . It can be used some cases where


the word following it begins with a vowel.

95

96

----

La nguage points
25b The imperfect (an action which either
lasted a long time or was repeated the
past)
Earlier this lesson we discussed the past tense terms of actions
which simply occurred the past. The imperfect is used for
continued or repeated action the past.

Verbs ending n -
Present
-
-
-

Imperject
-
-
-

-
-
-

-
-
-

Note:

Verbs like

form the imperfect like

The changes just affect the endings which must be learned. The
following are some examples of verbs the present and imperfect
tenses.
Present

Imperject

97

Verbs ending n
Present
-
-
-
-
-
-

Imperfect
--
--
--
()-
()-
--

Using as a reference point the present tense, which is the form


usually given dictionaries and the Glossary at the end of this
book, three changes occur n the imperfect tense:

( a ) the endings are different


( b ) the accent moves to the third syllable from the end
( c) a prefix () is added if the verb has only two syllables and
begins with a consonant.

If an extra syllable has been added to the ending and the verb now
has three syllables ( e.g. , ) the accent moves back a
syllable. If, however, this is not possible, the prefix is added ( e.g.
) so that the accent can move to the third syllable from the
end.
-

Note:

It is useful to recall the rule we mentioned passing an earlier lesson

relating to the stress-accent, i.e. that Greek the stress-accent always falls the
first, second or third syllable from the end. Greek word has an accent
the fourth syllable from the end. Even when foreign words with the emphasis
falling an earlier syllable pass into Greek they obey this rule e.g. supermarket
Greek it becomes

federalism

and franchise

The following are examples of the imperfect of some verbs.


Present

Imperfect

Present

Imperfect

the verbs above have added a prefix order to acquire three

syllables the imperfect. They all have one thing n common - they
have two syllables their present tense.

98

---

Compare them with the following verbs which are three-syllable


words. They have prefix the imperfect. The stress-accent can
be moved back the existing third syllable and therefore they do
not need to acquire a prefix .
Present

Imper[ect

Present

Imper[ect

Exercise 5 (5 )
The following words and phrases are associated with repeated
actions the past.


, ,


always
often
every year, every day, every
month
regularly
each time

They can equally well be associated with repetitive action the


present or the future. The form of the verb used gives an indi
cation of whether the action is of the past, present or future.
The following words and phrases are associated with a continued
action the past.

while
as, while
all day
all morning
at the moment when

.
Fill the gaps, choosing the correct verb from those listed below
the exercise.
1
.
2 ,
.
3
.
.
4

-------

5
.
6
.
7
.
8
.
___

, ,
,

Exercise 6 (6 )
Go back to the second dialogue ( ) and read it again
carefully. First, underline all the verbs the imperfect tense and
then all the verbs which appear the past simple. Check your list
the Key to Exercises.

Language points
26

saying (negation)

Greek, the word does not just demonstrate a young child's


form of rebellion; since the Second World War, it has come to
reflect a nation's determination to maintain its independence. What
has since become known as Ochi day English and
Greek is celebrated 28 October each year, a bank
holiday commemorating the refusal of the Greeks under Metaxas
to allow the Italians to occupy Greece 1940.

don 't know

There are two forms of negative sentences Greek. The first


simply gives a negative meaning to a sentence by using the word
or .
Examples:

.
.

.
.
. .
It is as simple as it can possibly be - add or front of the
verb a sentence.

99

1 00

However, unlike English, Greek the double negative is used, e.g.:
English we say:

Greek we say:

don't know anything


or know nothing.
They are not going anywhere.

.
(
= nothing)
.
( = nowhere)
.
( = nobody)

. ( = never)

She doesn't want to see


anyone.
will never buy a car.

00

not

The other negative form you will see notices almost everywhere.
It is formed with the addition of the word or . English
this is closer to don 't.
Examples:




Note:

used

SMOKING
PARKING
DON'T WALK GRASS

preious lessons we came across

or

or

(), ()

and this lesson we have

The inclusion or otherwise of the final

is determined

by rather complicated rules which are beyond the scope of this book. The meaning
remains the same either case.

Exercise 7 (7 )
Read carefully the following questions. Translate them into English
and underline what you think is the meaning of the Greek words
also underlined. Check your answers the Key Exercises.
1
2
3
4

;
;
;
;

(Hnt: We have encountered these words above (double negative)


with a slightly different meaning, e.g. can mean either
nothing or nything, according to the context.)

101
Exercise 8 (8 )
Below, you will find a number of sentences. Change them into (a)
questions and (b) negatie sentences. If you need refresh your
memory, go back to Lesson 2. The first is an example.
.
;

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

Exercise 9 (9 )
.
Fill the gaps.
The following is a brief account of the incident following the
accident the dialogue aboe.

.



.
. ,

. . . .

___

___

, , , , , ,
Exercise 10 (10 )
We hae already discussed some idiomatic phrases used special
occasions - how congratulate the happy couple their wedding,
how wish someone a safe journey.
The phrases column 1 are used other special occasions.
column 2 you will find the equialent phrases English, but they
are the right order. Can you match them up? One is the odd

1 02
one out because there is equivalent phrase English. Can you
venture a guess as to the occasion which it might be used?
Enjoy your meal
Good luck
Happy New ear
Cheers (our health)
Many happy returns
?

can check your answers the Key to Exercises.

Narrative

The mountain range Cyprus, with its five


distinct depressions, seen from a distance looks as a giant hand
has pressed it.

Essential vocabulary (
)


, ,

, ,
, ,

past tense of
word
composite
end
finger
was, past tense of
known
much, a 10
accordance with
attempt
to fall
to put
hand
leave
.e. (an abbreviation of )

,
,
( << , )
He stepped over mountins, lept over mountin tops
house could contin him, no cve ws big enough for him
('The death Diyenis', Akritic Folk Songs)

1 03


.
.


, .
.

.
, ,
,
,

.

Additional vocabulary








, ,


mountain range
Cyprus
legend
soldier
to defend
border
Byzantine Empire
Byzantium
folk song
tradition
chased
enemy
(finger) print

Points of interest
You will have noticed that two different forms of the word for
finger are being used n the passage above - ,
. Apart from gender ( one is masculine and the other
neuter ) there is also a difference the letters , . Some words
may still be encountered with both and , e.g. , , or
, . These differences are due to changes n the language
over the centuries and need not concern us here.

1 04

----

Comprehension
() .

1
2
3
4
5

;
;
;
;
;

() Two erses are quoted at the beginning of the comprehension


passage. Who do you think they refer to?

Exercise 1 1 (1 1 )
Interpret, English, the name of the mountain range known
Greek as and explain to an English friend how
this name came about.

7
Hae a good holiday

this lesson we ll be looking at:

adjectives
the tenses of some i rreg u l a r verbs e n d i n g -
o rd i n a l n u m be rs
dates
col o u rs
neither . . . . . .
-

Language actiity

n Greece you cannot avoid 'meeting' the sea. And you happen
to travel to the islands you will probably have occasion to appre
ciate its brilliant blue stillness and, perhaps, also its wrath, senti
ments expressed most eloquently n the following extract from a
Greek poem.

'
' , ' ,
, ,
, .
( . , )

like the se becuse it's like me


like it, herd you sy quietly,
sometimes it turns rough, it grons nd sighs
other times it plys joyfully nd lughs.
(. Vloritis, 'The blonde girl')

1 06

Language points (
)
27 Adjectives
Adjectives are words which describe nouns: blue, calm, rough,
beautiful, good, bad are adjectives.
We have already encountered a number of adjectives n Greek
n previous lessons. n word lists given n previous lessons adjec
tives were listed like this:

, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,

(6 0
(5 0
(50
(5 0
(5 0

)
)
)
)
)

The reason they were given n their masculine, feminine and


neuter forms is because their endings change according to whether
they are used to describe a man, a woman or a thing or, n
other words, a masculine, feminine or neuter noun. So, n Greek,
we say:

Q oQ
Q Q
Q KQ.

g Q
g Q

.Q

For a man we say , for a woman we say


and for a child we say .
Not all adjectives have these endings, but regular adjectives do
and these are the ones we will be dealing with n this lesson.
Like nouns, adjectives also have cases, and agree with the nouns
they describe. good example of this is the use of as
demonstrated by some of the phrases we have already encountered.

(
neuter noun; has the
neuter ending -)
( feminine noun; the adjective has
a feminine ending -)
-

1 07

( feminine noun the plural;


the adjective is in the plural with the ending
matching that of the noun it describes)
( feminine noun; the adjective

has a feminine ending)
( is feminine and has a
feminine ending)

, ,
Singulr

Plurl

, ,
Singulr

Plurl

One thing is worth remembering with adjectives: through all cases,


they keep the stress-accent the same syllable as the nomina
tive. other words has the stress-accent -, therefore
it will keep it that syllable throughout.

1 08
1 (Exercise 1)
Having read the notes about adj ectives, decline
, , full (i.e. give
their forms all cases, singular and plural). Bear mind what we
said about the position of the stress-accent the case of adjectives.
will find the answers the Key to Exercises.

2 (Exercise 2)
the short verse quoted at the beginning of the Lesson, the sea is
described as . The word is formed by joining two other
words together, meaning all, whole and meaning
joy. Below you will find some other adjectives which are formed
a similar way.
The words from which each compound word is formed and their
separate meanings are given below. Can you guess the meaning of
the compound words? Below each word you will see a phrase which
will help you with the meaning. The first is an example.
-

, -, -

(all

joy)

full of joy, joyful

+ ( as a prefix it means full


ness + blue)

+ ( as a prefix it means full


ness + green)

+ (much, multi + tumult, commotion)

+ (much

+ (much

frequent)

child)


+ (worthy

(worthy

noted)

sorrow)

1 09

Language poi nts (


)
28 Colours ( )
Colours are used as adjecties and as such hae three forms, which
are used according to whether the word ( noun ) they describe is
masculine, feminine or neuter. The most commonly encountered
colours are:

, , , or more compact form


, -, - red
, , , or more compact form
white
, -, -
black
, -, -
, , , r
, , , or , -, - green
blue
, -, -
, , , or
yellow
,
-,
-
, , , or
grey
, -, -
, , , or
When the colours are not used order to describe another word,
the neuter form is used, e.g. the context of the colour yellow
.
Note: From now adjectives will be listed the abbreviated form, e.g.

-, -.

29 Ordinal numbers, e.g. first, second,


twenty-third, etc.
Although this term is only just introduced, you may hae noticed
that this form has already been introduced to you the last few
chapters. It first appeared relation to the phrase Exercise 1 .
some lessons this was followed by a short phrase brackets
Greek (1 ), i.e. . Later we came across:

2
3
4
..
Note:

across

..
.

2nd exercise
3rd exercise
4th exercise
etc.

is another abbreviation

etc. We have already come

1 10
n full they are as follows:

, -, -
, -, -
, -, -
, -, -
, -, -
, -, -
, -, -
, -, -
, -, -
, -, -
, -, -
, -, -
.

first
second
third
fourth
fifth
sixth
seventh
eighth
ninth
tenth
eleventh
twelfth
etc.

30 Dates ( )
Dates can be written n Greek n numbers n exactly the same way
as n English, e.g. 22.6.1992 30/4/2002.
They may also be written more fully, as n a letter, as follows:

4 l 1 994 ( l
)
The following are some commonly encountered phrases relating
to dates:
date:
: 22 * l 1 994
: 1 4 1 956 Date of birth:
: 1 1 978 Date of marriage:
Although we say , , , the date is 2 l,
22 . full, they are written as l,
note that not only has the ending changed but the stress-accent has also

Note:

moved. This is so for historic reasons.

Exa mples of phrases using dates


Various types of questions are associated with dates. Although the
information asked for and given is basically the same, contentwise,
the phrasing of the questions and the answers may vary.

111
Question ()

Answer ()

24 ( )
1 959
;
1 3 ( ) l
; 5 ()
; 1 6 ( )

5 ()
;
1 ()
;
6 ()
;

;
4 ()

3 (Exercise 3)
.
(Fill n the gaps)
Under Language Point 28 we discussed colours as adjectives and as
nouns. Fill n the gaps n the following sentences with the correct
form of the colour which appears n brackets at the end of each
sentence, e.g.:


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

. () Answer:


()

()

. ()


( , )

()

. ()

()

. ( )

Note

_.

_.

_.

_.

_.

( ):

The phrase n o . 8 above is a n idiomatic expression used a s

one would u s e the phrase lt makes one want t o cry English.

1 12
4 (Exercise 4)
Earlier this lesson we looked at some ways which adjecties
are formed by combining other words. This is not confined to
adjecties by any means. The words listed below hae been formed
by combining words we hae already encountered preious
lessons. Can you decide which two words hae been combined to
form each of them and what the meaning of the new word is?
The first has been done for you.

, -, -
1
2
3
4
5
6

7
8
9
10
11

fie-year-old

5 (Exercise 5)
Earlier we discussed ordinal numbers, i.e. , -, -, etc. up
to twelfth. Can you gie the ordinal numbers (adjectial form) for
the following numbers? The first one is an example.

Number

Numericl djective

(1 3)

( 13th salary =
Christmas bonus)

(20th = , - , - )


1 821

1 940
(30th = , - , - )


( *"
*

Note the gender despite the

anniersary)

ending which we hae learned as a masculine

ending. ou can find more about this n Lesson 8.

1 13
6 (Exercise 6)
First learn the following ordinal numbers.
40th
50th
60th

=
=
=

, - , -
, -, -
, - , -

Give the appropriate form, the abbreviated form as well as the full
one, i.e. 600 - , of the numbers below. Compare your
answers with the answers the Key to Exercises.
90th car
100th book

70th year
75th anniversary

Language actiity

The following three passages are captions to pictures taken the


Greek island of Lefkas

Essential vocabulary (
)




. . ( )
. <)

island
century
beach
sand
BC

km (kilometres)

3 .
.
, .

,
.

Additional vocabulary to help you with the captions:

, - , -

picturesque
expanse

1 14
7 (Exercise 7)
The words , are each formed
through the combination of two other words. What is their
meaning, and which two words are joined together each case?
Write down your answers before you look them the Key to
Exercises.

8 (Exercise 8)
Write down the words , , lower-case
letters and put the stress-accents.
Look the Glossary and find the meaning of the words. a
page, arrange the illustrations to the three captions as you think
they appear and indicate what you think each picture showed.

La nguage poi nts (


)
31 The past and future tenses of some
irregu/ar verbs

This verb has l one past tense, which is used both as an imper
fect (i.e. for continuous or repeated action the past) and as past
simple (i.e. an action which took place once the past) .

Present

Past

Note how the initial - the present tense changes to - the


past tense.
It l has one form of future tense, based the present tense
i.e. , , etc.

1 15


Similarly, has only one past tense.

Present

Past

As the case of , has only one form of future tense, i.e.


, , etc.

Unlike and , this verb does not compensate us for the


difficulty of having to learn an irregular form by having only one
past tense. However, its imperfect at least follows the usual rules it takes a prefix, the stress-accent moves to the third syllable from
the end, and it has the usual endings.

Present

Imperject

Past simple

Its future simple is unusual too:

Future continuous


Future simple


The future continuous is based the present tense, while the future
simple is based the form of the verb used for the past simple.

1 16
It is necessary to learn the tenses of the following verbs since
they are not formed n accordance with the rules we discussed n
Lesson 6. Below you will find the first person only, since the endings
are otherwise the same as those above.

Present

Imperfect

Pst
simple

Future
continuous

Future
simple

()

( give )

( cry )

(climb )


( )

32

neither

Examples of its use:


Neither of us went.

.
neither saw nor heard him.
.
He/She/It didn't leave m e alone
day or night.
.

not

is also used as follows:


.
.
.

didn't even hear him.


don't even want to go.
Even Antonis didn't come.

1 17
9 (Exercise 9)
Give the following tenses of the verbs descend,
come/go out, tke. Look at Language Point 31 for examples.
Present tense
Future continuous
Future simple
Imperfect
Past simple

1 (Exercise 10)
Which of the following words do you associate with ( a ) the past
tense, ( b ) the future tense, ( c) the present? Arrange the words into
three groups under the headings ( a ) past, ( b ) future, ( c) present.

, , , ,
, 2030, 1 821 , , .
l 1 (Exercise 1 1)
the short passage below, the verbs are given the present tense.
Put them the correct tense as the context which they are used
demands, e.g.:

( ) .
.
1
2
3
4

( ) .
( ) .
() .
. () ;

12 (Exercise 12)
Below you will find some idiomatic phrases using neither . . . nor.
Each of them is used within a sentence to help you arrive at its
meaning. Can you think of an appropriate equivalent idiomatic
expression English? Write it down before you refer to the Key
to Exercises.

.
.
.
.
.

1 18

------

. . .

. . .

Narrative :

-

Earlier we looked at three captions to pictures about the island


and began this lesson with a quote from one its poets,
. . n the following passage we find out a little more
about the island.

Lefkatha

1 19

Essential vocabulary (
)
, -, -






, -, -
, - , -

, - , -







, -, -

small
shore
but
sand
sandy shore
village
seashore
inhabitant
warm
hospitable
try
tourist
business
high spirits, joviality
vine
olive, olive tree
fishing
fair (village fair)
fatherland
national
poet

!
,
,

. , ,



.
303 . .
.
. ,
.

.
,
.

1 20
Further ocabulary you may find useful relation to this passage:


, -, -
, -, -
, -, -


, - , -


, -, -
, -, -


..

tradition
customs and traditions
precipitous
wooded and green
imposing
contrast
generation
faceless
to plant
to cultivate
earth, soil
unique
mountainous
plane tree
to combine
way of life
( ) square km

Points of interest
Note how words are deried from other words the passage:
brooks - from the erb ( run
an adjectie from the name of the island


mountainous - from the word

mountin

national - from the word ntion

Comprehension
()

1 ;
2 ;
3 ;
( ) .
1 ;
2 ;
3 ;
4 ;

121
13 (Exercise 13)
Which two words are the following compound words made from,
and what is their meaning?
e.g. =
+ from +
precipice
precipitous
, , , ,

14 (Exercise 14)
.

How do you think the people of Lefkatha manage to combine



?

The world of business

his lesson ll deal with:

the tenses of some i rreg u l a r verbs e n d i n g -


some i rreg u l a r adjectives
m o re col o u rs
adve rbs
words used pl ace of n o u n s - p ro n o u n s
- , ,
-

-
( Long-dista nce telephone cal l )

businessman with smattering / Greek is trying to speak to


business associate in Greece. He dials the number. The telephone is
answered by the switchboard / the Greek company.

(Vocabu/ary)




( )

office (also desk)


message
out the office
to telephone
the same
myself
mobile (phone)

1 23
- .
- , .
- ;
- Phil Anderson BCD .
- . . . . . Anderson, .
,
;
- , email.
;
- , 43 65 777. email .
philippakis@alpha.otenet.gr.
- . .
- .

Points of interest
Answering the te/ephone
The telephone can be answered a variety of ways. Private indi
viduals are more likely to answer the telephone with a or
. the case of a business it may be either
or , or the name of the company concerned.
have good day, have good
afternoon, have good evening are greetings often
used and worth bearing mind.
Reading te/ephone n umbers
Telephone numbers Greek are usually read pairs; if there are
three numbers left last, as the telephone conversation above,
then all three are read together like this: ,
, . Alternatively, for the sake
of brevity, the same telephone number may be read like this:
, , , .
Emai/
Although there is a perfectly good phrase for 'email' Greek i.e.
( electronic mail ) , practice the
English term is used speech and writing. Sometimes the word

1 24
may be used instead but this same word is also used for
text messages sent from and to mobile phones.
EmaiI addresses
These are written the Latin alphabet just the same as email
addresses English. The address philippakis@alpha.otenet.gr may
be read just as one would English; the symbol @ can be read as
English but you may hear it referred to as (literally
meaning little duck ! ) .
The lnternet

The English term is widely used although the stress tends to fall
the last syllable as n the illustration below. is used
widely mainly magazines and newspapers.


.
modern-day fifteen syllable rhyme from the island Crete:

will get a modem and a computer for my hut


to sell sheep's milk the internet. '
get the rhythm, listen to it the audio material.

1 25
Web pages

Like email addresses, these are also the Latin alphabet and
follow the usual conventions, e.g. at www.gnto.gr you will find the
web pages the Greek National Tourism Organisation and at
www.visitcyprus.org.cy you will see the web pages the Cyprus
Tourism Organisation. Both offer their web pages English and
Greek.

Language points (
)
33 The past and future tenses of some
irregu/ar verbs ending -
Future
simple

Future
continuous








Present

Imper[ect

Pst

(be silent)

(pull)

34 Some pronouns

, ,

Pronouns are words which can be used place a


an adjective. the dialogue above, the telephonist told the caller
; other words Mr.

Philippakis himself.
.

1 26
, , decline n the same way as the nouns
with the same endings. They can be roughly translated as
myself, yourself, himself, etc., and each the three forms is used
according to whether the person is a man, a woman or a child or
thing, e.g.:


implies that the person want to see is a man

the person wish to speak to is a woman

a child ( ) said it

, - , -
, -, -
,
,

myself
you yourself
he/she/it himself, herself, itself



,
,

we ourselves
you yourselves
they themselves

35 More pronouns - the persona/


pronouns , , a -a -a
,

We have already discussed the personal pronoun n Lesson 2.


However, we only looked at its use as the subject a noun, n
other words only n the nominative, as n the following examples:
.
, .
, , , , .
.
.
, , .
Like nouns, personal pronouns also have other cases, and they are
as follows.

1 27

E mphatic forms
Cse
Singulr
Nominatie
Genitie
Accusatie

First person Second person Third person

Plurl
Nominatie
Genitie

Accusatie

, ,
, ,
, (),

, ,
, ,
, ,

These forms are used when the person n question is to be gien


special emphasis.
Examples of usage:
.
;


l.
;

It's m e he/she saw a t the theatre


What did he/she say to you?
bought this one from the shop n
Achilleos Street
Why is it any of their business?

This same set of pronouns also hae another form, a non-emphatic


form, which is used when it is not necessary to place emphasis.
This form is used as an object of the erb n the sentence. The
accusatie case is used for a direct object (i.e. the person or thing
which receies the direct action of the erb) and the genitie for
an indirect object (i.e. the person or thing receiing the action or
benefiting from it) .

Non-emphatic forms
Cse
Singulr
Nominatie
Genitie
Accusatie
Plurl
Nominatie
Genitie
Accusatie

First person

Second person Third person

, ,
, (),

, ,
, ,

1 28
Examples of use:
He/she bought me a packet of

cigarettes.
.
. gave you your books.

told her to stay at home.
.

They spoke to us about the poet.
.
didn't meet you the street.

.
Find the children and bring them
with you.
.

Poi nts interest


Look again at the second example when the word occurs twice,
once as personal pronoun ( first time ) and once as a possessive
pronoun ( second time ) .
There are times when there may be confusion between the two,
e.g.:
.
Does it mean father gave the book or Father gave me the book?
order to make the meaning clear such occasions, when there
may be a possible confusion, the stress-accent comes to the rescue.

If the sentence above means father gave the book, this will be
written as:

If it means Father gave me the book, it will be written as:

Certain verbs appear with the non-emphatic forms.


//

like
you like
he/she/it likes

we like
you like
they like

1 29
Similarly we hae:
. This dress suits me.
am interested this book ery

much.
.
What is your name? name is
;
Natalia.
.
(Literally: What do they call you?
They call me Natalia.)
. I'e got a headache.
;
Does this one suit you?

tooth hurts.
.
After the words

from
for
with
to (direction)
to (as to me )

we use the emphatic forms: , , , , ,


, , , , .
Examples:
;

;

.
.

What do you want from us?


Does Dimitris lie with them?
Tell him to gie the book to you.
We are talking about them.

1
the sentences below there are two objects - one direct and one
indirect. Remembering what we said earlier about the form of
the pronoun to be used, change the sentences substituting the
pronouns as appropriate. help you the words to be substituted
are underlined and we hae done the first example for you.

Example
.

1 30
1
2
3
4
5
6

.
.
.
;
.
.

2
. ( the gaps.) Use the correct
form of one of the pronouns above or a possessive pronoun as
appropriate.
. Anderson . . . .
. .

. . . . Anderson
. . . .
.
.

3
have just bought a rather nice backgammon set ( ) to take
home with you. are presented with the slip below. Before
signing it you should read it and answer the questions below to
make sure you understand exactly what you are signing.
KATOXOV
0000 00 00 0000

22

02

363

A N D E RSON

18,5 %

60,00

11,11

001100

71,11


- ( ' )
.
' .

'

131
Note

():

is the equivalent of Ltd after a company name . Greece

there are many more types of companies that can be formed, but the two main ones
are

, roughly equivalent Limited Liability


- S. A. (Societe Anonyme) .
is the Greek abbreviation for and stands for
Company, and

.
* New forms of verbs be discussed Lesson 12.

1
2
3
4

How are you paying?


How much are you paying?
What are you paying for?
Do you need to sign it, and if so where?

Language activity

After his phone call to his business ssocite in Greece, Mr Anderson


sent ! nd hs just received the reply .

fVocabu/ary)


, , -


,

specially
although
central
company (business)
road (address)
employee
can
discuss
my, mine
liberty, freedom
floor (storey)
product
price list
to interest

1 32

..

BCD
.

Anderson

.
1 ()
, 23 2003

Anderson

: 3-6

.
.

, 40
1 6.

.


.

Points of interest

Although the ending is a typical ending for a masculine noun ( e.g.
), this is a feminine noun since it is preceded by the
feminine article . Its cases follow the rules for masculine nouns
ending -, e.g. we say , , , etc.
There are nouns which hae the same ending for men and for
women; only the article changes. One example this is
, . There are others:

1 33
,
,
,
,
,

This tends to be the case mainly with nouns referring to things that
originally were the domain men. Although feminine forms have
gradually come into use n the above examples ( ,
), they tend to be avoided n more educated circles.
However, n areas where women have been involved over a
longer period time, the feminine forms have become quite estab
lished, e.g. , teacher, ,
nurse.
4
Mr Philippakis began his fax to his English associate with
. Anderson and ended . The word comes from
to love and from friendly. Can you give the
equivalent ways beginning and ending a letter n English?
The following are some more beginnings and endings letters
written n Greek and n English. Look up any words you don't know
and try to arrange them n roughly equivalent pairs. The first one
has been done for you.

1

.
2 .


.
3 .

Dear Tina
Love
Natalia

1 34

-------


a Dear Peter
Best regards
George
b Sirs
ours faithfully
. Jones

c Dear Mrs Adams


ours sincerely
Michael J ennings

Lan guage points (


)
36 Adverbs - e.g. beautifu//y, s/ow/y,
brief/y
this lesson, we shall discuss those adverbs which derive from
adj ectives, some of which we discussed Lesson 7. Greek,
adverbs more often have the ending - and sometimes the ending
-. Below you will find some examples of how adverbs are formed
from adjectives. the fax message above, two adverbs were used
, .

Adjective

Adverb

(min, minly)

The endings - must not be confused with the similar ending of


the neuter form of the adjective, e.g. ; the two are
used quite differently.

1 35
Here are some examples the use Greek adverbs:

.
.
.

We had a nice time at Easter.

He was walking quickly.


He spoke me n a very
friendly manner.

, . told him, 'Enough, stop.'


; , . How are you? Fine, thank you.
But remember the use n , and
. The second these is increasingly written as one
compound word .
-

37 Some adjectives with irregu/ar endings


The following are representative examples different endings
adjectives. ou can refer to them when you encounter other
adjectives with similar endings.

, , (sweet)


Singular



Plural



, , ( heavy)


Singular



1 36

Plural


, , (bIue Iike the sea)




Singular



Plural


As we saw an earlier lesson, colours can be used as adjectives


and have a different ending according to whether they describe a
masculine, a feminine or a neuter noun. Below you will find some
more colours addition to those we discussed Lesson 7.

orange
sky-blue
brown
purple
grey

Some colours retain the same form irrespective of the gender of


the noun. Note their endings. contrast to colours with different
masculine, feminine and neuter forms, the colours listed below have
unusual endings; most cases they are derived from foreign words.

pink
grey
brown
beige
dark blue

1 37
5
The words below refer to items used business. Can you fill the
article , , for each them. The endings should help you
decide the gender the nouns.


( clue , )



( Greece )

( Cyprus )


-






-
-

desk, office
computer
computer
calculator ( also used for 'computer' )
printer
typewriter
typist
secretary
correspondence
area code ( telephones )
post code


briefcase

sales invoice
receipt
retail sale
wholesale sale
despatch note
Tax Registration Number
( this is the equivalent a
Registration Number the
but also serves for other taxation
matters )
web page
internet

1 38
6
Give the correct form of each colour, e.g. .
1
2
3
4
5


() .
(
) .


() .

( ) .

( ) .
_

7
There are a number of errors the short passage that follows. Find
and correct them. shopkeeper is indulging trade gossip.
. ,
, .
, .
.
.
.

8
. Fill the gaps with one of the words
listed below. The translation of each sentence English is included
order to help you choose the correct word.
1

;
2
.
3
.
4
.
5

.
6
7

.
_

Will you give me a lift?


will see you tomorrow.
like sweets very much.
don't care where you go.
She is waiting to be called for
an interiew.
Wait for me too.
They invited him to a meeting.

Choose from: , , , , , , .

1 39
9

ou

tried to call a colleague his mobile and you heard the


following message:

.

.

If you have the audio material, listen to the message and look up
any words you don't know the Glossary at the end of the book.
Please translate it into English.

Narrative
The world of business
-

ou

have received the following the post, relation to your


subscription to a business magazine.

(Essential
vocabulary)

, -, -

if
magazine, periodical
expire
issue
also, too
satisfied
company (keep you company)
learn
following (note that, although an adverb, it is
often used as an adjective as in this passage)

. .


.

.
!

1 40


.



.
Vocabulary to help you with the above narrative:

subscription
to renew
renewal
reminder
cutting (newspaper etc.)
cheque
prepare
questionnaire

Comprehension
( ) .
1 - ;
2 ;
3 ;
() .
1 What do you have to do n order to renew your subscription?
2 Why are you being asked to fill n the questionnaire?
3 What name will you have the cheque made out to?

10

.
E PHMAOO lOY

.
(
'
) .
.

1 41
1
;

;
;

2
;

1 5

25
25-45
45

1 1
What iS the Greek equivalent term for 'FREEPOST'?

(Hnt: Look for it n the first paragaph of the narrative.)

Buy Greek

this lesson ll look at:

food a n d d r i n k
giving o rders using the i m pe rative
adverbs e n d i n g - a n d -
a dverbs of p l ace
the co m pa rison of adjectives

Language activity

Have you ever been tempted to buy globe artichokes sold at super
markets and then changed your mind, unsure what to do with
them once you have brought them into your kitchen? Well, here is
a tempting recipe.

(Vocabu/ary)

to clean
leaf
to boil
to serve
to add
milk
to continue
fire

1 43

Stuffed rtichokes

:
1

Preparation time: 1 hour

Ingredients for 2 persons


4 artichokes
75 grams of grated cheese

4
75

1

1 2,5 .






1 dessertspoons rice flour


125 ml milk
egg
teaspoon of powdered
yeast
a little crushed thyme
a little butter
j uice of half a lemon
salt

. ,
.

1 .
:

. '
. ,
.
.

. ,
.
'
1 80'
20 .
. . . " '.

1 44

(Additional ocabulary)



saucepan
down (of fruit)
lukewarm milk
stuffing
to brown
to stir
continuously
egg yolk
egg white (remember white)
roasting tin
oen
at once

Point of i nterest
.
abbreviation of = centilitre. Greek, ingredients
are usually given . while English ml is preferred.
This abbreviation is also used for crn.

La nguage points (
)
38 Giving instructions or orders - the
imperative
earlier chapters, we used the construction expressing purpose
order to give instructions, e.g. .
.
the recipe above, the instructions are given a different forrn.
the verbs underlined express an instruction. Since instructions
are usually given to another person or persons, we can address
either one person, whorn we will address the farniliar second
person singular if he or she is a friend ( e.g. ) , or the second
person plural if we need to use the polite plural ( e.g. ).
the other hand we rnay need to give instructions to a nurnber

1 45
of people, n which case the second-person plural will be appro
priate ( again ).
The division between a sirnple tense and a continuous one also
applies to giving instructions. Where the instructions have a
rneaning of continuity or repetition, the irnperative has sirnilarities
with the present tense. When the instruction refers to sirnply one
occurrence, the forrn of the irnperative used has sirnilarities with the
future tense. Let us look at the following exarnples.
Continuous
,
.
,
.
.

Helen, be creful when crossing


the road.
Put on the light when reading,
Dirnitris.
Do not srnoke.

Simple
, , Wtch out, Helen, a car is corning.
.
, . Dirnitris, put on the light.
Eliminte stress.
.
Let us look at how the irnperative is forrned n practice.

Verbs ending n -

Impertive
contnuous

Future
simple

Impertive
simple

Present

Note

():

continuous

is

'

We should remind ourselves here that since the imperative

based

the

present

stem from the way n which verbs like

tense,

there

and

are

differences

which

are conj ugated the

present tense .
Compare the imperative continuous of the first three verbs with that of the last two.

1 46

Verbs ending

Imperatie
continuous

Future
simple

Imperatie
simple

Present

The imperative, both continuous and simple, is often used adver


tising and notices to the public.

Conti nuous
notice at a bank asks customers to count the cash they withdraw
before leaving the cashier's desk:
.
advertisement from a charity appeals to sentiment, exhorting
those who read it not to let hope fade away but to give and save:
. .
more general message is given by a succinct phrase used
the Greek equivalent the 'Buy British' campaign:
.

Simple
motorways the sign to reduce speed reads:
.
Drivers are warned against drinking and driving with ,
, .
Note the greater immediacy the appeal the use the
second-person singular, giving the impression that each and every
driver is addressed personally, as opposed to the more polite and
therefore remote second-person plural used elsewhere.

1 47
Advertising makes wide use of the imperative to tempt cus
tomers. The wine industry urges people:
.
And shops invite customers to visit them or ask their established
customers about them:
.
bank advertises its credit card with the slogan:
. . . Go shopping with 'her' ( The Greek for credit
card is feminine - ).
cosmetics company promises women a soft skin:
.
Next to the health warning
Smoking [seriously] dmges your helth, the tobacco
industry exhorts smokers: .
1
Irregular verbs form their imperatives the basis of the same
principles as those we have already discussed, e.g. a cigarette advert
declares: See wht smoking mens.
Below, you will find the relevant forms of the present tense and
future simple of the irregular verbs we have discussed Lessons 7
and 8. Give the imperatives - continuous and simple - the spaces
provided.
Present

/mpertie
continuous

Future
simple

/mpertie
simple

1 48

Check your answers with the Key to Exercises.


2
Go back to the recipe at the beginning of this lesson and look at
the verbs underlined. imperatives are given n the imperative
continuous form. Recipes are equally often given n the simple
imperative form too.
Copy the method of preparation of the filling, putting all the
underlined verbs n the imperative simple form. We will do the first
sentence for you as an example.
:

. '
. ,
.
.

.
,
.
1 80
20 . .

Hints:
Verb

Future simple

1 49

3
earlier lessons, we used + verb order to give instructions.
Often this iS a more acceptable way of giving instructions than the
imperative, which is harsher. + verb is used more frequently
the following situations:
1 give instructions, e.g. instead
of .
2 Where the imperative is used to form a negative sentence, e.g.
instead of .
3 Where the verb Greek has imperative, e.g.
Keep an eye on the child or
6 Be here at 6.

Fill the gaps with the correct imperative form of the verb
brackets.
1 ( ) .
2 ( ) .
3 ( ) .
4 ( ) .
5 ( )
.
6 ( ) 20 .
7 ( ) ' .
8 ( ) , ( ) .
9 ( ) .
4
the recipe for the artichoke dish, a number of adjectives were
used conjunction with nouns. Some of these are listed below with
the nouns with which they appeared the recipe. Bearing mind
that the adjective agrees with the it describes, list the adjec
tives and nouns a glossary two separate columns, e.g.

Adjectives
, -, -

Nouns

, , ,
, , ,
, , .

1 50

---

La nguage activity

Recipe

There are two types of soft and hard biscuits with a very distinctive
name n Greek and which are always very difficult to translate
precisely into English
. They
can only be described as 'soft' and 'hard' biscuit-type pastries
reminiscent of bagels.
-

(Vocabu/ary)





, - , -
, -, -

to make
dough
aniseed
sugar
butter
tasty
round

151
, - , -
, -, -
, - , -
, - - ,

soft
large, big
crunchy
sweet



, , , ,
.
. .
: , , .
,
.

.

La nguage poi nts (


)
39 Comparison of adjectives
, - , -
, - , -
, - , -
, - , -
, - , -

Comparison between two things

these are adjectives describing various types of food n the


previous passage. Adjectives are also used to compare two things
with each other, e.g. one tble is bigger thn nother, one mn is
richer tht his neighbour.
We have similar comparisons n Greek. These are underlined n
the short passage above and again below, where a comparison is
made between two things :
-

.
l .

1 52
n Greek, comparison of adjectives is expressed n one of two ways:
(a) adjectives ending n - take the endings - , - ,
-
adjectives ending n - take the endings -, -,
-
adjectives ending n - take the endings -, -,
-
Examples:
, - , -
, - , -
, -, -
, - , -
, - , -

, ,
- , -, -
, -, -
, -, -
, - , -
, -, - ,
-, -

Exceptions:
, - , -
, -, -
, -, -
, - , -
, , , -, -
Examples:
.
.

.
(b) This is by far the simplest way - simply add the word n
front of the adjective.
Examples:
.
.

.

Comparison of n thing with many


We also compare one thing with many others, n which case we will
say that the brown tble is the biggest [ [ them or that Peter
is the richest [ his [riends. n the examples below, we are
comparing one thing with many others:

1 53
.
.

.
.

Note that the indefinite article (, , ) is retained before the


adjective very much n the same way as n English we use the, as n
the best among us the most tasty bread.

40 Adverbs ending ,
-

n Lesson 8 we discussed adverbs ending n - derived from adjec


tives. We hinted then that not all such adverbs have this ending.
Indeed, some have the ending - - .
Examples:
immediately
usually
continuously
fortunately
unfortunately
precisely







Note ():

The reasons behind the endings are beyond the scope this

book. Gradually you will get remember them. It is sufficient out that
more such adverbs are likely end - than

or

-.

4 1 Adverbs of p/ace
Apart from adverbs derived from adjectives, there are other
adverbs such as those relating to place. These are usually used n
reply to the question word ; The following are some examples:

here
there
n front of
behind
near
far (from)
up

1 54

---

down
round
next to
opposite
somewhere else
everywhere
nowhere

5
Match the words n column 1 with the appropriate words n column
2. They must match n terms meaning as well as form. What is
their relationship?
Example:

6
The adjectives n the following few sentences are written n the
form + adjective, whether the comparison is between two things
(the comparative) or between one thing and many others (the
superlative), i.e. better thn or the best respectively. Put the adjec
tives n the alternative form as appropriate, e.g.:
.
.
.
' .

1 55
1 .
2 , ,
.
3 ;
4 . .
5 ;
7

.
( Write possible, short questions Greek to these answers. )
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

, .
.
.
.
.
.
' .

Ouzo iS a strong, colourless spirit with a strong aroma of aniseed.


Greeks rarely drink it neat. If served ice-cold, diluted with well
chilled water, it can be very refreshing but rather 'lethal' terms
of a hangover if drunk large quantities. Read the instructions
below how to serve and then write them down English
your own words:
, .
.
'
, . .
9
Explain, English, how you would prepare the salad described
below.
:

1 56


, ,

. ,
.
:
.

, - , -



Narratie

cube
cut
potato
l
lemon
olive (

the next page you will find a short description a small number
Greek wines which attracted the attention a well-known wine
club. may wish to try some these wines when you are next
Greece.

(Essentia/
vocabu/ary)

product
wine
known
to believe
body
meat
plum
temperature
room
blonde
apple
pear

1 57

-
1 989



.

, .
( 1 8-200
) , . 7 , 80


!
, -
.
( 1 8-200 )
. 6 , 00 .

( )
!
,
. , ,
. (8-1 00
) , ,
. 9 , 20 .

Further vocabulary to help you understand more of the narrative.






, -, -

ambassador
vineyard
oak barrel
surprise
to accompany
dish
lively, strong (for colour)

1 58

, -, -

, - , -


ruby
recent
discovery
attractive
taste
poultry
brush-stroke

Points interest
your health
We have already used another similar phrase an earlier lesson
, the equivalent of the English cheers. Greek, the two
phrases are used more or less interchangeably, although
or seems to be more commonly used.

dry white wine


This whole phrase is often used bottles, but it is rather old
fashioned, and if you are asking for white wine a restaurant ask
for .

Greece, the euro is divided into 100 lepta ( ) just as the
Greek drachma was divided into 100 lepta. The same word also
means 'minutes': other words 1 00
.
is invariable, i.e. it retains the same form the singular
and plural as the examples which follow: , ,
. the other hand follows the rules of
neuter nouns ending - .
Percentages
The prices of the wine as well as other prices we have already used,
are given as 9,50 or 7,90. Greek, the comma is used to denote
percentages and the stop to denote thousands and millions, e.g.
1.000 5,80 .

1 59

Comprehension
() .
1 ;
2 , ;
3 . ;
() .
1
, ;
2 .
;
3 ;
1
What will you be looking for the packaging of goods to tell you
if they are made Greece or not? will find the standard phrase
the comprehension passage about wines.
1 1
For this exercise you will need to take to your kitchen and, rather
than the more customary pen and paper used your work so far,
you will need to don an apron, assemble a mixing bowl, a wooden
spoon, a sharp knife and a chopping-board.
The essential ingredient is a jar of thini, sold most deli
catessens. the face of it, this is simple, but it requires a fair
amount of good judgement.


:


1
( = parsley)

1 ( = garlic)

.
.
,
. .
, ,
' .

1 0
friend and a stranger

the next few pages ll look at:

i rreg u l a r m ascu l n e n o u n s
the recent a n d m o re d i sta nt past
p resent pe rfect a n d past pe rfect tenses
some prepositions
ep ressions of t i m e - adverbs of time
the use of the a postro p h e (')

and l l d iscuss some i nte resting G reek concepts a bout


fo re i g n e rs, visito rs a nd g u ests

1 0 -

When hiring a car Greece and Cyprus, it is worth remem


bering a few basic facts of a driver's life. Cyprus driving is
the left, as the UK, while Greece they drive the right,
as is the case for the rest of the Continent. both countries,
distances are measured kilometres, not miles, and petrol is
sold by the litre. Safety belts are to be worn and the breatha
lyser, known as , is force.

(Essential
vocabulary)

to hire
hiring, renting

1 61





( )

,

t o cost
insurance (also security and safety)
credit card
cash
driving licence
identity card
foreigner (also stranger)
holidays
soft drink

- .
- . .
- , . ;
- . ,
.
- 4 1 .
32,50 ,
, .

- Visa Access. , .
- Visa. ;
- , , .
- .
- ; ;
- .
.
- . , , .
;
- , .
. .

Points of interest

, , i.e. 'against fire, theft and
third parties'. The insurance offered with car hire is not usually
comprehensie.

1 62
()
The nn is , but the most common form of the verb
used is rather than .
,
It derives from the same verb. n this context, it is referring to the
person hiring the car but it can also mean 'a tenant' or 'lodger'.

(Additional
vocabulary)

class, category (also accusation)


against
fire (as n a building burning)
theft
third party
countryside
already

1
.
1 Is the driver a man or a woman? How do you know?
2 How is the driver going to pay for the car to be hired?
3 How much is the car rental for the period for which the car is
hired?
4 How much will the insurance cost?
5 What will the insurance cover?
6 How many days are there n ?

La nguage points (
)
42 Masculine 5 with different end
ings from those we have looked at 50 far
The ones we will be discussing take an additional syllable n the
plural.

1 63
Ending n

n the dialogue above, the young lady hiring a car is offered a coffee
but declines because she says she's already had two that morning:
.
Plural


Singular


(meatball) is a rather spicy Greek delicacy made with


minced meat, potatoes, breadcrumbs, herbs and pepper, and deep
fried. It is delicious with a green salad and fresh bread. When
ordering them, ask for . The noun declines j ust like
.

E n d i n g n

-,

e.g.

Singular


E nding n

- ,

e.g.


Plural


-, e . g .

greengrocer, a n d n

Singular



Plural



Another noun like is: boatman.


Another noun like is: the north wind.

1 64

------

43 Some prepositions
Words like to, from, with, without are prepositions. We need them
to help us express time, place, cause, etc.
We will deal with just a few such words this lesson and a few
more the next lesson. We have already used some of them
previous lessons. Below you will find a few examples from the
dialogue at the beginning of this lesson:
YlQ.... .
;
. . .
;
, l]
.
Such words are indispensable helping us make sentences.

to
with
together with
without
without
for

Look at the examples again. will see that the following


them is always the accusative, i.e. ,
, .
The words , , are formed by combining with
, , . We have come across this before, particular where
movement is expressed.
Example:
.
.
2
The sentences below refer to a single thing or person. Change them
so that they will be relating to many things or many people.
Example:
.

1 65
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
11

.
.
.
;
.
.
.
, ;
;
.
, .

3
:
, , , , , , ,
..
.

He will come without fail.

1

.
2
.
3
;
4
;
5
;
6
.
7
.
8
;
_

If you have had difficulty understanding the instructions n Greek,


check your answers n the Key to Exercises.
4
Put the verbs n brackets n the correct tense.
.
1 : ( ) 2 1
, 25
.
2 : ( )
.

1 66

---

3 : ( ) .
( ) .
4 - () :
( )
. ( )
.
5 : ( ) .

20

. . .

Whle travelling on winding country road tourist has been


involved in collision with another car travelling in the opposite
direction. The traffic police have arrived to investigate.

collision
beginning
naturally
early
to begin, to start
to stop

1 67

to tire
at,
speed (also gear car)

-
;
- .
- ' ;
- Lynda Thompson.
- , .
- ' ;
- , ' , .
-
.
.
,
' . '
.
' ,
.
,
.

Points of i nterest
ws confused, lost my cool.
is an idiomatic phrase from the erb to lose.
short excursion.
excursion. We hae already dealt with diminuties
an earlier chapter. Just as the ending - was a neuter ending,
- is a feminine ending.
5
.
1 Was the drier of the car a man or a woman?
2 How do you know?
3 Where did the accident take place?

1 68

------

La nguage poi nts (


)
44 The recent and distant past
Both these tenses are easy to form and to use, with close similari
ties to their counterparts n English.

The present perfect (for actions n the


recent past)
It describes an action which may hae been completed n the past
but sti11 affects the present.
n the preious dialogue, the drier of the car told the policeman:
We hae hired a sma11 car.
.
Further examples of this tense:
. haen't finished ( reading ) the
book.
Hae they eer trae11ed by air?
;
1'11 gie you our address. We
. . hae moed house.
.
.

She/he is not here. She/he has


already left.

Look at these:

is used to form the present perfect; changes to indicate


first, second, third person, singular or plural; the main erb, which
describes the action, remains always unchanged. Irrespectie of the
person or number, the main erb is used n the third-person singular
of the form of the erb we also use for the future simple tense.
So, for the present perfect tense we use:
+ thrd-person singular
future simple.

the

form

the

verb used the

1 69

Singulr

Plurl


Compare the sentences below.


the past tense:

the present perfect tense:


.
.

.

;


.
.

.
, .

The past perfect (for actions n the distant past)


This is used much the same way as its counterpart English, i.e.
to describe an action the past which preceded another. There are
a few examples of its use the second dialogue:


' .

We had become tired because of


the journey and stopped at a
illage.

,


.

had lost my cool and tried to stop


my car.

The past perfect is formed by , which changes to indicate


first, second, third person, singular or plural; the main erb, which
describes the action, remains always unchanged. Irrespectie of the
person or number, the main erb is used the third person singular
of the form of the erb we also use for the future simple tense.

1 70

Singular

Plural


Compare the actions n the sentences below.



,
.


.


.

When met him n the street he


had already heard the news.
went to the bank first thing n
the morning but it had not
opened.
arrived as quickly as could but
they had already left.

45 The use of the apostrophe (')


n the second dialogue n this lesson the apostrophe is used n a
number of places, as n the following examples:
'
'
n full these should be written as:


When a word ends n a vowel and the following word begins with
a vowel (often, but not always, the same vowel), the apostrophe is
used n place of the last vowel n the first word. So, we can have

'
'

Sometimes a vowel at the end of a word is replaced by an


apostrophe even when the following word begins with a consonant,
e.g.

171

'
'

ou will soon get used to such examples and learn to remember


them.

46 Expressions of time - adverbs


reply to questions beginning with ; When? you may find the
following expressions useful:

never
then
at times
occasionally
some time
always

6
Below there are two sets of sentences comprising sentences the
same subject each set. Match them up correctly.
Example:

1

. ()
2 ()
.
3 . ( )
()
4

5 ( )

.
.
.
.
.

7
Make the following sentences into (a) questions and (b) negative
sen tences. doing so you may have to omit or change certain
words, e.g.:
.
1

.
.

1 72
3
4
5
6

.
.
.
.

8
Put the apostrophe ( ' ) where appropriate the following short
exchange between a young cyclist who was hit by a motorist a
quiet residential road.
- ;
- . ;
- !

;
- ,
;

. .

Poi nt of interest
! What a cheek!
9
Gie the opposites the words below.



10
the second dialogue we commented the word
and the fact that it has an ending for feminine diminuties, i.e.
- .
Can you gie the diminuties the words below, together with
their possible meaning? Check your answers the Key to Exercises:
, , , ( also meaning mother),
, , , , ,

1 73

Narrative

The word has a number of interesting meanings Greek


and has been widely used to form compound words of cultural
interest Greek as well as English, e.g. xenophobia, a compound
word from meaning 'stranger' and which means
'fear'.
Some of the Greek words for which an interpretation is
attempted the following Greek passage cannot really be trans
lated into English. It is hoped that some of the nuances of meaning
can be conveyed Greek.

(Essential
vocabulary)
, -, -


, - , -
,



, - , - ( , , )

foreign, strange
foreigner, stranger, guest
friend
ancient
visitor
meaning
guest, visitor
my (your, etc.)
relative


.
.
.


, . '
, ' ' .
,


ill!S. .

,

1 74

-------

.

.

, , ,
1 90 .
.

, , , ,
, ' .

Poi nts of i nterest



This phrase means our country, our plce, and comes from the word
meaning plce.
have been joined together
This form of the verb (passive voice) will be discussed n later
lessons.

It is a close equivalent to what other nations refer to as ftherlnd.
Note that it is feminine, and certainly Greeks refer Greece as
, which is pictured n art and poetry as a woman.

(Additional
vocabulary)


,


, -

folklore
fatherland
host, hostess
Homer
alien (not from outer space but
from another country)
to describe

1 75


()


looking after
liberation
to weigh
the state of being an orphan
bitterness
folk song

Comprehension
() .
1

2
3

;

xenophle;

;

() .
1

2
3

How is the word used Greek?


Attempt a free translation of the two verses quoted at the end
of the passage.
Give a short description of the meaning of the phrase
.

1 1
ou

have been involved a situation which requires you to be


interviewed by officials who do not speak English. Tell them that
you are a foreigner, that you do not speak good Greek and ask for
an interpreter who speaks English.
interpreter

12
The English word postrophe is derived from the Greek word
. Which two Greek words do you think it comes
from?

11

Get better 500

Here ll look at:

hea lth when a b road


u n us u a l e n d i n g s of neuter n o u ns
cond itions -
verbs e n d i n g -
some prepositio ns

- ! ! . . .

1 0 - ,

..

Although one hopes neer to hae to isit a doctor when


holiday, or indeed as rarely as possible at any other time, it is a fact

1 77
of life that this possibility must be faced. If one is suffering from
a minor ailment for which a GP would be normally visited
the UK, the sign outside a surgery to look for is
.

ptient is suffering from the common cold nd is visiting doctor.


, -, -






, sick (also encountered as a )


headache
fever
cough
at all
medicine
chemist's, pharmacy
aspirin
hope
get well
cold (illness)
syrup
to owe
young woman

, .
. , ;
.
, ;
, ,
.
- ;
- , .
- . ,
,
.
.
- ;
- .
- , .
- .
.
-

1 78

---

1
() .
1 - ,
;
2 .
= to pass.
' ;
() What do you think the doctor means when he says
?
2
. 90
= recipe.
;

Language points (
)
47 Neuter nouns with diHerent endings
We will now look at some neuter nouns with endings different from
those we discussed n earlier lessons. Some of them take an addi
tional syllable n some of their cases.

wave

height

Singular


Plural


1 79
Here are some more neuter nouns like these:

(lesson)

(problem)
(mtter)

(step)
(plce)
(letter) (profit)
(body)
(courge)
(money) (crowd)

48 Conditions using

if

Broadly speaking, and at the risk of some oersimplification, we can


express condition (/) Greek with three different constructions.
Greek, there is a far greater freedom to combine tenses
expressing condition than there is English.

(a)
1/ part o f the sentence

Other part of the sentence

past pedect tense

past pedect tense

This refers to the past and describes something which was not
realized.
Examples:


.

.


If

1 had 1 arried earlier, 1 would


hae found him at home.

Had he got angry, 1 would hae


realized it.
If the doctor had prescribed a
medicine for me, 1 would hae
taken

(b )

impedect tense

imperfect tense

lt is used to express something not realized or simply a thought


re lati ng to past, present or future.
E xamples:

.

If he loed her he wouldn't hae


left.

1 80

.


.

If you had gone to the doctor,


you would have been alright
now.
think that if he were more
careful with what he eats he
wouldn't be so fat.

(c)
+ any tense except im
pedect or past pedect

any tense apart from imperfect or


past pedect

It is used to express a condition the present

future.

Examples:
, If you see Sophia, tell her to
call me.
.
, If you paid for the ticket, we will
send it to you.
.
, If you saw what happened, you
must tell us too.
.
3
The following words are declined like . Add their
definite article front of them (, , ) and decline any two of
them. Before you begin it may be worth going back to Language
Point 47 and revising the relevant part. Check answers the
Key to Exercises.
burn ( = sun burn )

filling ( tooth filling )
solution ( = cleaning

solution for contact lenses )
bite ( bite from a mosquito )

sting ( from a bee )


4
Find and match the two halves of sentences below.
1

181
2

4
5 *
6
* ,

.

.

.
.
.
=

get a headache, toothache , etc.

5
.
- . . .
6
The following advertisement is part a campaign to attract dona
tions for a cancer research fund. verbs appear n the present
tense n brackets. Read the text and put the verbs n the correct
tense and person, e.g.:
( ) . . . . . .
.
() . . .
() . . .

. ( ) . . .
. ,
( ) . . . , ( ) . . .
, ( ) . . . .
( ) . . .
.
, .
.
( ) . . .

&

( ) . . .

1 82



, -, -




, - , -
, - , -
, -, -

to approach
victory ( we have met this as a name
cancer
anti-cancer
to owe
research
to apply
science
scientific
human
panhellenic
collection of money
to die out, to extinguish

Nicky )

20 - u

Chemists' shops Greece and Cyprus display the word
. addition, pharmacies Cyprus display the sign
of a green cross with a snake entwined around Greece the sign
is a green cross. Pharmacies Greece and Cyprus tend to be
smaller than the and concentrate more health goods.
The womn involved in the following short dilogues is looking for
phrmcy open fter closing time nd first sks psserby to direct
her to one tht is open lte .

(Essential
vocabulary)
, -, -
, -, -



, -, -

open
lucky
sun
l
degree, mark
protection
to tan ( lterally: go black )
some
to swim

1 83
- ,
;
- ,
. .
- .
. . .

- .
- . ;
- .
.
;
- ,
.
- ;
- ' .
2 20.

.
.
.

(Additional
vocabulary)





to stay open all night


to burn (this is the passive form verbs to be
discussed later)
sunscreen
ointment
emulsion
waterproof

.
1

Why does the woman n the pharmacy want to buy a sunscreen?

1 84

-------

Language poi nts (


)
49 Verbs ending -
the course of the dialogues this lesson we have used a few
verbs ending -, e.g. , , . These form
their tenses slightly differently from other verbs we have encoun
tered so far.
Present
perfect

Past
simple


Present

/mperfect

Other verbs like are:

to
to
to
to
to
to

know
win, (
sting
cool, to refresh
make dizzy
confront

earn money )

50 Some prepositions
We will look at some of these words as used their own, and
combination with other words, and how they change the meaning
of the words they combine with.

from
towards
against, towards
after
instead of, against
spite of, rather than ( time: to )

1 85

by (now used mainly n combination with other words)


(n maths: diided by)

Examples of their use:


.

am going away from the


house.

Q.Q.

am
proceeding towards the

.
paement.
am against war.
.
; Are you coming around nn?
will not be able to come after

the theatre.
.
. Instead of water, he/she gae
her wine.
If we diide 16 by 4, the

answer is 4.
,
.
prefer to stay at home rather

than go out n the rain.

.
Despite their efforts, they

couldn't win.
,
.
combination with other words

to reeal
underneath
to relish

, -, -

to add
transient, passing
to inite


, -, -

to testify, deposit (money)


shut (house)
to understand

to transfer
to shift
to moe (house)

, - , -
, - , -

opposite, opposed
anti-cancer

1 86

replacement
to object

, - , -
, -, -

to be open or up all night


different
indifferent
to disagree

following, further down


to stumble
to take delivery of
to hear wrongly

8
the basis of what we have learned up till now about how verbs
form their tenses, give the following tenses of . These
were not included the tenses given detail above, and if you
remember how tenses are formed there shouldn't be any problems.
If you are not sure, this will be a good opportunity to do some
revision. Go back to the appropriate lessons and revise the sections
about tenses:
Future continuous; future simple; past perfect; imperative
simple; imperative continuous.
9
to continue and to clen form their tenses like
.
Give all the persons, singular and plural, the following sentences
like this:




.
ou may have to make additional changes to other words the
sentences below.
1 .
2 ;

1 87
10
.
. . .

. . . . .
. . , .

3. 1 5 . . . .
, .

. . . .
. . . ;
. . . ' , .
. . . .
, .
5. 1 5.

, . . . .

, , , , , , , , , ,

Point of interest
Note how the sentences above are numbered Greek using letters.
The alphabet is not used sequentially as is the case with English:
is used for 6 and then the numbering resumes from onwards
until , which is used for 10. Thereafter, is followed by the same
letters, beginning with , i.e. ( 1 1 ) , ( 12), etc.
1 1

Read the short passage below and, if you have the audio material,
listen to the native speakers reading Put the stress-accents
the correct syllables where appropriate.
I


,
.
80
.
.
!

1 88
12
Below you will find a list of words and short phrases which you
might find useful if you have to visit a doctor, a dentist or a chemist.
They are all nouns, but their definite article has been omitted.
Bearing n mind what we have learned about the endings of nouns,
add the correct definite article , , .

. .
. .
. . ( . . . )
. .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .

. .

At the chemist's


. .
. .
. .
( . . . )
. .
. .

. .

. .

At the optician 's

plaster
bandage
, tablet
cream
my ear hurts
my head hurts
my hand hurts
my foot hurts
my stomach hurts
have a cold

glasses
sunglasses
contact lens ( es )
cleaning solution
wetting solution
am short-sighted

am long-sighted



. .

. .

. .

. .

At the doctor's
have a cold

have 'flu

have diarrhoea

feel sick

1 89

. . .

feel dizzy


. . .
. . .
. . .

At the dentist's
tooth hurts
the filling has come out
injection

Narrative (
;

We read)

Mosquitoes and flies are often troublesome hot countries and it


is worth finding out ways of outwitting them or, put differently,
diverting their attentions elsewhere. The narrative below offers
some useful advice.

(Essential
vocabulary)





, - , -




to sting
heat
walk
mosquito
fly
valuable
meze (here: a tasty morsel)
to bite
ear
sunset
to regret

: , , .
, , .
. . . .
, , .
' , .
,
,
,
. ,

1 90
. . . .



.

.
,

.
'
!

Additional vocabulary (
)

, -, -


, -, -

wasp
to buzz
mankind
sabotage
pinch (for mosquitoes
suck
tent (also stage, scene)
meditation
sprout
nowhere
set
hungry
effectively
humidity
dark (n colour)
insect repellent (lotion)

bite)

Points of interest

It is an expression roughly equivalent to the English expression
worst enemy.

191

It is an idiomatic phrase expressing the same feelings as the English
phrase ( curse the moment.

this context it means descend upon.

Comprehension
() .
1

;

;

( ) .
1
2


;
. . .
;

13
hae been a walk the countryside and you hae been
stung by a wasp or bee. Explain to a pharmacist that you do not
hae an allergy to stings but that you need an ointment or lotion
for the sting.
may find the following words useful.

allergy
bee

1 2

healthy mind . . .

This lesson ll deal with:

fe m i n i ne n o u n s with e n d i ngs d iffe rent fro m those d iscussed


so fa r
some i m pe rso n a l verbs
an i ntrod ucti o n to the passive voice and the p resent
tense of verbs the passive voice
adjectives e n d i n g - , - , - , and , ,

La nguage activity - , ,

For Greeks, motherhood and a mother's relationship with her
children is central to the concept of the family. This important
relationship is extended further to describe the special relationship
of every Greek man, woman or child with Greece itself, often
referred to as .
The short passage below was written the occasion of Mother's
Day, .

shop ( )
hair ( head)
motherhood
fashion

1 93

, -, -




anxiety
contemporary
to acquire
ease
bending
cradle
to trail

'
. '
. .
,
.

, , . . .

Points of interest
, ,
These three words, all used to address or describe a mother, hae
different nuances meaning embedded Greek culture and expe
rience, which may be a little difficult to explain clearly.
is the term used by children when calling their mother, and
is equialent to mum English. is used like
mother English, while has connotations associated
with the essence motherhood, so to speak. Earlier we
mentioned the concept . This is a more
formal relationship, as indeed is that described by the
phrase mother earth.

tends to be used where feelings are inoled rather than just


a particular relationship. the preious passage we came
across the phrase . When explaining
that a woman feels or acts a particular way because she
is a mother, the word used Greek is more likely than not
to be , e.g. .

1 94

----

Language poi nts (


)
5 1 Feminine 5 with different endings
from th05e we have encountered 50 far

Singular



Plural



, decline like .
We have discussed briefly nouns ending -, which can be both
masculine and feminine according to context, e.g. , ,
, , etc. There are some nouns with an - ending
which are only feminine, e.g. exit, entrance,
street.
The latter are declined as follows:

Singular



(it is rarely used )

Plural



( rare )

Other feminine nouns like are: , ,


.

52 /mpersona/ verbs

We have already encountered some of these, principally .


These are verbs which are used mainly or only the third-person
singular.
Examples:
.
.

must go straight away.


don't care.

1 95

.
.

It's not n my own interest to buy

It's not worth the effort.

Many the impersonal verbs describe natural phenomena, e.g.:


it's raining
it's snowing
it's thundery
it's windy
dawn is breaking
it's getting dark
winter is coming
it's shining (moon)

Some these verbs can also be used other persons ( addition


to the third person) different contexts, but have a different
meanlng:




to
to
to
to
to

wet a cloth
slam the door
fan the fire
blow my nose
light the way

1
Lesson 4 we 100ked at the endings feminine nouns. Perhaps
you cou1d go back to that lesson and revise these endings, paying
particular attention to nouns like , .
Now decline thought, carnping, crnp,
, .

The short nonsense ditty below makes


use some the verbs we discussed
above. Read it and attempt a rough
translation it, before turning the
Key Exercises.
,


.

1 96

---


marble
to dance

to water

3
number of Greek idioms make use of impersonal verbs relating
to the weather. Below you will find some of them used n sentences.
Can you think of their equivalent idiomatic phrases n English?
1
2
3
4

.
.
, .
.

4
For those collecting stamps, the advertisement below may be of
some interest. Fill n the slip ready to send away.

,
.


: 4 l 2003




.






.
.



____

____
_

..

____

_____

_
_____
_

_____

1 97

postage stamp
stamp
stamp
enelope

5
If, the other hand, you prefer sailing, the following advertise
ment may be for you. few mistakes have been introduced when
copying it, mainly relating to the ends of nouns of all genders. Read
it carefully, find the mistakes and correct them.


; ;
,
.
.

.

. 98 23 45

sailing
loer

La nguage activity

Sm all ads are a regular feature many national newspapers


Gre ece and can be a useful source of information if you are looking
to buy or rent property, for a used car or for something unusual.

1 98

, -, -

apartment
bedroom
to sell
to visit
healthy
to get to know



, .
, 30 ,
email: pavloug@compulink.gr



800 . . ,
Hilton, . 34 56
77, 00 00 22.



60 ,

200. . 23 45 67
.

Porsche 928
,


.
24.500, . 22 33 44.

.


, &

,
,
.
22 222, email.

1 99



.
..
, - , -





fully

abbreiation for
independent
distance
number
interested party
obligation
education
situation

sq.m.

The following phrases appear together the various small ads


above. The meaning one word each pair has been given the
vocabulary, but not the meaning the other word.
Please look this up the Glossary at the back the book.
B efore doing so, decide what form the word you will need to
look up and write it down. If an adjective, write down all three
forms, i.e. masculine, feminine, neuter, like this: , ,
or like this: , - , - .
Example:

The noun is the vocabulary; is
This is an adjective and it should be looked up the Glossary
under the entry , -, - .
Now give the meaning the following pairs:



200

La nguage poi nts (


)
53 Passive voice
The verbs we have dealt with up till now have shown that a person
or thing took a specific action. When the verb shows that the person
or thing suffers an action, it is the passive voice. The man chased
the dog tells us that the man did the chasing - the verb is the
active voice. The man was chased tells us that the man suffered the
chasing - the verb is the passive voice.
the active voice we saw that most verbs ended either - or
- . the passive voice verbs end -.
Verb ending in
active voice
-
-
-

Verb ending in
passive voice
-
-
-

Examples
Active

Passive

Some verbs have an active and a passive form, e.g. , some only a passive form, e.g. . Some verbs
which only have a passive voice have two interchangeable forms
the present tense, e.g. - (more detai1s
Lesson 16).
The present tense
(w

(@
Singular

201
Plural

(.@

oQyg! ()

Singular



Plural

54 Passive impersona/ verbs

Some impersonal verbs are the active voice, as we saw earlier


this lesson (e.g. , , ), but some are the
passive. Some of these have l a passive form used as an imper
sonal verb.
Examples:

.
;

This is not going to happen.


What is store for us?

The passive form of some verbs is also used with an impersonal


meaning.
E xamples:

.
;
.

.

I t i s said that he has let the


apartment.
What is going there?
It is not necessary for you to
go now.
It seems that the house is for
sale.

202

/ the small ads we came across some adjectives


with different endings, e.g. hea/thy.

55

Msculine

( )

()

Singulr
Feminine

( )

Neuter

( )

Plurl


(Note):

Terms brackets are not used widely.

Other adjectives like ,- ,- are:


, -, -
, -, -
, - , -

international
luxurious
continuous

, , a 'ot, much
This behaves n a unique way. Note the changes from the use of
one to two.

Singulr





()

Plurl



()

(Note):




( )

Terms brackets are not used widely.

---------------------------------------__

Be lo w you will find words or phrases that occur frequently signS.


They are all the passive voice. Read them and give their meaning
English.




8
This notice has been issued by the Greek Tourist Board. The verbs
brackets are not the correct tense. This has been left for you
to dD.


.
.
( ) . . . .
( ) . . .
.
( ) . . .
.
, ( ) . . .
.

203

204
9
The title this lesson iS one half a well-known Greek saying
going back to antiquity, which explains why you will not recognize
some forms the words used. This is because they are classical
Greek forms, and Greek has changed over the centuries just as
English has changed we compare Anglo-Saxon with Chaucer's,
Shakespeare's and today's English.
complete the saying :

mind).

modern Greek this could be rephrased as


.
This has its equivalent English. What is it?

1
the following phrases, the endings the descriptive words (i.e.
the adjectives) are missing. Put the correct endings which must
agree with the words they are describing (i.e. the nouns) .

. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .

. .
. . .
. . .
. .
. . .
. .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .

ready-made clothes
household appliances
country house
spring fashions
exhibition sea recreation
facilities
wedding presents
health foods
natural ingredients
panhellenic games
Olympic games
monthly magazine
weekly newspaper
university studies
unique opportunity
world cup

205

Narratie ( ) -
The game backgammon, Greece known as , is an old
game which originated the Middle East. Until the seventeenth
century it was known Europe as tbles, a name closer to its Greek
name today. It is played by two players using two dice ( ) .
I t is played a board divided into two halves hinged together;
effect the board is divided into four parts. Each player has fifteen
pieces ( ), either black or white.
is very popular Greece and Cyprus and is played mainly
by men the traditional coffee shops where, although l two
players play, it often attracts an audience other devotees.
There are various games that can be played. Here we will explain
the game called Doors. The fifteen pieces are placed
the board.

There are two phases to the game:


1 First the aim for each player is to move all his or her pieces to
the opponent's side.
2 Once this has been achieved, the aim is to be the first to take all
his or her pieces out the board.

game
player
opponent
to throw
to bring (here to throw a number)

206

, - , -

()

value
double
equal
position
to move (to be moved)
win


' . ,

, .
.
,
.. 2 4
: 6 3 ,
) 6
3 )
6 3 .

.

. , ,
,

.
:




.
,
.
,


207



, -, -
, - , -

( )

( )

example
relevant
free
to exist
to replace (to be replaced)
to gather, to collect (to be gathered)
according to
to take out, to take

Comprehension
() .
1

;

;

() .
1

;
;

1 1
Read the narrative again and underline all the verbs which are used
the passive voice. The endings will give you a clue, as well as the
context which they are used.
Give their forms the active voice, e.g. - .

12
Explain briefly an English friend how this gam.e of is
pl ayed.

1 3

Ti me is money

' 1 30
:
( this the thirteenth lesson of the book ll discuss the
following):

the past a n d i m pe rfect tenses of verbs the passive


words which h e l p us join together words p h rases conj u nctions
adverbs of p l ace
m o n ey a n d the b a n ks

La nguage actiity

Travellers' cheques are, for many visitors abroad, the main or even
the exclusive form transaction n which banks are involved.
Banks n Greece and Cyprus are generally not open n the after
noons. They are open to the public n the mornings, usually from
8.30am onwards, but they close at lunch time except n tourist areas,
where a limited service is generally available n the afternoons.
It is advisable to consult the opening hours,
, which are displayed outside most banks.
The following passage is about the advantages travellers'
cheques, .

discover
traellers' cheque

__----------------------------------------


, -, -






. .

to create
certain
means of transport
money
when
to cash (a cheque)
service
goods
an abbreviation of

and others


.

.


' . ,

, , 365
.

,
.
,

,
..

advantage
case
theft
to serve
to communicate
to issue (for books to publish)
dollar
USA (abbreviation for
)
sterling
are available
currency
Australia
=

209

210
1
n English, list three adantages of traellers' cheques.
2
Read the passage aboe once again and underline all the erbs used
n the passie oice. Gie the erb n the actie oice n the first
person, i.e. the form under which you would look the erb up n
the Glossary and indeed any dictionary, e.g.:
Passie oice

Actie oice

3
Now underline all the erbs used n the passage n the actie oice
and gie their passie form n the present tense first-person singular.
Examples:
Actie oice form
in the pssge

Pssie oice
present tense

( Language points)
56 The past and imperfect tenses of verbs
the passive voice
The imperfect
As you know, this is the tense we use when referring to actions
which took place n the past repeatedly or whose duration for some
time we would like to emphasize.

__-------------------------------------------

Present tense Imper[ect tense Present tense


Singular

Imper[ect tense

Plural

Present

Imper[ect
Singular



Plural

The differences between erbs ending - and -


the passie oice only occur the present tense and, of course,
tenses based the present, e.g. the imperfect, the future contin
uous and the expression of purpose the continuous.
other tenses are formed exact1y the same way.

he past tense
As before, this is used to express an action when we simply wish to
mention the fact that it occurred the past.
Howeer, the way it is formed the passie oice is rather
ino led, as indeed was the case with the actie oice. Rules come
to the rescue once again, and this case they relate to the past
tense the actie oice.
When the past tense of the actie oice ends - , the past
tens e the passie oice ends - or - . It will be easier
to isualize if we present this information the form of a table and
exampl es.

21 1

212
Active voice
pst tense ending

Pssive voice
pst tense ending

Exmples
Pssive
Active

-
-
-
-

Wg
g

-
-


KK

But, verbs which end n the present tense n the active voice n
- , -, - have the following endings :
Exmples
Active voice
Pssive voice
Active
Pssive
present tense ending pst tense ending present tense pst tense

-
-
-
Most of the
remaining end n

-
-
-
-

Examples of the past tense:

Pst simple
Singulr


Plurl

Examples of verbs n the passive voice


Active
present

Pssive
present

Pssive
imperfect



Pssive
pst simple





213

to get caught
to hide
to be turned away
to find it conenient
to be dismissed
to be bewitched
to assemble, to gather together

The active and passive forms of some verbs have a different


meaning, e.g.:

to lend
to advise
to distribute
to remind
to put to sleep
to meet by
chance,
to reply



(- )
(-)

to borrow
to consult
to share
to remember
to sleep
to meet
together

Below you will find some verbs the passive voice. Give, full,
their imperfect and past tenses the passive voice.

214

-----Example:

Imperfect


Pst

to rest
to be n love

5
Put the verbs n the following sentences n the correct tense. They
are n the passive voice.
1 ( ) . . . .
2 ( ) . . .
.
3 ( ) . . .
.
4 ( ) . . . .
5 ( ) . . .
.
6 ( ) . . . .
.
7 ( ) . . .
.
8 ( ) . . .
.

to be notified
competition
account ( also bill )
to be debited

6
The following sentences are n the active voice. Please put them n
the passive voice. Note that the word order may need to change,
certain words to be deleted and others to be added.

215
Example:
Active
.

Pssive
.

.
2 .
3 .
4 .
5 .
6 .
7 ;

limit

- , !

:
- ' 8 30n - 1 2 30
8.3On - 1 2.1 5

Customers in bnks my hve to visit nd therefore queue t num


ber of desks before completing their trnsctions. Money pid out,
whether s result of withdrwl or of chnging foreign money or
tr vellers' cheques, my hve to be collected from the cshier.

, -, -


turn
atttractie (food, tasty)
to warm, to make feel warm
suit
tie

216

----


, ,
,

young lady
patience
be a hurry
finally
to sign
cashier's
but
queue
who, who, which
whatever

, l
. , ,
, . ,
, ,
,
. . . .
,
,
.
- ,
; .
- , , .
.
- ,
- ,
;
- , ;
- , , , ;
- .
- . ;
- , .
- ;
- . ,
- , .
.

- , .
, .
-
.
- ;
- , .

__------------------------------------------ 2 1 7



, -, -

, -, -
, -, -
, - , -
, -, -

foreign exchange
beleaguered
lipstick
curly
bad-tempered
middle-aged
tightly knotted
to cash ( a cheque )

7
.
1

;
.

( Language points)
57 More pronouns (demonstrative and
re/ative), e.g. , , ,
,

number of such pronouns are used n the dialogue above.


, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,

,
,

, ,
, ,
,

this (man, woman, child)


that (man, woman, child)
such (man, woman, child)
so, such (man, woman, child)
who
whoever

whoever
as many, as much "
whatever
whatsoever, anything

218
Examples:

.


.
.

, .

.

Note the use

and

This is not the woman was


telling you about.
The gentleman who was
wearing the suit and who was
such a hurry.
There were s o many people.
The assistant said that she was
doing all she could.
matter what you say to
them, they are not going to
change their minds.

,:

means that, and

, whatever.
, will
give you whatever you want. See also the illustration n Lesson 14. can be used
n place , - , -. Compare with the question word where, which
He/she said that she was going.

takes a stress-accent.

58 Prepositions used in rep/y to ;


how much 7
reply to a question beginning with ; one of the following
words is likely to be used:

a little
very much
more
as much
enough
quite enough

We could equally well ask ; or ; How much? or


perhaps ; or ; How many?
Examples:
;
;

219
8
.
1

. . . , .
. . .
.
3 . . . .
4 . . . .
5
. .
.
6
. , .
7 . . . 20
.
2

, , , , , ,,
9
If

you are interested to find out more about opening an account at


a Greek bank, you will find the following passage interesting. Some
of the verbs are given brackets the present tense. Put them
the correct tense, either the active or the passive voice as appro
priate.

. ( ) . . .
.


() . . .
() . . .

( ,
, )
4%
() . . .


() . . .

220

account (before we came across it as 'bill')


current account
cheque
cheque book (also )
account statement (bank)
rate of interest
notice period (for withdrawal)
paying (money)
withdrawal (of money)

Greek, percentages are expressed exactly the same way as

English, e.g.:
4%

56%

The word

is an old form longer use except rare cases such as this one.

1
have received this cheque the post. It is obviously issued
an account held at a Greek bank. Explain the following:
1
2
3
4

The bank and branch where the account is held.


Where is this branch?
Who is the cheque made ?
whose account is the cheque drawn?

. .(qL1. .
....

..

,g, .;fr kN. -'

..

16-123 44

J... .A1rC6..w.AOJ.
,.b.(
.....

.................................................................................................

1'e.fto.(C :WII


012 345 6789000

-uvl

200

221

( Narratie)

Second homes n Greece and Cyprus are gaining n popularity. One


way of financing the purchase of one is to raise a mortgage from a
lo cal bank.





, -, -
, - , -



, -, -

mortgage
dream
facts
difficult
easy
plan
saving (savings)
house ( )
necessary
at least
to submit
applcation
duration

'

,
. ,
.
3 - 5 ,

.

.
'
.

.

36 .
3 , 5 % .

222
.
36


.



()

, -, -
, -, -

realization
acquisition (to acquire)
possibility, capability
complicated
proportional
accordingly
entry
procedure
branch (of shop, bank)
granting
passage (of time)
authorize
depend

Note the use of

and

with reference 'house ' ; the two words

are used rougWy as equialent to the use of 'residence ' and 'house ' n English.

deries
which means 'loan ' .

from the words

meaning 'roof' and

(We askJ (ComprehensionJ


( )
1 ;
2
;
3
;
4
;
()
1 ;

223
2

( ) .
.
1

The closest term English for the Greek term


is 'mortgage' . What is the principal difference your
?
What are the criteria the bank applies when considering the sum
for a mortgage?

1 1
Re-read the narrative and underline all the verbs which occur the
passive voice. Write down the present tense the passive voice,
like this:
the passage

Present tense, passive voice


When looking passive forms of verbs a dictionary or glossary,


you will need to look them their active-voice form, if
they have one. If not, they will be listed the present tense of the
passive voice.
Example:
is the passive form of . will
need to look the latter.
But the first person the present tense is ,
and this has active voice. So you will look it under .
Now, next to each verb the passive write down the form which
you need to look the glossary or Greek dictionary, like this:
Passive voice
present tense
jirst-person singular

Form to be looked up
dictionary or
glossary

12
( ) Below you will find part of an application form sent to prospec
tive applicants who wish to open a bank account. Fill it , giving
all relevant information.

224



/ :

______

:
:

. :
:

_______

_
_
____

_
_
__

_
_

_
________
_

_____

. :

________

. :

. :

_________

:
. :

_
____

______

_____________

_
_
______

Vocabulary to help you fi l l it n







detals
married
single (unmarried)
here maiden name for women, nee
identity card
nationality

225
( ) Below is a photocopy of the envelope which to return the
completed form. What value stamp are you going to put it? (ou
may find it useful to return brief1y to Lesson 8.)


35505304
1 08 1 5

1 4

The Iion's share !

1 40
. . . :

the fut u re tenses the passive voice


pu rpose the passive voice
conj u nctions - words j o i n i n g se nte nces together
adverbs of p l ace

We s ha l l a lso ta ke a look at the futu re with the 'sta rs' .

( Language activity) '


Man has been fascinated by the stars since creation, and it was a
star that heralded the birth Christ. Although we now send a space
telescope into orbit complete with solar panels, gyroscopes and
detectors all controlled from Earth, man still looks to 'the ever
moving spheres heaven' to read his 'fortune'.
'Horoscope' comes from the Greek words hour, time and
wtcher, obserer.

to speak
star (planetary)
ln
to be affected
relation

------

, - , -
( )

past (as a things past)


to pay attention (to), to be occupied
(with)
career
to support (a person what he/she is
doing)
persons high places
to ensure
to have trouble
difference
to open (confide)
environment
to worry
=

(23 l - 22 )

.
.
.
.

.
. ,
.

Points of i nterest ( )

This i s an old form o f the word which is used now with


a few exceptions; see also the title at the beginning of this lesson,
and section Tl. It follows different
rules its declension to those we have discussed.

the Gordian knot

This was an intricate knot tied by King Gordius of Gordium


Phrygia. The oracle declared that whoever could loosen the knot
would rule Asia. Alexander the Great overcame the difficulty by

227

228

---cutting through the knot with his sword. See also later section
this lesson .
(Expressions and idioms)

''

What cannot be undone can be cut

These are purported to be the famous words spoken by Alexander


the Great when confronted by the Gordian knot.

The lion's share
Let bygones be bygones

People high places
1
The signs the zodiac are gien below Greek and English
two columns but not a matching order. Match them up.

(Oint: help you, the Greek terms are followed by the appro
priate dates. )
(21 - 20 )
(21 - 2 1 ' )
(22 ' - 21 )
(22 - 23 )
(24 - 23 )
(24 - 23 )
(24 - 23 )
(24 - 22 )
(23 - 21 )
(22 - 20 )
(21 - 1 9 )
(20 - 20 )

Virgo
Aries
Libra
Leo
Sagittarius
Taurus
Scorpio
Gemini
Aquarius
Cancer
Pisces
Capricorn

( Language poi nts)


59 The future tenses of verbs the
passive voice
Seeral erbs the Language Actiity section aboe are under
lined. Most them are erbs the future tense the passie oice.

229
As was the case with the future tense of verbs the active voice,
verbs the passive voice have a simple and a continuous form.

he future contin uous


As the active voice, this tense is used to describe an action the
future which will either occur repeatedly or will continue for some
time.
Example the previous passage:
our work and health will be
affected.
.
The future continuous the passive voice is formed the basis
of the present tense.

Present tense
Future continpassive
uous passive

Present tense
Future continpassive
uous passive

Present passive Future continuous passive


Present tense
Future continuous passive
passive

Remember that the differences between verbs like

and

the way they form their tenses apply only to those tenses that are

based the present tense and ultimately are due to the different way which they
form their present tense the active voice (Lesson 3 ) . They follow the same rules
all other tenses.

230

The future simple n the passi e oice


As the active voice, it is used to describe actions the future of
which we simply wish to record the occurrence.
Examples the passage above:
ou will be supported by your
parents.
.
ou will experience trouble.
.
The way the future simple is formed is related to the past simple.
We will need to know the past simple order to form the future
simple. Let us look at the following examples.

Pst simple Future simple Pst simple


pssive
pssive
pssive

Future simple
pssive

Pst simple
pssive

Future simple
pssive

Verbs like

form their future simple like verbs like

----

Let us look at some more examples:


Present tense
ssve

Pst sme
ssve





Future sme
ssve





60 Adverbs used rep/y to the question


wrd ;
We have already come across such examples earlier questions.
- ;
- ,

- ;
-
Such words are:

bad, badly
like, as
somehow, some way
otherwise, differently
as

Some more examples:


-
;
-
.

'How was your holiday?'

-
;
- ,
.

'How did you manage t o get here


so early?'
' Come , managed it some
how.'

'We spent it like kings. '

- ; 'Did you read the book? How


did you find it? '
;
expected it to be different but
- ,
enjoyed it. '
.

23 1

232
2
Below, you will find the present and past simple tenses a number
verbs n the passive voice. Bearing n mind what we have learned
n Language Point 59, give the future simple tense and future
continuous tense ( only n the first person ) . The first one has been
done for you.
Present tense
passive

Past simple
passive

Future
continuous
passive

Future simple
passive


3
Give n full, n all persons singular and plural, the future simple and
future continuous the following verbs. If n doubt, go back to
Language Point 59 and look at the verbs given there.

4
n the short passage from the horoscope a number sentences
were expressed n the passive voice. These, together with additional
sentences, are listed below. Express the same meaning but n the
active voice.

(Hint: n doing so you may have to change the word order or


delete or add words. )

__----------------------------------------

Example:
.
.

(passive )
( active )


.
2
.
3
.
4 .
5 .
6
.
7 .
8 .
5

Write down, Greek, the questions to which the following are the
answers.
1
2

- . ;
- .
,

- .

Language activity () -
Advertising often offers succinct sentences simply linked together
drive a point home, whether the product is milk or a cigarette
lighter.
to



, -, -
, -, -

milk
pure
fatty (for food)
preserve, keep

233

234

------



()





()

washing
plate
washing machine
dishwasher
area, field
to feel
to mean
mattress
body
cigarette lighter
to guarantee
to respect
at the same time

-
:

The word

has two meanings - it is the name a sign the

Zodiac, but it is also an animal.

!
1 , 7 %
'

!

.
, ,
. . . .

__----------------------------------------

,
. .

2000
, ,
!

,

.


, - , -




noiseless
use
draw (of lottery)
sensation, sense
lighting
gas
to moisturize
to respect

( La n guage points)
61 Conjunctions - inking sentences
together
n

the sentences we looked at above, we used the following conjunc

tions:

however, nevertheless
that
that (who, which)
because, since
because
so, then
while

235

236

62 Purpose in the passive voice - +


Now we have dealt with the future simple and continuous, the
expression of purpose the passive is easy. t follows the same
principle as applied to active-voice forms, other words it makes
use of the corresponding forms of the verb as used the future
simple and continuous. Compare them, as given detail below, for
one of the verbs we have been using to illustrate the tenses of verbs.

Future
simple
pssive

Purpose
(simple)
pssive

Future
continuous
pssive

Purpose
(continuous)
pssive





Examples:

the passage the horoscope for those belonging to the sign of


Leo, the advice offered included career advice:
Time t o occupy yourself with
.
your career.
Prefer to let your hair down
among friends.
.
both cases, the simple form is adequate because the advice con
cerns a specific measure sometime the next few days.
6
Bearing mind what we have learned about the expression of
purpose and the example given Language Point 62 above, give
full the two forms of expressing purpose the passive voice of
the verbs , ,

(Hint: giving the forms of the verbs ,


for the expression of purpose the continuous tense, remember
the differences between them: see earlier this lesson. )

__------------------------------------------

7
Can you give the difference meaning of the following pairs of
words, which, although similar, are nevertheless different?
ou may find Language Point 61 above and Language Point 57
Lesson 13 helpful if you are doubt.
,


that, e.g.:

He/she told me that he/she would


call me.

8
The following nouns are all neuter (i.e. they are preceded by ).
Give all their cases the singular and plural. The first two cases
have been done for you. If you are doubt, it may be a good idea
to consult previous lessons.
We have not discussed previously nouns ending -, but as
you have been given the first cases it should not be difficu1t for you
arrive at the remaining.
Singulr




Plurl

(Narratie) . . .

-

We may all seek to build our 'self-defences', so to speak, to keep


away from unpleasant experiences and, yes (why not?), undesir
able people. However, our own elaborate measures may sometimes
us

237

238
backfire rather badly, leaving us to wonder where we have gone
wrong or what we have done to deserve the humiliation.
The following encounter may perhaps make some of us secretly
cringe.


,
, -, -

, -, -


author
known
rarely
to sit
to be forced (to)
paper
fellow passenger
cheek
look, glance
to shake


, . '
,
.
,
,


,
. . . .
,
, . . . , .
,


,
'
.
,
,
.
,
.
- , , , !

239

, - , -

, - , -





, - , -

, - , -

conviction
false
face (rather derogatory)
hidden
case
peep , appear from behind
shield
engineer
cesspool
vacant (glance)
movement, shake (of head)
amply proportioned (fat)
hiccup
refuge

Points of i nterest ( )
small talk, chit-chat

idiomatic phrase used to describe the small talk people indulge
when they are close proximity and feel obliged to talk to each
other.

as if by miracle

It is a phrase which goes back to a time when the language had


structures now longer general use.
hey, there
It is a word used with reference to men many a context to express
surprise or to attract attention, e.g.
!
Hey, you !
, ! What can say to you !
, !
Fancy that !

240

fComprehensionJ
()
1
;
2 ;
3 ;
4
;
colleague
()
1 ;
2 . . .
' .
;
;
3
. . . ;
9
- , , !
What would an English person say a similar situation?
10
Tell this story to a friend English. Try to include all the main
points of it, but feel free to improvise so as to retain its humour.

1 5

1 50

:

co m m a n d i n g a n d fo rbidd i ng - the i m pe rative the passive


voice
we seek m o re ways to i m p rove style by looki ng at more
conj u nctions
words to a nswer ;
activities a n d sport of i nte rest to both m e n a n d wom e n

La nguage activity 1 ( ) -
n
,.
Radio and television play an important role everyday life and
constitute one of the main sources of information ( or disinfor
mation as the case may be ) as well as entertainment.
Health and exercise are seen, nowadays, as interdependent,
and multi-million industries have sprung to cater for our every
whim. Radio and television have joined to win our bodies and
aud iences. We begin the day early with an exercise to tighten some
mus cles.




, -, -

exercise
stand
upright

242

foot
to be at a distance from (
hand
thigh
back
shoulder
head (also )
tummy
arm

.
.
1 .
25 .

. ,
. ,
.
.
2 .

.

DD

---

.
.
,

.
.

.
, .


, , -

, -, -
, - , -





warm-up
(also )
raise
loose, relaxed
loosely
bend
side
floor
lie down
folded
bent
sole (of foot)
lean against
elbow
force, strength
muscle
trunk
repeat


(Expressions and idioms)
air

This word is used n a number of Greek idiomatic phrases:


.
.

He became swollen-headed.
took the wind out of her sails.

243

244
.
.
.

Hot air.
Stuff and nonsense.
They will blow us sky
high.

1
Repeat the instructions for the first exercise after the sentence
reading but this
time begin the moement of the head from the left . Make
all other necessary alterations to the rest of the exercise.
2
The title of this lesson is . Bearing n mind that it is a
term used n connection with the transmission of teleision and
radio programmes what do you think is its meaning?
The phrases below may help you with your answer.
.
.

to come out, to get out

3
Gie the following tenses of the erbs below. Where a erb has
irregular tenses some of the key tenses are included to help guide
you to the remaining.
Present

Imperfect Pst
Future Future
Present Pst
simple simple continuous perfect perfect

245


63 Instructions, commands and
prohibitions the passive voice
- the imperative
n the radio exercises aboe three erbs are underlined n order to
draw them to your attention. They are n the imperatie and n the
passie oice , , .
As was the case with the imperatie n the actie oice, there is
a simple and a continuous form. Howeer, the passie oice
many erbs do not hae an imperatie continuous form at all.
Instead the form used to express purpose is used to express
commands for continuous or repetitie action.
-

Imperative continuous - passive voice


It is helpful, once again, to look at the imperatie n relation to the
present tense.

Present

Impertive
continuous

Present

()

()

Present

Impertive
continuous

Impertive
continuous

Present

Impertive
continuous


()

()

246
Only two of the erbs hae an imperatie continuous, and the
brackets indicate that these forms are not much use.
It is far more customary to use the form of the erb expressing
purpose. an earlier lesson, when discussing the imperatie the
actie oice, we remarked the fact that commands can be
expressed more politely and sensitiely with + the form of the
verb expressing purpose.
For example, instead of saying we could
say .
So, such case it is better to use + the form of the verb
expressing purpose:


I mperati e simple - passi e oice


Once again, it will be helpful to look at the imperatie simple
relation to the future simple.

Future
simple

/mpertive
simple

Future
simple

/mpertive
simple

Future
simple

/mpertive
simple

247



:

There i s difference the way the imperative simple i s formed

the case of verbs like

l, '

Note the endings of the imperative simple:


- n the singular
- n the plural.
The following are examples of the imperative simple and impera
tive continuous of verbs n the passive voice.
Present

Imperative
simple

Imperative
continuous

The rules concerning the endings of the imperative n the passive


are quite involved, and the use of it is not widespread enough to
warrant spending more time its study. It is more constructive to
learn the forms you need and, when you forget, to look them up.

248
4
Give the imperative simple of the following verbs, n the singular
and the plural.
The verbs have been divided into clusters which form their
endings n the imperative n a similar way. The first of each cluster
has been done for you. Complete the remaining n a similar way.

Imperatie simple

It may be helpful to you


to see the future simple
form of the erb


(to be discovered)

(to be placed)


(to appear)

(to be sorry)


(to be troubled)


(to be forced to)

(to open )


(to look at oneself)

5
Put the verbs n brackets n the correct form. It may be helpful to
know that the correct form will be the imperative - simple or
continuous.
1 ( ) .
2 ( ) .

---

3 ( ) , , .
4 ( ) .
5 ( ) .
6 ( ) .
7 ( ) .
8 ( ) .
( = mirror)
( )
9 ( ) !
10 ( ) . ( )

6
Decline the following pairs of feminine adjectives and nouns, the
singular and the plural.

-
( Language activity 2)
Sport is often reported live television and radio, and the
commentator's reporting contributes considerably to creating the
atmosphere of excitement that may be lacking when watching from
the sitting-room or even the kitchen.

, -, -



race (also struggle)


start, starting point
line
signal
to spill
steep
bend
round (noun)
j oke
finishing line

249

250
, ,
.

, .
.
' .
. ,

.

.

. , ,

,


,
.

.
. ,
, ,

,
.

, -, -




, -, -

motorcycle
flare
transmission
direct
panhellenic
championship
correspondent
side (of mountain)
j am (bottleneck)
undisturbed
at the head (adv.)
battle

251

at a distance
(This is a phrase from times when a far
more formal form of Greek was preva
lent but which has passed into current
usage.)
to make desperate attempts

7

1 What race is being described n the above passage and where has
it taken place?
2 How many people came first n the race?


64 More words for joining sentences
together - conjunctions
n the description of the race, the commentator made ample use of
words to help him join phrases together and vary his description a
little. Some of these words were underlined n order to draw your
attention to them.
those already given n this passage we can add a few more,
together with their meanings.

. . .

or - we have already used this one n previous


lessons
either . . . or

. . . either . . . or, whether . . . or



when
Examples:
,
.

It's either me or you. It cannot


be both.

252
Whether you like it or not is all

the same to me.


.
One way or another, they will get
what they want.

.
. Speak when you are spoken to.

65 Words which can be useful when


replying to questions beginning with
(adverbsJ
;
;

Here and there


Nowhere
Everywhere
Somewhere
Somewhere else

8
the words below are verbs as they appear the description of

the race above. Create three columns; the first write down the
present tense of each the first person, the active or the passive
voice as the case may be. the second column write down the form
of the verb you will look the Glossary order to find its
meaning. the third column write down the meaning of the word
as it is used the passage above.
Column 1
Present

Column 2
Column 3
Form in Glossry Mening
to hear

---

9
The account below iS a summary the description the race,
given by an eye-witness. the gaps with words chosen from
the list below.
.
. . . ,
. . . , . . .
. . . .
, . . . . . .
. , . . . ,

- . . .
. . . . .
, , , , , , . . . ,
Bearing mind that this is an account the same race we listened
to earlier the radio, can you spot that there is a factual error
this account the event? Have you spotted it yet?
1
Write the short questions to which the following are answers.
1
2
3
4
5
6

.
, .
.
.
, ;

.
7 .
8 .

pocket

253

254
1 1
The following words appear n this form n the passage above. Write
them down n the form n which you will look them n the
Glossary or n a dictionary, adding before each the article , ,
n the case of nouns, or giving all three forms n the case of
adjectives.

12
The following passage comes from a written description of the
background to the race we heard about. Some words have been left
unfinished for you to finish. This is intended as a test of what we
have learned so far relating to the endings of verbs, nouns and
adjectives.
. . . . . .
. . .
. . . . . . . . .
. . .
. . . . . . .
. . . . . . .




organiser
cold
raln
daybreak
detail

. ..

255

(Narrative)

The question whether the mere act competing n a sport or


victory is what matters n sport has been a long-standing one. The
debate is likely to continue to be lively probably for as long as men
and women compete against each other.

team
history, story
sport
game
to seek (to)
victory
to prevent
mistake
to be interested
manner, way
to lose
to permit


.
.
,
. , ,
.
,

.
.
, ,
. ,
.
. ,

.

256

attack
defence
opponent
to be sufficient
aim
basketful
to force
spectacle
follower
to yield, to be profitable


l*


what counts
the other hand
at the expense of another
to reach the point

* This ending is specific to verb endings as used particularly by Greeks n the Athens
region. The standard form is

fComprehensionJ
( ) .
1
;
2 ;
3 ;
4 ;
() .
1
;
2
' ;
3
;

---

13
The following words are used the Greek comprehension passage
above. They are either compound words of words we have already
come across, or they have similarities with words current use
English.
Read the sentences which they are used and give their
meaning below.
,
, -, -

1 4

The short passage below speaks about the new challenge presented
by to lovers of mountaineering. It was, doubt, this
very inaccessibility that prompted the first monks to climb the
inhospitable sheer faces of the rocks their search for isolation
from their fellow men.
The word means suspended, rised. is a
cluster of high rocks Thessaly, Northern Greece, top of which
are perched a number of fourteenth century monasteries.
If you have the audio material, listen to the passage being read
by the native speaker. Otherwise read it yourself and add the stress
accents the syllables which are emphasized during reading.

, 800 ,

,



.




. ,
,
.

257

258







, - , -

trace, track
monk
buld
mountaineer
mountaineering
copy
route
support
rock
inventiveness
rain
soap
impregnable
training
prayer

15
Read and/or listen again to the passage about . Below
there is a list of English words. Find their Greek equivalents, all of
which are n the reading passage.

year
today
first monk
n the whole world
four hours

1 6

1 60 ,
. ,
:

the i m med iate a n d more rem ote past - p resent a n d past


perfect the passive
i rreg u l a r ve rbs, a n d verbs which o n l y h ave a passive form
m o re words h e l p i n g us to ask q u estions - i nterrogative
p ro n o u ns
a vag u e a n swer to a not so vag u e q u esti o n - i nd efi n ite
p ro n o u ns
it's m i n e - t h e possessive p ro n o u n , ,

d i m i n utives of mascu l i ne n o u n s

Let us travel a little and, n doing so, learn a little more about the
language.


( Language activity 1 )
Crete is one of the largest Greek islands and is always attractive to
tourists. It boasts good beaches, hospitable people, remarkable
Minoan ruins at Knossos, and, elsewhere, picturesque towns and
rugged mountain terrain. It has also given modern Greek literature
some of its most treasured works.

260




, -, -
, -, -
, -, -
, -, -

gate
to build
wall (surrounding a town)
wall ( a house) - note the different spelling
city, town
political
social
commercial
military
life
to belong
to withstand, to endure
abroad
author
visitor
to believe
to fear
to become

'

- .
,
.
,
,
, .
,
, ,
.

,


.


,
.

261
,

. 200
,
, ,
, .

, , .





- , -, -

the Arabs
to surround with a wall (
power, authority
the Byzantines
century
the Venetians
Venetian occupation
to besiege
to yield, succumb
literature ( + )
monument
grave
inscription
free

1
The title of the passage above comes from , a
romance written n verse, and although it refers to the story of the
love between a princess and a courtier, it can equally well apply to
the chequered history of the town itself.
Bearing n mind that it is the first verse of a long romance, trans
late it into English, with a touch of poetry if you can:
'

circle
turning

262

'

this is a compound word from


2

. .

translate


66 The recent and more distant past the present perfect and past perfect the
passive voice
As was the case with the corresponding tenses the active voice,
these two are easy to remember. They are both formed with the aid
the verb .

he present eect
As we saw before, Lesson 10, the present perfect expresses an
action which occurred the past but still affects the present. the
above passage, we underlined two verbs the sentence
,
!]!] .
Both actions have occurred the past, Iraklio hs become tourist
centre and the action preserving its monuments began a long time
ago, but both cases these actions are affecting the Iraklio
today.
As is the case with English, the verb is used to form this
tense. English we say he lerned, it hs become well known.
Greek, the present perfect is formed as follows:

---

Singulr

Plurl

The past eect


Again the verb comes the rescue help us form this tense.
It is used describe an action which preceded another the past.
There are a few examples the passage about Iraklio:
,
. . .
. . .
,
. . .
the first example, a harbour hd been built first, and the second
action, i.e. that of building the town itself at a later date, is implied.
the second example, Iraklio was able withstand the siege after the
rest of Crete had fallen because the strong walls hd lredy been
bult by the Venetians.
The past perfect is formed using , the past tense of .

Singulr

Plurl

263

264

67 Some verbs are used on/y their


passive forms
earlier lessons we established that many erbs hae an actie and
a passie form. When the subject of the erb exercises the action,
the erb is used the actie and when the subject of the erb is
suffering the action, it is the passie.
Examples:
The Venetians built the walls
of Iraklio (actie oice)
.

.

The walls were bult by the


Venetians (passie oice)

Greek, some erbs hae l passie-oice forms. Below you will


find some of these with their meanings and principal tenses. Some
of them form their tenses a non-standard way, other words
are irregular erbs, and it would be a good idea if eentually you
memorize them. will meet more such erbs the second
section of Language Points later this lesson.
Present

( become
to come

( be gld,

Imper[ect

Pst

Future
simple

Impertive
simple

( )

be
plesed
to

( wSh



( think

( be


seted

( respect



( feel

---- 265

68 More question words - interrogative


pronouns
Here, we will discuss more words which will help us ask questions.
;
, , ;
, , ;
;
, , ;

What?
How much?
How many?
Whose?
Whose?

Examples:
;

;

;

What is this?
How many men came to the party?
Whose is the red car?
or
Whose is the green j acket?

Examples of questions and answers:


;
;
;

.
.

.

69 Mine - possessive pronoun


, ,

, ,
() ,
() , ()
, ,
, ,
, ,

mine (for masculine, feminine, neuter)


yours ( )
his, hers, its ( )
ours (
yours (
theirs (

)
)

266

- ;
- , !

Examples:
;

;

.
.

She wants eerything for herself.

'
, .

.

It's our house and we can do


what we like.
They hae nothing they can call
their own.

If he has anything that belongs to



, . him here, let him come and get

( Expressions and
idioms)
, , etc., are also used n a number of idiomatic
expressions which can be quite useful:
my people, my folks, i.e. relaties friends
my own, i.e. my own interest, what belongs to me
my own worries, my own affairs

267
E xamples:

.
.

.

He brought all his folks to the


wedding.
She has her own property.
They sat down to chat about
their own affairs.

3
Language Point 66 above, we gave examples of the present
perfect and past perfect of a number of verbs the passive voice.
However, we did not give the rule for forming these tenses, as we
usually do.
Go back to this Language Point, read the examples again and
state this rule for the present perfect and the past perfect your
own words.
If you need to refresh your memory, you may go back to Lesson
10, Language Point 44.
4
Language Point 67, we gave the principal tenses of verbs which
only have a passive voice. Go back to them, read them again, and
then give below the following tenses, which were not included
because they are formed the basis of tenses already given:
Verbs: , , , , ,
, , '
Tenses: future continuous, present perfect, past perfect, expres
sion of purpose: simple, continuous.
5
Translate into Greek the following sentences. Some words you may
need are given brackets after each sentence.

(Hint: most sentences at least one verb will be the present


perfect or past perfect either the active or the passive voice.)
1 He's not here. He has just left. Gust = )
2 They had already finished when arrived. (already = )
3 You lied to me. The meeting had not started. (meeting =
, to lie = )

268
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

The walls of Iraklio had been built before the Turkish siege.
Crete has become a tourist centre.
Erotocritos had been written before the end of the siege.
Have you been to Crete? ( use as the verb)
We have not seen the walls of the town.
Had the port been built before the town?
Few tourists had been to the island before the 1970s. ( 1970s
'70)

6
.

to write
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

.
.
2,70 .
.
.
.
. .

7
The following Greek passage is about Iraklio again. It is accom
panied by its translation into English, which is not always correct.
Read through the Greek and English passages and correct the
mistakes present n the English translation.
.

.

.

.
. '
.


It was 7 n the morning when we finally arrived at Iraklio. First,
we went to the hotel, where we reserved rooms and where we

------

left our luggage. We then went out for a walk the quiet streets
of the illage.
Most shops were already open. We arried at Venizelos
enue, known as Lion ard. It took its name from the
Venetian fountain decorated with lions. We stopped for a while
to see the fountain and then walked towards the new harbour.

( Language activity 2)

Tourism is undoubtedly a blessing for the economies of many


islands and areas but it needs to be controlled carefully order to
aoid spoiling the ery assets which make these islands attractie
to tourists the first instance. Sadly, the rush to exploit a trend,
insufficient attention is often paid to the consequences of a massie
deelopment.

, - , -


, -, -

interest
place, site
area
ground
land
to form
to be like
unique
past
treasure
made
top, summit
excavation




.
.

269

270
.

, .

, '
'

.
, , ,
,

.
,

.

,
"
.

.



, -, -


, -, -
, - , -



, -, -



, - , -
, -, -

font ( for baptism )


amazing
hollow
small bay
sensational
deformed
monster
giant
rebulding
to sprout
villa
made of concrete
complex, group
to raise, to erect
ruin
housing estate
Cycladic
Mycenaean
remains, relc

---

--

Why, do you think, iS that specific area of Paros known as


?
9
The words below are all compound words. The words which
combine to give the compound words are given brackets,
together with their respective meanings.
Give the meaning of each compound word the context
which each is used the passage above.





( + - all + circle)
( + all + fast)
( + match + box)
( + all + ancient)
( + - near + sea)
( + tip + town)
-

10
The passage above states that the area is
. What is the equivalent standard phrase we would use
English to describe the same concept this context?
natural
, -, -
special
, -, -


70 , , , but the answer may
be vague - indefinite pronouns
We may not always wish to give a definite answer to a question or,
indeed, we may not know the answer. As any politician worth his
salt knows full well, there is an art asking questions, but the
greater art is answering them - whether you know the answer or
not may be immaterial.

27 1

272
knock the door, or a ring of the bell may elicit the ques
tion from those inside
- ;
- .
The answer is to all intents and purposes not very informative
unless you happen to know the person the outside of the front
door well enough to recognize the voice.
The indefinite pronouns have a different form, depending
whether they apply to a man, a woman or a child/thing.

nobody, anybody
someone
everyone
some

Examples:
Everyone thinks of his own first.
.
Some people think they know
.
it all.

. Someone came by and took


. Nobody came to see me.

7 1 More irregu/ar verbs with / a


passive form
Present
( ccept

Imperfect

Pst
simple

Future
simple

Impertive
simple

( need
( pper

( stnd

273
The verbs which follow have one thing n common - they have two
alternatives n the first-person singular.
Present
to sLeep

Imperfect

Pst
simpLe

( be
sorry

Impertive
simpLe

to
remember
to be
frid

Future
simpLe

The present tense and the imperfect n the passive voice are given
below n full, since they have some differences from those other
verbs.
Present pssive

Imperfect pssive

Singulr


Plurl




1 1

Give n full the present and imperfect tenses and



12
Give the past perfect tense
following:

( first-person singular only ) the

274
13
Language Point 70 we looked at , , . Lesson
9 we demonstrated how the word is used. There are underlined
examples of the latter the passage the island of Paros. Explain
what the difference is.
If you are not sure, go back to these lessons and read the rele
vant passages.
14
previous lessons we mentioned diminutives for neuter and femi
nine nouns. the passage Paros, one masculine diminutive is
used . There are other endings for diminutives of
masculine nouns, the most common being the ending -.
Below there is a list of diminutives of masculine nouns. Give
their standard form. The meaning of new words is given.
-

small chamber
asterisk
dear uncle

( Narratie)

Archaeological sites are abundance almost every corner of


Greece, and new excavations are always revealing new sites previ
ously unknown.


, - , -
, -, -

sunken
ancient
thing
to finish, to end
temple, church
building (of a house)

---



, - , -

ruin
plan
underground
excaation
cathedral


.
, ,
.

.
.
,
,
"
. '


" ,
.
' ,
,
" , ' .
, ,


.





, -, -

, - , -



l
remnant
palace
buried
locate
neolithic
reconstruction
trace
workshop
ceramics

275

276

(ComprehensionJ
() .
1 ;
2
;
3
;
() .
1 ;
2 ;
1 5
We have already encountered some of the words listed below with
a different meaning, we have already used different forms of the
words which should help you arrive at their meaning without the
aid of a glossary.
These words are given below, underlined, a sentence which
should be of further help.
1
.
2 .
3 .
Give the meaning of the following words as used above.



= to build
we have used this to mean seson
= ancient
= ancient

1 6
The title given to this lesson is . It is a compound word
from + . We used Lesson 8. The second
word, , means wlk, mrch, route.
Greek the meaning can be explained as
. Why, do you
think, was it considered an appropriate title for this lesson?

Epilogue

We began the book with a quote from the poem b y C . .


Cavafy and we wi11 end by quoting it its entirety.
One of the best-known poets who wrote Greek, despite the
fact that he lived a11 his life outside Greece, Constantinople and
Alexandria, is . He has been widely
translated into a number of languages, including English.
His poetry may offer a more rewarding experience to the
newcomer to modern Greek than that of other we11-known Greek
poets such as , part1y
because he wrote mainly relatively short poems and had an
economical approach to language rather than the exuberance which
characterizes the language of other literary figures of twentieth
century Greece.
Ithaca, was of course Odysseus' home island. After the sacking
of Troy, Odysseus set off what should have been a relatively
short voyage to Ithaca but one that lasted ten whole years. During
this time Odysseus wandered the high seas and n many lands,
as a result of which he 10st many of his men and was himself
subjected to much hardship. According to mythology, Odysseus had
n the past offended Poseidon, the god of the sea, who subjected
him to this continuous wandering.
These adventures are recounted Homer's Odyssey
( ) and are the background to this poem.

278

,
,
, .
,
,
,
' ,
.
,
,
,
.
.
' .
.
'
' ,
,
.
' ' .
.
.
, .
, ,
.
If you are interested n a translation of the poem and n the work
of C. . Cavafy, there is volume of translations of his poems: C. .
Cavafy: Collected Poems, by Edmund Keeley and Philip Sherrard,
Princeton University Press 1992.
monograph about the work of the poet, written by Christopher
Robinson, is published by Bristol Classical Press, now part of
Duckworth, as part of a series of 'Studies n Modern Greek"

Key exercises

First steps
Exercse 1

, , , , , ,
Exercse 2

good, day, night, journey, voyage,


appetite, one day, a day, one night, a night
=

The first one is read as a two-syllable word, i.e. -, thi-o.


The second one is read as a one-syllable word, i.e. thio.

Lesson 1
Exercse 1

, ,
, , , ,
, , ,

,
, .
Exercse 2

psychology, telephone, radio,


alphabet, synthesis, composition,
aeroplane, technology, architecture,

photography,
echo,
biology,
electronic, democracy (lso republic) ,

mathematics,
electricity,
hexagon, idea, theatre, orchestra,
myth.
=

280
Exercise 3


telex,
fax,
video,
cinema,
express (train),
canoe,
cafeteria, mini dress/mini skirt, salad,
milk shake.
=

Exercise 4

a nice day , have a good journey , quietly


please
, , enj oy your meal , taxi please
, , good night
, slowly please
,
.
=

Exercise 5

- eraa - therapy (also treatment), -


farmak - pharmacy, - evr - Europe, arhelga - archaeology, - tilepaTHia - telepathy,
- moostartha - mustard, - saoona - sauna,
- to - OUZO, - to soopermarket - supermarket,
- kmnsms - communism.
Exercise 6

record player,
whisky, gin.
=

crisps,

video camera,

Exercise 7

- to garaz - garage, - manatzer - manager,


- to beikon - bacon, - to marketing - marketing,
- to groop - group, - to sinema - cinema,
- to parking - parking, - bravo - bravo, - to ketsap ketchup, - compIter - computer.
Exercise 8

- sths, - tooaletes, - yinekes,


- tahthrm, - estatr, - nskm,
- lefr, - rfres, - artopolo,
- kapnopolo, - kreopolo, pantopolo, - lopolo, - hartopolo,
- erter.

281
Exercise 9

transport,
agreement,
refusal,

request,
buses,
leaving,
business,
medicines, illness, eating,
drinking, greeting.
-

Comprehension
1 The author of this passage and her friend Maria. 2 Because she left her
passport at the hotel. 3 the hotel. 4 Argo. 5 Because a taxi is quicker
and she is n a hurry. 6 That he could not go as fast as his passenger wished.

Exercise 10

quick/slow (opposites)
Mr/Mrs (different gender)
no/yes (opposites)
journey/passport
car/taxi (both cars but for
different uses)

Lesson 2
Exercise 1

my salad, their cinema,


my photograph, our station, his stop,
her bookshop.
-

Exercise 2

, , , ,
.
Exercise 3

Exercise 4

airport, kiosk,
hospital (They all end n -.)
=

car,

282
Exercise 5

or


or

or

Exercise 6



or
or








Pronuncition

Mening

enas stigmieos kafes


enas hms rtkal
mia pasta or mia pasta
mia lemonatha
or mia lemonatha
ena amb
ena agr
ena agt
ena tsai
ena er
ena gala
ena em
ena salami
ena art

an instant coffee
an orange juice
a pastry
a lemonade
a ham
a cucumber
an ice-cream
a tea
a water
a milk
a lemon
a salami
a yoghurt

Exercise 7

Suggested answers - others may be equally correct:


.
, .
.
, , or , , .
, ///.
Note:

n the case a man the question would be ; The answer could

then be , //v/. n both cases (womanl


man) the translation into English is English/Scottish/Welsh/American.

283
Exercise 8

Suggested questions - others may be equally correct:


- ;
- , .
- ;
- , .
- ' ;
- , .
Exercise 9

1 . 2 , . 3
; 4 . 5 ; 6 - .
- .
Exercise 10

! , .
or perhps
, .
Comprehension

(a)
1 Hot - although we are not told this explicitly, we are told that it is
August. 2 At the greengrocer's. 3 Tomatoes, cucumbers and lemons.
4 0,90 tomatoes + 2,00 cucumbers + 1 ,50 lemons 4,40 euros.
(b)
1 . .
2 . 3 . 4 .
=

Exercise 1 1

(a)
:

, . .
, .
, .
, .
. .

or perhaps
or

or perhaps
or

- . .
- , . , .
- , .
- . .

or perhaps
:

(b)
:
:

284

Lesson 3
Exercise 1

Pavlos and Niki have a car.


(Mr) George has a house with a garden.
Thessaloniki has an airport.
Exercise 2

Person
1st
2nd
3rd

Singular

Plural

* It is the same rm for a man, a woman or a child.

Exercise 3

1 - five lemons. 2 - twenty-four


oranges. 3 - thirteen cars. 4 three bookshops. 5 - nine aeroplanes. 6
- four restaurants.

Singulr






Nouns ending

Plurl





change to and those ending add , i.e. end .

Exercise 4

Neuter nouns ending in


,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,

Neuter nouns ending in


,
,
,
,

285
Exercise 5

1 . 2 . 3
. 4 .
.
Exercise 6

The sentences below are l examples of some possibilities. There are


many more sentences that can be made with these words.
.
(or ).
(or , etc.).
.
Exercise 7

ship, airport, train, j ourney, voyage,


flight, fly, petrol, taxi
=

Exercise 8

Those followed by
Exercise 9

- , - ; - , - ,
- .
Comprehension

(a)
1 It's Athens. 2 More than one; otherwise stated. 3 London. 4
bus.
(b)
1 . 2 ,
. 3 327
.
Exercise 10

Make your way Gate 4 and have your passports and boarding cards
ready.

286
Exercise 1 1

1
Exercise 12

Super

Lesson 4
Exercise 1

- ;
- , .
- .
- ;
- Richard Brown.
- , . .
- .
- . ;
- 16 Burleigh Close, .
- ,
Brown;
- . ,
;
- ,

.
- .
- , .

Exercise 2

1 .
2 . 3
. 4
. 5 .
Exercise 3

Work has now finished. From tomorrow we will be holiday and will lead
the life of Riley. 1 the morning we will go to the beach and swim, sunbathe
and drink coffee and enj oy ourselves the peace and quiet.

287
Exercise 4

, , , , , ,
.
Exercise 5

Nominative
Genitive
Accusative
Vocative

Singulr


Plurl


Nominative
Genitive
Accusative
Vocative

Singulr


Plurl

*

Nominative
Genitive
Accusative
Vocative

Singulr


Plurl


* Note that the plural the genitive is , whereas the example we used
the lesson has the stress-accent the last syllable, i.e. . There are a
number variations and we cannot possibly deal with all them a short book.
good grammar for modern Greek will be a useful addition you wish to take

your study into greater detail.

Exercise 6

- !
- , .
- , . ;
- , .
- , . , .
- , ; ;
- , ;
- , .
Exercise 7

- January, - February, - March,


- April, - May, - June, - July,
- August, - September, - October, November, - December.

288

---

Exercise 8

, , , , ,
, , , .

Exercise 9

Present

Future simple









Exercise 10

The sentences given below are only some examples. There are many others
you can make yourself.
.
.
.
.
.
Exercise 1 1

Present

Future continuous













Future simple













289
Exercise 12
, , , , , ,

.
Exercise 1 3

, , , .
Exercise 14

1 . 2
. 3 ; 4
' . 5
; - . 6 .
;
-

Exercise 1 5

ARRIVALS STATlSTlCS CARD


Please answer the questions below:
Date
Nationality

____________________

Date of birth

___________________

Sex : male female


Country of residence

_________________

_______ __________

are you traelling to G reece?

by bus
by train
by aeroplane
by ship

many days ll you be staying Greece?


Thank you and bon voyage.

Comprehension

(a) 1 n Thessaloniki. 2 special soup, called is prepared


and eggs are dyed red. 3 Attending church after which a special dish is
served. It is a family occasion.
(b) 1 . 2
. 3 .

290
Exercise 16

Lesson 5
Exercise 1

Continuous





Simple
( irregular)
( irregular )
( irregular)
( irregular )

Note simlarity with the infinitive Englsh ( to drink, to find, etc. ) . For
the irregular verbs, see Language Point 20, this lesson.
Exercise 2

1 . 2 ;
3 . 4
.
Exercise 3

Words of a single syllable do not usually take a stress-accent, ,


, , , , being examples of one
syllable words.
Exercise 4

Continue straight , turn left, then immediately right. Continue for a


hundred metres when you will reach the school. At the school turn left and
carry a lttle further; you will reach the butcher's shop, where you should
turn right, and the church is five minutes down the road.
Exercise 5

He is looking for the town and he is told to follow the arrow.


Exercise 6

291
: . 1 .30 .
: . 6 .
: .
:
. .
Exercise 7

n this exercise there are two possible answers to most of the questions.
The third alternative is definitely wrong. Choose whichever alternative
applies to you.
1 ( ). 2
( ). 3 ( ).
4 ( . ). 5
( ).

Exercise 8

Full name:
Address:

Telephone

Mr/Mrs/Miss
( Street and :)
Town:
Post code:
- home:
- work:

Occupation:
Magazine of your choice:
Cost of subscription: 256
as a cheque
enclose
Credit card .
Date:
Signature:
Exercise 9
1 . 2
; 3
1972. 4 .
. 5 4 .

Exercise 10

They will be entered in the


Glossry s follows:

Their menings re:


to find
refuge

292
,
,
,
,
,

,
,
,
,
,
,
,

waiting
repertoire
week
evening, night
premiere
follow
performance
town, city
August
motif
eros, love
death
struggle

Exercise 1 1

, , (or )
, , , (or
) .
Exercise 12

1 , .
2 . 3
. 4
.
Exercise 13

will see a picture of a sailing boat. The numbers joined are 13


and 27.
Exercise 14

premiere, repertoire, motif, melodic, tragedy.


Comprehension

(a) 1 It will be performed next week. 2 Its first performance will be


Thessaloniki. 3 tragedy. It has death as one of its themes. 4
5
(b) 1 . 2 .
3 . 4
.

293
Exercise 15

1 can be booked Friday 20 and Saturday 21 July.


2 Performances start at 9.15 p.m. 3 The tickets are 3O 20. 4 Tickets
can be bought from the ticket office. 5 Greek Tourist Organization,
but is fact known as National Tourist Organization.

Lesson 6
Exercise 1

Present

Pst simp/e

Exercise 2

Verb ending in
present tense
-
-
-

Pst simp/e
endings
-
-
- or -

-
-
-
-

-
-
-
-

-
-
-
-

-
-
-
-

294
The rule from the above is as follows.
Verbs ending the present tense -, - end - the past
simple.
Verbs ending the present tense -, -, -, - end -
the past simple.
Verbs ending the present tense -, -, -, - end -
the past simple.
There are exceptions, but most of these are beyond the scope of this book.
Exercise 3

1 2 4 3 4
5 6 .
Exercise 4

is the odd pair out because all the others are neuter ( i.e. preceded by ) ,
whereas i s feminine but its diminutive i s neuter, i.e.
.
Exercise 5

1 2 3
7 8 .

Exercise 6

Verbs in imper[ect

Verbs in past simple

Exercise 7

1 you want anything? - - can also mean nothing. 2 Will you


look anywhere? - - can also mean nowhere. 3 Do you see
anybody? - , , - can also mean one. 4 Will they
ever leave? - - can also mean never.

295
Exercise 8

many cases, there are various possibilities for the word order the
questions, depending where the emphasis lies. Below we will give
the simplest.
1 . ;
. 2 . ; .
3 . ;
. 4 .
; . 5
. ;
. 6 .
; .
7 .
;
. 8 .
; .
Exercise 9

, , , , , , .
Exercise 10

Happy New Year


Many happy returns
Good luck
Cheers
Enjoy your meal

is the odd one out. It has equivalent phrase English. Greek


it is used to wish a person enjoyment from something they have just bought:
e.g. if a friend is showing you his brand new car, apart from various other
suitably admiring comments you can also say ; literally it means with
health.
Comprehension

() 1 . 2
. 3
. 4
. 5
. () .

296
Exercise 1 1

It means 'five-fingered" According one story, Digenis Akritas, a


Byzantine warrior, was being chased by some his enemies and, while
leaping over the sea from what is now Turkey, then part the Byzantine
Empire, to get away from them, he put his hand the top the moun
tain to gain leverage and left the imprint his fingers the mountain
top.

Lesson 7
Exercise 1

Singular



Plural



Exercise 2

clear blue colour


covered green ( completely)
turbulent, eventful
much-frequented, busy
having many children
noteworthy
pitiable

Exercise 3

1
6

2
7

3
8 .

297
Exercise 4

Compound word

Mening /
compound word

Words combined

1
2
3

ten-minute period
May Day
15 August

a day and a night,


24 hours
1 l
fortnight
New Year's Day
second (of a minute )
seven-year-old,
seven-year-Iong
two-day-Iong
six-year period

+
+
+

5
6
7
8
9
10
11

+
+
+
+
+
+
+

Exercise 5

Number

Numericl djective


1 821
1 940



( anniversary )
==

Both 25 March and 28 October are public holidays Greece and Cyprus.
25 March Greeks celebrate the uprising against the Turks 1 82 1 , and
28 October is Ohi Day, commemorating Metaxas' government's refusal
give Italian troops permission enter Greece 1 940.

298
Exercise 6

70th year
75th anniersary
90th car
100th book

In full

Abbrevited

700
75
90
100

Exercise 7

Mening

Words [orming the


compound word

deep blue
deep + blue
ery clean, spotless
fie + clean

Exercise 8

, , .
.
The house of the poet .
.
small taern by the sea.
.
nice sandy beach where the sea is clean and has a deep blue colour.
Exercise 9

Present
Future continuous
Future simple
Imperfect
Past simple

Exercise 10

Pst

Future

Present


1 821


2030

299
Exercise 1 1

1 2 3 or or 4 .
Exercise 12


.
r .
.

don 't want to see him ever again.


He ignored me completely.
As nothing had happened.

Comprehension

() 1 . 2 . 3 303 ..
() 1 They are islands to the west Greece and are so called because
there are seven them. 2 They are the women the island Lefkatha.
3 the mountains, course. 4 the Ionian sea.
Exercise 13

Compound word Mening

hospitable
with rich vegetation
faceless
( Heptanese ) Ionian islands
antithesis, contrast

Words joined to form


the compound word
+
+
+
+
+

Exercise 14

making every effort to maintain their traditions alive and by continuing


their age-old activities agriculture and fishing.

Lesson 8
Exercise 1

1 . 2 . 3 . 4
; 5 . 6 .
Exercise 2

. Anderson .
. .
. . Anderson

300
:: .
.
Exercise 3
CAR DHOLD ER'S Cop
0000 00 000 000
V

DE PT.

SALES

I N ITlALS

AN DE RSON

DESC R I PTlON

AMOUNT

AUTHO R I SATlON CODE


CONFIRM SALE ACCEPT VO UCHER

CAR DHODER'S S I G NATU R E

The buyer (referred 10 Ihis voucher as Cardholder). will pay Ihe issuer Ihe
card his order. Ihe sum money shown Ihe voucher under TOTAL.

accordance wilh Ihe Card Holder Condilions governing Ihe 5 Ihe card

SALES VOUCHER

1 credit card. 2 7 1 ,1 1 . 3 set backgammon. 4 1t needs be signed


the space above the words .
Exercise 4

The English expressions are only rough equivalents the Greek expres
sions and would be used similar circumstances. There are, course,
other possibilities, but those given below are the most common.

. Anderson

Dear Mr Anderson
Best wishes

1 ,

( b ) Sirs

.

2 .

.
3 .

Yours faithfully
. Jones

( c ) Dear Mrs Adams


ours sincerely
Michael Jennings

( a ) Dear Peter
Best regards
George

301
Exercise 5

, , () ,
, , , ,
, , ,
, , ,
, , ,
, , , ,
, , .
Exercise 6

1 2 3 4 5 .
Exercise 7

. ,
, . ,
. .
.
.
Exercise 8

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 .
Exercise 9

The way calls are made has changed. Please call the number again adding
the number 6 after the country code 30.
Comprehension

() 1 . 2
( ). 3 . () 1 Send the
cutting together with a postal order cheque for the appropriate sum of
money. 2 help with plans for the magazine's second year. 3 The cheque
will be made out to the organisation publishing the magazine, i.e.
..
Exercise 10

Complete by marking the correct answer with an . Then post it TODA


( FREEPOST) . Thank you for your help.

302
1 How do you get your copy of the magazine?
Are you a subscriber?
Do you buy from kiosks?
Does your company buy ?
2 Where do you usually read the magazine?
home
the office
Elsewhere
3 Would you prefer the magazine come out Every month
Every fortnight
Once a week
4 Sex
Female
Male
5 Age
up 25
25-45
45 or over.
Exercise 1 1

Lesson 9
Exercise 1

Impertive continuous

Impertive simple

303

Exercise 2

, , , , , ,
, , , , .
Exercise 3

1 or L 2 or 3 4
5 6 7 L or L 8 , 9 .
Exercise 4

Adjectives
, -, -
, -, -
, -, -
, -, -
, -, -
, -, -
, -, -
, -, -
, -, -

Nouns








Exercise 5

304

They are opposites.


Exercise 6

1 . 2 ,
, . 3
; 4 . . 5
();
Exercise 7

1 ; 2 ; 3 ;
4 ; 5 ;
6 ; 7 !;
Exercise 8

Put two or three ice cubes a tall glass. Add sufficient ouzo, to a third
of the glass. Add water until the glass is full; the will turn white like
milk. Drink it slowly.
Exercise 9

Ingredients:
Finely chopped lettuce
Artichoke, cut into cubes
Boiled potato, cut into cubes
Salt, l ( olive l), pepper
Place the lettuce leaves a bowl and decorate nicely with the other ingre
dients. Add salt, l and lemon.
Comprehension

() 1 . 2 . 3
. () 1 Red wine. 2 It's from Naousa. 3 Two red and one
white.

305
Exercise 10

Goods made Greece usually bear the phrase .


Exercise 1 1
Tahini

Ingredients:
half a j ar tahini
water
1 lemon
finely chopped parsley
1 clove garlc, finely chopped
a lttle salt
the tahini a bowl. Start adding a lttle water at a time and keep
stirring. When the tahini starts white, add a little salt and the lemon
juice, a lttle at a time. Continue mix. Add the finely chopped garlic,
a dish, add the finely chopped parsley, and serve with
bread.

Lesson 1 0
Exercise 1

1 The driver is a woman, because the assistant refers her as .


2 She is going pay by credit card. 3 It will cost 32.50. 4 The insurance
is included the price. 5 The insurance will cover third party fire and theft.
6 Ten days.
Exercise 2

1 . 2 . 3
. 4 ; 5 /
. 6 / . 7
. 8 , (); 9
; 10 . 1 1 , .
Exercise 3
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 .

306
Exercise 4

1 2 3 , 4 , ,
5 .
Exercise 5

1 The drier was a woman. 2 The officer asks using , which is the femi
nine form of , and from the name Lynd Thompson. 3 It happened
the way out of the village.
Exercise 6

1
2
3
4
5

.
.
.

() .
() .
() .
() .
() .

Exercise 7
Questions

1 ; 2 ; 3
; 4
; 5 ; 6
. ;
Negative sentences

1 . 2 .
3 . 4
. 5
. 6 . .
Exercise 8

- ' ;
- ' . ;
- ! '
;
- ' ,
; '
. '
.

307
Exercise 9

Exercise 10

small woman
my dear wife, a form endearment
small boat
sweet mother
young mother, dear mother
little sister
used to show special affection
young bride
young female cat
dear daughter
young hen

Comprehension

() 1

3 . ()

1 is used to mean guest, visitor, [oreigner 2 the four evils -

living away from one's homeland, losing one's parents, bitterness and love,
having to leave one's homeland is considered the worst. 3 It is used to
describe the hospitality extended to many visitors to Greece by the local
population.
Exercise 1 1

-, .
, .
Exercise 12

from

bend, turn

308

Lesson 1 1
Exercise 1

() 1 The patient went to the doctor the late afternoon. 2 hope you
will get better soon. () Greece and Cyprus, where doctors work their
own priately-owned indiidual surgeries, the receptionist the waiting
room arranges appointments and often collects payments from patients.
Some doctors prefer to handle the financial side themseles. This doctor is
obiously indicating to his patient that his receptionist handles his fees.
Exercise 2

The word is used both for a recipe and for a prescription. The
context indicates which applies. Here, course, the doctor is referring to
a prescription.
Exercise 3

, , , , .
Examples

Singulr


Plurl


Exercise 4

1

2
3
4
5
6

.
.
.
.
.

.

309
Exercise 5

example of a sentence.
,
.
Exercise 6



, , , , , ,
Exercise 7

1 prevent a recurrence of her husband's experience and protect


herself from the sun while at the same time acquiring a tan.
Exercise 8

Future continuous: ; future simple: ; past perfect:


; imperative simple: , ; imperative continuous: ,
.
Exercise 9

1 .
.
.
.
.
.
2 ;
;
;
;
;
;

310
Exercise 10

.
.
Exercise 1 1



, .
80
.
.
!
Exercise 12

- , , ( ),
, , , , , , .
- , , (
), , , ,
.
- , , , , .
- , , .
Comprehension

() 1 , . 2

. () 1 They are useful because they tend attract
the mosquitoes themseles thus freeing us from their unwelcome atten
tions. They are called because the mosquitoes eidently
think their blood 'sweet' since they prefer them. 2 Without offering your
seles mosquitoes deour.
Exercise 13

.
.

31 1

Lesson 1 2
Exercise 1

SinguZar



PZuraZ



SinguZar



PZuraZ



Exercise 2

It's raining, it's snowing


the marble slabs are being watered
the cat is cooking
and the mouse is dancing.
Exercise 3
1 He is elsewhere. 2 She has her wrapped up cotton wool. 3 Whatever
the weather. 4 Come rain or shine.

312
Exercise 4
News for Philatelists

Stamp and Philatel ic Serice of the Postal Serices Department.


New issue ( stamps

Day of issue: 4 July 2003


Special first-day covers ll also be available with the stamps. The
covers ll be stamped with the special first-day stamp.
Subscribe to the Philatelic Service of the Postal Serices
Department and the l ll be sent to you r address. Fill the
card and retu rn it to us.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Surname
Name
Address

Post Code

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . l'

Exercise 5


; ;
, .

.
.

. 98 23 45
Exercise 6

, -, -, , -, -, , -, -, , -, -,
, -, -, , -, -, , -, -


social education - here it means socially


refined
excellent condition
modern offices

313



fully equipped flat


luxury flat
for an international company
serious gentleman

Exercise 7

smoking (literally: Smoking is forbidden), parking, For sale, rent,


Rooms to let, Road works, entry, Flats for sale, dogs.
Exercise 8

, , , .
Exercise 9

healthy mind a healthy body.


Exercise 10

, , , ,
, , ,
, , , ,
, , ,
.
Comprehension

() 1 . 2 ,
. () 1 The players throw the dice and proceed to play according to
the numbers they throw. 2 The player who initially throws the higher
number plays first.
Exercise 1 1

UnderZined pssive forms Pssive voice


present tense
in the nrrtive

Active voice
present tense

314
Exercise 12

The two players have 15 counters each. The airn is first to get all counters
into the opponent's section and, second, once that stage has been
cornpleted, to take all the counters out of the garne. The person who does
that first is the winner.
Two dice are thrown by each player turn, and the player rnoves his
counters the board according to the nurnbers the dice. If a position
is occupied by rnore than one of his opponent's counters, he cannot rnake
a rnove there but has to wait until his next turn. If l one of his
nent's counters is left at a particular position to which he rnust rnove, then
he can rnake his rnove and at the sarne tirne takes that counter out of the
garne.

Lesson 1 3
Exercise 1

They can be cashed banks, they can be used to purchase goods and
services, and they can be replaced if stolen or lost.
Exercise 2

Underlined pssive forms


in the pssge

Active voice
present tense

Exercise 3

Underlined ctive form


in the pssge

Pssive voice
present tense

315
Exercise 4

/mperfect
pssive voice

Pst simple
pssive voice

/mperfect
pssive voice

Pst simple
pssive voice

/mperfect
pssive voice

Pst simple
pssive voice

/mperfect
pssive voice

Pst simple
pssive voice

Exercise 5
1 2 3 4
5 6 7 8 .

Exercise 6
1 . 2 . 3

. 4
. 5 . 6
. 7
;
Exercise 7
1 . 2
, .
.

Exercise 8
1 , 2 3 4 5 6 7 .

316
Exercise 9

, , , .
Exercise 10

1 The bank's name is Trapeza S.A., and the branch is the district of
Acropolis. 2 The branch is the town of Kavala. 3 The cheque is payable
an individual named . Apostolou. 4 The cheque is drawn an account
held by a school - Hellenic School.
Comprehension

() 1 . 2
. 3 3-5 . 4 3,5 % . ()
1 The mortgage can be used purchase a house. 2 Once the account has
been opened, payments must continue be made for at least 36 months
before the holder of the account can apply for a loan. () 1 the case
of a mortgage the UK, applicants need necessarily have been
making regular savings a special savings account, as seems be the case
the Greek equivalent. Also the UK, the level of the mortgage depends
the income of the applicant, while Greece seems be dependent
the level of the contributions made the special savings account. 2 The
level of the mortgage granted depends the length of time for which the
account has been held and the level of contributions paid .
Exercise 1 1

Pssive voice form


in the nrrtive

Pssive voice
present tense

Active voice
present tense

Exercise 12

()
Application open an account
Please fill all the details, legibly, and send the reply envelope.
Personal details
Surname
First name

317
Married/single
Name of father/husband
Maiden name
Date of birth
Place
Nationality
Statements to be sent to my home/business address
Street .
Home address
Town
Post Code
Tel. ( home)
Tel. work
Mobile
ID or passport .
Please open an account my name
Signature

Date

Please complete full to enable us to gie you the best serice.


() the enelope it is stated that it can be posted FREEPOST. The
addressee will be paying the postage.

Lesson 1 4
Exercise 1

- Aries, - Taurus, - Gemini, - Cancer,


- Leo, - Virgo, - Libra, - Scorpio,
- Sagittarius, - Capricorn, - Aquarius,
- Pisces.
Exercise 2

Future continuous
pssive voice

Future simple
pssive voice

318

Exercise 3

Future continuous





Future simple





Exercise 4

1 ;
. 2
; . 3 ;
. 4
. 5 or
. 6 ;
. 7 . 8 ;
.
Exercise 5

1 ; 2 ; 3 ;
Exercise 6

Purpose
continuous tense

Purpose
simple tense

319

Purpose
continuous tense

Purpose
simple tense

Purpose
continuous tense

Purpose
simple tense

Exercise 7

whatever

, .

that

that, which .

where?

that

' .

how?

will give you whatever


you want.
He/she told me that
he/she is leaving
She's the one was
telling you about
Where are you going?
He/she says that he/she
loves me.
How are you?

Exercise 8

Singulr





320

Note:

Plural





has an alternative form the genitive singular which is often used

advertising etc. - as, e.g., milk chocolte.

Comprehension

() 1 . 2 .
3 ' . 4 .
() 1 well built man who sat the seat next to him. 2 It is a compound
word from meaning wine and meaning barrel.
is a wine cask. 3 Perhaps a graedigger?
Exercise 9

'Good Lord ! What a coincidence, so am 1.'


Exercise 10

well-known author preferred his own company when traelling and


order to put people off starting idle conersations with him, he usually
busied himself reading a book or newspaper. When his more persistent
fellow traellers attempted to start a conersation he used to put them off
by saying that he was a cesspool engineer!
This worked fairly well until one day he had the misfortune to sit next
to a rather well-built man who had obiously had one too many to drink
and who actually happened to be a cesspool engineer!

Lesson 1 5
Exercise 1

, .
.
Exercise 2

It is the equialent phrase of the English ' the air', as 'you are the
air', i.e. the programme is lie.

32 1
Exercise 3

Present

/mperfect

Pst
simple

Future
simple

Future
continuous

Present
perfect

Pst
perfect

Exercise 4

/mpertive simple

( be discovered)

( be placed)
( appear)
( be sorry)
( be troubled)
( be forced )
( open )
( look at oneself)

322
Exercise 5

2 3 4
5 6 7 8 9
10
1

Exercise 6

Singulr



Plurl

*

Singulr



Plurl

-t

* Another form of the word is , and the genitive plural this is the only
form use.

t It is not unusual for nouns not to have a genitive plural. This is j ust one example

of a word that does not have this case. Where it would be necessary to use the geni
tive plural of a word and this form does not exist, native speakers will often use

different construction which can be used with another case.

Exercise 7

1 motorcycle race Sparta. 2 Two competitors looked close joint firsts


at one stage but one them managed to overtake his rival.

323
Exercise 8

Column 1
Present

Column 2
Column 3
Form in Glossary Meaning

to

hear
follow
welcome
pass
watch
pour
enter
overtake
rage
approach
10 finish
to make (efforts)

Exercise 9

, , , , , , , , .
The error is that Papayannis did finish first, but third.
Exercise 10
1 ; 2 ; 3
; / ; 4 ; 5
;/ ; 6 ; 7
; 8 ;

Exercise 1 1



,-, -

, -, -


, -, -
, -, -

324
Exercise 12



m.
. ! g
f! .
Comprehension

() 1 . 2
. 3 . 4
. () 1 Because finance has become
important. 2 Defence aims at preventing the opponents from winning. The
purpose of attack is win. 3 team must of course defend itself but,
order to win, must play aggressively.
Exercise 13

,
, -, -

sports fan
romantic
basketball

Exercise 14


, 800 ,
,

.
.



. ,
,
.
Exercise 15

year
today
first monk
the whole world
four hours

325

Lesson 1 6
Exercise 1

Literally the verse means: 'The turnings of the circle which move up and
down'. More idiomatically perhaps: 'The wheel which keeps turning'.
Exercise 2
believe nothing, am afraid of nothing, am free.

Exercise 3

The present perfect is formed using the auxiliary verb + the third
person singular of the form of the verb used the future simple, e.g.
, .
The past perfect is formed using the imperfect tense of , i.e. +
the third person singular of the form of the verb used the future simple,
e.g. , .
Exercise 4

Future
continuous







Expression
Simple




















Present perfect Pst perfect

of purpose
Continuous







Exercise 5
1 . (or, more idiomticlly, ).

2 . 3 .

. 4
. 5 .
6 . 7
; 8 (). 9
; 10
'70.

326
Exercise 6

1 ; 2 ; 3 ; 4
; 5 ; 6 ; 7
;
Exercise 7

It was 6.30 the morning when we arrived at Iraklo. First, we went to the
hotel where we had reserved rooms and we left our luggage there. We then
went out for a walk the as yet quiet streets of the town.
Most shops had not opened yet. We arrived at Venizelos square,
known as Lion Square. It took its name from the Venetian fountain
decorated with lons. We stopped for a while to see the square and then
walked towards the old harbour.
Exercise 8

It has been gien that name because near the coast there are many depres
sions the ground which fill with sea water from time to time.
Exercise 9

all round, at full speed, matchboxes,


( ery ) ancient, by the sea,
citade
=

Exercise 10

of outstanding natural beauty.

Exercise 1 1

Present

Exercise 12

Pst perfect

Imperfect

Present

Imperfect

327

Exercise 13

means which, as in ;
means more, most and is used to form the comparative of adjectives,
e.g. or
.
Exercise 14

Comprehension

() 1 . 2
" . 3 . ()
1 order to display what has been excavated as it was found. 2 Judging
by the size of the entrance to it quite big, but it was never completed.
Exercise 15



, -, -

construction (something built)


age
archaeological
antiquities

Exercise 16

The word is used to describe travels; it means travelogue. It was chosen


for this lesson because the lesson itself deals with subj ects of interests to
travellers a number of Greek islands.

Greek-En g lish
g lossary

The Glossaries cover most the essential vocabulary used the


Greek texts this book as far as possible. They are by means
intended to be comprehensive and the student is advised to use a
good bilingual dictionary, preferably published after 1982. For
suggestions, please see Suggestions for Further Reading page .
The translations terms included the Glossaries are with
specific reference to the contexts which they occur this book.

,
,
,
,

,
,
,

(),

(),
,
,
,

egg
to love
England
cucumber
artichoke
market
buy
struggle,
conflict, race
anxiety
permit, leave,
license
driving-license
sister
brother
wind, air
airport,
aerodrome
airport

,
,
,
,
, -, -
,
,
,

,
,

aeroplane
aircraft
Athens
sport
noiseless
room, lounge
blood
century
to follow
to hear
precisely
end, edge
listening,
hearing
seashore
,
,
shore

but

to change

fishing
,
, correspondence
, -, - alien ( from
another
country )

329
, -, -

other, another
elsewhere
alphabet
immediately,
at once
sand
,
sandy shore
,
, -, - unleaded
vine
,

vineyard
,
if, whether

although

to light

to invent,

discover
discovery
,
stir

amongst

waiting
,
to renew

renewal
,
cigarette lighter
,
excavation
,

east
,
departure
,
depart

soft drink
,
/, man
Gents (toilets)

to go up, to rise

to belong

, -, - steep
,
man
, humankind
,
niece
nephew
,

to open
,
spring (season)
, -, -
open

go , oh yes?

to withstand,
to endure

instead of,
against
contrast
,
, -, - opposite
, replacement
to confront

man
,
,
value
pitiful
,
-, -
noteworthy
,
-, -
to answer, to

meet by
chance
, -, - necessary
, liberation
opposite

direct, straight

to be at a

distance from
simple
, -, -
, one-way ticket
from

this afternoon
,
receipt
,
reveal

underneath

cutting (news,
paper etc.)
to
acquire

to relish

isolated
,
-, -
luggage
,
distance
,
apostrophe
,
effectively
(finger) print
,
to say goodbye,

to bid
farewell

330
,

s,

J.
s,
s

()

s, -, -
s, -, -

toilet
tonight
Aprl
late
to be late
.
number
Tax
Registration
Number

left
excellent
enough,
sufficient
, fiancee

s, fiance

s, -, - , sick
baker's
,
archaeology
,
ancient
s , -, -
beginning
,
to begin

, architecture
exercise
,
egg white
,
white
s, -, -
j oke
,
star (planetary)
,
s, police
constable
insurance,
,
security,
safety
ugly
s, -, -
to pay

attention to,
to be
occupied with
accident
,

AiJyovooS,
,

,
,
,
,
s, -, -

,
,

s,
,
,
s, -, -

August
yard
tomorrow
ear
toy car
car
empire
he, she, it
to leave
arrival
duty-free goods
to become
dehydrated
pear

to put
degree, mark
suitcase
barrel
boring,
tiresome
boat
,
boatman
s,
heavy
s, -, -

s s, very sweet
(coffee)
to bear, to hold

to dye
to take out,

to take
to come out,

to get out
sure, certainly

petrol station
,
petrol
,
step
,
to be a hurry

s, -, - hurried
booklet
,
, bookshop
,
video

33 1
,
,

,
,
-, -
,
,

,
, -, -
, -, -
, -, -

,
,
,
, -, -
,
,

,
,
,

,
, -, -

biology
shop window
to see
to help
butter
buttered
north wind
evening, night
it's getting dark
evening
to boil
it's raining
to find
it's thundery
rain
sunken
Byzantine
purple

donkey
(masculine)
donkey
(neuter)
milk
blue
wedding
son-in-law,
brother-inlaw,
bridegroom
cat (feminine)
cat (neuter)
cat (masculine)
hello, bye
to laugh
stuffing, filling
stuffed
(tomatoes,
vine leaves)
birth

see
taste
earth, soil
for
grandmother
yogurt
why, because
doctor
to become
to celebrate
a holiday (i.e.
day off work) ,
celebration
son
,
garage
,
grey
invr.
grey
, -, -
group
,
to have fun

,
aniseed
sweet
, -, -
to get to know

to know

,
knowledge
known
, -, -
letter
,
, , secretary
, -, - written
grass
,
office, desk
,
picturesque
, -, -
, typewriter
quick

glass
,
glasses,
,
spectacles
, sunglasses

woman
,
Ladies (toilets)

to return,

to turn
,
,
,

,
,

, ,

332

oo,
,
,

,
,
,

,
,

o,

, -, -

o,
,

round, around
corner

o, -, -

to bite
typist

o
o,
, -, -
,

plum
to borrow
to lend
teacher
(woman)
teacher (man)
finger
ten
nineteen
sixteen
seventeen
ten minutes
eighteen
fortnight
15 August

fifteen
fourteen
tenth
thirteen
December
form, card
(document)
, dispatch note

to tie

right
Miss
,
o, o second ( an
hour)
,
Monday

o,
,
,
,
o,
,

o,

,
o,
o,
-, -

, -, -
, ,
,
o, -, -
, ,
o, ,

second
other words,
ie
to create
democracy
folk, municipal
municipality,
the common
people
to read
passport
competition
procedure
internet
route
holidays
two hundred
to choose,
to select
apartment
to be open (or
) all night
duration
to last
diarrhoea
to amuse
oneself,
to entertain
to preserve,
to keep
advertisement
difference
different
to disagree
international
interpreter
address
lasting two
days
judge
lawyer

333
, -, -
(, , )

,
,

my (your etc.)
mine (yours
etc.)
gie
next to
double
billion

without
send away
dollar
work
road
cool,
refresh
, -, -
made oak
wood
,
force, strength
two
,

half past two


west
,
difficult
, -, -
unfortunately

twele

, -, - twelfth
room
,

, -, -
,
,

, -, -

week
seenty
seenth
registration
document

ground
here
national
past tense


to surmise,
to guess

, -, -

,
,
,

, -, -
,
, -, -

,
,

twenty
I am
ticket
return ticket
entrance
either . . . or,
whether . . . or
a hundred
million
publish,
issue
there
that (man,
woman,
child)
church
surprise
expanse
, outside,
except
sixth
printer
light (
weight)
luggage
check-in
passport
control
ticket check-in

liberty,
freedom
, -, - free
olie, olie tree
,
helicopter
,
, -, - attractie
Greece
,
Greek man
,
Greek woman
,
Greek
,
language

334
, -, -

, -, -

, ,
, -, -
, -, -

,
,

,
,
,
,

,
,
-, -
,

,

Greek
to hope
we
to prevent
commercial
ahead, front
of
against
one
ninth
eleventh
to be interested

interest
to interest
ninety
injection
nine
nine hundred
to hire, to rent
hiring, renting
okay
eleven
form (to fill )
to moisturize
moisturizing
while
to j oin
hexagon
cousin (female)
cousin (male)
six-year period
six hundred
to ensure
sixty
SlX

exit
equipped
countryside
by sight
express

, ,
,
,

, -, -

,
,

,
,
,
-, -
,

,
,
,
,

,
-, -
,

abroad
to repeat
up, above, top
because
to affect
passenger
boarding (an
aeroplane)
skin
to insist, persist
official, formal
also, too
visitor (male)
visitor (female)
to visit
visit
science
scientific
cheque
finally
to permit,
to allow
business
season
seven
seven hundred

seven-year
(old)
road works
to work
work,
profession,
job
research
,
, -, - coming, next
love
,
, questionnaire

you ()

restaurant
,

335

, -, -
, -, -
,

, -, -
,


, -, -
,
,

,
,

, invr.
,

you (sing. )
enclosed
internal
company
(business)
to prepare
ready
year
so, thus
so and so
easy
euro
Europe
fortunately
to thank,
thank you
to apply
newspaper
enemy
to hae
to, until

to make dizzy
ham
sugar
to warm, to
make feel
warm
heat
,
, -, - warmed-up
warm, hot
, -, -
damage
,
matter
,
to seek, to ask

to weigh

dough
,
to lie

life
,
liely, strong
, -, -
(for colour)
, -, -
alie

...
,
, -,
-

,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,

,
, -, -
,
,
,
,
,

,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,

the (feminine)
or
either . . . or
electricity
electronic
computer
age
sunbathing
sun
day
date
a day and a
night
quiet
was, past tense
of
echo

will, shall
sea
blue (like the
sea)
death
courage
theatre
aunt
uncle
to want
god
therapy
temperature
position
Salonica,
Thessaloniki
treasure
legend
to remember

336

,
,
, -, -
,
-, -
,
,

, -, -
,
,

to remind
to become
angry
box

January
idea
same, similar
satisfied
June
July
straight, equally
equal
history, story
web pages

Mr, Mrs
Mrs
argument
to brown
(when frying
food)
,-, -
poor one (as
feel sorry
for the poor
thing)
to clean

each, every
, , everyone

to establish

at all, by

means

to sit

as, while

and, too, past


(the hour)
to burn

bad, badly
, -, -
bad

fine, well
good morning
good night
good evening
better
summer
good
to call
to welcome
video camera,
cine camera
, nobody,
anybody
,
canoe
,
to do, to make

to smoke

, tobacconist
someone
, -, -

some time

somewhere

occasionally
somehow,

some way
,
charcoal
chair
,
career
,
watermelon
,
card
,
boarding-card

,
, credit card

against, towards

to defeat, to
pay (money),
to make
(effort)
deep blue (sky)
,
-, -
to testify,

deposit
(money)

,
, -, -

337

,
,
-, -

,
-, -
,

,
,

invar.
,

,
,
,
, -, -

, -, -
,

, invar.
,

deposit (at
a bank)
shut
(house)
to understand
list, catalogue
to end
at, on
deep green
(foliage)
shop
to destroy
to take refuge
refuge
go down,
to descend
category, class
(also
accusation)
house,
residence
inhabitant
to reside,
live
saucepan
down
brown
small coffee
(usually used
for Greek
coffee)
coffee
coffee house
cafeteria
brown
sting
central
centre
to win, earn
(money)
ketchup
head

,
,
,
,
,
,
()

, -, -

,
,
,

,
,

,
-, -

, -, -
,

,
, -, -
,
,
invar.

,
,
,

good mood,
high spirits,
j oviality
meat ball
garden
box
kilo
movement
mobile (phone)
to move
already
yellow
to cry
call (telephone)
clnic
theft
cut
tummy
to sleep
to to sleep
social
to look, to see
red
dish of lamb
meat and
intestines
to swim
piece
cut
communism
computer
near
young woman,
young lady
daughter
little girl
Mr
people

338

,
,
,

,
-, -
,
,

,
, -, -

,
,
,
,

,
,
,
-, -
,
,
,
, -, -
,

,
,

to cost
hen
bell
mosquito
to tire
tired
spoon
booking,
reservation
(also
detention)
wine
state (national)
to hold
meat
cream
butcher's
egg yolk
to hide
cold
to build
etc
cube
circle
chased,
hunted
Cyprus
madam, lady,
Mrs
Sunday
main
gentleman,
sir, Mr
mainly
code
code

,
,
,

mistake
folklore

,
,
,
,

,
, -, -
,
,

,
-, -
, -, -
,
,
,
,
,

tyre
to be absent,
to be missing
lemonade
lemon
word
minute, cent
(subdivision
of the euro)
detail
white
to say
bus
to expire
expiry
retail
little, few
harbour, port
l
pound
account, bill
word, speech,
reason
so, then
London
to be sorry, sad

,
,

, -, - sad

,
()

shop
to cook
special Easter
soup
to gather,
to collect
together with
to learn
mathematics
to be enraged
May

339

away, far
(from)
, -, -
soft

yes (certainly)
,
hair ( head)
,
mum
,
mother
,
greengrocer
,
greengrocer's
, invr. manager
,
marketing
invr.
marble, floor
,
slab
,
lettuce
,
March
our

to tan (literlly

go black)
black
, -, -
knife
,
with

big, large
, -, -
,
a tasty morsel

the day after


tomorrow
honey
,
future
,
, -, - melodic
it's true . . . but
...

to stay, to
live
day
,
some
, -, -
place
,
noon, midday
,

later, after,
then
to change one's

mind, to
repent

between

,
, -, -

,
,
,

to translate
cash
medium
to count
apple
month
message,
email, text
message
,
mother
, -, -
small
,
milk shake

to speak
, invr.
mini (dress
or skirt)
half
, -, -

pm
fashion
,
to be like

to share

to divide, to

share out
j ust

, -, - unique
, -, - monotonous
,
education
motif
,
motto
,
my

mustard
,
to enter

dad
,
, invr. basketball
beige
invr.
, invr. bacon
dark blue
invr.
can

bravo
invr.
arm
,
front of

fly
,
myth
,

340

,
,
,
,
, -, -
,
,
,

,
,
,
, -, -
,
,
,

, -, -
(also ,
-, -)

,
,

,
there, there is
lullaby
temple, church
sailor
nausea,
sea-sickness
young
water
island
victory
win
feel
November
hire
think, be
of the n
nurse (woman)
hospital
nurse (man)
tasty, attractive
South
mind
tomato
feel ashamed
daughter-inlaw, sister-inlaw, bride
night
early

see again
pass again
meet again
blonde, fair

begin,
start
foreign lands
hotel

,
, -, -

foreigner,
stranger, guest
know
land
dry

00

, -, -
,

,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,

,
,
, -, -
, -, -
, -, -

,
,
-, -
,
, -, -
,

,
, -, -
, -, -
,
,

eighty
eighth
driver
drive
dentist
road (address)
family
hostess
host
wine
eight hundred
October
eight
entire, whole
all, whole
full of joy
Olympic
Airways
Olympic
team
beautiful
Homer
but, however
name
name, call
follower
whoever
who, who,
which
whoever

341
,

,
,
,

,
, -, -

,
, invr.
,
, -, -
,

,
,

,
,

,
, -, -
,
-, -
,
,

appetite
here you are
(when giving
something)
mountain range
floor, storey
the state of
being an
orphan
orchestra
as many,
as much
when
that
whatever
whichever

whisky
queue, tail
sky blue
sky
not even
neither . . . nor

ice-cream
child
to take
game
player
again
struggle
old
of a university
fair (village
fair)
sail (of a boat)
always
grocer's
everywhere

,
,
,

,
,
,
,
,
,
,

,
,
,
,
,
,

,
,
,
-, -
,
,
, -, -

grandfather
spite of,
rather than,
to (the hour)
example
tradition
window
to plead,
please, not
at all
further down
to watch,
to attend
to hear wrong
to take delivery
of
beach
Friday
performance
company of
friends
past
parking
presence
to appear
pastry
Easter
potato
father
fatherland
family home
to step
floor
pedestrian area
hungry
customer
Thursday
fifth
fifty
five hundred

342
five

, -, - ( the) past
environment
,
to describe

magazine,
,
periodical
property
,
,
area
walk
,
adventure
,
looking after
,
,
kiosk
more
,
-, -

to pass
to walk

last year
,

to fly, to throw
away
to fall

to go
to take, to pick

,
dish, plate
, invar. record player
,
bitterness
sign
,
brush-stroke
,

to drink
to believe

, credit card

behind
beach
, invar.
,
back (
person, chair)
,
crowd
,
information

to pay

to approach
ship
,
, -, -
rich

,
,
,
,
, -, -;
,
, ,

,
-, -
,
-, -
, -, -
, -, -
,
,
,
,
, -,
-
,
, -, -;
, -, -;

,
, -, -

,
,

washing
am
bicycle
foot
poet
quality
whose?
city, town
much, a lot,
a great deal
much
frequented
having many
children
luxurious
valuable
headache
mouse
door
orangeade
orange (colour)
orange (fruit)
how many?
how much?
when
never, ever
to water
that (who,
which)
where?
nowhere,
anywhere
poultry
to sell
thing
green
petrol station
premiere
must
ambassador

343

ago, before
problem
to plan
notice
to prepare
product
towards
to add
to invite
attempt,
effort
to try

,
protection

to protect
, -, - recent
to offer

accede

face
,
preference
,
to prefer

, the day before


yesterday
to carry ,

to proceed
morning
,
first

1 April
,
1 May
,
first
, -, -
New Year's
,
Day
flight
,
poor, meagre
, -, -
fever
,
fire ( as
,
burning
building)
sale
,
to sell
,
how

that

,
,
,
,

radio
appointment
repertoire
change
( money )
,
root
to throw

pink
invr.
, -, - romantic
ruby
,
to ask

,
,

,
,

,
invr.
,
,

, -, -
,
,

Saturday
weekend
salad
salami
like, as
sandwich
sauna
soap
forty
your
to die out,
to extinguish
to
to respect
turn
September
to serve
signal
to mean
meaning
today
slowly,
quietly
certain
cinema
thought

344

tent, stage,
scene
intend

garlic
,
darkness
,
bend down

bitch
,
dog (neuter)
,
dog
,
(masculine)
serious
, -, -
your

super
, , ,
, supermarket
rarely

house
,
push

parking
,
to stop, park

(a car)
station
,
(railway)
to stop

stop (bus)
,
, -, - statistical
grey
, -, -
to stand

to send

, worried
-, -
to upset, to

worry
sterling
,
(pound)
moment
,
instant coffee

,
stomach
,
soldier
,

to twist
screeching
,
, -, - round
,

bend
relative
gather,
to collect
emotion
,
transportation
,
collision
,
sorry, beg

your pardon,
excuse me
, -, - contemporary
at the same

time
to
forgive

pardon,

excuse me
discuss

husband,
, ,
wife
to consult

to advise

behaviour
,
fill ,

to complete
according to,

accordance
with
foreign
,
exchange
to meet

subscription
,
subscriber
,
to combine

garage (for car


,
repairs)
to continue

continuously

to be the

habit
usually

synthesis,
,
composition
,
,

345
, -, -

,
,
,

,
,

,
,

,
,
,

,
,
,

composite
to accompany
border
prescription,
recipe
company (as n
keep you
company)
to recommend,
introduce
often
plan
relation
to form
school
to rescue,
to save
body

backgammon
regularly
cashier's
taxi
to travel
journey, voyage
traveller's
cheque
identity,
identity card
post office
post box
(Cyprus)
post box
speed, gear
(n car)
roasting tin
wall
(surrounding
a town)
finish

invr.
, -, -

fax
last one
remaining
,
end
,
finishing line

to finish,
to end
four

Wednesday
,
fourth
, -, -
such
, -, -
four hundred

,
issue
(magazine)
technology
,
glass
,
mosque
,
gin
, invr.
telepathy
,
telephone
,
to telephone

what

price, honour
,
invoice
,
whose

nothing

wall (of a
,
house)
place, site
,
to place

place
,
so, such
, -, -
toasted
, invr.
sandwich
then

his, her, its


, ,
toilet
,
at least

, -, - tourist
song
,
, -, crunchy
-

346
tragedy
bank
banker's
cheque
train
to run
three
three hundred
thirty
to squeeze,
to squeak
, shredded
cheese
Tuesday
,
third
, -, -
trolley
bus
,
way, manner
,
to eat
,
tea
,
to pinch, to

sting, to bite
crisps
,
to strike,

to clink
cheese
,
lucky
, -, -
luck
,
now

,
,

,
,

,
,

, -, -
,
,
, ,

, ,

health
your health
healthy
humidity
ingredient,
material
employee
receptionist
to exist
reminder

,
,
,

,
, -, -

,
,
, ,

,
,
,
,

,
, ,
,
, -, -

,
, -, -
,
-, -
,
,

,
,

to defend
nationality
serice
long-distance
call
underground
to sign
calculator,
computer
patience
minister
(politics)
later

lens
contact lens
pharmacy,
chemist's
medicine
February
to shine
ferry boat
to bring
slice
to leae
autumn
sports fan
friend (female)
friendly
a friendly
manner
hospitality
hospitable
guest, isitor
friend (male)
see

to fear
occasion
dress

347
s,
s
s
s ( )
s,
,
,
s, -, -
,

s, -, -
,
,

s, -, -
,
s,
,
,

s,

tax

oven
rough sea
brake
fresh
toast
to arrive
to make
poor
leaf
sex (.e. male/
female)
it's windy
natural
voice
light
fire
photograph

greeting,
regards
to be pleased,

to enj oy,
to be glad
to lose, to miss
,
s, -, - cheerful
, stationer's
s, briefcase
winter
s,
hand
,
one thousand

thousand
,
it's snowing

lukewarm
s, -, -
down ( fruit)
,
wholesale
s-, -
to dance

to need

to debit,
to charge
money
,
use
,
to use

useful
s, -, -
Christmas
,

year
,
year, time, tense
s,
many happy

returns
to
owe

yesterday
s, s
to buld

to strike, to hit

j uice
s,
to spill

village
,
without
s
country
,
space, area,
s,
field

s,
,

,
,
,

s,
,
s, -, -
s

fisherman
fishing
to fish
fish
to cook
fridge
soul
psychology

shoulder
time
beautiful
to, as
like, as
however,
nevertheless
to benefit

English-Greek
glossary

accident
account, bill
address
aeroplane
after
age
airport
also
although
always
am
and
answer, to
apartment
apple
arrival
ask, to
August
aunt
autumn
baker's
bank
bathroom
be, to
beach
because
bedroom
before

,
invr.
,

begin, to
behind
between
bicycle
big, large
bill, account
black
blonde, fair
blue: dark
light
boarding -card
boat
bookshop
bring, to
brother
brown
but
butcher's
butter
buy, to
cafeteria
call (telephone)
can (.)
car
cash
cash (cheque) ,
to


, -, -

, -, -
, -, -,
, -, -
invr.
, -, -

invr.

349
cashier's
cent
chair
change (money)
cheese
cheque
child
choose, to
cigarette lighter
cinema
city, town
clean, to
clinic
coffee
cold

contact lens
cook, to
cost, to
cough
credit card
crisps
cucumber
cut, to
dad
date
day
day after
tomorrow,
day before
yesterday
December
dentist
depart, to
destination
diarrhoea



,
(illness)
,

eighty
eleven
euro
evening
exit
face
family
far (from)
February
ferry boat

fever
fifteen
fifth
fifty
fish
fish, to
five
five hundred

dish, plate
do, to
doctor
dress
drink, to
drive, to
driver
driving-licence
dry

duty-free goods
ear
east
eat, to
egg
eight
eight hundred
eighteen

, -, -
, -, -
(for wine)



,

,
,



invr.

, -, -

350
floor (storey)
'flu
fly, to
foot
for
foreign exchange
forty
four
four hundred
fourteen
fourth
Friday
friend
from
garage (for car
repairs)
give, to
glass
glasses
(spectacles)
go, to
good evening
good morning
good night
Greece
Greek
language
man
woman
green
greengrocer
grey
grocer's
hand
handkerchief
harbour, port
have, to
he, she, it
head

oo;

o,
-, -
u


,
-, -



o, -, -
;
o;, -, -

;, -, -

headache
hello
help, to
here
hire, to
hiring, renting
his
holidays
honey
hospital
hotel
house
how many?
how much?
hundred
husband

ice-cream
, whether
information
inj ection
insect repellent
(lotion)
instant coffee
island
j am
January
journey
j uice
July
June
kilo
kiosk
knife
lemon
lemonade
letter
light, to
litt1e, few






, -, -;
, -,
-;

oo




Ioo



;

o



, -, -

351
lve, to
look, to
love, to
luggage
luggage
check-in
madam
magazine,
periodical
man
March
market
May
meat
medicine
meet, to
milk
milk-shake
mine
minute
Miss
Monday
money
month
morning
mother
motorcycle
Mr
Mrs
much
my
name
near
need, to
never
new
newspaper
nine
nine hundred



, -, -
()








, .
, .
, ,

, -, -

,

nineteen
ninety
ninth

north
November
number
October
often

ointment
olive, olve tree
one
one thousand
one-way ticket
open
or
orange (colour)
(fruit)
orangeade
our
ouzo
parking
passport
passport
control
pay, to
pear
petrol
petrol station

, -, -




, ,

, -, -

,
-, - ,



,

()

pharmacy
please
to be pleased,
to be glad
post office

pound (currency)

352
prescription
quick
quiet
radio
receipt
receptionist
recipe
record player
red
renting, hiring
restaurant
return ticket
road
room
sailing
salad
salami
Saturday
say, to
say goodbye, to
sea
seashore
see, to
sell, to
September
service
seven
seven hundred
seventeen
seventy
ship
single (ticket)
sister
sit, to
six

, -, -
,



, -, -


,


,
,

six hundred
sixteen
sixty
shop
slowly, quietly
small
soap
soft drink
some
sorry
speak, to
spoon
station
stationer's
stomach
stop (bus)
stop, to
sugar
suitcase
summer
sun
sunbathing
Sunday
sunglasses
supermarket
swim, to
taxi
tea
telephone
ten
thank, to;
thank you
thirteen
thirty
thousand
three
three hundred
Thursday
ticket

, -, -


, -, -

inr.

inr.

353
time
tobacconist
toilet

tomato
tomorrow
tonight
town, city
train
travel, to
traveller's
cheque
Tuesday
twelve
twenty
two
two hundred
tyre
uncle
use
use, to
village
vine
vineyard
visit, to
walk
walk, to
want, to
warm
water
watermelon
we
welcome, to

, -, -

Wednesday
week
weekend
west
what
when
while
white
who, which
whose?
why
wife
will, shall
win, to
wind, air
window
wine
winter
with
without
year
yellow
yes
yesterday
you (plural)
you (singular)
young
your

, ;

, -, -,
, -, -
, -, -
, ,
-, -;

, (a game)

,
,

, -, -

, -, -
(plural) ,
(singular)

Gram mar index

The numbers refer to the lessons n the book.


adjectives 7, 12
comparison of 9
ending -, -, - 12
irregular ending , -, -,
-, -, -,
-, -, - 8
adverbs 8
ending - and - 9, 15
of place 9, 13,14
of time 10
alphabet Introduction, inside cover
apostrophe 10
article
definite 2
indefinite 2
commands 9
conditional clauses 1 1
conjunctions 1 3 , 14, 1 5
dates 7
days 4
diaeresis 3
diminutives 6
feminine 10
masculine 16
neuter 6
months 4
negation () 6
nouns
cases

accusative 4
genitive case 4
nominative case 4
vocative 4
feminine ending -, - 4
irregular ending - and -
12
masculine
ending -, -, - 4
ending - , - , - and 10
neuter
ending -, - 3, 5
ending -, - 1 1
numbers 3, 5
ordina1 7
prepositions 10, 1 1
pronouns 8
demonstrative 13
indefinite 16
interrogative 16
personal 2, 8
possessive 2, 16
refiexive 8
relative 13
pronunciation Introduction
punctuation 1
purpose
the active voice 5

355
the passive voice 14
seasons 4
stress-accent Introduction
time 3
verbs
2
3
ending - 1 1
ending - and - 3, 7 , 8
impersonal verbs 12
irregular verbs 5 , 7, 16
tenses
future continuous, active voice
5
future continuous, passive
voice 14
future simple, active voice 4

future simple, passive voice 14


imperative, active voice 9
imperative, passive voice 15
imperfect, active voice 6
imperfect, passive voice 13
past perfect, active voice 10
past perfect, passive voice 16
past simple, active voice 6
past simple, passive voice 13
present tense, active voice 3
present tense, passive voice 12
present perfect, active voice
10
present perfect, passive voice
16
verbs with passive voice only 16

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