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INDEX

Note: page numbers are followed by f or b or t (indicating figures or boxes or tables).

Index Terms

Links

A
A/D conversion. See Analog-to-digital conversion
AAA. See Automatic antiaircraft
AC signals. See Alternating current signals
Across-track resolution
Active electronically scanned array (AESA)

445

451452

30

32

126

127f

131

141

197

373

additional advantages

130

array physical design

143146

chip set

141

module efficiency measures

144b

net receiver noise figure

130f

peak power of module

142f

phase and amplitude control

143

power output

142

receiver noise figure

143f

stick architecture

143f

subarray architecture

145

T/R circuits

144f

tile architecture

145f

transmit/receive module

141f

transmitter noise limitations

143

Adaptive CFAR detection thresholds

714

Adaptivity, pulse compression with

659

142f

146f

660

ADC. See Analog to digital converter


ADS-B. See Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast
System
Advanced Medium-Range Air-to-Air Missile (AMRAAM)

47f

Advanced processor architectures

607

advanced developments

625626

challenges in processing

623

reliability concerns

625

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

Advanced processor architectures (Cont.)


technological changes
exponential growth in radar processing

624625
607f

fault tolerance

622623

low-level processing architectures

612616

modular design

620622

processing building blocks


architecture classification

609610

bit growth, rounding, and dynamic range

610611

CMOS

611b

memory hierarchy

608f

Moores law

611b

processor instruction cycle


processor performance measures
real-time data density requirements
airborne radars

608609
613b
616
617

radar processor generation

618620

AESA. See Active electronically scanned array


AEW Sea King

699

AEW&C. See Airborne early warning and control


AGC. See Automatic gain control
AH-64D Apache helicopter

716

717f

AI radar. See Airborne intercept radar


Air Traffic Control Radar Beacon System (ATCRBS)

40

Air-to-ground targeting

47

blind tactical bombing

48f

GPS-guided bomb

49f

ground-based defense suppression

49

high-resolution millimeter-wave radar

47f

precision strategic bombing

48

tactical-missile targeting
Airborne applications

49

4748
103104

Airborne early warning (AEW). See Airborne early warning


and control (AEW&C)
Airborne early warning and control (AEW&C)

44

in air-to-air combat

699700

E-3 AWACS Radar

700701

Japanese E-767 AWACS

103

700f

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

636

699

Index Terms

Links

Airborne early warning and control (AEW&C) (Cont.)


Swedish Air Force Saab 340 AEW&C system

700f

USAF E-3 SENTRY system

700f

Airborne intercept radar (AI radar)

539

Airborne moving target indication (AMTI)

10

Airborne radar
AC signals

5361

antennas

111b

applications

37

air-to-ground targeting

4749

fighter/interceptor mission support

4647

navigational aids

3942

proximity fuses

49

reconnaissance and surveillance

4445

remote sensing

4244

weather phenomena

3739

coherency, exploiting

3134

coherent pulse-Doppler radar

2431

Doppler effect

910

echolocation

34

imaging

1012

noncoherent pulsed radar

1524

preparatory math
radio detection

46

radio waves

5361

target position determination

69

Airborne Stand-Off Radar (ASTOR)

704

Airborne warning and control system (AWACS). See Airborne


early warning and control (AEW&C)
Aircraft-mounted interferometric array

535

Along-track resolution

445

phase-based processing implementation

453

SLAR

452

in swath-mapping SAR

457

Doppler method

459460

mainlobes comparison

458f

maximum synthetic aperture length

458f

one-way radiation pattern

457f

synthetic array use

452

457458

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

- track filter

440441

Alternating current signals (AC signals)


Altimetry

53
4041

AM signal. See Amplitude modulation signal


Ambient noise

101f

Ambiguities

379

ambiguous returns elimination


area under curve

153f

219220
380f

Doppler

380382

dramatic reduction

382f

function

233

maximum opening rate

380f

PRF and target closing rate

381f

putting plots in perspective

382

range

379380

Ambiguity zones. See Range zones


American National Standards Institute (ANSI)

621

Amplitude comparison monopulse

119

Amplitude modulation signal (AM signal)


Amplitude weighting

68
238

Amplitude-comparison monopulse

312

AMRAAM. See Advanced Medium-Range Air-to-Air Missile


AMTI. See Airborne moving target indication
AN/APG-77 radar

714

active ESA

714f

AN/APG-81 radar

716

Analog channelized receiver

526

Analog signal

7778

Analog to digital converter (ADC)

553b

Analog-to-digital conversion (A/D conversion)

203

Angle measurement

118

amplitude comparison monopulse

119f

difference signals

120f

lobing

119f

monopulse systems

119120

phase difference

120f

phase-comparison monopulse

119

Angle of arrival (AOA)

205

120f

581

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

Angle off boresight (AOB)

437

Angle-tracking filter

438f

Angle-tracking loop

437438

Angular resolution

117

angular accuracy

118f

antennas directivity

118f

net effect

118f

targets in azimuth and elevation

117f

ANSI. See American National Standards Institute


Antenna

17

mode reflections

438f

598

phase center

368b

servo

22f

for simple pulsed radar

17f

Antenna beam
airborne radar antennas

111b

angle measurement

118120

angular resolution

117118

cosecant-squared beam
electronic beam steering

122f
116117

for ground mapping

122f

radiated energy in angle distribution

107

distance from probe to radiator

109f

field strength

108f

line AB marks

108f

lobular distribution of power

108f

pencil beam

107f

weaker lobes

108f

radiation pattern

112116

(sin X)/X shape

110b

Antenna radar cross section reduction

109f

597

in AESA

602603

avoiding Bragg lobes

600602

cloaking

603604

frequency-sensitive surface

601f

FSS

602b

negative index metamaterial array configuration

604f

planar array antenna

597f

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

Antenna radar cross section reduction (Cont.)


reducing and controlling
antenna mode reflections

598599

edge diffraction minimization

599

random scattering minimization

599

rendering structural mode reflections harmless

598

sources of reflections

597598

stealthing

603604

validation

604

Anti-aliasing filter

204

Anti-radiation missile (ARM)

559

Anti-radiation weapons

517

631

AOA. See Angle of arrival


AOB. See Angle off boresight
APC. See Armored personnel carrier
Aperiodic signal. See Nonperiodic signal
Aperture

112f

APG-76 radar

713

capabilities

713

GMTI and GMTT

713714

Application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC)

607

APY-2 radar for AWACS

700

Arbitrary waveform generator (AWG)

656

ARM. See Anti-radiation missile


Armored personnel carrier (APC)

675

Arrays, adaptive

571

Arrival techniques, direction of

532

aircraft-mounted interferometric array

535

amplitude comparison

533

Doppler direction-finding approach


interferometric triangle
narrow-beam antenna
Watson-Watt direction-finding approach

533534
534
532533
533

ASI. See Italian Space Agency


ASIC. See Application-specific integrated circuit
ASTOR. See Airborne Stand-Off Radar
ATCRBS. See Air Traffic Control Radar Beacon System
Atmospheric attenuation

100

101102b

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

Atmospheric refraction

58

ATR. See Automatic target recognition


Autocorrelation

91f

Autocovariance

92

92

See also Cross-covariance


Autofocus

488

resulting errors in SAR image

489

SAR autofocusing

490f

Automatic antiaircraft (AAA)

539

Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast System


(ADS-B)

40

Automatic gain control (AGC)

122

138

528

549

Automatic range tracking

23b

Automatic target recognition (ATR)

671

Automatic tracking

2223

accuracy vs. precision

433f

in closed-loop system

433

conical scanning

8f

using electronic scanning

estimate

433

measured parameter

433f

phase-comparison monopulse

8f

sequential lobing

8f

single-target tracking

433

434438

tanker refueling

8f

targets relative radial velocity

9f

track filtering

440441

track-while-scan

tracking discriminant
Average power

438440

434f
154f

155

AWG. See Arbitrary waveform generator


Azimuth

202

7f

beamshape loss

181

compression

480

resolution

452

Azuza system

649

458

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

156f

424

Index Terms

Links

B
B-2 Spirit stealth bomber

603

Babinets principle

632

Backlobes

108

Bandwidth

267

501502

CW signal

267

268f

pulse width

269f

stream of independent pulse

268269

Barker codes

240

Barrage jamming

545

Beam Steering Computer (BSC)

126

Beam-steering controller (BSC)

125

Beamwidth

99f

and along-track resolution

502

Beyond Visual Range (BVR)

717

Biconical antenna

523

Binary phase modulation

238

digits

239

phase reversal

239

received pulse echoes

239f

seven-digit binary phase code

240f

step-by-step progress

239

Binary phase modulation on pulse (BPMOP)


Binary phase shift keying (BPSK)

567
554b

Bistatic equivalence theorem

632

Bistatic radar

629

639

635

635b

bistatic SAR
Klein Heidelberg

630b

passive

629

properties

630

Babinets principle

632

bistatic radar equation

631

forward scatter

635637

631632

ovals of Cassini
target bistatic RCS
systems and results

631
632633
633

BIT. See Built-in test


BITE. See Built-in test environment
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

Black-body radiation

162

Blind low-altitude flight

41

Blind tactical bombing

48f

Blind zone elimination

412

Doppler blind zones

412413

range blind zones

413414

representative radar system


Blind-landing guidance

414f
43

44

Blinking jamming

550

551

Blip-scan ratio

186

Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress

36

Boeing E-3 SENTRY

698

Bombardier Global Express aircraft

704

BPMOP. See Binary phase modulation on pulse


BPSK. See Binary phase shift keying
Bragg lobes

138

597

See also Grating lobes


Bristol Beaufighter

BSC. See Beam Steering Computer; Beam-steering


controller
Built-in test (BIT)

620

Built-in test environment (BITE)


Burn-through range

32
516

burn-through modes

570

of remote jamming

557

of self protection jamming

556

556557

BVR. See Beyond Visual Range

C
Canadian Space Agency (CSA)

707

Captor-M radar

715

Car collision management

42

Carrier

69

Cascading

397

Cavity-backed spiral (CBS)

523524

CBIT. See Continuous, uninitiated, built-in test


CBS. See Cavity-backed spiral
CEC. See Cooperative Engagement Capability
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Index Terms

Links

Central line return

349350

Central processing unit (CPU)

701

CEP. See Circular error probable


CFAR. See Constant false alarm rate
CFAR detectors. See Constant false-alarm rate detectors
Chaff

516

bandwidth of

558f

chaff cloud vs. dipole spacing RCS

559t

thin metal-coated dielectric fibers

558f

Chained codes

241

Change detection

491

Chirp

567

558

See also Phasemodulation


frequency

554b

LFM

231

ambiguity function

237238

amplitude weighting

238

implementation

233

pulse compression ratio


stretch processing
pulse compression modulation
rate

233

235237
234
6f
236

Chirping

CIC. See Command Information Center


CIP See Common integrated processor
Circular error probable (CEP)

532

Circular polarization

57f

Circulator

Clustering algorithm

672

673

Clutter

329

353

characteristics
Doppler spectrum

358359

power spectral density

359f

sand dunes

359f

spatial correlation

359

detection performance prediction

360

components of signal

361

multiple pulse detection

363

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

579

Index Terms

Links

Clutter (Cont.)
single pulse detection

362363

threshold in noise

362f

threshold in spiky clutter

362f

discrete scatterers

359360

limitations of noise model

357358

model improvement

358

as noise

354

multiple scatterers

355f

noiselike clutter signal

356f

Rayleigh probability density function

357

vector addition of voltages

355f

residue

397

Clutter canceler

395

for constant amplitude input

396f

Doppler filters

398

Doppler frequency

397f

output characteristics

397f

periodic samples of video signal

396f

rejection notches

397

Clutter map. See Ground map


Clutter nulling. See Notching
CMOS. See Complementary metal oxide semiconductor
Co-ambiguity function

652

Cognitive processing architecture

695

Cognitive radar sensing

693

See also Fully adaptive radar


bio-inspired architecture

695f

cognitive processing architecture

695

memory

694

perception-action cycle

694

performance

695

Coherence

269

effect of

270271

achieving coherence

270

coherent pulse train

270f

spacing of spectral lines

271f

spectral lines of coherent signal

270f

211b

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

Coherency exploiting

31

advanced processing

3334

electronically scanned radar systems

3133

LPI radar

33f

stealthy radar for stealthy aircraft

33f

Coherent MIMO

640

Coherent processing interval

164

Coherent pulse-Doppler radar

24

663

See also Noncoherent pulsed radar


data processor

29

elements of

24f

exciter

25

gridded traveling wave tube

2526b

monolithic microwave integrated circuits

3031b

31

planar array antenna

27f

receiver

27f

SELEX CAPTOR-E AESA radar

24f

signal processor

28f

29

transmitter

26

27

TWTs amplifier

27f

Coherent sidelobe canceler

565

Coherent-on-receive technique

642

28

COMINT. See Communications Intelligence


Command Information Center (CIC)

699

Commercial off-the-shelf (COTS)

607

Common integrated processor (CIP)

714

Communications Intelligence (COMINT)

510

Complementary codes

240241

Complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS)


Complex numbers

611b
78

phasors
sum of projections

79f

unit length

79f

sine and cosine functions

78

Condon lobes

551

Confusion matrix

678

order of battle

679680

PCC

678

PCL

679

679

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

Conical scanning

Constant false alarm rate (CFAR)

611

Constant false-alarm rate detectors (CFAR detectors)

171

Constant model

332

Constellation of small Satellites for Mediterranean basin


Observation (COSMO)

712

Continuous, uninitiated, built-in test (CBIT)

620

Continuous wave (CW)

41

149

649
Convolution

90

Cooperative Engagement Capability (CEC)

91f

652653

Corona

154

Correlation

91f

Cosecant-squared beam

122

439

COSMO. See Constellation of small Satellites for


Mediterranean basin Observation
COSMO-SkyMed satellites

710

electronic steering capability

710f

enhanced spotlight mode

711f

operating modes

711t

satellites in orbit

711f

ScanSAR Mode

712

spotlight mode

711

Stripmap mode

711712

COTS. See Commercial off-the-shelf


Cover jamming

515

545

See also Escort jamming; Deceptive jamming


Cover pulses

548

CPU. See Central processing unit


Cross polarization (Cross-pol)
jamming
Cross-ambiguity function
Cross-covariance

112

566567

551

552

652
93

Cross-eye jamming

552

Cross-modulation

314

Cross-pol. See Cross polarization


Cross-range resolution. See Along-track resolution
Cross-track resolution

501502
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

195

526

Index Terms

Links

Crystal video receiver (CVR)

524525

See also Radar warning receivers (RWR)


CSA. See Canadian Space Agency
CVR. See Crystal video receiver
CW. See Continuous wave

D
DAB. See Digital audio broadcasting
DAC. See Digital to Analog Converter
DAGC. See Digital automatic gain control
DARPA. See Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
DAS. See Data Adaptive Scanning
Data Adaptive Scanning (DAS)
Data processor

715
29

31

See also Signal processor


dB formula

530

DBF. See Digital beamforming


De Havilland Mosquito
Deceptive jamming

50
515

546547

See also Cover jamming; Escort jamming


Deconvolution

489

Decoys

518

575

active decoy

518f

576

chaff as

579

corner reflector

518f

deployment

577579

gain of

577

passive decoys

576

radar returns creation

518

saturating air defense system

575f

straight-through repeater jammer

576

tracking

575f

types, missions, and platforms protected

518t

Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA)

676

Deghosting

413

Delay-line canceler. See Clutter canceler


Delay-line clutter canceler, classic

395b

Deramp-on-receive receivers. See Stretch receivers


This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

DESA. See Digital electronically scanned array


Detection probability

186

acceptable false-alarm rate

187

blip-scan ratio

186

computing range

190

cumulative

190191

density of filter output

189f

detection algorithm

672

false-alarm probability calculation

187

probability density curve

188f

setting detection threshold

188189

SNR determination

189190

standard curves

189f

Swerling model

189

Detection range

188f

190t

159

See also Airborne radar


antenna beam sweeps over target

169f

detectable targets

170f

electrical background noise


energy of target echo

160164
164

density of power

165f

in non-Doppler radars

169f

reduction in strength with range

167f

reflected power

167f

waves travel to target

165f

false alarm

167f

170

integration
experimental setup

171

improvement in SNR

174

noise alone, single integration period

172

noise alone, successive times on target

173

phasor representation of noise pulses

172f

postdetection

174176

signal and noise combination


target signal only

174
173174

radar equation

168b

RCS

166b

received signal energy

170f

target within line of sight

159f

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

DF. See Direction-finding


Dicke fix

569570

Difference signal

119

Differential Doppler (DD). See Frequency difference


of arrival (FDOA)
Diffraction

58

Digital audio broadcasting (DAB)

636

Digital automatic gain control (DAGC)

411

Digital beamforming (DBF)

132

advantages

133

challenges

133134

elemental

132f

subarray architecture

133f

Digital electronically scanned array (DESA)

132

Digital filtering

196

filtering actual signals

425

300

312315

forming filter

305

frequency difference

309f

inputs to filter
detector output

305307

phasor representation of samples


processing returns from ranges

307
310311

radar receivers intermediate frequency

301f

rotating coordinate system

308

sampling video signals

305

translation to video frequencies

301

amplitude of output pulse

303f

detectors output

303f

I and Q projections

305

synchronous detector
two-channel detector system
Digital radars

302303b
304f
216217

Digital radio frequency memories (DRFMs)

552

block diagram

553b

functions

554b

narrowband DRFM

553b

wideband DRFM

553b

Digital receiver

308f

526
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

Digital scan conversion

29

Digital signal processor (DSP)

612

Digital terrain elevation data (DTED)

375

Digital to Analog Converter (DAC)


Digital video broadcasting (DVB)

553b
636

Digitization
in coherent radar

206

ENOB

204

IF digitizer

206

maximum input frequency

205

noise

205

in noncoherent radar

205206

Nyquist criterion

204

receiver digitization architecture

206f

types of ADC

205

video output

203

Dipole antenna

522

Direct conversion receivers. See Homodyne receivers


Direction of arrival (DOA)

531

Direction-finding (DF)

522

Directivity

107

of array antenna

110

gain

114

of linear array

110f

Discrete scatterers

359360

Dismount Moving Target Indicator (DMTI)


Displaced phase center antenna (DPCA)
Distributed radar equation
bistatic form

165

166

705
45

367

646
647

monostatic radar equation

646647

signal-to-noise ratio

647648

3D sensitivity limits

648f

Distributed radar system

639

advantages

649f

639640

Azuza radar system


categorization

649
642643

active or passive system

645

degree of coherence

643

645t

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

646

Index Terms

Links

Distributed radar system (Cont.)


detections

644

levels of data combination

644

locally coherent

643644

raw data

644645

tracks

644

CEC

650651

coherent

641

Doppler shift

642

JORN radar system

650

mini radars

650

Navspasur radar system

649

NEC

651

properties

640641

SMGCS

650

synchronization

641642

TechSat21 concept

651

transmitter and receiver node distribution

642

types

642

Vega radar system

649

DMTI. See Dismount Moving Target Indicator


DOA. See Direction of arrival
Doppler ambiguities

350352

See also Range ambiguities


Doppler blind zones

399

Doppler frequency

401

long antennas

400f

low-altitude applications

402

Doppler direction-finding approach


Doppler effect

533
3

compression in wavelength

258f

Doppler frequency

260265

Doppler shift

258260

ground-based radar
motion of vehicle process

257f
9f

with MTI

10f

phase shift

9f

radars velocity

257

10f
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

662

Index Terms

Links

Doppler effect (Cont.)


wave radiation from point source

257f

Doppler filter. See Velocity filter


Doppler filter bank

297

See also Pulse Doppler radar


bandwidth of filters

298299

filter bank passband

299

filters basic function

300

narrow band of frequencies

297f

sinusoidal signal

298f

Doppler frequency

300f

319

of aircraft

262263

of ground return

263264

magnitude

260

continuous phase shift

260

equation derivation

261262

phasor representation

260261

semiactive missile

264265

Doppler method

318

Doppler frequency

319

single-target tracking

319

swath mapping along-track resolution

459460

Doppler processing

483484

Doppler profile

350352

Doppler sensitivity

241

Doppler shift

258260

in A Nutshell

262b

Doppler spectrum

358359

Doppler tracking loop

436

Downconversion

198

homodyne receivers

201

IF

198

image frequency signals

200f

image rejection

200

intermodulation

200201

mixer stage

198f

multiple-stage

201

201f

DPCA. See Displaced phase center antenna


This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

DRFMs. See Digital radio frequency memories


DSP. See Digital signal processor
DTED. See Digital terrain elevation data
Duplexer

16f

17

Duty factor

155

156f

201202

528529

DVB. See Digital video broadcasting


Dynamic range

E
E-3 AWACS radar

700

antenna

701f

detecting sea and low altitude targets

700f

implementation

700

modes of operation

701

E-notation

701

8687

EA. See Electronic array; Electronic attack


Early-gate technique

435

Earth Observation (EO)

707

ECCM. See Electronic counter-countermeasures


Echolocation

bat adjusting pulse repetition frequency

689f

high-resolution map-like images

4f

principle of

SAR

streamlined faring

3f

waveforms

689

689

acoustic signals

690f

bat adjusting PRF

689f

modulation

690

parameters

690

691

ECM. See Electronic Counter Measures


Edge diffraction

598

EEP See Elliptical error probable


Effective number of bits (ENOB)

204

Effective radiated power (ERP)

529

Eight-pulse train

272

Electric fields

53f

529

54

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

Electrical background noise


competing noise energy

163164

in Doppler radar

164f

noise in receiver output

162f

noise within aircraft

163f

receiver noise

160162

sources ahead of receiver

162163

thermal agitation noise

161f

Electromagnetic interference (EMI)

655

Electromagnetic spectrum (EM spectrum)

509

radiation

657

5455

waves

53

Electronic array (EA)

524

Electronic attack (EA)

509

514

anti-radiation
missiles

559

weapons

517

burn-through range

516

chaff

516

flares

516

558559

high power
lasers

560

microwave

560

radiation

517

jamming

514516

deceptive jamming techniques

550554

equations

554557

geometry

541544

techniques

545550

look through

557558

Electronic beam steering

116

advantage

116

apparent length of aperture

117f

azimuth and elevation angles

116f

disadvantages

117

side-looking air-to-ground radar

117f

Electronic Counter Measures (ECM)

510

Electronic counter-countermeasures (ECCM)

141

684685

608

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

541

564

Index Terms

Links

Electronic Intelligence (ELINT)


ES vs.

510
510512

Electronic protection (EP)


adaptive arrays

509

517

546

563

597

571

adaptive waveforms

571572

anti-Cross Pol

566567

burn-through modes

570

coherent sidelobe canceler

565

Dicke fix

569570

features vs. EW techniques

563t

frequency agility

570

home on jam modes

571

leading edge tracking

569

monopulse radars

567

PC

564

PRF jitter

571

processing EP

572

pulse Doppler radar


reduced sidelobe levels

567568

568569
565t

sidelobe blanker

566

sidelobe isolation

564f

ultra-low sidelobes

564

565

15

125

135

126

127f

141

array physical design

143

144146

avoiding Bragg lobes

138

avoiding grating lobes

135f

Electronic scanning. See Electronic beam steering


Electronically scanned array (ESA)
active ESAs

chip set

137138b

141142

choice of lattice pattern

138

measures of module efficiency

144

phase and amplitude control

143

power output

142

radiator lattice patterns

138f

radiator spacing

136f

receiver noise figure

143

sine space

136

transmitter noise limitations

143

139

139b

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

Electronically scanned array (ESA) (Cont.)


on airframe

125f

beam steps

126f

BSC

125

DBF

132134

extreme beam agility

128129

facilitating RCS reduction

128

high reliability

129

limitation on field of regard

130b

limitations and circumvention


beam stabilization

131

broad field of regard

131f

passive ESAs

126

avoiding Bragg lobes

138

avoiding grating lobes

135f

choice of feed type

132
127f
137138b

140141

choice of lattice pattern

138

choice of transmission lines

141

phase shifter selection

138

radiator lattice patterns

138f

radiator spacing

136f

sine space

136

phase shift

126b

phase shifters

128f

radiator spacing

136b

139
139

139b

T/R module

126

127f

time delay for wideband applications

127

128

Electronic Support (ES)

571

Electronic Support Measures (ESM)

509

Electronic Warfare (EW)

509

Decoys
EA

514517

EP

517

ES

510
510512

radar detection vs. target acquisition range


radar warning
SEI

563

518

ELINT vs.

138

513
512513
513

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

608

Index Terms

Links

Electronic Warfare (EW) (Cont.)


SIGINT vs.

510f

situational awareness

512

receivers

511t

524

analog channelized receiver


CVR

526
524525

digital receiver

526

IFM receiver

525

SHRs

525526

system sensitivity

527528

subfields

509510

Electronic Warfare Support (ES)


antennas
biconical antenna
CBS antenna

509

521

521

522f

523
523524

dipole antenna

522

horn antenna

524

LP antenna

523

monopole antenna

522523

parabolic dish antennas

524

phased array

524

splash-plate antenna

524

dynamic range

528529

ELINT vs.

510512

one-way radio propagation

529530

passive emitter location

530536

radar detection range vs. target acquisition range


radar warning

513
512513

receivers

513

search

537

SEI

513

SIGINT vs.

537539

511t

situational awareness

512

tunable band-stop filter

537f

Electronically scanned radar

31

active ESA

33f

advantages

32

in AESA

32f

227

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

Electronically scanned radar (Cont.)


extreme beam agility

32f

phase shifters in PESA

31

Element-to-element phase shift

32f

482483b

Elevation
beamshape loss

181

components

7f

difference signal

120

ELINT. See Electronic Intelligence


Elliptical error probable (EEP)

532

EM spectrum. See Electromagnetic spectrum


EMI. See Electromagnetic interference
Emitter location accuracy

532

Energy signal. See Analog signal


Enhanced pulse tagging

226

Enhanced spotlight mode

711

ENOB. See Effective number of bits


Ensemble average

8587

EO. See Earth Observation


EP. See Electronic protection
Ergodic sequences

8889

ERP. See Effective radiated power


ES. See Electronic Support; Electronic Warfare Support
ESA. See Electronically scanned array
Escort jamming

515

543544

See also Cover jamming;


Deceptive jamming
ESM. See Electronic Support Measures
EuroRADAR consortium

715

EW. See Electronic Warfare


Expectation operator

86

Expendable decoys

577578

F
False alarm

170

probability

170

time

187

False-alarm rate (FAR)

187

187

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

188f

Index Terms

Links

FAR. See False-alarm rate


Fast Fourier transform (FFT)

84

207

485

568

312

FDOA. See Frequency difference of arrival


Feature-based classification

675676

FFT. See Fast Fourier transform


Field-programmable gate array (FPGA)
Fighter/interceptor mission support

206

610611

46

air-to-air search

46

AMRAAM

47f

fire control

4647

lead-pursuit course

46f

long-range Phoenix missile

47f

1D range profiles and 2D ISAR images

46f

raid assessment

46

target identification

46

U.S. Navy F-14 air superiority fighter

46f

Filter bank passband

299

300f

Filtering

197

434

actual signals

312

avoiding saturation

314

dealing with quantization noise

314315

dynamic range

312313

harmonics

314

spurious signals
synchronization of antennas time
matched filter

313314
315f
197198

Filters basic function

300

First range zone

380

First-time-around echo

218

Flares

516

Flynns taxonomy

609

610

FM. See Frequency modulation


FMCW. See Frequency-modulated continuous wave
Foliage penetration

100

Formation jamming

550

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

439

363

Index Terms

Links

Fourier series

79

exponential form of

82

graphical description

81

82

mathematical description of

80

81

periodic pulse train with period

80f

phasors into I and Q components

80f

square and rectangular wave

81f

Fourier transform

82f

82

calculation

8384

inverse

83f

of sampled pulse

84f

switching between domains

83

time and frequency domains

83f

value of concept

84

FPGA. See Field-programmable gate array


Fractal dimension

675

Fractional bandwidth

100

Frank codes

241

Frequency

60f

Agility

220

domains

83f

translation

67

weighting

658

659

535

581

459b

Frequency difference of arrival (FDOA)


Frequency modulation (FM)
ranging

570

226

Frequency selective surface (FSS)


Frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW)

601
42

air-to-air applications

252f

Doppler frequency

246f

245

for Doppler shift


constant-frequency segment
two-slope cycle

246
246248

frequency difference

245f

frequency measurement accuracy

252

ghosts elimination

246f

248251

linear FM sweep generation


principle

661

253
245246

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

246

Index Terms

Links

Frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW) (Cont.)


radar equation

252253

receivers

211212

steepness of slope

252

FSS. See Frequency selective surface


Fulcrum-F

334

Fully adaptive radar

691

as coherent sensor

693

implications

691692

parameters

692

processing for tracking system

692f

single target tracking

692

waveform design and optimization

693

693

G
Gallium arsenide (GaAs)

30

142

Gallium nitride (GaN)

142

196

Gate formation

440

GEN-X decoy

196

577578

Geographical information system (GIS)

694

Geometric optics (GO)

677

Ghosting

222

Doppler frequency

249250

ghosts

251f

215

elimination

248

identification

248249

targets detection

250f

GIS. See Geographical information system


Global Hawk

505

Global Positioning System (GPS)

39

631

GMT. See Ground moving target


GMTI. See Ground moving target indication
GO. See Geometric optics
GPS. See Global Positioning System
Graphic processing unit (GPU)

616

Grating lobes

135f

500501

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

642

Index Terms

Links

Ground clutter

345

dispersed nature

346347

Doppler profile

350352

flight situation diagram


range ambiguities

713

347
347350

targets

346f

Ground map

10

Ground moving target (GMT)

367

antenna phase center

368b

Doppler spectrum

368f

GMTI display

375f

precise angle measurement

374

problem of slow moving target detection

368

AESA pulse storage

373f

clutter canceler

369f

DPCA

368

notching and DPCA combination

372373

notching technique

370372

space-time filter response


STAP

389

375f

369f

370t

375

617

374f
373374

Ground moving target indication (GMTI)


Ground return

10
329

amplitude
backscatter coefficients

332t

constant model

332

effective size of clutter patch

331f

polarized signals

331

antenna sidelobes

329

Doppler spectra
altitude return

338

effect of antenna scan

335

beamwidth, speed, and wavelength

334

Doppler frequency

332334

frequency and power

335336

governing sidelobe clutter strength

337338

impact on target detection

336337

iso-range and iso-Doppler for reflections

336f

mainlobe return

332

339

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

705

Index Terms

Links

Ground return (Cont.)


relative strength

338339

sidelobe clutter

335

significance

335

power of return

330f

338

339

relation of clutter spectrum


nose-aspect approach

340f

tail chase

340f

to target frequencies

339

return from objects


Ground-based applications
Ground-based defense suppression
Guard channel receivers

341f

341342
102

103f

49
211

See also Stretch receivers

H
HARM. See High-speed anti-radiation missile
Harmonics

80

Hedge-hopping

41

314

Heterodyne receivers. See Superheterodyne receivers (SHRs)


High frequency (HF)

98

High power amplifier (HPA)

126

High power lasers

560

High power microwave

560

High power radiation

517

High pulse repetition frequency (HPRF)

226

419

See also Medium pulse repetition frequency


(medium PRF)
problem of eclipsing

427428

ranging

425427

semiactive missile guidance


signal processing

430b
423

analog implementation

423425

digital implementation

425

tail aspect performance improvement

428429

target returns isolation


Doppler profile

421

Doppler resolution

422

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

715

Index Terms

Links

High pulse repetition frequency (HPRF) (Cont.)


range gating

422

range profile

420421

strong clutter rejection

421422

waveform

423f

420

High-frequency filters

436

High-range resolution profile (HRRP)

667

High-speed anti-radiation missile (HARM)

49

Himage mode

711

Hollow metal waveguide

141f

Homodyne receivers

201

Horn antenna

524

HPA. See High power amplifier


HPRF. See High pulse repetition frequency
HRRP. See High-range resolution profile
Huge Region mode

712

Hiilsmeyers original radar patent


Hurricane Katrina, weather radar systems view of

3
39f

I
I component

70

I/Q detection

304

I/Q detector. See In-phase and quadrature detector


IBIT. See Initiate a built-in test sequence
IC. See Integrated circuit
Identification friend or foe (IFF)

46

675

IF. See Intermediate frequency


IFF. See Identification friend or foe
IFM. See Instantaneous frequency measurement
Illumination tapering

116

Illuminators of opportunity

635

Image frequency

68f

response

200

Image rejection

71

Imaging

10

ground map

10

mapped distance

11f

200

SAR
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

Imaging (Cont.)
azimuth resolution

11

in conventional mapping

11f

real-beam map

11f

spotlight

12f

shadow leave holes in radar maps


In-phase and quadrature detector (I/Q detector)

11f
425

Inbound range gate pull-off. See Range gate pull-in (RGPI)


Independently maneuvering decoy

578579

Indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs)

31

InGaAs. See Indium gallium arsenide


Initiate a built-in test sequence (IBIT)

622

InSAR. See Interferometric SAR


Instantaneous frequency measurement (IFM)

525

Integrated circuit (IC)

607

Integrated sidelobe level (ISL)

664

Integrated sidelobe return

502

Intellectual property (IP)

615

Interferometric SAR (InSAR)

464

465f

466467b

17

133

198

525

553b

elevation

468

multiple independent antennas

464

phase interferometry

465

seismic events

467

Interferometric technique
Intermediate frequency (IF)
Intermodulation

665

534

200201

product generation

656

International Telecommunications Union (ITU)

98

Interpulse period

152

Interrogator

40f

Intrapulse modulation

151

Inverse filter

659

Inverse Fourier transform

83f

Inverse gain jamming

152f

548549

Inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR)

46

461

See also Synthetic aperture radar (SAR)


cross-range resolution

463b

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

604

423

Index Terms

Links

Inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) (Cont.)


Doppler processing

462

pitching motion

462f

of ship

464f

viewing angle

464

IP See Intellectual property


ISAR. See Inverse synthetic aperture radar
ISL. See Integrated sidelobe level
Isochrones

535

Isodops

536

Isofreqs

536

Isotropic antenna

521

Italian Ministry of Defense (MoD)

710

Italian Space Agency (ASI)

710

ITU. See International Telecommunications Union

J
J/S ratio. See Jamming to signal ratio
Jamming

514

AGC

549550

barrage

545

cover

545

deceptive jamming vs.

515

pulses

548

deceptive

546547

equations

554

burn-through

556557

J/S ratio

554555

remote jamming

555556

self protection jamming


geometry

515

550554

555
541

escort jamming
SIJ

543544
543

SOJ

542543

SPJ

541542

inverse gain

548549

power of noise

544b

pulse compression radars

552

554

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

Jamming (Cont.)
with range bin masking

548f

RGPI

548

RGPO

547

self protection
jammer

514f

remote jamming vs.

514

to signal ratio

516

spot

545546

stand-in jammer

515f

stand-off jamming

514f

swept spot

546

velocity gate pull-off

550

Jamming to signal ratio (J/S ratio)

516

Japanese E-767 AWACS

700f

542

JCC. See JORN Coordination Center


Jet engine modulation (JEM)

667

668

Jindalee over-the-horizon Operational Radar Network


(JORN)

650

Joint STARS radar

703

modes of operation

703

MTI modes

704

navigators workstation

704f

three-segment passive ESA

703f

JORN. See Jindalee over-the-horizon Operational Radar


Network
JORN Coordination Center (JCC)

650

K
K distribution

358

k nearest neighbors (kNN)

674

Klein Heidelberg

630b

kTB. See Thermal noise

L
Late-gate technique

435

Laterally diffused metal oxide semiconductors (LDMOSs)


Leading edge tracking

31
569

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

554555

564

Index Terms

Links

Least significant digit (LSD)

314

LEO. See Low Earth orbit


LFM. See Linear frequency modulation
Line of sight propagation

530

Line replaceable units (LRU)

620

Line-by-line processing

476

Linear broadside array

108

Linear distortion

656

Linear frequency modulation (LFM)

231

Chirp

231

ambiguity function

238

implementation

233

stretch processing of
waveform

656

658

64

198

237238

amplitude weighting
pulse compression ratio

479f

235237
234b
656

ambiguity function for

662f

matched filter responses

661f

NLFM time-frequency relationship

661f

power spectral density

661f

weighting

659

Linear frequency modulation on pulse (LFMOP).


See ChirpLFM
Linear system-invariant (LSI)

605

LNA. See Low-noise amplifier


Lobing

119f

Local oscillator (LO)

17
656

Log periodic antenna (LP antenna)

523

Longbow radar

716

interchangeable color displays

716f

for RAH-66 Comanche helicopter

717

Look through technique

557558

Look-in measurements

604

Low Earth orbit (LEO)

707

Low Probability of Detection (LPD)

581

Low Probability of Exploitation (LPE)

581

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

525

Index Terms

Links

Low probability of intercept (LPI)


cost of

141

252

513

591

design strategies
antenna gain considerations
bandwidth considerations
instantaneous bandwidth
for reduced peak power
future trends in

584
583584
583t
582583
592

intercepted signals

590591

LPI-enhancing design features


detection avoidance
intercept receiver functions
multiple beams on frequencies

584
585587
589t
588589

noncoherent integration

588

power management

585

pseudo-random pulse compression codes


pulse compression
random waveform parameters

590b
587588
589

mimicking enemy waveforms

591

operational strategies

582

radar

33f

Low pulse repetition frequency (LPRF)

389

717

See also Medium pulse repetition frequency


(Medium PRF)
advantages

399

Doppler blind zones


limitations

399402
399

low duty factor

402403

moving targets on ground

403404

multiple-time-around echoes
signal processing

394399

targets and clutter differentiation


Doppler profile
range profile
STC
Low-frequency filters

402
389
391393
390

391f

392b
436

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

391

581

Index Terms

Links

Low-level processing architectures

612

digital signal processors

615

embedded processors

615

FPGA

614615

full-custom IC design

612

GPUs

616

microprocessors

616

parallelism

612

pipelining

612

ULAs, ASICs, and gate arrays


Low-noise amplifier (LNA)

617f

612614
28

127

LP antenna. See Log periodic antenna


LPD. See Low Probability of Detection
LPE. See Low Probability of Exploitation
LPI. See Low probability of intercept
LPRF. See Low pulse repetition frequency
LRU. See Line replaceable units
LSD. See Least significant digit
LSI. See Linear system-invariant

M
MacDonald, Dettwiler and Associates (MDA)

707

Magnetic fields

53

Magnetron

16f

Main battle tanks (MBT)

675

Mainlobe

107

Mainlobe clutter (MLC)

421

54f

MALD. See Miniature air launched decoy


Maritime Moving Target Indicator (MMTI)

705

Master oscillator-power amplifier

270

Matched filter

197198

design

164

theory

197

Maximum likelihood estimation (MLE)

133

MBT. See Main battle tanks


MDA. See MacDonald, Dettwiler and Associates
MDS. See Minimum discernible signal
Mean square deviation

8788

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

196197

Index Terms

Links

Mean time between critical failures (MTBCF)

129

Mechanically steered array (MSA)

126

Medium pulse repetition frequency (Medium PRF)

407

blind zone elimination

412414

GMT rejection

411412

sidelobe clutter minimization

415416

sidelobe return from targets

416417

signal processing

410411

targets and clutter differentiation

137

407

Doppler profiling

408

mainlobe clutter rejection

408

range profiling

407408

sidelobe clutter

408410

MESFET. See Metal semiconductor field-effect transistor


Messerschmitt Bf-110 G4

14

Metal oxide semiconductors (MOS)

30

Metal semiconductor field-effect transistor (MESFET)

30

Mikoyan MiG-35

334

Military off-the-shelf (MOTS)

620

Millimeter wave (MMW)

530

Million operations per second (MOPS)

607

MIMD. See Multiple Instruction, Multiple Data


MIMO radar. See Multiple-input, multiple-output radar
Mini radars

650

Miniature air launched decoy (MALD)

578579

Minimizing sidelobes

502503

Minimum discernible signal (MDS)

527

Minimum peak sidelobe codes

240

MISD. See Multiple Instruction, Single Data


Mismatch filtering

658

digital filter response

660f

frequency weighting

658

mismatched filters

658

optimized

659

pulse compression with adaptivity

659

Mixer device

659

660

198

MLC. See Mainlobe clutter


MLE. See Maximum likelihood estimation
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

597

Index Terms

Links

MLP. See Multilayer perceptron


MMIC. See Monolithic microwave integrated circuit
MMS. See Multistatic measurement system
MMTI. See Maritime Moving Target Indicator
MMW. See Millimeter wave
MoD. See Italian Ministry of Defense
Mode S. See Mode select
Mode select (Mode S)

40

Modern AEW&C pulse Doppler radar systems

699

Modified escort jamming

544

Modulation envelope

69

Modulator

16

Monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC)


Monopole antenna

3031b

142

522523

Monopulse

operation

119

radars

567

receivers

211

systems

564

119120

Monostatic radar

631

Moores law

611b

MOPS. See Million operations per second


MOS. See Metal oxide semiconductors
Motion compensation

488

limit on uncompensated phase errors


phase errors

488490
488t

MOTS. See Military off-the-shelf


Moving and stationary target acquisition and recognition
(MSTAR)

676

Moving target indication (MTI)

10

45

304

367

703

MSA. See Mechanically steered array


MSTAR. See Moving and stationary target acquisition and
recognition
MTAEs. See Multiple-time-around echoes
MTBCF. See Mean time between critical failures
MTI. See Moving target indication

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

100

Index Terms

Links

Multichannel receivers

210211

See also Homodyne receivers


Multifunction radar systems
modes

685
686b

Multilayer perceptron (MLP)

674

Multilook SAR image

493

Multipath propagation

103f

Multiple Instruction, Multiple Data (MIMD)

609

Multiple Instruction, Single Data (MISD)

609

Multiple pulse detection

363

Multiple-baseline precision interferometer

535

Multiple-input, multiple-output radar (MIMO radar)

640

687

610

662

See also Distributed radar system


advantages

652

channel matrix

651652

co-ambiguity function

652

cross-ambiguity function

652

emission of waveforms

663f

separability

664f

types

651

Multiple-time-around echoes (MTAEs)

218

Multistatic measurement system (MMS)

649

663

N
Narrow-beam antenna

532533

Navigational aids

39

aircrafts absolute altitude


altimetry

41f
4041

altitude measurement

41f

assisting air traffic control

40

avoiding air-to-air collisions

40

blind low-altitude flight

41

car collision management

42

forward range

41f

interrogators monopulse antenna

40f

marking remote facilities

39

interrogator

40f

transponder

39

40f

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

Navigational aids (Cont.)


PVU

42

vehicular radar systems

42f

Navspasur. See Navy Space Surveillance System


Navy Space Surveillance System (Navspasur)

649

NCTR. See Noncooperative target recognition


NCTR mode. See Non-Cooperative Target Recognition mode
Nearest neighbor (NN)

674

NEC. See Network-enabled capability


Nested codes. See Chained codes
Network-enabled capability (NEC)

651

NLFM waveforms. See Nonlinear FM waveforms


NN. See Nearest neighbor
Node angle

640

Node baseline

640

Noise figure

160

Noise-equivalent

497

Noncoherent integration

588

Non-Cooperative Target Recognition mode (NCTR mode)

714

Non-signal-related spurs (NRS)

203

Noncoherent pulsed radar

528

15

See also Coherent pulse-Doppler radar


antenna

17

search scan

22f

servo

22f

automatic tracking

2223

cockpit of Typhoon aircraft

20f

display systems

20

duplexer

16f

elements in

16f

ground clutter

24f

magnetron

16f

venerable

1819b

modulator

16

pistol grip hand control

22f

power supply

22

PPI

22

radar displays

17

21b
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

Noncoherent pulsed radar (Cont.)


receiver

17

Saab Microwave Systems PS-05

15f

space stabilization

23

synchronizer

16

target tracking

23f

timing pulses from synchronizer

20f

transmitter

16

waveguide

16f

Noncooperative target recognition (NCTR)

669

Nonlinear distortion

656

Nonlinear FM waveforms (NLFM waveforms)

661

ambiguity function for

662f

approach to frequency weighting

661

design

662

Doppler effects

662

Nonmathematical approach. See also Airborne radar


combining signals
amplitude of carrier signal

69f

amplitude of resulting wave

66f

counterrotating phasors

69f

creation of sidebands

6870

of frequency

6670

frequency and phase modulation

70f

frequency translation

67

image frequency

68f

LO signal

67f

of phase

68f

6566

phasor in counterclockwise

67f

radar receiver

67f

scintillation

65

66f

in-phase and quadrature components


direction of Doppler shifts

7071

Doppler frequency

70f

image rejection

71

instantaneous values

70f

mixer outputs Q component

71f

video signal proportional to

71f

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

Nonmathematical approach (Cont.)


phasor

6365

ubiquitous decibel

7274b

Nonperiodic signal

77

Nonrecurring engineering (NRE)


Nonstationary process

614
89

Normalized radar cross section (NRCS)

353

Notching

367

NRCS. See Normalized radar cross section


NRE. See Nonrecurring engineering
NRS. See Non-signal-related spurs

O
One-way radio propagation
Optimum frequency selection
airborne applications

529530
102
103104

AWACS radar

103f

ground-based applications

102

Ku-band

104f

shipboard applications

103

at X-band

104f

Original cavity magnetron

15f

Ovals of Cassini

631

Over-the horizon radars (OTH radars)

103f

97

P
PAE. See Power-added efficiency
Panavia Tornado GR-4

256

Parabolic dish antennas

524

Passive electronically scanned array (PESA)


Passive emitter location
approaches

31
530

531f

531

direction of arrival techniques

532535

precision location techniques

535536

PBIT. See Perform BIT on power-up


PC. See Pulse compression
PCC. See Probability of correct classification
PCL. See Probability of correct label
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

PD radar. See Pulse Doppler radar


PDF. See Probability distribution function
PDI. See Postdetection integration
Peak power

153f

154

Peak sidelobe level (PSL)

232

664

7f

107f

Pencil beam
Perform BIT on power-up (PBIT)

622

Periodic permanent magnet (PPM)

25

Periodic signal

77

665

PESA. See Passive electronically scanned array


Phase

61

constellation

238

interferometry

465

modulation

238

barker codes

240

binary phase modulation

238240

complementary codes

240241

Doppler sensitivity
polyphase codes
phase-comparison monopulse

241
241243
8

phased array

32

unwrapping

465

Phasor

524

63

in phase with reference

65f

projection

64f

rate of rotation

65f

representing signal

63

for sine wave

64f

strobe point

64f

Phenomenology models

64

604

Phenoms. See Phenomenology models


Physical optics (PO)

677

PingPong mode

711

712

22

Plan position indicator (PPI)


Planar array antenna

27f

PO. See Physical optics


POET decoy

577

POL See Probability of intercept


This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

515

545

Index Terms

Links

Polarimetric SAR

468469

470f

56

57

Polarization
Polyphase codes

241

binary codes

243

frank codes

241

phase increments

242f

Postdetection integration (PDI)

169

242
174

See also Predetection integration


Doppler frequency

175f

effects of

176

equivalent of

176

integration time of Doppler filter

175f

Potential Doppler ambiguities

320

flight geometries

320f

hypothetical situation

320f

PRF

321

321322

Power of noise jamming


Power signal

544b
78

Power-added efficiency (PAE)

142

PPI. See Plan position indicator


PPM. See Periodic permanent magnet
Precision location techniques

535

FDOA

536

TDOA

535536

Precision strategic bombing

48

Precision velocity update (PVU)

42

Predistortion

49

656

integration

173

PRF. See Pulse repetition frequency


PRI. See Pulse repetition interval
Probability density curve
Probability distribution function (PDF)

188
8990

Probability of correct classification (PCC)

678

Probability of correct label (PCL)

679

Probability of intercept (POI)

537

Programmable signal processor (PSP)

607

Proximity fuses

679

49

Pseudo-random pulse compression codes

590b

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

243f

Index Terms

Links

Pseudomorphic high-electron-mobility transistors

30f

PSL. See Peak sidelobe level


PSP. See Programmable signal processor
Pulse agility

663

Pulse chasing

631

Pulse compression (PC)

152

664
229

564

587588

655
adaptive

660

with adaptivity

659

660

Doppler effects and ambiguity function

232

233f

LFM chirp

233238

matched filter

231

phase modulation

232f

238243

pulse width dilemma

230

radar receiver processes

568

radar waveforms

568

range resolution improving

567

ratio

235

chirp rate

236

LFM matched filter

235f

minimum resolvable frequency difference

235f

ratio of uncompressed pulse width

236f

stretch processing

237f

resolution and range sidelobes

232

short pulse

230f

waveform

230231

Pulse Doppler radar (PD radar)

564

Doppler effect

257265

spectrum of pulsed signal

267274

Pulse eclipsing

568

655

657658

41

152

452

474

495

537

689

bat adjusting

689f

691

categories

383

for deghosting

225

Doppler ambiguities

153

Pulse repetition frequency (PRF)

high PRF operation

385386

low PRF operation

384385
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

Pulse repetition frequency (PRF) (Cont.)


measurement accuracy

226

medium PRF operation

386387

minimum acceptable

501f

PRI

152f

pulse eclipsing

657

in pulsed Doppler radar

379

radars pulses transmission

152f

for resolving ambiguities


sample computation
trade-off

224225
499b
225226

unambiguous range
Pulse repetition interval (PRI)
Pulse width

225f
5

152

151

Pulse-delay ranging

digital radars

216217

range measurement

215216

resolving in range

217

simple analog radars

216

sophisticated analog radars

216

video signal

217f

Pulse-Doppler radars

215

15

Pulse-Doppler search. See Velocity search


Pulsed coherent receiver
with baseband digitization
with IF digitization

208
208209
209

sub-nyquist sampling

210

Pulsed noncoherent receiver

207208

Pulsed operation

149

See also Airborne radar


ambiguity diagram

153f

Doppler shift

149f

energy and power

150f

154155b

noise sidebands blanket

150f

output power and transmitted energy

153156

pulsed transmission advantages

149150

pulsed waveform

150153

transmission and reception

150f

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

202

Index Terms

Links

Pulsed spectrum unveiled

277

See also Pulse Doppler radar;


Spectrum of pulsed signal
analogy of filter to ruler

284285

coherent pulse train

286287

coherent pulsed radio-frequency signal

281f

complete spectrum of pulse

280f

filters point of view

284288

frequency

280281

line width

283284

lossless and conventional filter output

280f

lossless narrowband filter

278280

mathematical explanation

288

amplitudes

293

negative-frequency terms

293

positive-frequency portion

292f

momentum of pendulum

279f

motor driven eccentric flywheel

278f

pulse modulated radio wave

281282

repetition of spectral lines

287288

signal

277

single pulse

283

spectral lines

294f

285286

282283

swing of pendulum

279f

train of pulses

281

Pulsed waveform

150

carrier frequency

151

intrapulse modulation

152f

PRF

152153

pulse length

151f

pulse width

151f

range separation

151f

transmitted waveform

151f

PVU. See Precision velocity update

Q
Quantization noise

204

Quiet radar

513
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

Quiet range

513

R
Radar
displays

21b

equation

168b

range and angle

531532

range equation

495

noise-equivalent

497

radar velocity

497

single pulse for single resolution cell

496

system

7f

warning

512513

Radar cross section (RCS)


fluctuations in

33

165

185186

of single resolution cell


Radar image resolution
achieving fine resolution

496
446
451

across-track resolution

451452

along-track resolution

445

oil seepage off Santa Barbara map

453f

cell size choice, influencing factors of

446

cell size effect on shape

447f

costs and data management

450

interpreting images

450451

Karlsruhe high-resolution image

449f

Karlsruhe part of SAR image

448f

signal processing requirements

449450

size of objects

446449

for various mapping applications


radar system

452453

450f

446t
445

Radar jamming

514

anti-radiation weapons

517

burn-through range

516

chaff

516

concepts

515

cover vs. deceptive jamming

515

flares

516
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

166b

Index Terms

Links

Radar jamming (Cont.)


high power radiation

517

jamming to signal ratio

516

self protection jammer

514f

self protection vs. remote jamming

514

stand-in jammer

514f

stand-off jamming

514f

Radar receivers

195

airborne radar receiver

203f

architectures

207

downconversion

198201

dynamic range

201202

filtering

197198

LNA

196197

multichannel receivers

210211

phase noise plot

203f

principles

196

pulsed coherent receiver

208210

pulsed noncoherent receiver

207208

specialized receivers

211212

spectral purity

203

spurious signals

203

Radar resource management


activities

685

686

688

categories

687688

scheduler allocating radar task


tasks

686f
686687

Radar resource manager (RRM)

688

role

688

setting electronic scanning system

688f

Radar target classification

689

667

classification techniques

673674

confusion matrix

678680

databases and target modeling


bundle of rays propagation

677f

CAD models

678

edge diffraction

678

interactions with facets

677f

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

Radar target classification (Cont.)


returns for entire synthetic aperture
SAR image database options
SAR image simulation

678f
676677
677

feature-based classification

675676

high-resolution SAR image

667f

JEM

668

layover

670

672

clustering algorithm

672

673

detection algorithm

672

labeled clusters

673f

prescreening

672

rejection of clutter discrete

673

template matching

675

processing chain

self-shadowing

670

target phenomenology

669

multipath reflections
radar explicitly measures range
sensitivity to imaging aspect angle
terminology

671672

669f
669670
669f
668669

Radar warning receivers (RWR)

513

covering directions

537

emitter location process

538

functional flow

538

Radar waveforms

229

echoes eclipsing

658f

EMI

657

intermodulation product generation

656

linear distortion

656

mismatch filtering

658660

NLFM waveforms

661662

nonlinear distortion
pulse eclipsing

523

655

656
657658

schemes for generation

656

spectral regrowth

656

transmitter distortion

655

waveform diversity

658f

662665

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

537

Index Terms

Links

Radar-absorbing material (RAM)

599

RADARSAT-2 satellite

504

Earth observation tool

505

Global Hawk

505

image of Sendai, Japan

708f

incidence angle

505

parameter comparison
SAR

707708
506

708t
708

Radial velocity

Radiation pattern

112f

antenna directive gain

114b

115

beamwidth

112f

113f

characteristics of

112

linear array with uniform illumination

113f

radian

113f

sidelobes

115

Radio detection

114

121b

distant target approaches

5f

PPI

radar system

radars in aircraft

6f

radio wave transmissions

5f

ranges

5f

target

5f

transmitter and receiver process

4f

Radio frequency (RF)

97

127

196

474

525

608

electromagnetic spectrum

97f

98f

frequency bands

98

99

See Airborne radar

influence of frequency
ambient noise

101f

atmospheric attenuation

100

beamwidth

99f

coexistence with other users

100

Doppler considerations

101

foliage penetration

100

fractional bandwidth

100

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

455

Index Terms

Links

Radio frequency (RF) (Cont.)


physical size

99

on radar performance

99

transmitted power

99

optimum frequency selection


wavelength

102104
98f

Radio waves

53

atmospheric refraction

58b

characteristics
area of antenna

59f

direction of propagation

56f

fields of radio wave

59f

frequency

60f

intensity

59f

period

61f

phase

61f

polarization

56

speed

56

vertically polarized element

56f

wavelength

59

diffraction

58b

dynamic relationships

54f

electric charge acceleration

54f

electric fields

53f

electromagnetic radiation
magnetic fields

57

60f

5455
53

reflection

58b

ripples on pond

55f

simple dipole antenna

55f

speed of light

57b

thermal agitation

54f

54f

waves field visualization


electric field

55f

magnetic field

56f

RAM. See Radar-absorbing material


Random scattering

598

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

Range
bins

28

differentiation

317318

discriminant

435

gate stealing

547

profile

390

range-tracking loop

391f

435436

sidelobes

232

straddling

231

sweep

20

216

trace

20

216

zones

348349

Range ambiguities

217

coping with ambiguous ranging

219

maximum unambiguous range

218219

nature of

217218

pulse repetition interval

347

218f

range zones

348350

returns from ranges

347348

Range cusping. See Range straddling


Range equation

179

antenna size

183

average power

182

decreasing system noise

182f

detection probability

186190

detection threshold

181f

fluctuations in RCS

185186

forms of radar

192b

integrated noise energy

180f

omissions

181

range computation

191b

RCS

182

received signal energy

179f

revealing form of equation

181182

time-on-target

182

tripling transmitter power

182f

volume search equation


wavelength

183185
183

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

391

Index Terms

Links

Range gate pull-in (RGPI)

548

569

Range gate pull-off (RGPO)

547

569

215

Range measurement
See also Airborne radar
ambiguous returns elimination
chirping

219220
6f

electronically scanned radars

227

enhanced pulse tagging

226

FM ranging

PRF

7f

224226

PRF jittering

219f

pulse-delay ranging

215217

pulse-delay ranging

range ambiguities

217219

resolving ambiguities
computing range

220
222

ghosts

222224

multiple PRFs

221222

tagging pulses

220221

single-target tracking

226227

speed of light

6f

targets range

6f

Range resolution. See Across-track resolution


Range-gate

216

command

435

straddling loss

217

Range-gated high PRF. See Enhanced pulse tagging


Range-rate measurement

317

See also Pulse Doppler radar


Doppler method

318320

good dynamic response

318

potential Doppler ambiguities

320322

range differentiation

317318

range-rate

317f

resolving Doppler ambiguities


Doppler frequency calculation

324

PRF switching

323324

range differentiation

322323

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

Range-rate tracking loop. See Doppler tracking loop


Rayleigh probability density function

357

Raytheon APG-79 AESA

603

RCS. See Radar cross section


Real array

482483b

Receiver protection device

17

Receiver system sensitivity

527

kTB

527528

noise figure

528

predetection signal-to-noise ratio

528

Reception

482483b

Reciprocity

118

Reconnaissance & Surveillance radar system


air-to-ground surveillance
early warning and sea surveillance

44
45
4445

lightweight solid-state surveillance radar

45f

long-range air-to-ground reconnaissance

44f

low-altitude air and sea surveillance

45

manned systems
Joint STARS radar
SENTINEL Rl system
passive ESA of Joint STARS radar

703704
704
45f

unmanned systems
NASA UAV SAR radar

706

STARlite

705706

TESAR

704705

Reduced instruction set computing (RISC)


Reflection

701
17

antenna mode

598

iso-range and iso-Doppler for

336f

sources of

597598

structural mode

598

Rejection notches

397

Remarkable gridded traveling wave tube


Remote jamming
burn-through of

58

2526b
541

555556

557

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

Remote sensing

42

blind-landing guidance

43

change mapping

44

forward-looking radar system

44f

ice flow on Lake Erie

43f

law enforcement

43

noncoherent change detection

44f

terrain mapping

42

3D SAR map

43f

44

43

Renormalization and rounding. See Rescaling


Rescaling

610

Resolution
cell

446

distance

446

fineness

449

Resonant frequency of circuit

300

Retroreflective surfaces

342

RF. See Radio frequency


RGPI. See Range gate pull-in
RGPO. See Range gate pull-off
RISC. See Reduced instruction set computing
Root mean square (RMS)

532

RRM. See Radar resource manager


RWR. See Radar warning receivers

S
S/H circuit. See Sample-and-hold circuit
SAM. See Surface-to-air missile
Sample-and-hold circuit (S/H circuit)

204

SANCTUARY bistatic radar

629

SAR. See Synthetic aperture radar


SAW device. See Surface acoustic wave device
ScanSAR Mode

712

SEI. See Specific Emitter Identification


Seismic events

467

SELEX CAPTOR-E AESA radar

24f

SELEX Galileo

715

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

Self protection jamming (SPJ)

541542

burn-through of

555

556557

self protection jammer

514f

Self screening jamming. See Self protection jamming


Semiactive missile homing

633634

Sensitivity

683

Sensitivity time control (STC)

122

SENTINEL Rl system

704

Sequential lobing

202

8f

Serrodyne modulation

550b

SEU. See Single-event upset


Shipboard applications

103

SHRs. See Superheterodyne receivers


Side-looking airborne radar (SLAR)

42

Sideband signals

69

Sidelobes

108

blanker

566

clutter

335

clutter minimization

452
115f

415416

jamming

566b

reduction

115

reduction

311312

116f

SiGe. See Silicon germanium


SIGINT. See Signal Intelligence
Signal classification

7778

Signal Intelligence (SIGINT)


ES vs.

510
511t

Signal overlap zone (SOZ)

689f

Signal processing

394

clutter canceler

395398

detection threshold

398

in low PRF radar

394f

mainlobe clutter tracking

398f

399

449450

476

requirements
for unfocused array
Signal processor

476b
28f

digitized echo data sorting

28f

targets positions

29f

29

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

392b

410

Index Terms

Links

Signal-related spurs (SRS)

203

Signal-to-interference ratio (SIR)

362

Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)

181

predetection

460

497

528

SIJ. See Stand-in jammer


Silicon germanium (SiGe)
Silicon photonics

142
625626

SIMD. See Single Instruction, Multiple Data


Simple analog radars

216

Simple pulsed radar

15

Sine space

136

139b

Sine waves. See Sinusoidal waves


Single Instruction, Multiple Data (SIMD)

609

Single Instruction, Single Data (SISD)

609

Single program, multiple data (SPMD)

610

Single pulse detection

362363

Single-baseline interferometer

535

Single-event upset (SEU)

625

Single-look probability See Blip-scan ratio


Single-scan probability See Blip-scan ratio
Single-target tracking (STT)
angle-tracking loop

226227
437438

angle-tracking filter

438f

antenna

438f

common coordinate system

437b

Doppler tracking loop

436

functions in tracking loop

434

improving angle estimation


improving Doppler estimation
velocity gate

433

436437
436
436f

improving range estimation

435

early-gate and late-gate

435

range discriminant

435

range-tracking loop
range-gate command
Sinusoidal waves

435436
435

436f

60

SIR. See Signal-to-interference ratio


SISD. See Single Instruction, Single Data
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

434

658

Index Terms

Links

Skin return

542

SLAR. See Side-looking airborne radar


SMGCS. See Surface movement guidance and control system
SNR. See Signal-to-noise ratio
SOJ. See Stand-off jamming
Solid angle efficiency

115

SOZ. See Signal overlap zone


Space based radar systems

707

COSMO-SkyMed satellites

710712

RADARSAT-2 satellite

707708

TerraSAR-X satellite

708710

Space stabilization

23

Space-time adaptive processing (STAP)

45

92

Spatial correlation

359

Specific Emitter Identification (SEI)

513

525

Speckle

451

455

Spectral
leakage

656

purity

203

regrowth

656

sidelobes

273274

Spectrum of pulsed signal

267

bandwidth

267269

coherence

269271

line width
duration of pulse train vs.

272

eight-pulse train

272

equivalence of pulse train

273

general relationships
two-pulse train

272273
272

effect of pulse modulation


spectral sidelobes

267f
273274

Spiky

357

358f

SPJ. See Self protection jamming


Splash-plate antenna

524

SPMD. See Single program, multiple data


Spot jamming
Spot noise jamming

545546
545f
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

133

492

367

Index Terms

Links

Spotlight mode

713

Spotlight SAR

460461

Spreading loss

530

Spurious signals

203

SRS. See Signal-related spurs


Stand-in jammer (SIJ)

515f

543

Stand-off jamming (SOJ)

514f

542543

STAP. See Space-time adaptive processing


STARlite radar

705706

modes for tactical reconnaissance

705

SAR modes

705

undergoing flight test

706f

Stationary sequences

8889

Statistical MIMO

640

Statistics

663

85
See also Fourier transform

E-notation

8687

ensemble average

8586

ergodic sequences

8889

estimates of and true averages

86

flipping coin results

85f

mean square deviation

8788

nonstationary process

89

and probability distributions

8990

random noise-like sequence

89f

realizations of random process

85

stationary sequences

8889

time average

8586

variance

8788

87

STC. See Sensitivity time control


Stick architecture

143f

See also Tile architecture


Storm avoidance

3839

Stretch processing

231

Stretch receivers

212

233

Strip map imaging. See Swath map imaging

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Index Terms

Links

Stripmap mode

711

Classic

705

Himage mode

711

PingPong mode

711

712

STT. See Single-target tracking


Sub-nyquist sampling

210

Subarray architecture

145

Sum signal

119

Superheterodyne receivers (SHRs)

17

146f
201

525526

See also Radar warning receivers (RWR)


Superscalar dispatch

610

Support vector machine (SVM)

674

Surface acoustic wave device (SAW device)

656

Surface movement guidance and control system (SMGCS)

650

Surface-to-air missile (SAM)

49

SVM. See Support vector machine


Swath map imaging

456

and along-track resolution

457460

lower aircraft position

456f

one-way radiation pattern

457f

radar flies

456f

swath mapping along-track resolution


Swedish Air Force Saab 340 AEW&C system

458f

459460b
700f

Swept gain. See Sensitivity time control (STC)


Swept spot jamming

546

Swerling model

189

Synchronizer

190t

16

Synchronous detector

302303b

Synthetic aperture

456

Synthetic aperture radar (SAR)

43

83

385

389

455

473

490

710
ambiguities

498

avoiding Doppler ambiguities


avoiding range ambiguities
Grating lobes

498
500501

PRF sample computation


bandwidth

499500

499b
501502

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Index Terms

Links

Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) (Cont.)


beamwidth and along-track resolution

502

cross-track resolution

501502

design examples

503506

fine-resolution SAR map

490

focused SAR

478

azimuth compression

480

data array

480

focusing principle

478

in line-by-line processor

479f

2D data array

481

high-resolution SAR image

503f

image map

490f

imaging system

455

InSAR

464468

ISAR imaging

461

cross-range resolution of

463b

Doppler processing

462

pitching motion

462f

of ship

464f

viewing angle

464

minimizing sidelobes

502503

motion compensation and autofocus

488490

multilook SAR image

493

noncoherent change detection

491f

polarimetric

468469

polarimtric SAR image

492f

problem of speckle

492

processing

481

conventional array concepts


Doppler frequency vs. azimuth angle
Doppler processing
element-to-element phase shift
filter bank outputs
implementation
phasor I and Q components
reducing computing load
reduction in arithmetic operations

470f

485f

486488
484
483484
482483b
486f
484486
481f
483484
486

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Index Terms

Links

Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) (Cont.)


signal processing requirement
3 dB bandwidth of Doppler filter
radar-range equation
RADARSAT-2 orbiting Earth

481482
487f
495497
504f

SAR image interpretation

490493

spotlight SAR

460461

of car park

461f

swath-mapping SAR
tomographic

491
469470

unfocused SAR
aircrafts mission

474

array element

474f

limitation

475f

476478

radar system

473f

rudimentary unfocused array

475f

signal processing

476

single row of range/azimuth resolution cells

475f

synthetic array element

474f

unfocused synthetic array

477f

USAF Global Hawk UAV

505f

VHF SAR image

491f

Synthetic array

456

azimuth resolution

458f

beam-forming operation

474

element-to-element phase shift

457
487f

482483b

phase rotation effect

477

radiation pattern

477f

two-way 3 dB beamwidth

458

T
Tactical Endurance Synthetic Aperture Radar (TESAR)
Tactical-missile targeting
Tagging pulses

4748
220221

TALOS air defense system


Target

704705

633

634f

echoes
energy

20
164165

167

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169

Index Terms

Links

Target (Cont.)
reduction

167f

identification

46

signal only

173

time-on-target

182

Target position determination


automatic tracking

174

6
79

direction measurement
range measurement

7
67

TCAS. See Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System


TDOA. See Time difference of arrival
Technology Satellite of the 21st Century (TechSat21)
Technology trends

651
683684

cognitive radar sensing

693695

echolocation in nature

689691

electronic scanning

684685

fully adaptive radar

691693

multifunction radar systems

685

radar resource management

685689

waveforms

684

TechSat21
See Technology Satellite of the 21st Century
Template matching

675

Terrain bounce jamming

551

Terrain mapping

42

TerraSAR-X satellite

43

710

image of Mount Bromo, Indonesia

710f

objective

710

operating modes

709

operating parameters

709t

radar interferometry

709710

TanDEM-X mission

708f

TESAR. See Tactical Endurance Synthetic Aperture Radar


THALES I-Master radar
Thermal noise (kTB)

703
527528

sensitivity vs.

528

Threat identification (TID)

538

Three-dimensional device fabrication

625

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Index Terms

Links

TID. See Threat identification


Tile architecture

144

Time average

145f

8587

Time difference of arrival (TDOA)

535

Time domains

83f

Time-bandwidth product

236

Tomographic SAR

581

636

433

438

26

27

469470

Tornado warning

39

Towed decoys

578

Track filtering

440441

Track-on-jam capability
Track-while-scan (TWS)

571
7

correlation

439

filtering

439

gate formation

440

preprocessing

438439

track creation or deletion

439

Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS)

40

Transconductance

30

Transform pair

83

Transmission

482483b

radars pulses

152f

radio wave

5f

Transmit/receive switch. See Circulator


Transmitter

16

distortion

655

noise limitations

143

and receiver node distribution

642

and receiver process


transmitted waveform
Transponder

4f
151f
39

Traveling wave tube (TWT)


amplifier

129

700

25

Triangulation

531

True-time-delay (TTD)
Two-pulse train

32
272

TWS. See Track-while-scan


TWT. See Traveling wave tube
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717

Index Terms

Links

U
U-shaped curve

486487

UAV. See Unmanned air vehicles


UAV SAR radar

505

Ubiquitous decibel

706

7274b

UHF. See Ultra high frequency


ULA. See Uncommitted logic array
Ultra high frequency (UHF)
Ultra-low sidelobes

98

533

564565

Unambiguous range, maximum

152

Uncommitted logic array (ULA)

614

Unfocused synthetic array

476

degradation in

218219
477f

478f

limitation of

476478

United States Army Air Corps (USAAC)

50

Unmanned air vehicles (UAV)

41

505

624

629

523

USAAC. See United States Army Air Corps


USAF E-3 SENTRY system

702f

V
Variance

8788

VCOs. See Voltage-controlled oscillators


Vega system

649

Velocity filter

436

Velocity gate

436

pull-off

550

Velocity search

427

Venerable magnetron

1819b

Versa Module Eurocard (VME)


Very high frequency (VHF)
Very large-scale integrated circuit (VLSI)

621
98

491

142

VHF. See Very high frequency


Video output

203

204

VITA. See VMEBus International Trade Association


VLSI. See Very large-scale integrated circuit
VME. See Versa Module Eurocard
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533

576

Index Terms

Links

VMEBus International Trade Association (VITA)

621

Voltage-controlled oscillators (VCOs)

253

Volume search equation

183

detection range

184f

fraction of backscatter

184f

simplified derivation

184

185b

W
Watson-Watt direction-finding system

533

Waveform(s)

684

acoustic signals

689

690f

adaptive

571572

ambiguity function

230

bat adjusting PRF

689f

diversity

662

enabling technology

691

662

MIMO radar

662663

pulse agility

663

664

waveform optimization

664

665

modulation

690

parameters

690

Wavefronts

258

Waveguide

16

Wavelength

59

Weather clutter

259
60f

100

Weather phenomena

37

detection and prediction

37

military helicopter

37f

storm avoidance

3839

tornado warning

39

view of Hurricane Katrina

39f

wind shear warning

39f

Weather radars

38

of Hurricane Katrina

39

pulse-Doppler

39

Weighted rank fill ratio

675

WideRegion mode

712

38

103

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534

Index Terms

Links

Wiener-Khinchin theorem

93

See also Bistatic equivalence theorem


Wind shear warning

39f

Z
Zero IF receivers. See Homodyne receivers

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