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Mr.

Manoj Kumar Elipey

Applied Thermodynamics-II

Vardhaman College Of Engineering

UNIT-IV
IMPULSE STEAM TURBINES

Mr. Manoj Kumar Elipey

Applied Thermodynamics-II

Vardhaman College Of Engineering

A Steam turbine is a prime mover in which rotary motion is obtained by gradual


change of momentum of the steam. In steam turbine, the force exerted on the blades is due
to the velocity of steam. This is due to the fact that the curved blades by changing the
direction of steam receive a force or impulse. The action of steam in this case is said to be
dynamic. Thus, the dynamic pressure of steam rotates the vanes, buckets or blades directly.
The turbine blades are curved in such a way that steam directed upon them enters without
shock, though there is always some loss of energy by the friction upon the surface of blades.
In general steam turbine consists of the following parts
1. The nozzle in which heat energy of high pressure steam is converted into kinetic
energy ,so that the steam issues from the nozzle with a very high velocity.
2. The blades which change the direction of steam issuing from the nozzle, so that a
force acts on the blades due to change of momentum and propel them.
Thus, the basic principle of operation of a steam turbine is the generation of high
velocity steam jet by the expansion of high pressure steam and then conversion of kinetic
energy, so obtains into mechanical work on rotor blades.

Classification of steam turbines


The steam turbines may be classified into the following types
1. According to the mode of steam action
i. Impulse turbine
ii. Reaction turbine
2. According to the direction of steam flow
i. Axial flow turbine
ii. Radial flow turbine
3. According to the exhaust condition of steam
i. Condensing turbine
ii. Non-condensing turbine

Mr. Manoj Kumar Elipey

Applied Thermodynamics-II

Vardhaman College Of Engineering

4. According to the pressure of steam


i. High pressure turbine
ii. Medium pressure turbine
iii. Low pressure turbine
5. According to number of stages
i. Single stage turbine
ii. Multistage stage turbine

Impulse Turbine
An impulse turbine, as the name indicates, is a turbine which runs by the impulse of steam
jet. In this turbine, the steam is first made to flow through a nozzle. Then the steam jet impinges on
the turbine blades (which are curved like buckets) and are mounted on the circumference of the
wheel. The steam jet after impinging glides over the concave surface of the blades and finally leave
the turbine

Runner and bucket of impulse turbine

Mr. Manoj Kumar Elipey

Applied Thermodynamics-II

Vardhaman College Of Engineering

A De-Level turbine is the simplest type of impulse steam turbine, and is commonly used. It
has the following components
1. Nozzle
It is a circular guide mechanism, which guides the steam to flow at the
designed direction and velocity. it also regulates the flow of steam. The nozzle is kept very
close to the blades, in order to minimise the losses due to windage.
2. Runner and blades
The runner of a De-Level impulse turbine essentially consists of a circular disc
fixed to a horizontal shaft. On the periphery of the runner, a number of blades are fixed
uniformly. The steam jet impinges on the buckets, which move in the direction of the jet.
This movement of the blades makes the runner to rotate.
The surface of the blade is made very smooth to minimise the frictional
losses. The blades are generally made of special steel alloy. In most of the cases, the blades
are bolted to the runner disc. But sometimes the blades and disc are cast as a single unit.
3. Casing
It is a air tight metallic case, which contains the turbine runner and blades.. It
controls the movement of steam from the blades to the condenser, and does not permit it
to move into the space. moreover, it is essential to safeguard the runner against any
accident.

PURPOSE
This manual can be used for preliminary selection, steam and cooling water planning for
steam turbines in basic and detail engineering stages. This manual does not for designing steam
turbine and the related parts.
STEAM TURBINE TYPES
Steam turbine types based on blade geometry and energy conversion process are impulse
turbine and reaction turbine.
Impulse Turbine
Thermal energy of steam is converted to kinetic energy in turbine nozzle. Kinetic energy to
be converted to blade become mechanical energy and transferred through rotor, shaft and coupling
to the load. Enthalpy drop is high for each moving blades. See fig. 1. and fig. 2.
Impulse blade applies in Curtis and Rateau turbines such as the following typical

Mr. Manoj Kumar Elipey

Applied Thermodynamics-II

Vardhaman College Of Engineering

- Curtis turbine contain 1 row of nozzle for 2 row of impulse blades


- Rateau turbine contain 1 row of nozzle for 1 row of impulse blades, can be 1 pair up to
several pair.
-1 Curtis + Rateau rows constructed in one rotor
Reaction Turbine
In reaction turbine, there is no nozzle to convert steam energy to mechanical energy. Moving blades
work due to differential pressure of steam between front and at behind of
moving blades. See fig. 1 and fig. 2.
In general, reaction turbine is not stand alone, but works at behind impulse turbinewhether
constructed in one rotor or at separated rotor, but still connected by coupling. The purpose of
impulse turbine is to control speed and reduce steam enthalpy to specified level. Reaction turbine is
just receiving steam condition from impulse blades. Typical pairs of reaction and impulse turbines
are;
- 1 Curtis + Several rows of Rateau + Reaction rows
- 1 Rateau + Reaction rows
- Several rows of Rateau + Reaction rows
III. STEAM TURBINE OPERATING RANGE
The following criteria are used for selection steam turbine type
Curtis (Stand alone or Single Stage)
a. Compact .
b. Power is relative small ( up to 2000 kW).
c. Speed is relative low ( up to 6000 rpm, except for special design up to 12000 rpm).
d. Enthalpy drop is high.
Rateau (Multi rows)
a. Efficiency is higher than Curtis
b. Power is high ( up to 30,000 kW)
c. Generally, speed is higher than Curtis (up to15000 rpm)
d. Enthalpy drop for each row lower than Curtis but still high, higher than Reaction