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GARDENING

STEP BY STEP
Easy-to-follow advice f0r great results
Material previously published in Planting a Small Garden,
Low-maintenance Garden, Easy Pruning, and Vegetable Gardening

GARDENING
STEP BY STEP

GARDENING
STEP BY STEP

Phil Clayton, Jenny Hendy,


Colin Crosbie, Jo Whittingham

Material previously published in Planting a Small Garden,


Low-maintenance Garden, Easy Pruning, and Vegetable Gardening

LONDON, NEW YORK, MUNICH,


MELBOURNE, DELHI

First American edition 2011


First published in the United States by
DK Publishing
375 Hudson Street
New York, New York 10014
11 12 13 14 15 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley Limited
Text copyright 2011 Royal Horticultural Society
Individual titles copyright and text copyright :
Planting a Small Garden 2007;
Low-maintenance Garden 2008; Easy Pruning 2007;
Vegetable Gardening 2007
The material in this book originally appeared in:
Planting a Small Garden, Low-maintenance Garden, Easy Pruning
and Vegetable Gardening, published by DK Publishing
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced,
stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any
means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise,
without the prior written consent of the copyright owners.
Published in Great Britain by Dorling Kindersley Ltd.
A catalog record for this book is available from the
Library of Congress.
ISBN 978-0-7566-6367-4
177806March 2011
Important notice
The authors and the publishers can accept no liability for
any harm, damage, or illness arising from the use or
misuse of the plants described in this book.
Dk books are available at special discount when purchase in bulk for
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For details, contact: DK Publishing Special Markets,
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Contents
Planting a Small Garden
Designing with plants

10

Disguising boundaries Using color


Focal points Themed planting schemes
Seasonal interest Spring beds and borders
Summer beds and borders Fall beds
and borders Winter beds and borders

Where to start

30

High and low maintenance Choosing


a planting style Planting style ideas
The effects of exposure Understanding
soil Making the most of your soil

How to plant

44

Making a border Finishing touches


Making your own compost Planting a
perennial Planting a tree Planting a shrub
Planting a climber Sowing annuals outside
Sowing hardy annuals

Planting recipes

66

Sun-baked gravel garden Cottage garden


medley Foliage effects Tree and shrub
combination Spring hot spot Lush leaves
for shade Formal front garden Mediterranean
moods Mixed herb tapestry Fall elegance
Winter blaze

Container ideas
Choosing a container Plant up a colorful
container Spring selection Sizzling tropics
Color clash Fire and ice Winter perfume

88

Low-maintenance
Garden
Inspiring easy-care gardens

98

Design ideas for low-maintenance gardens


Formal design Contemporary creations
Havens for wildlife Courtyard gardens
New wave planting

Creating your garden

112

Benets of a low-maintenance garden


Low- and high-maintenance ingredients
Assessing your site Boundaries and
garden dividers Green dividers
Selecting landscape materials

Planting ideas

126

Spring mix Sparkling summer bed


Elegant fall border Winter color
Cool foliage collection Architectural
design Early perennials Contemporary
prairie Aromatic herb border Chic foliage
collection Cottage garden in a container

Caring for your garden


Tidying up your garden

148

Easy Pruning
Why and when to prune

150

Informal pruning Pruning for a formal


look Pruning to create space Pruning
to encourage owering Pruning for
colorful stems and bark Pruning for fruit

How to prune

162

Choosing pruning tools Tool care


and safety tips Essential pruning jobs
Making pruning cuts Removing branches
Spur pruning Minimal pruning

Pruning shrubs and trees

174

Pruning hydrangeas How to prune


a smoke bush Pruning witch hazel
How to prune a shrubby honeysuckle
Hard-pruning a camellia Cutting back
California lilacs and philadelphus How to
prune a patio rose How to prune a shrub rose
Pruning other types of roses Shearing lavender
How to prune wall shrubs How to prune
a mahonia Pruning a holly bush How to
prune an apple tree

Pruning climbers
How to prune wisteria Cutting back
clematis How to prune a Group 3 clematis
Cutting back honeysuckle and ivy How to
prune a rose on a tripod Pruning rambling
and climbing roses

204

Vegetable Gardening
Where to start

216

Choosing a site Making compost


Water-wise gardening Cloches
and cold frames Root crops Brassicas
Alliums Legumes Cucurbits Fruiting
vegetables Perennial and stem vegetables
Salad and leafy vegetables and herbs

How to grow vegetables

236

Sowing beet seeds outside Growing


zucchini from plug plants Growing rst
early potatoes Growing runner beans
Planting tomatoes in a growing bag
Growing chard in a container Intercropping
lettuce and sweet corn Planting an herb garden

Planting recipes

250

Vertical vegetable garden Hanging herb


and vegetable basket Cut-and-come-again
windowbox Decorative climbing display
Exotic vegetable raised bed Courtyard
vegetable garden Pretty potager

Caring for your crops


Garden allies Ways to weed Gallery
of weeds Dealing with pests Dealing
with diseases

264

Plant Guide
Planting a small garden:
plant guide

272

Low-maintenance garden:
plant guide

304

Easy pruning: plant guide

332

Pruning calendar

358

Vegetable gardening:
plant guide

362

Index

392

Acknowledgments

399

Key to plant symbols


Soil preference
f
e
d

Well-drained soil
Moist soil
Wet soil

Preference for sun or shade


C
B
a

Full sun
Partial or dappled shade
Full shade

Hardiness ratings
Q Hardy plants
P

Plants that survive outside in mild regions


or sheltered sites

Plants that need protection from frost


over winter

Tender plants that do not tolerate any


degree of frost

10

Designing with plants

PLANTING A SMALL GARDEN

Disguising boundaries
A visible boundary, such as a fence or
wall, can make a yard feel small and
claustrophobic. Concealing boundaries
with plants will radically improve the
appearance of a yard, transforming it
into an attractive space.
Pictures clockwise from top left
Back fence disguise In many small yards, the most
obvious boundary is the back fence, which, if visible,
immediately gives away the length of the yard. By
creating a mixed border directly in front, using a range
of plants that will grow as tall as, or taller than, the
fence, you will succeed in blurring the edges of your lot.
Make sure the border is a reasonable depth: a narrow
strip in front of the fence, deep enough for only one
plant, is likely to draw attention to the boundary rather
than disguise it.
False perspective One of the most effective ways to
disguise a boundary and also make a yard seem larger is
to create a false perspective. For example, in a yard that
appears short, make the borders running down the sides
of the yard taper outward so that they are wider at the
far end, making the yard appear longer. Another visual
trick is to draw the eye away from the boundaries with a
central, circular lawn or paved area, and surround it with
dense plantings. Evergreen shrubs will ensure that the
effect lasts all year.
Plant screen Dividing up the yard with various plant
screens so that the entire yard is never completely visible
from any one position will help make it feel larger and
shift the emphasis away from the boundaries. Even a
small lot can be divided up in this way using trellis or
woven willow screens as supports for climbing plants;
these also help to maximize growing space.
Courtyard enclosure Having a small garden does not
mean that you should restrict yourself to small plants;
in fact, doing so serves to underline a yards limited size.
Positioning a selection of quite large plants in front of
fences or walls in generous-sized beds that have been
pushed to the edges of the lot will help to maximize space
in the center of the yard, creating a courtyard. The plants
will also help to hide fences and walls.

Disguising boundaries

11

12

Designing with plants

Using color
The color provided by owers and
foliage is particularly valuable in a
garden. It can be used in a number

of different ways, perhaps to evoke a


particular mood or to give areas of the
garden a theme or look.

Using color

Pictures clockwise from left


Rich colors If you spend a fair amount
of time enjoying your garden from indoors,
it makes sense to provide displays of rich
color that are easily visible from the house,
perhaps in pots and containers on the
patio, or in beds and borders close to the
windows. Harmonious colors that blend
well together create a strong but restful
feel; use softer, pastel hues farther away
from the house because they show up
better at a distance than saturated colors.
Monochrome planting A garden or
border composed of mostly white-flowering
plants creates a cool, calming feel that is
most striking at dusk, when the blooms
glow in the fading light. Try using cream
and pale yellow flowers, as well as very pale
pink and blue ones, to prevent the effect
from becoming stark and clinical. Silverleaved and variegated plants will provide
interest once the flowers have faded.
Hot hues Fiery colors, such as reds,
oranges, and intense pinks, demand
attention, but they should be used with
care: they attract the eye away from softer
shades and, if planted at the far end of the
garden, may make the yard feel smaller.
Often the simplest way to deal with
hot-hued plants is to group them together
and create a condensed and spectacular
injection of color. Alternatively, combine
them with contrasting shades, such as
rich blue or purple, to mitigate the effect.
Serene green It is important to
remember that green is also a color,
and is the most commonplace in virtually
every garden. There are many different
shades of green but, generally, it has a
restful effect, and gardens that are planted
for foliage tend to be serene spaces.
Set against other colors, though, green
generally fades into the background, so
use plants with variegated foliage or white
or pastel-colored flowers to shine out and
provide additional interest.

13

14

Designing with plants

Focal points
Gardens often benet visually from
a dramatic or arresting focal point,
be it a statue, pot, or plant, which
provides a point of reference within
the design where the eye can rest.
Pictures clockwise from top left
Eye-catching trees In a garden that seeks to recreate
the wild, focal points need to be natural objects, such
as rocks or specimen plants. In this Mediterranean-style
garden, the gnarled trunks and silvery foliage of a pair of
old olive trees are as arresting as any classical sculpture.
Winding steps Even a utilitarian feature such as a
flight of steps can provide a focal point, as long as it is
well executed. Winding steps passing through lush
foliage lead the eye on to brighter, more vibrant flowers
and foliage, which then act as a visual stopping point.
Dramatic containers Attractive pots and containers,
planted or otherwise, are one of the simplest ways of
creating a focal point. Used alone or in groups, they
can be placed in a border, on a patio, or at the end of a
pathway, perhaps terminating a vista. Large, impressive
pots are often best left empty; others can be enhanced
with a dramatic plant, such as a Dasylirion.
Focus on color Brightly colored plants make smallscale focal points in beds and borders. The vivid flowers
of bulbs, such as these orange tulips, provide short-term
accents, lifting other plantings and heightening interest.

Focal points

15

16

Designing with plants

Themed planting schemes


Some of the most successful gardens
are developed around a particular
theme or idea that helps to bind the
planting and design together. Selecting
plants that t the overall concept helps
evoke the correct spirit and feel, which,
in turn, lends a touch of authenticity
to the garden.
Pictures clockwise from top left
Lush and subtropical There are many hardy and
borderline hardy plants that can be used to create a
subtropical-style garden. Generally, the lush feel is
provided by foliage plants. Large specimens of hardy
Trachycarpus palms, bamboos, phormiums, and tree ferns
will provide structure; in summer, containers can be filled
with tender plants such as begonias, cannas, Lantana,
and gingers (Hedychium), which produce exotic flowers.
Classic Italian Italianate gardens tend to be rather
formal, with plenty of topiary and clipped evergreens,
such as boxwood (Buxus). The layout is usually simple
and the planting restrained, limited to a few favorites,
such as acanthus, agapanthus, olives, slender conifers,
jasmine, and herbs. Classical statuary plays an important
role, often terminating a vista, and specimen plants in
containers may feature, perhaps used along a terrace to
introduce a sense of repetition and rhythm to the garden.
Meadow planting Informal and naturalistic, meadow
planting uses a limited palette of different plants mixed
randomly together in large groups. These schemes work
well in large, open expanses and tend to be short-lived
many of the plants used are annuals, such as poppies
(Papaver) and cornflowers (Centaurea cyanus). However,
perennials can also feature, and the planting style can be
scaled down to more modest-sized borders.
Moroccan oasis Water is a vital element for a Moroccan
theme, and a wall fountain, perhaps with a blue-tiled
surround, would make an ideal feature. Most of the
plantings should be in potspelargoniums, date palms,
agaves, and other succulents are suitable choicesbut
avoid having too many plants. A few large foliage plants
in darker corners, and climbers, such as Trachelospermum,
scrambling up the walls would also fit in very well.

Themed planting schemes

17

18

Designing with plants

Themed planting schemes continued

Themed planting schemes continued

Pictures clockwise from top left

Mediterranean style Gravel, terra-cotta


pots, and a sunny site all help to create a
Mediterranean feel. Avoid filling the garden
with too many plantsthe general scheme
should not be too lushand try a few
formal elements, such as clipped boxwood
balls. Olive trees in pots can spend summer
outside, while more permanent plants could
include lavender (Lavandula), Cistus, and
one or two exotics, such as Yucca.
Asian calm Japanese-style gardens often
feature a few manicured plants, such as
Japanese maples (Acer japonicum), dwarf
pines, bamboos, Ophiopogon, and Ilex
crenata, set in a rock and gravel landscape.
Strategically positioned bonsai specimens
add a dramatic touch to the overall theme.
Cottage effects Borders overflowing
with flowers are typical of cottage gardens.
Old favorites include delphiniums, foxgloves
(Digitalis), Shasta daisies (Leucanthemum
x superbum), and lavender (Lavandula),
with sweetly scented roses and self-seeding
annuals completing the informal look.
Modern mixes Architectural plants, such
as tree ferns, phormiums, and Tetrapanax,
are the mainstays of highly designed
contemporary gardens. Grasses and smallscale, naturalistic planting schemes are also
popular, their soft foliage forms contrasting
well with hard modern landscaping
materials, such as concrete, glass, and steel.

19

20

Designing with plants

Seasonal interest
Watching the way a garden changes
its character with the seasons is part
of the joy of gardening. To get the most
from your garden, it should be designed
and planted to provide interest for every
day of the year. Each season has its
own distinctive feel and appearance,
and a well-designed garden will include
plants that reect this.
Spring (top right) As the days lengthen, the garden
quickly wakes from its winter rest. Bulbs, such as daffodils
and crocuses, produce showy flowers, while other
herbaceous plants begin to emerge from the ground, and
deciduous shrubs and trees produce fresh, verdant growth.
Summer (right) For many gardeners, this season
represents the high point of the year. Most herbaceous
plants reach their zenith, filling out borders and blooming
for several months, while annuals flower and set seed.
Leafy trees and shrubs provide structure, and tender
plants flourish in the mild summer months.
Fall (bottom right) This is arguably the most colorful
and plentiful season. Late-flowering plants, such as
asters and dahlias, blaze in borders, while many trees and
shrubs produce vivid berries and fruits. The leaves of
many deciduous plants also brighten up the garden with
rich hues before falling. In the moist and still warm
conditions, some bulbs, such as Colchicum, provide
a welcome freshness.
Winter (opposite page) Once all the leaves have fallen,
the shape and structure of the garden and its plants
can be properly appreciated. This is a season of quiet,
subtle beauty. Trees and shrubs, such as silver birch
(Betula pendula) and Cornus with its red-colored stems,
and evergreen plants, as well as the faded seedheads of
herbaceous plants, provide interest. A few plants also
produce delicate, often sweetly scented flowers. As cold
weather sets in, frost and snow dust the plants, creating
a magical feel.

Seasonal interest

21

22

Designing with plants

Spring beds and borders


No season is more eagerly
anticipated than spring. After the
dark, cold days of winter, the garden
bursts into life with verdant growth
and colorful owers, marking the start
of a new gardening year. In late spring,
many gardens look their freshest,
resplendent with the soft, glowing
greens of young foliage.
Pictures clockwise from left
Colorful climbers Walls and fences can be clothed
with a range of different climbers that will flower in
spring. Wisteria, grown for its waterfalls of scented
purple or white flowers, is perhaps the best known.
It is, however, a large plant and needs restrictive
pruning to keep it manageable. Alternatives include
Clematis montana in white or pink, and Akebia quinata
with purple blooms, although these climbers are also
potentially large. More suited to a small garden are
Clematis alpina, C. macropetala, and the early
honeysuckle Lonicera periclymenum Belgica with its
deliciously scented flowers.
Vibrant bulbs and early perennials In beds and
borders, herbaceous plants push through the soil,
growing quickly in the damp, mild conditions. Many
will flower early, especially those that enjoy woodland
conditions, such as Pulmonaria, Primula, Dicentra,
Doronicum, Epimedium, and Anemone. Some of these
perennials can be grown successfully with spring bulbs,
such as tulips and daffodils, injecting extra interest into
plantings and helping to mask yellowing bulb foliage as
the season progresses.
Carpets of spring flowers In less formal areas of the
garden, where a more naturalistic display is desired, it
is possible to plant and even naturalize some bulbs in
grass. Snowdrops (Galanthus) and crocuses that flower
in early spring can be interplanted with fritillaries, tulips,
daffodils (Narcissus), and Camassia to create a display
that will last until early summer. Areas under mature
trees are ideal for this kind of treatment, but avoid
mowing the grass until the bulb foliage has died away.

Spring beds and borders

23

24

Designing with plants

Summer beds and borders


Summer is the season of unrestrained
color, when most beds and borders are
at their best. If well planted, the garden
should provide a succession of owers
that lasts for months on end.
Pictures clockwise from top left
Mixing colors Planting a mix of herbaceous perennials
and annuals is a quick and easy way to provide striking
contrasts. Color-themed plantings that use a restricted
color palette are effective at creating different moods.
Contrasting colors evoke drama, while those that blend
together produce a more relaxed feel.
Continuous color Many perennials run out of steam as
the summer progresses, especially in times of drought or
extreme heat. Others, though, can be relied on to flower
well into fall, especially those that are natives of warmer
climates, such as Crocosmia and Rudbeckia.
Calming foliage Without some order, too many bright
flowers can become rather overpowering, especially in
a small space. The mitigating effect of foliage can help
create a calmer effect, softening bright colors. Silvery
leaves, such as those of Artemisia, used with whites,
creams, and pale pinks produce a cool feel; deep green
foliage contrasts well with brightly colored flowers.
Summer bulbs Summer-flowering bulbs, such as lilies,
gladioli, and Galtonia, are often overlooked but, planted
directly into borders or put in pots and plunged into the
ground, they pack a powerful punch of color.

Summer beds and borders

25

26

Designing with plants

Fall beds and borders


As the days shorten, color and interest in
the garden come from new sources: the
leaves of some plants acquire ery tints,

and fruits and seedheads replace many


owers. Some blooms are at their best
during fall, too.

Fall beds and borders

Pictures clockwise from left


Deciduous trees Trees and shrubs, such
as Japanese maples (Acer japonicum) and
Rhus, produce autumnal tints that provide
a spectacular backdrop to other plantings.
The colored leaves remain eye-catching
once they have fallen, especially around
the flowers of late-blooming perennials
and bulbs, such as Cyclamen.
Structural seedheads Some summerflowering perennials, such as Echinops,
Allium, Agapanthus, and many grasses,
produce attractive seedheads that last well
into winter. They look particularly striking
in the slanting fall light, decorated with
cobwebs or, later, frost.
Colorful fruits Many shrubs and trees
produce handsome, long-lasting fruits at
this time of year; certain roses, in particular,
carry ruby hips, as long as they are not
pruned in fall. Consider leaving other plants
unpruned, such as Viburnum and Sorbus,
to help provide birds with food.
Perennial color Some perennials, such
as Aster, Chrysanthemum, Cyclamen, and
Saxifraga fortunei, will produce vibrant
flowers until the first hard frost, and look
wonderful in fall borders. They can also be
useful in containers to inject color into areas
of the garden that are of little interest at
this time of the year.

27

28

Designing with plants

Winter beds and borders


Gardens are often neglected in winter
once most showy owers have faded,
but with the right plants, they can still
be enchanting places at this time of
year. Plants with winter interest often
have special, rather subtle qualities,
such as sweetly scented flowers,
attractive stems, foliage, seedheads,
berries, or structural shapes.
Pictures clockwise from top left
Winter flowers Hellebores, such as Helleborus x
hybridus, are among the best winter-blooming plants.
Flowering from midwinter to mid-spring, these clumpforming evergreen perennials are easily grown in light
shade in any good soil, and form good ground cover
when planted in drifts. Other perennials with winter
interest worth seeking out include mauve-flowered Iris
unguicularis and Arum italicum Marmoratum, with its
white-veined leaves.
Transient beauty Frost and snow add an element
of short-lived beauty to the garden in winter, often
transforming it overnight. A light covering of snow
or a hard frost can enhance structures, highlighting
architectural features and plants and briefly changing
the whole feel of a garden.
Scented highlights Mahonias are among the finest
evergreen shrubs for winter, with their spiny foliage and
sweetly scented yellow blooms, followed by blue-tinged
berries. They are also useful for their architectural form,
which makes them an attractive backdrop for other
plants such as Euonymus, with its colorful fruit.
Graceful grasses The seedheads of some grasses will
survive well into winter, providing a touch of unexpected
grace to plantings, especially when dusted with frost.
Translucent, they allow views through to plants behind,
such as the fruit-laden branches of a crabapple (Malus).
Scented shrubs Some shrubs flower in winter, such as
witch hazel (Hamamelis) with its orange, yellow, or red
spiderlike blooms. Other shrubs worth considering for
their delicious scent include the honeysuckle Lonicera x
purpusii and Chimonanthus praecox.

Winter beds and borders

29

30

Where to start

High and low maintenance


When planning a garden, be realistic
about how much time you can afford
to keep it looking its best.

High maintenance
Gardens for plant lovers These gardens tend to be
stocked with a wide range of choice plants, which need
their specic growing requirements matched in order to
grow well. Careful placing of plants and constant manipulation
of growing conditions by gardeners will keep these gardens
looking their best, and regular attention will be required
to keep plants from outgrowing their space.

Dense planting Filling a garden with plants may reduce


weeding, but competition for light and water causes
problems. High-maintenance plants include dahlias, which
may need planting and lifting each year, annuals grown
from seed, plants with specic watering, feeding, or
pruning needs, and those prone to pests and diseases. A
lawn also needs weekly mowing to keep it looking good.

High-maintenance planting suggestions

Aster (some)
Astrantia
Buxus (if kept clipped)
Canna
Clematis (some)

Cornus sanguinea

Tulip bulbs should be planted in


late fall.

Hosta June, like all hostas, is


loved by slugs.

Winter Beauty
Dahlia
Dicksonia antarctica
Echinacea purpurea

Erysimum
Helenium
Hosta
Lavandula (lavender)
lilies

Melianthus major
roses (some)
Sambucus racemosa

Prune Cornus sanguinea in


early spring.

Lilium regale bulbs should be


planted in spring.

Plumosa Aurea

tulips

High and low maintenance

Low maintenance
Easy-care gardens These are a good choice for people
who have little spare time but still want an attractive
outdoor space. Lawns can be replaced with patios or
decks, and the soil covered with a special membrane to
cut down on weeding, and topped with bark or cobbles
after planting. Irrigation systems can be installed, and
plants chosen that do not need much attention.

Undemanding planting This can provide year-round


interest and yet needs little attention. Large specimen
plants provide immediate impact. Evergreen shrubs and
trees are good because most need little pruning and do
not drop leaves in fall. Minimal use of herbaceous plants
lessens end-of-season work, and using well-spaced larger
plants reduces watering and trimming.

Low-maintenance planting suggestions

Acer
Arbutus unedo
Aucuba japonica
Choisya ternata Sundance
Cotoneaster horizontalis

Fatsia japonica
Hemerocallis (day lily)
Ilex aquifolium Silver

Ilex aquifolium Silver Queen has


beautiful evergreen foliage.

Stipa tenuissima is a trouble-free,


airy grass.

Queen

Jasminum nudiorum

Mahonia
Nandina domestica
Phormium
Photinia x fraseri Red
Robin

Hemerocallis Corky is ablaze with


golden blooms in summer.

Phyllostachys nigra
Stipa tenuissima
Trachelospermum
asiaticum

Vinca (periwinkle)

Cotoneaster horizontalis has bright


red fall berries.

31

32

Where to start

Choosing a planting style


When planting your
garden, if you decide
to follow a particular
style, rst ensure that
it is practical and ts
your lifestyle.

What do you want?


Find inspiration for your yard
by visiting other gardens, and
looking at books, magazines,
and television shows. If you long
for a tropical garden with exotic
plants, such as palms and other
architectural specimens, you
can achieve it with the use of
containers on a sun-drenched
terrace, even in cold regions.

What do you need?


If entertaining outdoors is
important to you, a large patio
with a dining/barbecue area will
be useful, while a lawn is a good
idea if children are likely to play
in the yard in summer. Your
lifestyle may dictate that you
have a low-maintenance garden
with plants that are easy to
care for but look good all year.
Consider also how much
privacy you need.
Examine the visual appeal of your
chosen scheme. Will you include
plants with impact to create
impressive planting schemes?
Or would you prefer a themed
garden with an exotic feel, or
simply an oasis of tranquillity?
When selecting plants, make sure
you choose those that will suit the
style of garden you have in mind.

Choosing a planting style

Keeping it neat
A wonderful garden lled with
unusual plants and owers is all
very well, but it may require a
great deal of time to keep it in
tip-top condition. When planting
and designing a garden, decide
how much time you can spare to
care for it. Some planting styles
require less effort than others to
keep them looking good. A formal
garden with a central lawn, for
example, looks tidy once mown,
but it may be better to reduce the
area of grass or replace it with
gravel or decking, if free time is
limited. Planting in formal schemes
tends to be conned to geometricshaped beds or borders. Designs
can be either high-maintenance,
with a mix of perennials, annuals,
and shrubs, or low-maintenance,
with easy-care shrub borders.

A natural approach
For many people, choosing a
naturalistic planting style, using
drifts of perennials or a large
number of native plants, creates
a garden that feels at one with
nature. With this approach, you
may also decide to avoid using
chemicals on your plants, and
adopt organic growing methods.
Encourage birds, insects, and
other wildlife into your garden
to enrich your gardening
experience, and create curved
or sinuous borders for your
informal planting designs.

33

34

Where to start

Planting style ideas


Setting a particular style for your planting and layout
helps to create a feeling of cohesion, and makes
selecting plants and garden objects much easier. The
main hurdle is making a choice and sticking to it.
Asian

Knot gardens and parterres

An authentic Japanese garden is


difcult to create, and requires
discipline and subject knowledge. It
is possible to use elements from the
style, however, to create a distinctive
Asian feel. Minimalist lines, the use
of certain plants, rocks, raked gravel
or slate chips, and focal points, such
as stone lanterns, prove effective.
Colors are restrained, derived mostly
from foliage; showy owers are
seldom used.

Knot gardens are generally small-scale


and feature low, clipped hedges,
usually boxwood (Buxus) but sometimes
Santolina or lavender (Lavandula), set
out in simple patterns. Between the
hedges are blocks of color, normally
from bedding plants or colored
gravel. Parterres are more ambitious
in scale and design, but they also use
low hedges with colorful owers and
often topiary. Both styles of garden
are highly formal, labor-intensive, and
best seen from above.

Planting suggestions
Acer japonicum (Japanese maple)
Camellia sasanqua
Ophiopogon Nigrescens
Phyllostachys nigra
Pinus mugo Ophir
Maintenance tips Keep raked gravel
weed- and leaf-free: the garden
should appear immaculate.

Maple foliage provides vibrant color in an


Asian-themed garden.

Planting suggestions

bedding plants, e.g., dahlias, cosmos


Buxus sempervirens (boxwood)
culinary herbs
Santolina chamaecyparissus
Taxus baccata (yew)

Modernist
The overall feel of most modernist
gardens is one of simplicity and
restraint, with planting often taking
second place to hard landscaping,
giving a minimalist feel. Plants are
carefully selected and sited, with
architectural specimen plants
providing instant impact. The palette
of plants is usually limited, with a
restricted color theme, and maximum
use is made of form and texture.
Broad sweeps of perennials and
grasses, often planted in a naturalistic
way, provide summer color.
Planting suggestions
Acer japonicum (Japanese maple)
Dicksonia antarctica
Fatsia japonica
Phyllostachys nigra
Stipa tenuissima
topiary shapes, boxwood (Buxus),
yew (Taxus)
Verbena bonariensis

Maintenance tips Clip the hedges


23 times a year to keep them neat.

Maintenance tips Modernist


gardens tend to be naturally lowmaintenance, but be sure plants are
well watered, especially when they
are establishing, and top off mulches
of gravel or aggregates as required.

A well-tended knot garden makes a ne


garden feature, even without owers.

Clipped boxwood balls in a sea of lavender


give this garden a modern twist.

Planting style ideas

35

Tropical

Cottage

Contemporary

For sheer oral drama, few gardening


styles can match a tropical border.
These displays of exotic-looking
plants, usually a mix of hardy and
tender plants grown for both foliage
and owers, provide great interest in
both summer and fall. Planting is
informal, with plants massed together
in profusion; huge bold leaves and
vibrantly colored owers predominate,
while the displays improve as the
season progresses. This style is
labor-intensive, and displays usually
last only until the rst frost.

A traditional cottage garden


represents many peoples idea of the
ultimate garden. Planting tends to be
informal, but contained within a
simple, formal layout, which is usually
little more than a network of paths.
Flowering herbaceous perennials
predominate, and these gardens are
usually at their best in early summer.
Later on, roses and clematis provide
plenty of color, and in winter,
well-chosen shrubs lend the garden
structure once the owers have
faded. Colors are often soft and
muted, giving a relaxed feel.

The contemporary garden is usually


thought of as an extension of the
home, a so-called outdoor room
that often includes dining and seating
areas. This modern and practical
garden style often features expanses
of paving or wooden decking, ideal
for massed displays of brightly
colored yet color-themed container
plants in the summer. Beds tend to
be lled with easy-care, usually
evergreen plants, to provide yearround interest, and are often planted
through a weed-suppressing
membrane, topped with mulch to
minimize aftercare.

Planting suggestions
Canna
dahlias
Hedychium gardnerianum
Melianthus major
Musa basjoo (banana)
Phoenix canariensis
Phormium tenax
Ricinus communis

Planting suggestions
Astrantia
delphiniums
Dianthus (pinks)
Digitalis purpurea (foxglove)
geraniums
Philadelphus
Ribes (owering currant)
roses

Planting suggestions
Acer japonicum (Japanese maple)
Astelia nervosa
Aucuba japonica (spotted laurel)
Photinia Red Robin
Choisya ternata
Clematis armandii
Pittosporum tenuifolium
Tom Thumb

Maintenance tips Plant out


a tropical border after the last
frost date. Feed and water well
for rapid, lush growth. Ensure that
you protect tender plants well
from winter cold.

Maintenance tips Regular additions


of garden compost in spring will keep
perennials growing well. Remember
to divide clumps of herbaceous plants
every 23 years for healthy growth.

Maintenance tips Ensure that plants


are well watered while establishing.
Keep mulches topped off, and plant
containers when frost has passed.

Spectacular owers and foliage provide


high-impact summer displays.

Borders overowing with owers are typical


of the cottage-garden style.

Wooden decking is used to give this garden


a contemporary feel.

36

Where to start

The effects of exposure


The direction in which your yard
faces affects the amount of sunlight
it receives, while altitude inuences
temperatures. Take both factors into
account when choosing your plants.
Which way does your yard face? Simply observing
how much sun your yard receives gives an idea of its
orientation. To work it out accurately, use a compass. Stand
with your back to your house wallthe reading from here
shows the direction the yard faces. South-facing yards get
the most sun, north-facing sites the least.

Sunny and shady sites Some yards are sunnier than


others as a result of their exposure and other factors, such
as shade-casting buildings, but in all sites, the amount of
direct sun and the suns position in the yard change as the
day progresses. A south-facing yard will have sun all day,
a north-facing one much less, or perhaps none in winter.
Sunny gardens are usually more desirable, but shade
does have its advantages. These gardens are cooler,
have a more humid microclimate, and are less prone to
drought. There are many wonderful shade-loving plants
that will not tolerate direct sun, while in a sunny garden,
slightly tender plants from Mediterranean regions, for
example, flourish. The key is to work with what you have.
Morning: areas that are in sun now may be in shade by the afternoon.

Midday: the sun is overhead, so the garden receives maximum sunlight.

Evening: as the sun sets, the glancing light casts soft shadows.

The effects of exposure

37

Beware frost pockets Frost occurs when temperatures


fall below freezing. Spring frosts can be particularly lethal
in the garden, especially where many near-tender plants
are grown. Even on a local scale, some sites will be more
vulnerable than others, usually in areas where pockets
of freezing air develop. Cold air is heavy, and sinks to
the lowest point. If it cannot escape, it collects, forming
a frost pocket. Here, frosts will be harder and linger
longer, and you may get a frost when other areas remain
above freezing. Gardens in valleys or in a hollow often
suffer badly. Hedges or walls may create or worsen the
effect, preventing cold air from flowing away. Thinning a
hedge, using trellis instead of a solid barrier, or leaving a
gate open on cold nights may help.
Creating microclimates Even within a single garden,
you may notice great differences in the growing conditions.
A border by a sunny wall or fence will be far warmer and
drier than one in the shade, perhaps beneath a tree, which
is likely to be more humid with a more even temperature
range. A low-lying area will remain wetter than a border
at the top of a slope, and some parts of the garden may
be sheltered, others exposed. Gardeners can capitalize on
these differences; even in small areas, they allow you to
grow a wider range of plants. A sunny spot can be
enhanced with a raised bed to improve drainage for tender
plants; low-lying areas could be turned into a bog garden
for moisture-loving plants. You can make a windy area
more sheltered with a permeable barrier, such as a trellis.

Seasonal impact The direction your yard faces gives it


particular properties throughout the year. A north-facing
garden, or border in front of a north-facing fence, will
receive little sun in winter, remaining cold and damp, but
temperatures will be more constant than in a south-facing
area that is warmed after a sunny winter day, only to be
chilled at night. Plants exposed to constant chill also start
into growth later, but are affected less by late frosts.
While potentially dank in winter, a north-facing area
offers a cool retreat in summer, and lush, moisture-loving
woodland plants will thrive there. Spring bulbs take
advantage of the sun spots under bare deciduous trees,
areas that receive little light in summer. Sunny patios are
ideal for tender plants, but may get too hot and dry in
summer for some plants.

38

Where to start

Understanding soil
Before you decide what to plant in your
garden, take a look at the soil. The
acidity or alkalinity of the soil and its

composition determine what will grow,


and an understanding of its properties
helps you keep plants in good health.

Types of soil
Soil comprises two elements: a mineral portion (tiny
particles of weathered rock, larger gravel, and stones) and
an organic portion (plant and animal remains, and living
organisms). The most important part of the soil is found
in the top 12 in (30 cm). Below this lies less fertile subsoil.
Soil particle size, the amount of organic matter, and
available water determine soil characteristics. The smallest
soil particles will form clay, those a little larger create silt,
and even bigger particles form sandy soil. Soil with a mix
of different particle sizes is known as loam.
The descriptions below will help determine your soil type:
Chalk soil Soil that is pale and contains chunks of white
limestone (usually the underlying rock), and often int, is
chalk soil. It is free-draining and fertile, often rather thin,
and almost always alkaline.

Peat soil Distinctively dark, peat soil is rich in organic


matter that helps it retain soil moisture. Peat forms where
wet, acidic conditions stop plant and animal remains from
decomposing fully. Peat soil is usually acidic.
Clay soil Composed of more than 25 percent moistureretaining clay particles, clay is heavy to dig and may be
waterlogged in winter (it dries out in summer). Organic
matter is easily trapped, resulting in good fertility.
Silty soil With particles not as ne as those of clay soil,
silt is also fairly moisture-retentive and fertile. Silty soil
tends to be dark in color, which is the result of the
accumulated organic matter that it often contains.
Sandy soil Sandy soil is easy to spot, being light and
free-draining. It is composed of relatively large individual
soil particles that allow water to drain quickly.

Testing the soils acidity or alkalinity


Use a soil-testing kit to assess the acidity or alkalinity (pH)
of your soilthe results will indicate what plants will grow
well. Carry out several tests across the garden, using soil

from just below the surface. Soil pH is measured on a


scale of 114. Above neutral (7) is alkaline, below is acidic;
pH 6.5 is usually considered the optimum.

Following the kits instructions, add garden soil and water to the
test tube provided and shake the contents well.

Compare results from around the garden with the chart provided:
a red/yellow color shows an acidic soil; dark green an alkaline one.

Understanding soil

Testing sandy soil


To determine whether your garden has sandy soil, and
thus may need regular irrigation and boosting with
organic matter, carry out a simple test to examine the

texture of the soil. Take your sample from just below the
soil surface and repeat at intervals across the garden to
ensure an even overall result.

Rub a small amount of soil between your ngers. If the soil has a
gritty, granular feel, it is likely to contain a high proportion of sand.

Try to squeeze the soil into a ballthe grains of sandy soil will not
stick together, but if it is loamy, the shape may hold a little.

Testing clay soil


To check if you have clay soil, and thus soil that may
become waterlogged in winter and be more difcult to
dig than other soil types, remove small samples of soil

from different spots around the garden from just below


the soil surface. Clay soil will feel quite sticky and heavy
when shaped in the hand.

Try to mold the soil in your handsthe particles of clay soil will
hold together well and change shape when pressed.

Heavy clay can even be rolled into a thin cylinder; it will often
appear smooth and shiny.

39

40

Where to start

Making the most of your soil


Different types of soil have differing
characteristics, some aiding cultivation
of certain plants, others providing a

challenge to gardeners. Various


techniques can be used to improve
the soil to maximize its potential.

Sandy soil
Advantages Sandy soil is free-draining, which prevents
plants from becoming waterlogged in winter and aids
the survival of species sensitive to wet conditions. It is
easy and light to dig all year, and warms up quickly in
the spring.
Disadvantages In dry conditions, plants will often
require extra irrigation, and moisture-loving species will

be unreliable in this soil. Sandy soil has a tendency to be


poor, so you will need to apply plenty of plant food and
organic matter.
Improving sandy soil Dig in large amounts of organic
matter each year to help improve the soils ability to hold
water and nutrients. Mulches such as gravel help to keep
in moisture. Digging in clay may also be useful.

Plants for sandy soil

Acacia dealbata
Calluna vulgaris Silver Knight
Catananche caerulea
Cistus x hybridus
Convolvulus cneorum
Cotoneaster horizontalis
Erysimum Bowles Mauve

Euphorbia characias
Euphorbia rigida
Grevillea Canberra Gem
Helianthemum Rhodanthe
Helleborus argutifolius
Iris unguicularis

Melianthus major
Olea europaea (olive)
Pittosporum tobira
Romneya coulteri
Rosmarinus ofcinalis (rosemary)
Solanum crispum Glasnevin
Verbena bonariensis

Abutilon x suntense

Allium hollandicum Purple Sensation

Artemisia alba Canescens

Bupleurum fruticosum

Lavandula stoechas

Perovskia Blue Spire

Carneum (Wisley Pink)

Making the most of your soil

Clay soil
Advantages Clay soil is usually highly fertile and
many plants thrive in it. It also retains water well. The
more clay soil is worked, the better it is for planting,
as the soil gradually becomes more crumbly and
drainage improves. Avoid working the soil when it is
wet and easily compacted.
Disadvantages Despite its high fertility, clay soil has
a number of problems that can be hard to tackle. In
winter it may become waterlogged and impossible to
dig. Attempts to work the soil in this state usually create
compaction, where the soil particles are compressed,
resulting in yet further waterlogging. In summer, the
opposite problem occurs; clay bakes hard and even simple

digging can be impossible. Even when the soil is


manageable, it is heavy, breaking into large clods, and
it is slow to warm up in spring.
Improving clay soil The key to success is often
simply perseverance. By adding organic matter to the
soil, you will eventually improve its structure, making
it more crumbly and easier to work. In small areas,
perhaps in a raised bed, dig in horticultural sand. Avoid
walking on the garden when it is waterlogged and do
not dig the soil when wet. Try to carry out most planting
in spring or fall when the soil is more manageable.
In areas where waterlogging is severe, you may need
to install drains.

Plants for clay soil

Alchemilla mollis
Arum italicum subsp. italicum

Campanula glomerata
Carex elata
Cornus sanguinea Winter Beauty
Digitalis purpurea (foxglove)
Geranium
Hemerocallis (day lily)
Hosta

Hydrangea macrophylla Lanarth

Anemone x hybrida Honorine Jobert

Euphorbia characias

Iris sibirica Perrys Blue

Malus John Downie

Primula pulverulenta

Sambucus racemosa Plumosa Aurea

Marmoratum
Aruncus dioicus
Aucuba japonica (spotted laurel)
Berberis darwinii
Buxus sempervirens (box)

White

Iris laevigata
Jasminum nudiorum
Leycesteria formosa
Mahonia x media Buckland
Viburnum tinus Eve Price

41

42

Where to start

Making the most of your soil continued


Alkaline soil
Advantages Alkaline soil enables you to grow a wide
range of plants; many vegetables (such as members of
the cabbage family) will not grow as well in acidic soil.
Ornamentals, such as clematis, are said to grow better
in alkaline soil, and the nest rose gardens tend to be
in alkaline areas. This soil suits earthworms; some pests
and diseases, such as clubroot, are less of a problem.
Disadvantages There are certain plants that simply will
not grow in alkaline conditions and, unfortunately, they
are often among the most desirable. Rhododendrons,
camellias, Pieris, some magnolias, and other woodland
plants, such as Uvularia and Trillium, need the cool, moist,
acidic soil associated with their native habitats. These

plants are known as calcifuges or lime-haters. Some


acid-loving plants may survive in alkaline soil but will look
sick, with yellowing leaves (chlorosis). Alkaline soil tends
to be decient in manganese, boron, and phosphorus,
all of which are important for healthy plant growth.
Improving alkaline soil You cannot, as such, improve
alkaline soil, since a high pH can be both good and bad.
Gardeners are advised to grow what suits their particular
soil. Many acid-loving plants can be grown in containers,
or in a raised bed lled with ericaceous (acidic) compost.
Where the soil pH is neutral or just alkaline, years of
adding organic matter may lower the pH enough for
some smaller acid-loving plants.

Plants for alkaline soil

Aquilegia McKana Group


Aster Coombe Fishacre
Buddleja davidii Dartmoor
Buxus sempervirens
Choisya ternata Sundance
Clematis
Cotoneaster horizontalis

Erica carnea Foxhollow


Erysimum Bowles Mauve
Hebe
Hibiscus syriacus Oiseau Bleu
Iris unguicularis
Lavandula stoechas
Mahonia x media Buckland

Nepeta x faassenii
Phormium Yellow Wave
Primula vulgaris
Pulsatilla vulgaris
roses
Salvia ofcinalis Purpurascens
Sedum Herbstfreude

Alchemilla mollis

Campanula glomerata

Clematis cirrhosa

Cotinus coggygria Royal Purple

Jasminum nudiorum

Lonicera (honeysuckle)

Making the most of your soil continued

Acidic soil
Advantages Some of the most spectacular garden
plants, including rhododendrons, Meconopsis, and
Desfontainia, will grow well only in acidic soil. Other
species, such as Hamamelis, may survive in alkaline soil
but simply perform better in acidic soil. Few garden plants
will not tolerate mildly acidic soil, although a very low pH
will limit your choices. Acidic soil is often associated with
woodland conditions and tends to be cool and moist.
Disadvantages Acidic soil, though usually rich in organic
matter, can be quite poor, especially if it is also sandy.
To improve it, dig in plenty of well-rotted manure each
year. Very peaty soil can, conversely, be waterlogged
and require draining. This is often the most acidic of

all and you may need to add lime to it for a range


of plants to thrive. Most fruits and vegetables do not like
strongly acidic soil and other plants simply will not grow
these are known as calcicoles or lime-lovers. Acidic soil
is often decient in phosphorus and may have too much
manganese and aluminum for healthy plant growth.
Improving acidic soil If your soil is strongly acidic, you
may need to increase the pH to broaden the range of
plants you can grow. Adding spent mushroom compost
is an excellent way of doing this. Powdered lime is an
alternative. However, most gardeners usually feel that
mildly acidic soil is desirable, and simply grow plants
that enjoy their conditions.

Plants for acidic soil

Astilboides tabularis
Betula (birch)
Camellia
Cercis canadensis Forest Pansy
Cornus canadensis
Corydalis exuosa
Daphne bholua Jacqueline Postill

Desfontainea spinosa
Digitalis purpurea (foxglove)
Hedychium densiorum
Leucothoe fontanesiana
Meconopsis
Photinia x fraseri Red Robin

Pieris
Primula pulverulenta
Rhododendron
Romneya coulteri
Skimmia x confusa Kew Green
Stewartia monadelpha
Uvularia grandiora

Acer palmatum

Calluna vulgaris Silver Knight

Carex elata Aurea

Cornus kousa var. chinensis

Grevillea Canberra Gem

Hydrangea quercifolia

Rainbow

43

44

How to plant

Making a border
Flower and shrub borders provide color,
scent, and seasonal interest, making
them an essential part of the garden.
Follow these basic steps when planning
and preparing your borders to ensure
their success through the year.

Making a border

Decide where in the yard you want your border and mark
out its shape. For a curved edge, use a garden hose. Make
sure the border is not too narrow and that its shape ts
well within the overall layout of the garden.

With a spade, begin stripping off the sod. Cut it into


manageable-sized squares from above, then slide the
blade of the spade under the roots of the grass. Try to
avoid removing an excessively deep layer of soil.

Using a half-moon edger or a small spade, carefully slice


through the grass, following the contours of the hose.
Make sure the cuts line up properly and push the full
depth of the cutter into the ground.

Stack the sod in a spare corner of the yard, grass side


down. The soil in this sod is nutrient-rich and should be
reused. After several months, the grass will die off and
the pile can be cut up, sifted, and dug into the borders.

45

46

How to plant

Making a border continued

Dig over the exposed soil with a fork, pushing the tines
down to their full depth. Remove old roots, large stones,
and debris that you unearth, and break up large clods of
soil. Work the soil until it has a crumbly texture.

If the soil is heavy or poorly drained, spread a 3-in (8-cm)


layer of coarse sand or gravel over it, and dig this into the
top 6 in (15 cm) of soil with a spade. This will help open
up drainage channels through the soil in the root zone.

With a spade, spread about 2 in (5 cm) of organic matter,


such as well-rotted farmyard manure or garden compost,
over the surface of the border. Turn the compost into the
soil, and mix it in evenly.

Using a soil rake, remove any remaining stones, roots,


or debris that may have worked their way up to the
surface. Then, with the at back of the rake, carefully
level off any mounds and hollows.

Making a border continued

Tip for success

Set out the plants, still in their pots, on the ground,


adjusting their positions until you are happy. Pay
attention to their eventual size, ower and foliage color,
and season of interest to achieve your desired effect.

To stop soil from spilling out


onto the lawn, consider adding
edging to the front of the border
before planting. Use a level to
make sure the edging is level.

47

48

How to plant

Finishing touches
To help set off planting
and add a touch of
polish to the garden,
small additions, such as
edgings and mulches,
can make a big impact.
Soft lawn edging
It is surprising how much difference a
well-edged lawn makes to the overall
look of a garden. Where borders meet
grass, trim with edging shears after
mowing to maintain the shape of the
lawn. Edging irons are also useful for
reshaping when required. Plants that
spill from borders onto the lawn may
add a touch of informality, but will
damage the lawn in the long run.

Choosing a hard edge


Borders that meet hard landscaping materials require less
maintenance than soft edging. Sprawling plants are best
grown next to hard surfaces where the borders shape can

Brick edging Laid as a path or in


a single row between a border and
lawn, or along gravel paths, bricks
create a traditional feel. They also
blend well with plantings.

be maintained more easily. Use paving for formal or


informal situations, and areas where grass struggles to
grow, such as in shade or next to narrow paths.

Paved edging Where paving meets


a border, attractive informal effects
can be achieved. Allow plants, such
as lavender, to billow out from ower
beds, softening the hard layout.

Wood edging If you have border soil


to retain, wood edging is an easy-toinstall option. Partially conceal with
plantings to help it blend in, and apply
wood preservative to prevent rotting.

Finishing touches

49

The benets of mulching


Mulches help to conserve soil moisture, reduce weeding,
and provide a decorative element, and some add organic
matter to soil, improving its fertility and promoting plant
growth. A mulch is simply a layer of material spread over

the soil surface, and different situations and plantings


require different types. Avoid applying them too thickly
about 1 in (3 cm) is idealor over the crowns of plants.
Mulches are usually applied in early spring.

Organic matter Garden compost or


well-rotted manure is an ideal mulch
because it aids plant growth, improves
the soil, and helps retain moisture. It
needs to be reapplied every year.

Cocoa shells Lightweight and easy


to apply, cocoa shells break down,
enriching the soil. They are, however,
easily disturbed by wind, animals, or
birds, and can look unsightly.

Gravel Long-lasting and inexpensive,


gravel preserves moisture in summer
and keeps standing water away from
sensitive plants, such as alpines, in
the winter. It is heavy to apply.

Decorative mulches Colored glass


chips, crushed seashells, and other
decorative mulches are ideal for pots
and containers. They will reduce
weeds and conserve moisture.

Weed membranes Laid beneath


mulches before planting, porous
membranes drastically reduce weeds.
Adding plants after a membrane has
been laid can be tricky, though.

Bark chips Lightweight, organic,


and weed-suppressing, bark chips
are a popular mulch, but as they
slowly break down, they may remove
valuable nitrogen from the soil.

50

How to plant

Making your own compost


Making compost from your kitchen
and garden waste is a sustainable
and environmentally friendly way of
recycling. Applied as a mulch, compost
helps to improve the fertility and
moisture-retaining qualities of your soil.
Types of composters The basic way of making compost
is to pile it into a heap, but this can be unsightly, and
better compost is often achieved more quickly using a
composter. The simplest structures are bays, usually
made of corrugated plastic or metal, in which waste is
piled. Wooden compost bins are easier on the eye, and
can be built at home from scrap wood; otherwise you can
buy ready-made bins, often with slatted sides or vents
for air circulation. Effective and inexpensive, lightweight
plastic compost bins (right) are also a popular choice.
Filling your bin Almost any vegetable matter can be
added to a compost bin, and the more diverse the range
of materials, the better the compost. It is also important
to keep woody and nitrogen-rich leafy materials in
proportion: you should try to include about twice as much
woody material (twigs, paper) as nitrogen rich-material
(grass, kitchen scraps). Mix grass cuttings with woodier

clippings or even shredded paper, because a thick layer


of grass will inhibit important air movement. Chop bigger
cuttings into small pieces and avoid adding weeds with
seeds, or persistent perennial weeds. Place a layer of
coarser twigs in the bottom of the bin and then add the
material in layers. Spread a little farmyard manure
between layers to help speed up the composting process.

Leafy material adds nitrogen


and moisture:
Grass cuttings and weeds
Kitchen vegetable waste
Fallen leaves
Herbaceous plant clippings
Sappy hedge trimmings
Windfall fruit
Old bedding plant material

Layer woody and leafy material in your compost pile.

Woody, carbon-rich material


improves airow:
Woody plant clippings and
twigs
Shredded paper
Scraps of cardboard
Untreated wood shavings
Stems of herbaceous plants
Bark mulch

Making your own compost

Speeding up composting Nitrogen-rich manure contains


microorganisms that promote composting, so add it to
your pile to help the material break down more quickly.
Alternatively, you can buy special compost additives.
Turning the pile also improves air circulation, speeds up
rotting, and ensures that all the material is composted.

Tip for success

Too much wet, green, nitrogenrich material, such as grass


cuttings, will quickly turn the
compost pile sour and smelly.
Mix it with coarser woody
matter in layers, and aim to turn
the pile regularly.

51

52

How to plant

Planting a perennial
Perennials are plants that grow from
year to year, and many are long-lived.
But for these plants to perform well as
they mature, they must be planted and
established with care.

Planting a perennial

Place the plant in its pot on the ground in a position that


suits its growing needs and not too close to other plants.
The soil in the pot should be thoroughly soaked before
planting to help give the plant a good start.

Remove the plant carefully from its pot. If the roots tightly
encircle the root ball, the plant is pot-bound and the roots
need to be teased out gently. Place the plant in the hole,
slightly deeper in the ground than when it was in its pot.

53

With a spade, dig a hole wider and deeper than the size of
the plants container. Add organic matter, such as garden
compost, to the base of the hole and dig it in well. Pour
some water into the hole before planting.

Backll around the root ball, rming the soil as you go and
ensuring that the plant stands straight in its hole. Avoid
mounding the soil around the stems; the plant should be
in the center of a shallow depression. Water well.

54

How to plant

Planting a tree
Planting a tree may seem a simple task,
but these plants are long-lived and
should be planted well and given the
appropriate aftercare if they are to fulll
their potential in years to come.

Planting a tree

Soak the root ball of the tree in its container before


planting. This will compensate for any water loss from the
roots during the planting process and ensure that the tree
settles into its position well.

Check the depth by putting the pot in the hole and


placing a pole across the topit should rest on both
sides of the hole and on the top of the root ball. You may
need to add or remove soil in the hole.

55

With a spade, dig a planting hole about three times as


wide as the diameter of the pot and 12 in (30 cm) deep
(most root activity takes place in the top layer of soil).
Lightly fork the base and sides of the hole.

Gently remove the root ball from its potthe pot should
slide off easily, leaving the root ball intact. Carefully tease
out some of the larger encircling roots, to help the tree
root into the surrounding ground more successfully.

56

How to plant

Planting a tree continued

Stand the tree in its nal position. Drive a sturdy stake


into the ground close to the tree trunk and at a 45 angle
over the root ball, to avoid damaging the roots. Make sure
that the stake faces into the prevailing wind.

Tie the tree quite loosely to the stake with a tree tie,
about 18 in (45 cm) from the ground, to allow the stem
to ex in the wind. Check the tie regularly and loosen it
as the tree girth expands, to prevent damage to the bark.

Backll the hole with soil, working it in around the roots.


Unless the soil is poor or sandy, do not add organic matter
because this seems to prevent the roots from spreading
out in search of nutrients. Firm the soil in gently.

Water the tree well after planting and during dry periods
for the rst couple of seasons. Add a mulch of well-rotted
garden compost, about 3 in (8 cm) deep, around the tree.
Keep the mulch about 6 in (15 cm) away from the trunk.

Planting a tree continued

Over the next two to three years, use sharp pruners to


remove any damaged wood or branches that spoil the
trees shape, such as crossing, rubbing branches. Do not
leave stumpscut fairly close to the main stem.

57

58

How to plant

Planting a shrub
Shrubs form the backbone of a planting
scheme, providing important structure
as well as ower and foliage effects.
Before planting, check the plant label for
the shrubs preferred site and soil, since
moving it at a later date will be difcult.

Tip for success

Once planted, apply a topdressing of fertilizer above the


roots in spring. Later watering
or rain will wash it down.

Planting a shrub

Soak the plant thoroughly in its pot. With a spade, dig a


large hole, approximately two to three times the diameter
of the pot. Remove any old roots and large stones, and
break up the soil in the base of the hole with a fork.

Remove the pot; it should slide off easily, leaving the root
ball intact. Tease out any encircling roots. Add organic
matter, such as garden compost, to the removed soil,
especially if it is poor. Backll around the root ball.

59

To check that the hole is the correct depth, place a pole


across the top; it should rest on both sides of the hole and
on the top of the root ball. Position the plant with its best
side facing the direction from which it will be viewed.

Firm the soil down gently. The plant should sit at the
center of a shallow depression, which will assist watering.
Spread a mulch of organic matter around the plant,
keeping it away from the stems. Water the plant well.

60

How to plant

Planting a climber
Climbing plants are particularly useful in
small gardens because they add height
without too much bulk, maximizing
the use of limited space. They are also
a quick and effective way of covering
dull fences and garden structures.

Tip for success

A system of vine eyes threaded


with wire along a fence is
perhaps the simplest and least
visible way of providing support
for climbers. The system is easy
to attach and allows plants to
grow to their full potential.

Planting a climber

Dig a hole twice the diameter of the root ball, 1216 in


(3040 cm) from the fence. To support the stems and
achieve good initial coverage, construct a fan from canes
pushed into the soil and angled toward the fence.

Backll the hole with the removed soil mixed with some
organic matter, such as garden compost. Firm the soil
gently as you go. The plant should be at the center of a
shallow depression, to aid watering and establishment.

61

Make sure the plant is well watered, then position it in


the hole at an angle pointing toward the fence. Carefully
remove the pot and any supporting stakes. Separate
multiple stems growing from the base of the plant.

Select the stems to be trained up the canes, tying in one


to two stems per cane with gardeners twine. Spread a
mulch of bark chips or organic matter over the soil to keep
in the moisture and suppress weeds.

62

How to plant

Sowing annuals outside


Many hardy annuals, such as California
poppies (Eschscholzia), are best sown
in situ outside, avoiding the root
disturbance that occurs when seedlings
are removed from their pots. Plants grow
quickly to give ne summer displays.

Tip for success

The ne soil of a seedbed is


attractive to cats, and young
seedlings may be disturbed by
birds. To avoid these problems,
protect the area with twiggy
sticks pushed into the ground.

Sowing annuals outside

Select an open area without any competing plants for


sowing the seeds. Lightly fork over the soil, breaking up
large clods, and then remove large stones, weeds, and
debris with a rake. Work the soil into a ne, level tilth.

Place the seeds into the palm of your hand, and aim to
pour the seed gently from a crease as you pass your hand
along the drill. Do not sow the seed too thickly. Larger
seeds can be placed in the drill with your ngertips.

63

Make drills (shallow depressions to sow seed into) in


the soil by pushing a pole or bamboo cane into the soil
surface. Drills make it easier to identify seedlings; weed
seedlings are unlikely to emerge in straight lines.

Lightly cover the drills with ne soil and water well using
a can with a ne spray to avoid disturbing the seeds. Keep
the seedbed moist and remove any weeds. When the
seedlings emerge, carefully thin out close-growing plants.

64

How to plant

Sowing hardy annuals


While many hardy annuals can be
sown outside in situ, it is often safer
and more rewarding to plant seeds in
pots under cover, in a cold frame, a
greenhouse, or on a sunny windowsill.

Tip for success

Always label your seeds using


a waterproof pen. Include the
name of the plant and the date
of sowing.

Sowing hardy annuals

Fill a clean or new 3-in (9-cm) pot with a good-quality


seed-sowing potting mix, leaving a 1-in (23-cm)
gap beneath the rim of the pot. Firm the soil gently to
create an even surface for the seeds.

Sow the seed evenly. Large seeds are easy to position, but
ne seeds should be spread from the palm of the hand.
Some seeds need to be covered by a ne layer of soil or
vermiculite; follow the instructions on the seed packet.

65

Using a watering can with a ne spray, dampen the


potting mix, being careful not to disturb it by splashing
too much. Alternatively, stand the pots in a tray of water
until the surface is moist, then remove.

When the seeds have germinated and produced a few


sets of leaves, harden them off by placing the pots outside
during the day for a few weeks. Then you can plant them
out in the garden.

66

Planting recipes

Sun-baked gravel garden


In a sunny corner, a gravel garden offers
the chance to grow an interesting range
of plants: herbs with aromatic leaves,
plants with silvery foliage, alpines, and
some grasses are good choices. These
plants enjoy growing through gravel
because it keeps excessive moisture
away from their stems, yet helps to keep
the roots cool and moist. Gravel also
warms up quickly during the day and
retains warmth at night.

Border basics
Size 10 x 6 ft (3 x 2 m)
Suits Herbs, low-growing plants, annuals,
bulbs, gray-leaved plants
Soil Well-drained, poor soils
Site Open and sunny, not too exposed

Parahebe perfoliata

Helictotrichon sempervirens

pda

qda

Thymus pulegioides Bertram


Anderson qda

Santolina chamaecyparissus

Aurinia saxatilis Variegata

Rosmarinus ofcinalis Prostratus


Group pda

Shopping list
2 x Parahebe perfoliata
1 x Helictotrichon sempervirens
1 x Thymus pulegioides Bertram
Anderson

1 x Santolina chamaecyparissus
1 x Aurinia saxatilis Variegata
1 x Rosmarinus ofcinalis Prostratus
Group

Planting and aftercare


Dig over the site, removing large stones,
debris, and weeds; spot-treat perennial
weeds like bindweed, because they will
be hard to remove once gravel is spread.
Add organic matter, such as well-rotted
garden compost, to the soil, and dig in
plenty of gravel to at least a spades
depth to help provide good drainage.
Place any feature rocks or driftwood as
focal points. Position plants with plenty
of space between each one. Add sand
to the planting holes and place plants
slightly higher than the soil surface. As
you spread the gravel, work some into
the crowns of plants. Water well. Once
settled, the plants will need watering
only in the driest periods.

qda

pda

Sun-baked gravel garden

67

68

Planting recipes

Cottage garden medley


This ever-popular, typically English style
of planting uses mainly herbaceous
owering plants in a relaxed, informal
way. The owers are usually pale pastel
colors with a few brighter hues added
as highlights. Traditional cottage garden
favorites include delphiniums, foxgloves
(Digitalis), verbascums, and penstemons,
as well as woody plants such as roses
and lavender (Lavandula). Although
not low-maintenance, such planting
schemes are certainly beautiful in
summer, when the plants all bloom
together in profusion.

Border basics

Delphinium grandiorum Summer


Blues qea

Verbascum x hybridum Snow


Maiden qda

Size 6 x 5 ft (2 x 1.5 m)
Suits A mixture of herbaceous perennials
Soil Well drained
Site Sunny with some shelter from wind

Shopping list
3 x Delphinium grandiorum
Summer Blues

3 x Verbascum x hybridum Snow


Maiden

3 x Delphinium New Zealand Hybrids


3 x Geum Blazing Sunset
3 x Penstemon digitalis Husker Red
3 x Digitalis purpurea

Geum Blazing Sunset

qeda

Planting and aftercare


Prepare the border before planting,
adding well-rotted farmyard manure.
Check that drainage is good; if not,
add some gravel. Planting in spring is
best for perennials. Three of each plant
will guarantee a decent show of owers
in the rst year, and odd numbers of
plants look best in informal plantings.
Plant in small drifts, with taller plants
positioned toward the back, but do
not be too rigid about thisthe effect
should appear relaxed. The delphiniums,
in particular, may need staking with
canes. In fall after owering or the
following spring, cut down old foliage,
and mulch with manure.

Delphinium New Zealand Hybrids

Penstemon digitalis Husker Red

qea

peda

Cottage garden medley

69

70

Planting recipes

Foliage effects
Raised beds are easy to maintain and
can be constructed almost anywhere.
For a contemporary look, planting
should be colorful and stylish, and
provide year-round interest. Pick plants
that complement each other in a range
of colors and textureshere, much of
the interest is provided by foliage.

Bed basics
Size 3 x 3 ft (1 x 1 m)
Suits A range of nonvigorous plants with
similar requirements
Soil Moist but well drained
Site Sunny, and sheltered from strong,
drying winds

Euphorbia amygdaloides Purpurea

Sedum spectabile

qea

qda

Carex comans Frosted Curls

Ophiopogon planiscapus Nigrescens

peda

qedB

Shopping list
1 x Euphorbia amygdaloides Purpurea
1 x Sedum spectabile
1 x Carex comans Frosted Curls or

Molinia caerulea subsp. caerulea


Variegata
3 x Ophiopogon planiscapus
Nigrescens
1 x Heuchera Plum Pudding

Planting and aftercare


Any raised bed must have adequate
drainage holes; without them the plants
will rot. A layer of crocks or polystyrene
at the base will help water to run away
freely. In a small bed, use a soil-based
potting mix blended with some organic
matter, such as well-rotted manure; a
large bed should be lled with goodquality topsoil with some well-rotted
garden compost worked into it. Leave
the bed for a few days to let the soil
settle. Position shorter plants, such as
the Ophiopogon, at the edges, and taller
plants, like the Euphorbia, in the center
of the bed. Water well. Make sure that
the soil never dries out, weed the bed
regularly, and cut down any faded
herbaceous growth, such as the Sedum
owerheads, in fall.

Alternative plant idea

Heuchera Plum Pudding

qedB

Molinia caerulea subsp. caerulea


Variegata qeda

Foliage effects

71

72

Planting recipes

Tree and shrub combination


Trees and shrubs can be used to create
exciting combinations for beds and
borders. They also tend to require less
maintenance than herbaceous plants,
and retain structure and sometimes
foliage over winter. Include a range of
growth habits and sizes, foliage color
and texture, plants with attractive owers
and others with winter interest, all of
which will thrive in the given conditions.

Border basics
Size 10 x 8 ft (3 x 2.5 m)
Suits Wide range of shrubs and small
trees; compact selections are best
Soil Acidic, free-draining, moistureretentive soil
Site Sunny and sheltered

Aucuba japonica Picturata

Cotinus Grace

qeda

qeda

Phormium tenax Atropurpureum

Grevillea juniperina

peda

pda

Magnolia grandiora Goliath

Pittosporum tobira Nanum

qeda

pda

Shopping list
1 x Aucuba japonica Picturata
1 x Cotinus Grace
1 x Phormium tenax Atropurpureum
1 x Grevillea juniperina
1 x Magnolia grandiora Goliath
1 x Pittosporum tobira Nanum
Planting and aftercare
Dig the soil thoroughly, adding plenty
of rotted garden compost. Space plants
out well because they will be difcult to
move when larger. The biggest plant is
likely to be the magnolia, so put it at
the back of the border. The evergreen
gold-splashed foliage of the Aucuba is
a focal point, so position the plant
centrally. Its rounded form contrasts
well with the spiky Phormium. The
lower-growing Pittosporum and Grevillea
(which needs acidic soil) can be placed
at the front. The Cotinus balances the
composition, its purple leaves matching
those of the Phormium. Make sure all
are well watered and rmed in at
planting. Some pruning, especially of the
Grevillea and Cotinus, may be required
later, to stop them from outgrowing
their positions.

Tree and shrub combination

73

74

Planting recipes

Spring hot spot


Vibrant, ery colors are not solely for
late summer; there are various perennials
and bulbs that provide similar hues in
late spring, although the effect is
different. The reds, oranges, and yellows
of plants such as tulips, the rst lupines,
Doronicum, and Euphorbia can be
combined with verdant new growth
to create a glowing display.
These hot color combinations contrast
with the whites, blues, and cool yellows
found in abundance elsewhere at this
time, making a dazzling display.

Border basics
Size 6 x 6 ft (2 x 2 m)
Suits Early-flowering perennials, bulbs
(especially tulips), perennials with attractive
young foliage
Soil Any fertile and moist soil
Site Sheltered with some direct sun

Shopping list
20 x Tulipa Ballerina
20 x tulips of contrasting shape
5 x Polygonatum x hybridum
5 x Euphorbia grifthii Fireglow
5 x Foeniculum vulgare Purpureum

Tulipa Ballerina

Polygonatum x hybridum

qeda

qea

Tulipa (pinky red)

Euphorbia grifthii Fireglow

qeda

qea

(just visible)

Planting and aftercare


Prepare the border by adding plenty of
organic matter, such as garden compost,
to the soil. Position the perennials rst,
with the tallest plant, Solomons seal
(Polygonatum), toward the back.
Interplant the Euphorbia with the bronze
fennel (Foeniculum), leaving reasonable
spaces in between to allow planting
pockets for the tulips. Plant the bulbs at
three times their depth, in eight groups
of ve. Avoid mixing the tulip cultivars
because this will dilute the effect.
The Euphorbia, in particular, will suffer
if the soil becomes too dry. Watch out
for sawy larvae on the Solomons seal.

Spring hot spot

75

76

Planting recipes

Lush leaves for shade


In a shaded courtyard or corner of a
terrace, a modern planting scheme in
a raised bed can create a dramatic,
rather exotic, effect. Many foliage plants
grow well in some shade, and a mix of
evergreen shrubs and herbaceous plants
provides year-round interest. A tall
bamboo (Phyllostachys) will catch the
breeze, adding a dynamic element to the
planting, while a few variegated plants,
such as hostas, help lift the planting out
of the shadows, as will painting the
backdrop and raised walls a pale color.

Border basics
Size 8 x 5 ft (2.5 x 1.5 m)
Suits Lush foliage plants
Soil Fertile and moisture-retentive
Site Sheltered, semi-shaded corner

Hosta Francee

Hebe salicifolia

qeB

peda

Fatsia japonica

Phyllostachys nigra

PedaB

qedaB

Miscanthus sinensis Variegatus

Ophiopogon planiscapus Nigrescens

qeda

qedB

Shopping list
2 x Hosta Francee
1 x Hebe salicifolia
3 x Fatsia japonica
1 x Phyllostachys nigra
1 x Miscanthus sinensis Variegatus
3 x Ophiopogon planiscapus
Nigrescens

2 x Hedera helix (ivies)


Planting and aftercare
Make sure the bed has enough drainage
holes to prevent waterlogging. Choose a
good quality topsoil and add well-rotted
manure to it before planting. Position
taller plants at the back (the bamboo
will look best in the corner). The hostas,
Ophiopogon, and ivies should go at the
front. Contrast the hand-shaped foliage
of the Fatsia with the white-edged
blades of the Miscanthus. Spread white
or gray pebbles as a mulch over the
soil, and water the plants in well,
ensuring they are not short of water
while establishing. Aftercare is easy:
cut down old herbaceous growth in late
fall or spring, and watch out for slugs.

Lush leaves for shade

77

78

Planting recipes

Formal front yard


Small front yards lend themselves to
formal planting. Traditionally, these
designs feature a low perimeter wall of
clipped boxwood (Buxus) hedges in a
simple shape, such as a square, lled
with a mixture of brightly colored foliage
and owering plants, some tender,
others perennials. There is often a
central dot plant, such as a Cordyline,
to serve as a focal point. Any bare soil is
then mulched with a layer of gravel. This
helps to reduce weeding and keeps the
garden looking neat.

Border basics
Size 5 x 5 ft (1.5 x 1.5 m)
Suits Boxwood hedges, bright tender
perennials, colorful hardy plants
Soil Ideally, fertile, well drained, and not
too dry
Site Small, formal situation, preferably
with some sun

Pelargonium (red)

eda

Deschampsia exuosa Tatra Gold

qea

Shopping list
5 x Pelargonium (red)
3 x Deschampsia exuosa Tatra Gold
2 x Phormium Tom Thumb
1 x Penstemon digitalis Husker Red
Buxus sempervirens (enough to make
a border)

3 x Spiraea japonica White Gold

Phormium Tom Thumb

Penstemon digitalis Husker Red

peda

peda

Buxus sempervirens

Spiraea japonica White Gold

qedaB

qeda

Planting and aftercare


Dig over the site, removing any weeds,
and add well-rotted organic matter, such
as manure. Firm and level the soil with
a rake. Plant the boxwood plants rst,
68 in (1520 cm) apart, to form the
framework of your design. Then arrange
the remaining plants in bands of color.
The border will need regular upkeep to
keep it looking immaculate. Deadhead
the pelargonium throughout the season;
in early summer, trim the boxwood and,
if required, the spiraea. In spring, replace
the tender pelargoniums and reduce the
owering stems of the penstemons.

Formal front yard

79

80

Planting recipes

Mediterranean moods
Choose the sunniest spot in the garden,
away from cold winds, and select plants
reminiscent of Mediterranean vacations:
irises, grasses, euphorbias, and evergreen
shrubs, such as olearia. Add herbs, like
rosemary or sage, and bright-owered
bulbs, such as alliums. Terra-cotta pots
planted with more tender species, such
as succulent agaves, will help reinforce
the Mediterranean feel.

Border basics
Size 10 x 10 ft (3 x 3 m)
Suits Grasses, neat evergreen shrubs, irises,
bulbs, herbs, succulents, semi-tender plants
Soil Any free-draining
Site Sunny and sheltered, ideally by a wall

Shopping list
3 x Iris Jane Phillips
1 x Olearia x haastii
3 x Euphorbia characias subsp. wulfenii
5 x Allium hollandicum Purple
Sensation

1 x Anemanthele lessoniana (Stipa

arundinacea)
1 x Bergenia cordifolia
2 x Ballota pseudodictamnus

Planting and aftercare


Dig over the soil, removing any stones
and weeds, and add plenty of organic
matter, such as manure. If the site is
not well drained, dig in gravel. Set taller
plants at the back of the border, at least
12 in (30 cm) from the base of the wall.
Plant shrubs and perennials rst; bulbs
are best planted in drifts around the key
plants later. The iris rhizomes should be
near the soil surface, so that they are
partially exposed. Mulch with gravel
and water well.
Remove the owering stems of irises
after the blooms have faded. In spring,
cut out the previous years owering
stems of euphorbias as close to the
base as possible, avoiding the toxic sap.

Iris Jane Phillips

Olearia x haastii

qda

qda

Mediterranean moods

Euphorbia characias subsp. wulfenii

qda

Allium hollandicum Purple


Sensation qda

Anemanthele lessoniana

pda

81

82

Planting recipes

Mixed herb tapestry


Well-planted herb borders should
delight the senses: not only are they
attractive to look at, but the aroma
of foliage and owers provides an
extra element of interest, and some
herbs can also be used to avor food.
Many have variegated or silver leaves,
so they are still attractive when out
of ower. Try also to include some
evergreen herbs, such as lavender
(Lavandula) or rosemary (Rosmarinus).

Border basics
Size 6 x 6 ft (2 x 2 m)
Suits Culinary herbs, such as thyme,
oregano, marjoram, sage, chives,
rosemary, and also those with more
medicinal properties, such as lavender
and feverfew
Soil Any well-drained, fairly poor soil
Site An open site in sun, but not too
exposed to cold

Origanum vulgare Polyphant

qda

Lavandula angustifolia Twickel


Purple qda

Thymus doereri Doone Valley

Thymus x citriodorus

qda

qda

Shopping list
10 x Origanum vulgare Polyphant
5 x Lavandula angustifolia Twickel
Purple or Salvia ofcinalis Icterina

10 x Thymus doereri Doone Valley


10 x Thymus x citriodorus
10 x Origanum vulgare Aureum
Planting and aftercare

Alternative plant idea

Try adopting a formal pattern with the


plants, as in the style of a simple knot
garden. The plants can be positioned
in rows or bands, where they will knit
together well. The lavender is the tallest
plant and should go at the back, or in
the center if the bed is circular; the
variegated sage Salvia ofcinalis
Icterina could be used as a culinary
alternative. Next, plant contrasting bands
of the smaller herbs.
A gravel mulch placed over the soil after
planting helps to suppress weeds and
keeps moisture away from the crowns of
the plants.

Origanum vulgare Aureum

Salvia ofcinalis Icterina

qda

pda

Mixed herb tapestry

83

84

Planting recipes

Fall elegance
A border designed for a ne fall scheme
can make a great addition to the garden.
After the dazzling displays of summer,
this is a forgotten season in many
gardens, and yet there are many plants
that are at their best at this time.
Certain grasses and various other lateperforming perennials, such as Sedum,
Aster, Salvia, Kniphoa, and Verbena,
can be combined with the seedheads of
plants that owered in summer, perhaps
set against the vivid autumnal hues of
deciduous shrubs and trees.

Border basics
Size 10 x 10 ft (3 x 3 m)
Suits Late-flowering perennials, grasses,
and plants with ornamental seedheads
or berries
Soil Any well-drained, fertile soil
Site An open site in sun, not too exposed

Shopping list
3 x Stipa gigantea
7 x Verbena bonariensis
7 x Sedum Herbstfreude
5 x Calamagrostis brachytricha
3 x Perovskia Blue Spire

Stipa gigantea

Verbena bonariensis

qdea

pda

Sedum Herbstfreude

Calamagrostis brachytricha

qDa

qeda

Planting and aftercare


For this scheme, it is better to plant in
sweeps rather than groups for a more
owing effect. The Stipa is the tallest
plant, so place it toward the back. In
front, plant the dainty Perovskia and
upright Calamagrostis. This grass owers
earlier in the season, but in fall the
seedheads are an attractive rich brown.
Allow the grass to mingle with the
Sedum, best planted toward the front in
a broad sweep, providing contrast and
intense color. Dot the slender Verbena
throughout because its transparent form
provides no visual barrier.
Retain the seedheads of these plants for
as long as possible, cutting down in
spring before new growth begins.

Fall elegance

85

86

Planting recipes

Winter blaze
Although winter is the season of snow
and ice, there is still plenty to see in the
garden if you include plants that provide
seemingly unseasonal color. The stems
of some deciduous shrubs, such as
Cornus and Salix, are brightly hued, and
the foliage of many conifers intensies
in color as low temperatures bite. A few
plants produce showy owers during
this season, in particular winter heathers
(Erica), but also bulbs such as snowdrops
(Galanthus) and winter aconites
(Aconitum).

Border basics
Size 10 x 10 ft (3 x 3 m)
Suits A range of winter-interest plants
Soil Reasonably well drained and not
too dry
Site Somewhere open that catches the
winter sun

Shopping list
1 x Chamaecyparis lawsoniana

Chamaecyparis lawsoniana
Elwoodii qeda

Erica x darleyensis Archie Graham

Cornus sanguinea Winter Beauty

Pinus sylvestris Aurea Group

qea

qeda

qeda

Elwoodii

9 x Erica x darleyensis Archie Graham


5 x Cornus sanguinea Winter Beauty
1 x Pinus sylvestris Aurea Group
7 x white Erica carnea
Planting and aftercare
Position the Chamaecyparis toward the
back of the borderit will serve as a ne
foil for the brighter colors. The golden
pine (Pinus) should also be toward the
back, in front of the Chamaecyparis.
Plant the Cornus in a drift, mostly in the
middle of the border, edging toward
the front. Underplant with the heathers,
creating strokes of color. Do not
intermingle the colors.
The best stem color from the Cornus
is found on young growth, so after a
couple of years, cut out one-third of old
stems from each plant annually in spring.
Trim the winter heathers with shears
after they have owered.

Winter blaze

87

88

Container ideas

Choosing a container
When selecting pots and containers
from the wide range available at garden
centers, there are some key factors to
take into account before you buy. As
well as choosing a style, shape, and
color that suits your garden design,
also consider the material from which
the container is made, since each has
its pros and cons.

Clay pots
Clay pots may be glazed or unglazed, colored or
patterned, light or dark in color. Orange terra cotta
brings a taste of the Mediterranean to the garden.
Advantages They are attractive to look at, and can make
a long-lasting addition to the garden, often improving
with age and wear. There is a clay pot for most situations,
and they can be very good buys.
Disadvantages Many clay pots are not fully frost-proof
and are prone to winter damage. They are also best
avoided in exposed sites because they are easily broken.
Fired clay is a porous material, so plants can dry out
quickly, especially in summer, and moving these
containers can be hard work since they are often heavy.

Metal containers
Containers made of metal may seem like a contemporary
idea, but in fact some of the most desirable antique pots
are lead, and suitable for a range of situations. Modern
metal containers tend to be made of steel or galvanized
aluminum and are simply styled, unlike lead planters,
which feature more elaborate, classical designs.
Advantages By nature, metal containers are long-lasting,
and can be heavy (especially lead ones), which makes
them good for open sites. They can also be very stylish.
Disadvantages Metal containers can be expensive,
particularly those made of lead; these are also
exceptionally heavy. They also usually look out of place
in an informal garden and may not suit some plants.

Choosing a container

Wooden containers
Wood is a good material for a planter; it is soft and easily
shaped, weathers well if treated with preservative, and
suits a range of situations. It is also hard-wearing and
can tolerate rough treatment.
Advantages Although fairly lightweight and therefore
easily moved, wooden containers are strong and durable.
They are also most attractive and a good choice for
situations where large planters are required.
Disadvantages Good-quality wooden containers can
be quite expensive, especially those suited to more formal
sites. They also need regular treatment with preservative
to keep them looking good. Make sure they are made
from sustainably harvested lumber.

Stone containers
Pots and containers made of stone make beautiful
ornamental planters. Granite containers can be used to
give a Japanese feel, while old stone troughs suit alpines
and other small plants.
Advantages Stone containers are very heavy, so not
easily stolen or blown over, and long-lasting. Stone also
looks good and gives a feel of permanence, especially
once it has become colonized with mosses and lichens.
Disadvantages Genuine stone containers are very
expensive, antique ones especially so, and you may feel
that a concrete alternative is better value. The weight
of stone must also be considered when transporting the
pot and maneuvering it into place in the garden.

Synthetic pots
Plastic has long been used as a material for pots, and
it may be disguised to look like clay, wood, or stone,
although not always very convincingly. Increasingly, resins
and other new materials are being used instead of plastic.
Advantages Synthetic pots are generally lightweight and
easy to handle and transport. They tend to be tougher
and more durable (and frost-resistant) than clay, and are
far cheaper than stone or lead alternatives.
Disadvantages Synthetic pots lack the charm of
traditional materials: an authentic stone, lead, or even clay
planter feels more characterful than one made of plastic.
Synthetic pots do not age well and may have a short life
span. Being light, they are easily blown over.

89

90

Container ideas

Plant a colorful container


One of the simplest ways of injecting
seasonal interest into your garden is to
plant up a few pots. Follow these easy
guidelines to help ensure that your
displays are attractive and long-lasting.

Plant a colorful container

Before you plant the container, add water-retaining


crystals to the potting mix. These swell up once moist,
and provide plants with an extra reservoir of water,
which helps to ensure plants do not suffer in dry spells.

Fill around the plants with potting mix when they are in
their nal positions, leaving a 2-in (5-cm) gap between
the top of the soil and the rim of the container to allow
for easy watering and a gravel mulch.

Arrange your selected plants in their original pots in the


container to see how they lookthis way, adjustments
can be easily made. When you are satised, remove the
plants from their pots and plant the container.

Spread a -in- (2-cm-) deep gravel mulch over the top


of the soil to help to conserve moisture in summer, deter
weeds, and prevent unsightly soil splash when watering.
It also makes an attractive nish to the planting.

91

92

Container ideas

Spring selection
Few plants are a more welcome sight
than spring-owering bulbs, and most
are easy to grow and care for. These
versatile plants are wonderful for pots
and window boxes or for planting out in
the garden, and they can be treated as
permanent plantings or simply discarded
after owering. A good selection should
provide color over a long period, from
the rst snowdrops in late winter to the
last tulips in early summer. Try planting
the same types of bulbs together in pots
and grouping them, or mix them.

Container basics
Size Approx. 6-in- (15-cm-) diameter
terra-cotta pots
Suits Potted flowering bulbs
Potting mix Free-draining
Site Sunny, not too exposed

Hyacinthus orientalis Ostara

Narcissus Sweetness

Iris winogradowii

qeda

qeda

qeda
Alternative plant

Shopping list
6 x Hyacinthus orientalis Ostara
12 x Narcissus Sweetness
10 x Iris winogradowii
12 x Iris reticulata
6 x Iris Katharine Hodgkin or
Muscari armeniacum

Planting and aftercare


Many spring bulbs are bought as bare,
dry bulbs in fall, before they have come
into active growth. It is important to
choose rm, healthy bulbs and to plant
them as soon as possible. Observe the
correct planting depth for each kind of
bulb, using free-draining multipurpose
potting mix with plenty of crocks in
the base of each pot. Keep the pots
somewhere sheltered. As the bulbs
begin to grow, water more freely.
Once the owers have faded, either
discard the bulbs or allow the foliage
to yellow and wither. Bulbs may then
be lifted, dried, and replanted in pots,
or put in the garden in fall.

Iris reticulata

Iris Katharine Hodgkin

Muscari armeniacum

qeda

qeda

qeda

Sizzling tropics

93

Sizzling tropics
A themed planting of subtropical species
in a large pot will look dramatic and
exotic until the rst frost. Choose a mix
of bold foliage and owers, and try to
use a limited palette of hot colors to
tie in with the terra-cotta pot. Arrange
the larger plants toward the center and
back. The scheme will look most
effective against a neutral background,
where the textures and colors of the
plants can be more easily appreciated.

Container basics
Size Approx. 24 x 24 in (60 x 60 cm) square
terra-cotta pot or a similar-sized round one
Suits Subtropical plants with bold flowers
and foliage
Potting mix Good-quality, multipurpose
Site Sheltered, sunny position

Canna Musifolia

Oeda

Begonia fuchsioides

ea

Crocosmia x crocosmiiora
Star of the East pea

Shopping list
1 x Canna Musifolia
3 x Begonia fuchsioides
3 x Crocosmia x crocosmiiora
Star of the East

1 x Pelargonium tomentosum
1 x Isoplexis canariensis
2 x Canna (orange hybrid)
Planting and aftercare
Arrange the plants carefully in their pots
before planting them to see how they
will look in their nal positions. The
scented foliage of the pelargonium is
best used spilling over the pots edge.
Place plenty of crocks in the base of the
container before pouring in the potting
mix. After planting, water well and keep
in a greenhouse or cool, light area
indoors before placing the pot outside
once any danger of frost has passed.
Feed the plants regularly during the
summer and make sure the soil is kept
moist. Deadhead the canna as the
blooms fade to encourage further
owers. In fall, before the rst frost,
bring the pot under cover.

Pelargonium tomentosum

da

Isoplexis canariensis

Canna (orange hybrid)

da

* eda

94

Container ideas

Color clash
For a dramatic and eye-catching
container display, well-considered color
clashes can produce the best results,
although the careful use of texture and
form is even more important in such
schemes. Here, yellow variegated foliage
contrasts harmoniously with the dark
glazed pot, while the rich red mini
petunias (Calibrachoa) clash. Touches
of red in the linear foliage of the grass
Hakonechloa, though, help to tie the
planting together. The gently arching
growth of the grass is complemented
by the trailing periwinkle (Vinca), which
mingles well with the petunias that spill
over the sides of the pot.

Container basics
Size Approx. 16-in- (40-cm-) diameter
glazed pot
Suits A mix of bedding plants and
garden perennials
Potting mix Good-quality, multipurpose
Site Sheltered, sunny position

Hakonechloa macra Aureola

Calibrachoa Million Bells Cherry Calibrachoa Million Bells Red

qeabc

da

Shopping list
2 x Hakonechloa macra Aureola
4 x Calibrachoa Million Bells Cherry
4 x Calibrachoa Million Bells Red
4 x Vinca minor Illumination
Planting and aftercare
Place a good layer of crocks in the
base of the pot for drainage, and add
the soil. Position the grass centrally and
then plant the Vinca and mini petunias
around the outside. The petunias are
frost-tender, but they will ower for a
long season in a sunny position, provided
they are kept well fed and watered. In
a more shaded spot, the petunias can
be replaced by a red busy Lizzie
(Impatiens) or a bedding begonia. After
frost has browned the bedding, surviving
plants can be planted out in the garden,
or kept in the pot and used again the
following year.

Vinca minor Illumination

qedaBC

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Fire and ice

Fire and ice


A striking combination of silvery blue
foliage and ame red owers gives this
fall-interest container great appeal. The
ower power is provided by bedding
cyclamen, which often proves surprisingly
hardy in a sheltered situation, and should
ower well from fall until the rst really
hard frost. White crocuses could
continue the show in spring. Bright silver
Senecio, tufts of the blue grass Festuca
glauca, and an upright juniper complete
the display. A matching pair of these
planted pots would look particularly
striking on either side of a doorway.

Container basics
Size Approx. 16-in- (40-cm-) diameter
terra-cotta pot
Suits Evergreens and winter bedding
plants
Potting mix Good-quality, multipurpose
Site Sheltered spot in semi-shade

Juniperus chinensis Stricta

Senecio cineraria

Cyclamen hederifolium

qedab

Oeda

Odeb

Shopping list
1 x Juniperus chinensis Stricta
2 x Festuca glauca Elijah Blue
5 x Senecio cineraria
3 x Cyclamen hederifolium
Planting and aftercare
Place a layer of crocks in the pot and
ll three-quarters full with potting mix.
Plant the juniper centrally toward the
back of the pot and use the grasses to
help soften the edges. The cyclamen
and Senecio can be mingled at the front.
(If you are including crocuses, plant them
now; they will appear in spring, replacing
any cyclamen killed by sustained hard
frost.) Top off the pot with potting mix,
water well, and place in a sheltered spot
in good light. Keep the soil moist but
not wet, and deadhead the cyclamen
during the winter to prolong the
displays. In late spring, the plants can
be planted out in the garden, or
transferred to a larger container.

Festuca glauca Elijah Blue

qedab

95

96

Container ideas

Winter perfume
This attractive display provides colorful
winter cheer and a delicious spicy scent,
which comes from the Sarcococca
confusa, a neat evergreen shrub
with little white blooms. While not
particularly showy, they scent the air for
several weeks. Flower and foliage color
is provided by winter pansies (Viola), a
variegated standard Euonymus, and ivy
(Hedera) to soften the rim of the barrel.
You could also add primroses (Primula
vulgaris), which ower into spring.

Container basics
Size Approx. 24-in- (60-cm-) diameter
wooden half-barrel
Suits Winter bedding and evergreen
shrubs
Potting mix Multipurpose with added
compost
Site Sunny, sheltered spot by a doorway

Hedera helix Glacier

Yellow winter pansies

qeda

qeda

Pale yellow winter pansies

Sarcococca confusa

qeda

qedaB

Shopping list
5 x Hedera helix Glacier
5 x yellow winter pansies
5 x pale yellow winter pansies or
3 x double yellow primroses

3 x Sarcococca confusa
1 x Euonymus fortunei Blondy
(standard-trained)

Planting and aftercare


Place crocks at the bottom of the barrel
and ll three-quarters full with potting
mix. Arrange the plants with the
Euonymus in the middle, underplanted
with the Sarcococca, the ivies over the
edges of the barrel, and the pansies and
primroses in between. Fill in around the
plants with potting mix. Water well and
keep moist. Position the container where
the perfume of the Sarcococca will be
enjoyed. Remove faded blooms as the
season progresses, and any plain green
shoots on the Euonymus. In summer,
replace the bedding with summer
owers, such as busy Lizzies or begonias.

Alternative plant idea

Euonymus fortunei Blondy

Primula vulgaris Double Sulphur

qedaB

qeB

Winter perfume

97

98

Inspiring easy-care gardens

LOW-MAINTENANCE GARDEN

Design ideas for easy-care gardens


There are a great many reasons why you
may want to make your yard easier and
less time-consuming to maintain.

Happily, there are numerous strategies


and solutions that can be employed
without sacricing aesthetics.

Design ideas for easy-care gardens

Pictures clockwise from left

Outdoor gallery The planting of a garden


can be quite sparse if each specimen is
chosen and sited with care, rather like an
arrangement of sculptures. With a simple,
uncluttered backdrop, this approach creates
an opportunity to really appreciate the form
and texture of the plants in your collection.
Gravel laid over a weed-suppressing
membrane provides a foil for the plants,
and to keep the design interesting,
aggregates can be enlivened with
decorative paving, or cobbles and boulders.
In this garden, large rocks anchor the
planting, and treated timbers, laid like
stepping-stones, direct the eye to a circular
mosaic feature with a striking contemporary
container providing a focus in the center.
Alternatively, you could use a self-contained
water feature, such as a bubbling millstone.
Dining room Decking brings a roomlike
quality and can be used to create a stylish
outdoor dining area. This is especially
valuable where space indoors is at a
premium. To create a visually exciting design
that requires very little upkeep, make sure
the backdrop and planting around the deck
are as simple as possible. A few bold color
highlights and nighttime illumination will
add designer sparkle.
Simple division Larger gardens designed
for minimum maintenance are often best
divided into a series of compartments.
These can be partially screened from one
another, or left open to enjoy the sense
of space. To give each section its own
character, and to add interest, try using
contrasting landscape materialson flat
surfaces you can introduce changes in level,
such as a raised deck or beds, or a sunken
seating area. With a limited planting
palette, it is important to be creative with
flooring detail, and to include plenty of
evergreens, such as the grasses (Stipa
tenuissima) and sedges (Carex) used here.

99

100 Inspiring easy-care gardens

Design ideas for easy-care gardens continued


Pictures clockwise from top left
Paved patio Small, enclosed spaces are perfect for
pavinga low-maintenance, relatively weed-free alternative
to grass. By planting in raised beds, narrow borders, and
pots, you can maintain a range of plants that would satisfy
even the most avid gardener. Spend time designing your
garden, building in practical requirements as well as
incorporating different textures and patterns to create
interest. Here, cobbles and a ceramic water feature provide
a focus, with hostas and bamboo adding an Asian note.
Mediterranean garden This swirling stuccoed wall,
painted a dusty terra-cotta, suggests a garden built in a
sunny climate. Slender Italian cypress, an old oil jar, and
ironwork furniture strengthen the Mediterranean flavor.
The wall is the right height to act as impromptu seating
and, adding to the ambience, the air is filled with perfume
from the white lilies, pink roses, and aromatic herbs.
Space for children Although children enjoy playing on
lawns, other surfaces are more versatile. Little ones will
enjoy a sandbox (covered when not in use), and varying
the flooring materials and incorporating changes in level
can create opportunities for play. A splinter-free deck suits
bare feet and the level surface is ideal for a variety of toys
and activities. Choose robust plants, such as the phormium,
grasses, and bamboos in this child-friendly garden.
Raised beds As well as providing easy-access planting
spaces, raised beds are design features in their own right.
They also offer casual seating and welcome changes in level
in otherwise flat, featureless spaces. This bed, with its
curved dry-stone walling effect, provides ideal, sharplydrained conditions for a wide range of hardy alpines.

Design ideas for easy-care gardens continued

101

102 Inspiring easy-care gardens

Formal design
An ordered or symmetrical garden,
with a combination of simple geometric
shapes, inspires a feeling of calm. The
style is adaptable, and it is easy to create
stunning vistas and dramatic focal points.
Pictures clockwise from top left
Creating a focus The elements of this charming little
garden are simple and unfussy, yet because of the strong
central axis guiding the eye down the narrow pathway,
the effect is quite theatrical. Tall Verbena bonariensis
are neatly enclosed by clipped dwarf boxwood hedging,
which, being evergreen, provides a strong architectural
framework, even in the depths of winter. A traditional
brick path opens out into a circular paving feature with
a large Greek pot at its center, but this could be replaced
by a pebble mosaic or an eye-catching piece of sculpture.
Elegant dining Although most often associated
with grand historic properties, a formal touch, utilizing
symmetry, works in a variety of situations and can make
a previously ordinary space look stunning. Here, French
windows open out onto a raised deck used for dining.
Elevated views of the garden are framed by tall, stylish
containers filled with lavender, and a grapevine-covered
arbor. The formality continues with matching steps,
clipped boxwood edging, and twin potted marguerites.
Contemporary twist Theres no reason why you cant
take elements of Renaissance gardens and use them to
add style to a contemporary space. Here, tall perennials
(Miscanthus and Rudbeckia) are contained by low
evergreen hedgingjust like a modern-day parterre
and clipped topiary in matching terra-cotta pots makes a
stylish statement. A rill or narrow canal set into the deck
would also work well.
Mirror image This study in symmetry and minimalism
has created a garden that is extremely easy to maintain.
Simply planted, the design succeeds by clever stagesetting. The onlookers eye is drawn to the water curtain
sculpture by a line of cube-shaped box topiaries running
along the central axis. Meanwhile, the two formal white
containers, matching raised beds planted with bamboo,
and the arching tree branches frame the view perfectly.
Keep the surfaces immaculate to avoid visual distractions.

Formal design

103

104 Inspiring easy-care gardens

Contemporary creations
Modern minimalism has much to offer
busy garden owners. Simple layouts,
easily maintained hard landscaping, and

color and interest that dont rely solely


on planting are useful elements often
exploited by contemporary designers.

Contemporary creations 105

Pictures clockwise from far left


Color impact Use bold shades, like purple or red,
to enhance contemporary designs and create exciting
backdrops. Here, architectural foliage plants, including
phormium and eucalyptus, are all the more striking against
the painted fence. A stuccoed wall could also act as a
modern minimalist canvas, if painted with masonry paint.
Sculptural focus The gleaming white spiral of this
art installation stands out dramatically against the dark
uncluttered backdrop and restrained planting plan.
Alternative sculptural elements, such as a large container
or fountain, could be used to create a focal point strong
enough to carry the simple design.
Restrained planting While gardens often rely on
colorful flowers and foliage for interest, you can still
create an attractive outdoor space using a limited planting
palette. This ground plan is well defined, and strengthened
by innovative flooring and dividing walls. Only a few of
the rectangular compartments contain plantsmany are
filled with water and bridged by decking walkways.
Novel materials You can achieve contemporary effects
with high-tech materials. Consider acrylic plastic panels,
or polished and galvanized metal sheeting for facing walls
and edging beds, and metal grids for flooring. Here,
corrugated metal contains a grass-filled border.
Simple composition Taking inspiration from Zen
gardens, this simple but effective layout, with a
background of white stone chips and black trellises,
features a single phormium surrounded by carefully
selected rocks and a black glazed sphere.

106 Inspiring easy-care gardens

Havens for wildlife


Low-maintenance gardens can be
surprisingly wildlife-friendly. Many
easy-care plants attract bees and
butteries, and shrubs and trees with
ornamental fruits offer a feast for birds.
Pictures clockwise from top left
Watering hole Providing a safe vantage point to drink
and bathe, a birdbath can become a hive of activity for
birds; site conveniently, as youll need to top it off regularly.
To avoid problems with cats, plant around the base with
low ground cover. Here, blue fescues (Festuca), houseleeks
(Sempervivum), and sedums are used. A shallow-sided
pebble pool would also attract amphibians and dragonflies.
Carefree meadow One way to reduce the need for
regular mowing in a large garden, while increasing wildlife
potential, is to convert sections of formal lawn into
wildflower meadows. On poor, sandy soil, you can
establish a meadow using wildflower plugs and bulbs
suitable for naturalizing. More reliable results are achieved
by removing sod with a sod-cutting machine and then
re-sowing with a perennial wildflower mix.
Insect attractors Beneficial hoverflies seek out
single-flowered annuals, such as Eschscholzia and
Limnanthes, and bees love blue flowers like this California
bluebell (Phacelia campanularia). Verbena bonariensis and
Buddleja davidii are magnets for bees and butterflies. For
the first insects of the season, plant sunny gravel or raised
beds with spring alpinesalyssum, arabis, aubrieta,
heathers, grape hyacinth (Muscari), and crocus.
Bird cover Large evergreen and deciduous shrubs, dense
hedges, and trees are vital for birds. They not only need
safe nesting and nighttime roosting sites, but also places
to shelter during bad weather and to escape airborne
predators. Without cover nearby, birds are nervous about
entering a garden, even one with feeders.
Berry banquet Provide a wide range of fruiting and
berrying plants, with some ripening in late summer and
others ready for harvest well into winter. This long-lasting
buffet will cater to local birds as well as visiting migrants.
Low ground-cover plants such as Cotoneaster salicifolius
Gnom (illustrated), wall shrubs like pyracantha, roses
with large colorful hips, and small ornamental trees, such
as rowans (Sorbus) and crab apples (Malus), are ideal.

Havens for wildlife

107

108 Inspiring easy-care gardens

Courtyard gardens
Textures and colors are viewed close
up in these intimate spaces, so choose
materials and plants for maximum effect.
Also include some shade and water, as
well as lighting for evenings outside.
Pictures clockwise from top left
Big, bold pots Some outdoor spaces are completely
paved, but you can grow almost any plant in a container
provided it is big enoughincluding small trees, elegant
bamboos and grasses, a wide range of shrubs and
climbers, as well as perennials, bulbs, and ferns. This pot
contains Nandina domestica, purple cordyline, heuchera,
and trailing ivy. Evergreens help the garden look good all
year, and courtyards often have a sheltered microclimate,
allowing less hardy species to be grown. Install automatic
irrigation to make light work of watering.
Tranquil oasis This striking, contemporary walled
garden has a Moorish feel. The lush planting, inspired by
a rich purple and cerise color palette, features a glowing
Cercis canadensis Forest Pansy in the corner, and a large
formal pool with floating stepping-stones. The
arbor-covered, paved terrace juts out over the surface,
taking you right to the waters edge.
Hot property Courtyards can feel gloomy if surrounded
by high walls, but you can lift the atmosphere and create
more light by applying color (on taller walls, just paint to
a line above the ground-floor windows). Here, a vibrant
orange has been used on a curved wall, contrasting with
beds of Mediterranean herbs, perennials, and grasses.
Where shade is a problem, whitewashed walls may
appear to be the answer, but these need frequent
touching up and white can seem harsh in a cool climate;
instead, try light pink, pale green, watery blue, or pearly
gray. Also consider wall-mounted mirrors or reflective
metal panels, murals and trompe loeil (illusory 3-D effects)
or, for a historic look, decorative trellis panels.
Garden caf Courtyards can be transformed into an
extra room for your house, and an al fresco dining room
or outdoor kitchen can be used in fine weather at any
time of year. Raise or sink the dining area to give it
definition, and construct screens with giant pots or raised
beds filled with architectural evergreens, like the cordyline
and clipped boxwood balls in this stylish garden.

Courtyard gardens 109

110

Inspiring easy-care gardens

New-wave planting
This impressionistic style of gardening,
sometimes known as prairie planting,
uses harmonious combinations of
herbaceous perennials and ornamental
grasses to create naturalistic and
long-lasting displays.
Pictures clockwise from top left
Planting philosophy Choose easy-care perennials that
dont need deadheading, staking, or frequent division.
Plants that have everlasting flowers or sculptural seedheads
in fall and winter are particularly useful; most grasses,
even deciduous types, retain foliage and diaphanous
seedheads through winter. For the prairie look, plant
swaths of single cultivars and punctuate with isolated
clusters. Soften the effect of heavier flower and foliage
forms by using airy flower stems and billowing grasses,
and vary the height of plants to create interesting
undulations. Here, crimson astrantia rise above a ribbon
of erigeron interspersed by tussocks of Stipa tenuissima.
Stylized nature Planted en masse, color-restricted
displays of flowering perennials and grasses produce
a stylized, contemporary version of a meadow. Here,
raised beds lift the planting to create a feeling of enclosure
around this outdoor dining area. An elegant mixture of
tall miscanthus grasses and Verbena bonariensis opens
up to reveal blocks of lavender on the opposite side.
Lingering effects From midsummer onward, Rudbeckia
fulgida, as well as plants like the heleniums and achilleas
seen growing here, put on a long-lasting show. Interspersed
with hardy grassessuch as calamagrostis, miscanthus,
panicum and stipathey knit together seamlessly, covering
the ground and preventing weed growth. Many of the
grasses also flower in late summer, adding to the display,
and the foliage fades to biscuit or develops red and purple
hues as fall approaches. It is only necessary to cut back
hard when growth begins again in spring.
Grassy retreat The planting in this gravel garden is
relaxed and informalthe seating area is completely
cocooned by billowing grasses, and narrow pathways wind
lazily through the subtle planting. Although there are few
colored blooms, this garden will change throughout the
year and will look magical with a dusting of frost.

New-wave planting

111

112

Creating your garden

Benets of a low-maintenance garden


With adjustments to your existing yard,
or strategic planning when building from
scratch, you can enjoy a beautiful
garden even if you have little time or

energy to care for it. Most highmaintenance plants and plans have
low-maintenance alternatives, and many
routine jobs can be omitted altogether.

Who needs a low-maintenance garden?


We simply do not have as much time as we used to, and
yet the garden is increasingly seen as a sanctuary and an
antidote to modern living. Whether you are pursuing a
career, working odd shifts, spending hours commuting,
or raising a young family, you will need to nd a way to
manage your garden more easily.
New gardeners may lack condence in their abilities and
want to start simply, and some homeowners are not
particularly interested in the practical side of gardening,
yet still appreciate and desire an attractive outdoor space.
Older gardeners may nd they no longer have the physical
strength and energy to cultivate in the way they used to
or, adopting a more carefree lifestyle, might be too busy
traveling to garden regularly. And if you are a landlord
with rental properties, you may only be able to visit them
a few times a year.

Creative design and planting will ensure that ultra-easy-care gardens


like this urban yard are attractive, practical, and never boring.

How much time do you have?


When designing your yard, rst think about how
frequently you will have time to maintain it.
Weekends If you have a few hours on the weekend,
you may only have time to mow the lawn, do a little
deadheading and tidying up, and perhaps do some
hand-weeding, hoeing, or hedge-trimming. Droughttolerant shrubs and owers in pots will survive with
weekly waterings.
Once a month Lawns are not a good idea if you can
only tackle gardening tasks once a month. Instead,
replace them with paving, decking, or gravel. Reduce
deadheading and pruning with a selection of easy-care
plants, and install an automatic watering system.

With easy-care gardening strategies in place, you can cut down on


regular or seasonal chores like raking leaves and lawn maintenance.

A few times a year Gardening only once in a while


restricts your options, so choose a combination of
low-maintenance plants and hard landscaping. You can
then limit jobs to tidying up borders, cutting back old
growth on perennials in late winter, and occasionally
pruning overgrown trees and shrubs.

Benets of a low-maintenance garden

113

Time-saving tips

Watering Select drought-tolerant


specimens, and plant in fall or spring
to cut down the need to water while
the roots are establishing. Set up pots
with automatic irrigation.

Fertilizing Mulch with manure in


late winter to keep the soil fertile.
Once or twice a year, fertilize owering
plants, including those in containers,
using a slow-release fertilizer.

Deadheading Choose plants with


ornamental seedheads and avoid
any that need deadheading to keep
them blooming. Tidy up ground-cover
perennials and lavenders with shears.

Weeding Cover the ground with a


weed-suppressing fabric camouaged
with gravel. Spray weeds with systemic
weedkiller to kill the roots. Avoid soil
disturbance and self-seeding plants.

Mowing Choose an easy-care grass


seed mix. Reduce the lawn size and
buy an efcient mower. Install a brick
mowing strip next to borders and
walls to eliminate edging.

Pruning Choose evergreens, as they


rarely need pruning, and plants that
only need one trim per year, such as
Buddleja davidii. Avoid overly vigorous
shrubs and allow plants room to grow.

114

Creating your garden

Low- and high-maintenance ingredients


Choose the plants and
materials in your garden
carefully to minimize
the workload.
Easy-care gardens
Paved or decked surfaces are easy
to keep clean and weed-free, and
surrounding your plants with hard
landscaping, or growing them in
raised beds, keeps them within
bounds; you can also carry out most
jobs in nearly any weather. Although
there is an excellent selection of
low-maintenance owering shrubs
and perennials, choosing specimens
for their architectural qualities, foliage
color, and texture, rather than for
their blooms, will ensure that the
planting is interesting year-round.

Hardy bulbs Dwarf and low-growing


hardy bulbs, like crocus, scillas, and
small daffodils, offer a maintenancefree spring show. For summer, plant
alliums and low-growing lilies that
do not need staking. Dying down
gracefully, these bulbs are left in the
ground to come up year after year.

Drought-busters Plants like these


houseleeks do not need watering at
all. If you live in a dry region, or the
garden has a hot, sunny exposure and
free-draining soil, focus on droughttolerant plants, such as succulents
or silver-leaved varieties. Avoid pots or
consider installing automatic irrigation.

Plant-free features Bringing color


into the garden with painted walls
or trellises reduces the need for bright
bedding displays. Decorative paving
elements, such as pebble mosaics,
add textural interest, while sculpture
and stylish outdoor furniture provide
maintenance-free highlights.

Low- and high-maintenance ingredients

115

Labor-intensive gardens
Manicured lawns require a lot of
upkeep: mowing and edging,
weeding and feeding, moss-killing,
scarifying to remove dead material,
aerating to improve drainage, and
sweeping up leaves in fall. Of course,
a roughly maintained family lawn,
or one where clover and other
attractive weeds are allowed to
grow, needs much less attention.
Traditional borders full of blooms,
and backed by ower-festooned
walls and fences, look spectacular
in summer, but it is difcult to keep
on top of deadheading, staking,
weeding, and watering, not to
mention tying climbers and wall
shrubs onto their supports.
Self-seeding can also become
a time-consuming problem.

Pots If you plant tender bedding


plants, annual owers, and bulbs
in containers, you are committing
yourself to time-consuming tidying
up as well as daily watering in hot
weather, and regular fertilizing to keep
plants healthy. At the end of each
season, displays have to be replanted.

Fast-growing hedge One of the


most challenging tasks is staying
on top of quick-growing plants,
like privet and tall conifers. Several
cuts a year are required to maintain
a neat prole and control height and
spread, and removing the clippings
can also be laborious.

Tender plants A recent trend in


patio gardening has seen an increase
in the use of exotics, such as bananas,
tree ferns, cannas, and agaves. These
plants are too large and expensive to
discard at the end of summer, but
need to be fully protected from frost
in situ or in a greenhouse.

116

Creating your garden

Assessing your site


Look critically at your yard before
carrying out any major changes. Weigh
up the pros and cons of features before
removing them, and remember that
mature, established plants may need
less maintenance than new ones.

Which way does your yard face? Work out where the
sun rises (east) and sets (west). Eastern exposures are sunny
in the morningwinter and spring-owering shrubs are
vulnerable to frost here. West-facing walls and fences have
sun in the afternoon and eveningideal for relaxing after
work. Areas in sun for much of the day are south-facing,
and shady, cool spots opposite have a northern exposure.

Assessing your site

117

What do you need?


Make a list of the various activities and areas planned
for your yard, including places for growing plants,
supporting wildlife, relaxing, cooking, and dining al fresco.
Bear in mind factors like sun and shade, drainage, shelter

Guinea pigs and rabbits like to graze and


run on grass; lawns also benet songbirds.

from wind, and proximity to water and electrical outlets.


Dont forget practicalities like easy access to garbage cans
or recycling bins and compost piles, as well as storage
space for garden tools and furniture.

Make childrens gardens versatile, and easy


to adapt when they tire of play equipment.

Areas for outdoor entertaining might include


a grill, a sunken re pit, or a gazebo.

Understanding climate
You can live in an area that suffers from early and late
frosts or thats battered by winds, while enjoying milder
conditions in your garden. South- and west-facing yards
are suntraps; walls and paving absorb daytime heat and

As sunny walls radiate heat, tender plants like


this ceanothus can thrive in frosty regions.

radiate it back at night, keeping surrounding areas


frost-free. Trees and hedges act as buffers against wind
but, conversely, buildings can cause damaging turbulence.
Such local variations are known as microclimates.

Hedges and shrub borders slow the wind


and provide shelter for plants and people.

Cold air pools at the bottom of slopes, and


plants here are more vulnerable to frost.

118

Creating your garden

Boundaries and garden dividers


The style and fabric of the elements you
choose to enclose or separate parts of
your yard have a major impact on the

overall effect of the garden. Boundary


materials frequently act as a foil, but
can also make a bold statement.

Wooden fence Choose the highest-quality fencing that


you can afford for long-lasting results. Pressure-treated
posts are easier to replace and last longer if placed into
metal sockets rather than directly into concrete.

Trellis A decorative screening material with panels in

Willow or hazel hurdles These hand-woven panels

Stucco wall Cinder-block walls are quicker and cheaper

are perfect for cottage-style gardens. For a contemporary


look, attach to aluminum posts or a solid lumber frame.
Panels last for about eight years.

to build than brick and, when stuccoed, can be painted in


a range of colors to create a smart and stylish finish.
Stucco is often used for contemporary designs.

various styles, a trellis may also include shaped pieces for


special features. Letting in more light but offering less
privacy than solid paneling, it is best for internal divisions.

Boundaries and garden dividers

Brick wall Garden walls are decorative and practical,


and frostproof bricks are available in a range of styles to
match adjacent buildings. Antique or reclaimed bricks
create the illusion of age and are ideal for historic gardens.

119

120

Creating your garden

Green dividers
Fences and walls provide opportunities
to grow a wide variety of climbers and
wall shrubs, and the plants help to
camouage boundary imperfections.
Also, living screens of tall ornamental
grasses, bamboos, shrubs, and trees offer
exciting alternatives to formal hedging.
Bamboo screen Some bamboos make beautiful
evergreen screens, which suit both Asian-style and
contemporary yards. Non-invasive, clump-forming cultivars
of Phyllostachys and Fargesia are ideal, their upright canes
often developing attractive tints and banding. Plant a
row in moisture-retentive ground, allowing them room
to spread sideways. To control the width of the screen,
remove unwanted bamboo shoots at ground level in late
spring. Periodically thin out some mature canes, and
remove leafy growth from the lower half of the screen.

Climbers There are only a few climbers that are

Yew hedge When clipped formally, this dark evergreen

self-clinging and do not require wires or trellis. These


include Hydrangea anomala subsp. petiolaris (above) and
ivy. Be sure to choose the right plant for the site and soil
typesome prefer cool shade, while others bloom best
on a sunny wall. Also consider the plants ultimate height
and vigor, to avoid problems in the future.

forms a dense wall or plain backdrop for borders. Relatively


slow-growing, it can eventually be trained into arches and
other pieces of green architecture. Yew is long-lived and
regenerates from old wood if pruned hard. Although
shade-tolerant, hedges are best cut wide at the base and
narrow at the top, so that light falls evenly on the foliage.

Green dividers

121

Tree and shrub divide Ideal for protecting windswept


gardens, a boundary of trees and shrubs makes a
particularly effective shelterbelt. Mix different shapes,
textures, and colors, including flowering and berrying
types, for maximum interest, and prune to control size.

Living willow screen In heavy clay soil, willow stems


pushed into the ground will root easily. Setting these
hardwood cuttings at an angle forms the beginning
of a diamond lattice. Simply hook the willow stems under
and over one another to the desired height, and then
weave the excess at right angles to secure the upper
edge of the screen. Trim the stems as necessary.

Fedge This is a cross between a fence and a hedge, and


is an ingenious way to camouflage ugly chain-link fencing.
It is best to use a plain green ivy for rapid cover and to
produce a slim, dense, hedgelike structure. Plant pots of
young, vigorous ivies at the base of the screen, and weave
the shoots in and out as they grow. Once the fence is
covered, trim the ivy using hand shears.

122

Creating your garden

Selecting landscape materials


The natural or synthetic products you choose, and
the patterns and designs you employ, make a big
difference to the overall look of the garden. Other
considerations include the cost of materials, ease
of laying or installation, and long-term durability.
Granite pavers These hard-wearing
cubes of granite are ideal for driveways
and areas in heavy use, and can be
arranged to make very attractive
circular, curving, or interlocking paving
patterns as well as the straightforward
grid design illustrated. Made of
natural stone, these paving blocks
suit historic properties and country
residences, but they can also be
used in a variety of situations to add
textural interest to areas paved with
slabs. Granite pavers are expensive
but concrete substitutes are available.

Natural stone Ethically sourced


sandstone, limestone, and granite
paving reveals subtle colors when
wet and does not chip or fade, but it
tends to be thicker, heavier, and less
uniform, and is more expensive than
concrete reproductions. Consider hiring
an experienced paving contractor.

Concrete paving There is a wide


range of concrete paving available,
from plain, contemporary designs
to textured stone reproductions and
modular paving sets. Quality varies,
and some styles are thicker and more
hardwearing with better resistance
to chipping or fading in sunlight.

Using contractors When hiring


someone to carry out hard landscaping
work, be prepared to show them a
scale drawing or at least mark out the
areas to be paved or decked to avoid
confusion. Get a number of quotes
and, especially if the contractor hasnt
been personally recommended, ask to
see examples of their work so that you
can do your own quality check. After
considering your ideas, contractors
may help you select suitable materials
and provide paving samples; also
discuss clearing and preparing the
ground, waste removal, drainage
requirements, electrical wiring, and
paving patterns and designs. Once
you are happy with a quote, draw up
a formal agreement for the contractor
to sign, stating exactly what you
expect them to do for the price, with
start and end dates.

Woodstone A convincing substitute


for wooden landscape timbers, the
concrete is imprinted with the texture
of weathered, reclaimed wood and
suits country or cottage garden
situations. It can also be used for
steps, stepping stones in gravel, and
to construct low raised flower beds.

Selecting landscape materials

Wooden decking Decking is warm

123

Sod New gardens are often laid with


sod prior to implementing a design.
A well-maintained lawn makes an
attractive foil for borders and contrasts
well with hard landscaping. Lawns
are important for many birds and
provide a safe play surface for
children. Install a mowing edge.

Bricks Frostproof bricks, engineering

underfoot and dries rapidly after rain.


Do not use in shady areas as it quickly
develops slippery algae. Off-the-shelf
kits are available from do-it-yourself
stores, but hire a specialist for larger,
more complex areas. Western red
cedar is naturally rot-resistant.

Cobbles Pebbles and cobbles of

Gravel This versatile and inexpensive

different colors and grades can be


used with other materials, such as
slate shards and tile fragments, to
create paving mosaics like the circular
feature above. Simple designs are not
difficult to make, as the pebbles are
bedded into a dry mortar.

material comes in many different


grades and colors, allowing it to
blend with other landscape materials.
Laid over a permeable membrane, its
an easy way to create pathways and
patios. Contain gravel to separate it
from soil using slightly raised edgings.

Decorative aggregates Slate


chips (above) are one of several stone
aggregates now available for garden
landscapes. More dramatic or
contemporary effects can be created
with colored stone chips and glass
chips. Lay as for gravel, over a
permeable membrane.

bricks, and pavers can be laid in a


wide variety of patterns, such as
curving shapes and circular designs;
they also add texture to areas paved
with slabs. Bricks come in different
shades and styles, including antique
effects that suit older properties.

124

Creating your garden

Designing with different materials


Hard surfaces act as a framework
around which plants can grow and
mature. The chosen material, and the
style in which it is laid, can enhance
the design of your outdoor space.

Decking jetty This substantial wooden platform hangs


over the pool below, allowing close access to the water.
The clean lines and restrained planting combine to create
an open expanse of warm wood and tranquil water.

Designing with different materials

Basketweave bricks This garden is paved in a traditional


design that suits older properties and has cottage-garden
appeal. The weathered terra-cotta coloring and intricately
textured surface of the bricks give an aged quality.

Sleek slabs Smooth, simple concrete pavers laid in a


uniform row or geometric grid create a contemporary
feel. This minimalist style of paving helps to emphasize
the planting as well as architectural and design features.

Vintage stone Reclaimed stone from architectural salvage


companies gives a garden a feeling of permanence. The
worn and weathered surface of the stone adds character,
perfect for this formal pool terrace edged in boxwood.

Zen gravel garden Gravel is used here to emulate a


dry Zen garden or karesansui. The rugged boulders and
simple evergreen plantings represent islands in a sea or
lake, reecting traditional Japanese designs.

125

126

Planting ideas

Spring mix
This woodland carpet could be recreated
under the dappled shade of deciduous
trees or large shrubs. The planting
reaches its peak in early spring when
the snowdrops open and the bronzepink fronds of the maidenhair fern
(Adiantum) unfurl. The marbled arum
foliage makes a lovely foil for various
forms of hellebore that ower through
winter; select these in bloom, as catalog
descriptions can be misleading. The
colored petals are long-lasting and the
nodding owers of H. orientalis subsp.
guttatus have speckled throats.

Border basics

Arum italicum subsp. italicum


Marmoratum qeb

Helleborus orientalis subsp. guttatus

qeb

Size 5 x 5 ft (1.5 x 1.5 m)


Suits Shade-loving woodland plants that
flower in late winter or early spring
Soil Moist, with a deep organic mulch
Site Under trees or north-facing border

Shopping list
7 x Adiantum venustum
9 x Arum italicum subsp. italicum
Marmoratum

5 x Helleborus x hybridus cultivar


5 x Helleborus orientalis subsp. guttatus
50100 x Galanthus nivalis
Helleborus x hybridus cultivar

Planting and aftercare


Work in plenty of well-rotted manure,
garden compost, or leafmold to improve
clay soil or make sandy or free-draining
ground more moisture-retentive. Plant
the border in fall or in mild spells during
winter and early spring. Pot-grown
snowdrops, or those lifted and replanted
in clumps just after owering, often
establish better than dry bulbs planted
in early fall. Mulch with chipped bark
or cocoa shells to retain moisture and
suppress weeds. Remove old leaves
from the hellebores when the owers
start to open so that they dont mar the
display. Also snip off dead or damaged
leaves from the maidenhair fern when
the new fronds unfurl.

qeb

Galanthus nivalis

Adiantum venustum

qdeb

qeb

Spring mix

127

128

Planting ideas

Sparkling summer bed


This silver and pink color scheme is
perfect for a sunny hot spot. Dotted
through the planting, metallic-leaved
astelia, commonly called silver spear,
adds a distinctly Mediterranean feel. The
compact form of the evergreen Artemisia
schmidtiana appears like a shimmering
river running through the border, with
blue-leaved fescues on one side and
pink-owered thrift or sea pink on the
other. The thrift (Armeria) blooms from
late spring into early summer from wiry
green tussocks. At the rear, the cutleaved artemisia adds height and texture.

Border basics

Astelia chathamica

Artemisia ludoviciana Valerie Finnis

pda

qda

Size 6 x 5 ft (1.8 x 1.5 m)


Suits Drought-tolerant grasses, alpines,
and perennials
Soil Sharply drained
Site Hot, sunny, and sheltered

Shopping list
3 x Astelia chathamica
3 x Artemisia ludoviciana Valerie Finnis
7 x Artemisia schmidtiana Nana
7 x Festuca glauca Blauglut
9 x Armeria maritima Splendens
Planting and aftercare
Prepare heavier ground by digging in
plenty of grit to improve drainage. This
layout is best planted in late spring when
the weather has become warmer and
drier. Plants like the slightly tender astelia
will have a chance to establish before
winter and the grasses and silvery
artemisias should be in active growth.
To maintain the display, cut back dead
heads on the thrift and, at the end of
the season, the dead stems of the
broad-leaved artemisia. Cover the astelia
with oating row cover if a cold snap is
forecast, and mulch with bark to protect
the roots. In spring, tidy up the grasses
by combing the dead leaves out of the
tussocks with your ngers. Lightly trim
the evergreen artemisia with shears.

Artemisia schmidtiana Nana

qda

Festuca glauca Blauglut

Armeria maritima Splendens

qda

qda

Sparkling summer bed

129

130

Planting ideas

Elegant fall border


This sparkling arrangement starts
blooming in midsummer. First in ower
is the pearly everlasting (Anaphalis) with
clusters of papery ball-shaped heads,
which remain attractive for many weeks,
over gray-green felted leaves. Mingled
in, the vibrant aster Veilchenknigin is a
Michaelmas daisy with compact growth
and good disease resistance. At the back,
Russian sage (Perovskia) makes a delicate
but long-lasting foil (try globe thistle,
Echinops, as an alternative) and clumps
of stipa add structure and movement.

Border basics
Size 6 x 4 ft (1.8 x 1.4 m)
Suits Late summer- and fall-flowering
perennials and grasses
Soil Well-drained, neutral to alkaline
Site Open, full sun

Shopping list
3 x Stipa calamagrostis
5 x Aster amellus Veilchenknigin
syn. Violet Queen

5 x Perovskia atriplicifolia Blue Spire

or 5 x Echinops ritro
7 x Anaphalis triplinervis

Planting and aftercare


The plants in this plan enjoy fertile,
well-drained soil, so remedy any
drainage problems before planting in
spring, and dig in organic matter if the
soil is poor and dry. After soaking
the pots, lay the plants out in long
overlapping drifts. This arrangement
suits relatively narrow borders because it
creates the illusion of depth. Intermingle
the asters and pearly everlasting where
the two drifts meet to give a more
naturalistic feel. Mulch to retain moisture,
keep down weeds, and help plants
establish through the summer months. In
midwinter, cut down old ower stems of
foreground plantings if they look untidy,
but delay cutting back the grass and
Russian sage until spring.

Stipa calamagrostis

Aster amellus Veilchenknigin

qda

qda

Elegant fall border

Alternative plant idea

Perovskia atriplicifolia Blue Spire

Anaphalis triplinervis

Echinops ritro

qda

qeab

qda

131

132

Planting ideas

Winter color
The ame-colored willow (Salix) sets
this sunny border alight. It thrives in
heavy soil, including waterlogged clay.
Hard pruning in spring helps control its
vigor, but in a small garden, consider
using the dogwood Cornus sanguinea
Midwinter Fire instead. The ghostly
white-stemmed rubus has dainty divided
leaves in summera subtle contrast with
the diaphanous stipa. In heavier soil,
consider replacing this grass with the
coppery pheasants tail (Anemanthele
lessoniana). In winter, the tawny red
sedum owers dry out, forming stiff,
long-lasting maroon heads.

Border basics
Size 6 x 6 ft (1.8 x 1.8 m)
Suits Deciduous shrubs, grasses, and
late-flowering perennials
Soil Fertile, well-drained, not too dry
Site Full sun

Shopping list
1 x Salix alba var. vitellina Britzensis
1 x Rubus thibetanus
7 x Sedum Herbstfreude
911 x Stipa tenuissima

Salix alba var. vitellina Britzensis

Rubus thibetanus

qefa

qea

Sedum Herbstfreude

Stipa tenuissima

qdea

qda

Planting and aftercare


For best results, plant in spring to allow
plants to establish before putting on
a show through the winter. Cut the
white-stemmed rubus and willow back
hard the following spring to encourage
plenty of new stems, which color up
better than the old. Also cut back the
grass foliage as you see new growth
appearing, and clear away old sedum
stems. Every three years, lift and split the
sedum clumps in spring to keep them
strong and stop them from collapsing
during late summer. Apply a granular,
slow-release fertilizer annually in spring
and/or well-rotted manure at pruning
time. Consider adding tall Verbena
bonariensis for extra color in the
quiet summer phase of this display.

Winter color

133

134

Planting ideas

Cool foliage collection


In spring, the lungwort (Pulmonaria) puts
on a display of white blooms, and the
silver-spotted leaves that follow are just
as attractive. The cream-variegated elder
(Sambucus) brightens this shady spot,
and clumps of dwarf boxwood (Buxus),
along with the cherry-red stems of
variegated dogwood (Cornus), maintain
structure in winter. Tall ag iris makes
a bold vertical statement and, though
normally grown in water, its vigor is
controlled in drier soil. Silver curry plants
(Helichrysum) thrive in a patch of sunlight.

Border basics
Size 6 x 12 ft (1.8 x 4 m)
Suits Shade-tolerant shrubs and perennials
grown for foliage contrast
Soil Fertile, moisture-retentive
Site Cool, lightly shaded

Cornus alba Elegantissima

Sambucus nigra Marginata

qeab

qeab

Helichrysum italicum

Iris pseudacorus var. bastardii

qda

qefab

Pulmonaria saccharata Sissinghurst


White qebc

Buxus sempervirens Suffruticosa

Shopping list
1 x Cornus alba Elegantissima
1 x Sambucus nigra Marginata
3 x Helichrysum italicum
3 x Iris pseudacorus var. bastardii
7 x Pulmonaria saccharata
Sissinghurst White

3 x Buxus sempervirens Suffruticosa


Planting and aftercare
Most plants here would thrive in clayrich soil. Improve dry soil by working in
plenty of well-rotted manure. The curry
plant requires sharply drained ground,
so dig in plenty of grit before planting,
or swap for pearly everlasting (Anaphalis
triplinervis) as this tolerates clay and
shade. Siberian iris (Iris sibirica) could also
replace the ag iris. Mulch with bark after
planting. Clip the boxwood to shape in
early summer. In early spring, prune the
elder back to a low framework and, once
established, remove a third of the oldest
stems of the dogwood. Prune the curry
plant in spring to keep it bushy, and if
mildew attacks the pulmonaria, cut back,
fertilize, and water to aid regrowth.

qdeb

Cool foliage collection

135

136

Planting ideas

Architectural designs
All these plants have such a sculptural
prole that the overall effect is very
dramatic. The yellow-stemmed bamboo
(Phyllostachys) makes an effective screen
and, building a subtropical theme, two
bold variegated yuccas dominate the
foreground. Giant feather grass (Stipa
gigantea) carries shimmering seedheads
well into fall, its vertical form contrasting
with the spreading tussocks of the New
Zealand sedge (Carex comans). This
bronze evergreens color and form
work beautifully with the broad, thick,
textured foliage of the blue-leaved hosta
and spiky black ophiopogon.

Border basics

Stipa gigantea

qda

Phyllostachys aureosulcata
f. aureocaulis qeab

Yucca lamentosa Bright Edge

Hosta sieboldiana var. elegans

qda

qeb

Ophiopogon planiscapus Nigrescens

Carex comans bronze-leaved

qdab

qeab

Size 8 x 8 ft (2.5 x 2.5 m)


Suits Sculptural evergreens, bamboos, and
grasslike plants
Soil Well-drained to moisture-retentive
Site Sunny

Shopping list
1 x Stipa gigantea
1 x Phyllostachys aureosulcata

f. aureocaulis
2 x Yucca lamentosa Bright Edge
3 x Hosta sieboldiana var. elegans
5 x Ophiopogon planiscapus
Nigrescens
3 x Carex comans bronze-leaved

Planting and aftercare


Prepare individual planting holes. The
stipa, yucca, and ophiopogon thrive in
sharply drained soil, so in heavier soil,
work in plenty of grit. The sedges, hostas,
and bamboo, meanwhile, enjoy moistureretentive conditions. Improve dry, sandy
ground by digging in well-rotted manure.
Mulch with bark. The hosta has good
slug resistance but watch for damage to
new leaves. In spring, cut the sedge back
hard, as the regrowth is more colorful,
and trim back the old ower stems of
the stipa. Cut a few older bamboo canes
at the base to maintain an open habit.

Architectural designs

137

138

Planting ideas

Easy perennials
With the right plants, you can sit back
and enjoy fabulous owering displays
all summer long for next to no effort.
This recipe combines colorful blooms
and handsome foliage set off against
the dark backdrop of a yew hedge.
Relatively new on the scene, the blue
cranesbill Nimbus blooms from late
spring to midsummer and is furnished
with intricately cut foliage. Pincushionowered knautia takes over from midto late summer accompanied by tall spikes
of the ornamental sage Ostfriesland.
The silvery felted lambs ears (Stachys)
and hairlike stipa make a textural foil.

Border basics

Geranium Nimbus

Knautia macedonica

qdeab

qda

Salvia nemorosa Ostfriesland

Stachys byzantina Silver Carpet

qda

qda

Stipa tenuissima

Taxus baccata

qda

qdac

Size 5 x 6 ft (1.5 x 1.8 m)


Suits Easy-care perennials and grasses
Soil Fertile, moist but well-drained
Site Sunny

Shopping list
3 x Geranium Nimbus
5 x Knautia macedonica
5 x Salvia nemorosa Ostfriesland
3 x Stachys byzantina Silver Carpet
5 x Stipa tenuissima
Taxus baccata (hedge)
Planting and aftercare
Cut the yew hedge toward the end of
summer; leave a gap between the hedge
and the border for access. Improve poor,
dry soil with well-rotted manure, garden
compost, or spent mushroom compost.
This arrangement is best planted in
spring or early fall. Mulch with bark to
control weeds. The following spring, cut
plants back to new growth arising from
the basenone of them should require
staking, but pushing a few twiggy sticks
in around the cranesbill in spring will
help stop plants from sprawling too far.
Deadhead the knautia as often as you
can to prolong owering. Cutting back
cranesbill foliage after owering
encourages compact, new leafy growth.

Easy perennials

139

140 Planting ideas

Contemporary prairie
This example of new wave or prairiestyle planting is stylish and easy to care
for. The ornamental sage, yellow foxglove,
and verbena attract bees and butteries,
and if you leave this meadow to die
down naturally, it will provide a valuable
habitat for benecial insects, small
mammals, and birds. Flowering begins
with the foxglove (Digitalis) and the
violet-purple sage (Mainacht or May
Night) in early summer, and reaches a
peak in midsummer when the verbena
joins the display. Giant feather grass
(Stipa) throws up tall wands of glistening
seedheads which, along with the
verbena, last well into fall. You could
consider maiden grass (Miscanthus
sinensis Gracillimus) as a tall, narrowleaved alternative to the stipa.

Stipa gigantea

Verbena bonariensis

qda

pda

Border basics
Size 8 x 8 ft (2.5 x 2.5 m)
Suits Grasses, natural-looking perennials
Soil Fertile, well-drained but not dry
Site Sunny, open

Shopping list
5 x Stipa gigantea or Miscanthus
sinensis Gracillimus

9 x Verbena bonariensis
7 x Salvia x sylvestris Mainacht
7 x Digitalis lutea

Digitalis lutea

qdeab
Alternative plant idea

Planting and aftercare


Plant in early fall or mid- to late spring,
improving dry or poor soil by adding
well-rotted manure or garden compost.
Lay out the plants in large overlapping
blocks or swaths and use the tall,
see-through verbena at intervals
between shorter plants to create a more
dynamic and naturalistic arrangement.
All of the plants can be left to die down
naturally at the end of the season, as the
old ower stems and seedheads remain
attractive well into the winter. Trim
back in spring but leave the evergreen
grass tussocks.

Salvia x sylvestris Mainacht

Miscanthus sinensis Gracillimus

qda

qeab

Contemporary prairie

141

142

Planting ideas

Aromatic herb border


Many traditional herb-garden plants
have potential for use in low-maintenance
plans, as they are mostly evergreen
and drought-resistant. Here, aromatic
lavender and common thyme blend
with a cream-owered cotton lavender
(Santolina) and giant, silver-leaved
cardoon (Cynara). Wispy bronze sedges
weave through the planting, linking the
various elements. The resulting slatemulched bed has a muted, contemporary
feel and would work well in full sun,
adjacent to an open expanse of paving
or decking. Add cream Crocus chrysanthus
at the front for spring color.

Border basics
Size 6 x 5 ft (1.8 x 1.5 m)
Suits Drought-tolerant herbs, perennials,
and sedges
Soil Reasonably fertile, sharply drained
Site Sunny, sheltered from wind

Shopping list
3 x Santolina pinnata subsp.
neapolitana Edward Bowles

5 x Thymus vulgaris
1 x Cynara cardunculus
5 x Lavandula Fathead
7 x Carex agellifera
Planting and aftercare
Plant between spring and early summer,
to give the herbs a chance to establish
before winter. Improve the drainage of
clay soils by digging in grit or gravel. Soak
plants, remove pots, and set out to make
a pleasing arrangement. For weed-free
gardening, plant through membrane
and mulch with slate chips or gravel.
Clip over the lavender after owering
in late summer and, in fall, tidy up the
faded leaves and woody ower stalk
of the cardoon. The following spring,
cut the cotton lavender back to a low
framework, and lightly trim the thymes.
Trimming the sedges close to the base in
spring encourages colorful regrowth.

Santolina pinnata subsp. neapolitana


Edward Bowles qda

Thymus vulgaris

qda

Aromatic herb border

Cynara cardunculus

Lavandula Fathead

Carex agellifera

qda

qda

qdeab

143

144 Planting ideas

Chic foliage collection


The key to creating a contemporary look
is to limit your plan to a single subject
or just a handful of texturally interesting
plants. Here the pink-leaved phormium
adds height and vibrancy, its straplike
foliage contrasting strongly with the
bold, rounded leaves of the Bergenia.
Flowering in spring, Bergenia Red
Beauty gives early-season interest and
is followed by the simple white blooms
of the convolvulus. An evergreen with
leaves like strips of metal, the elegant
convolvulus mirrors the silver container
and complements the other plants,
especially the black ophiopogon.

Container basics
Size Galvanized metal container, approx.
16 in (40 cm) in diameter
Suits Architectural evergreen shrubs
and perennials
Soil Loam-based, free-draining
potting mix

Site Sunny, sheltered from hard frosts

Bergenia Red Beauty

Convolvulus cneorum

qdecb

pda

Ophiopogon planiscapus Nigrescens

Phormium Jester

qdeab

pda

Shopping list
1 x Bergenia Red Beauty
1 x Ophiopogon planiscapus

Nigrescens
1 x Convolvulus cneorum
1 x Phormium Jester

Planting and aftercare


Metal containers heat and cool rapidly,
potentially damaging roots, so insulate
with a layer of bubble wrap or use a
plastic pot as a liner, lling the gap with
oating row cover. Cover the drainage
holes with crocks and pour in 2 in (5 cm)
of gravel. Half-ll with a good quality
soil-based potting mix, adding slowrelease fertilizer at the recommended rate.
Arrange the plants to nd the best t,
then plunge each pot into a pail of water,
drain, and plant. Fill any gaps with more
soil and water thoroughly. Water
regularly, remove faded bergenia owers,
and renew fertilizer granules annually.

Chic foliage collection 145

146 Planting ideas

Cottage garden in a container


Plain or decorated, terra-cotta tends to
t in well with older historic properties
and traditional types of gardens, such
as formal or cottage style. When buying,
check that the pots are guaranteed
frostproof and have no visible cracks
or chips; a bell-like ring when struck
indicates that the pot is sound. Being
porous, clay is ideal for herbs, alpines,
succulents, and drought-tolerant plants;
if you want to use other plants, and still
cut down on watering, it is best to line
the pots with plastic.

Container basics
Size Terra-cotta pot, approx. 15 in (38 cm)
in diameter
Suits Mediterranean-style perennials,
herbs, and succulents
Soil Loam-based, free-draining
potting mix
Site Sunny for most of the day

Diascia Sunchimes Lilac

Lavandula angustifolia Hidcote

pdea

qda

Shopping list
1 x Lavandula angustifolia Hidcote
2 x Scabiosa Pink Mist or
Osteospermum White Pim

1 x Sedum Ruby Glow


2 x Diascia Sunchimes Lilac
Scabiosa Pink Mist

Planting and aftercare


Soak the pot until the sides have turned a
darker shade, indicating saturation, as this
reduces the amount of moisture absorbed
from the soil by the clay. Otherwise, line
with black plastic, making sure that the
drainage holes are uncovered. Protect
the holes with ne mesh, at stones or
broken crocks, and add a layer of gravel
for drainage. Half ll with loam-based mix
combined with a slow-release fertilizer.
After soaking the plants, arrange them
to create a pleasing display. Carefully ll
around the root balls, and nish at a nal
soil level 2 in (5 cm) below the rim to
allow for watering. Regularly deadhead
the scabious and diascia, and shear the
lavender after owering.

qda
Alternative plant idea

Sedum Ruby Glow

Osteospermum White Pim

qda

qda

Cottage garden in a container

147

148 Caring for your garden

Tidying up your garden


A well-planned, easy-care garden can be
spruced up in no time, especially if lawns
have been replaced by low-maintenance
surfaces, and borders contain plenty of
evergreens and nonowering plants
that dont need deadheading.
Garden facelift
During the growing season, weekly jobs, like mowing,
deadheading, and sweeping, make a big difference to the
look of the garden. Other tasks, such as hedge trimming
and patio cleaning, as well as painting or renishing various
surfaces, may only be necessary once or twice a year. This
spring cleaning, however, is vital in easy-care gardens,
where much more emphasis is placed on hard landscaping
features. Shabby, mismatched fencing panels, peeling wall
paint, faded decking, and paving slabs covered with algae
catch the eye and mar your overall enjoyment. But if you
have appropriate tools (some can be rented), you should
be able to take care of such problem areas with ease.

Vacuum outside These handy but noisy tools allow


debris, litter, and fallen leaves to be collected from paving
and lawns, as well as from gravel and pebble surfaces,
where it is difcult to use a brush.

Better mowing Maintain your own machine, or have it


serviced regularly, to achieve the most efcient performance.
Consider investing in a larger, more powerful mower if
yours is too small for tackling the size of your lawn.

Keeping hedges trim Electric or gas-powered hedge


trimmers are so much faster and less tiring to use than
hand shears. To avoid raking up the debris, lay a tarp
down to catch the trimmings.

Tidying up your garden

149

Lift off dirt The strong jet of water produced by a


pressure washer will lift grime and algae from paving,
leaving a nish that looks like new. Test on a hidden
corner rst to make sure the surface wont be damaged.

Instant makeover Rolls of bamboo, willow, and heather


screening can be used to cover mismatched fencing panels
or ugly chain link for an instant and economical facelift.
Attach with wire or plastic ties, or a heavy-duty staple gun.

Easy cover-up Repainting a wall freshens it up nicely, and


applying a new color can add a designer touch to a patio
or courtyard. After rubbing down the surface thoroughly,
apply a quality exterior paint with a roller for ease.

Protect your wood Decking, fencing, trellises, and other


wooden structures benet from an application of allweather paints, stains, and preservatives. Many companies
offer special tools for speedy and efcient application.

150

Why and when to prune

EASY PRUNING

Informal pruning
Most gardeners love the appearance of a
naturalistic, seemingly unpruned garden,
brimming with owers and foliage.

Although the look can be achieved with


the minimal amount of work, to create
this informal style takes a little practice.

Informal pruning

Picture clockwise from left

Wild and free The scene of roses growing


in the garden of an old-fashioned country
cottage typifies the naturalistic look but,
despite appearances, regular pruning has
achieved this effect. Long, leggy growths
that spoil the shape of the rambler on the
wall are cut back into the main body of
the plant as soon as they are seen. In fall
or early spring, the plant is given a gentle
overall trim to keep its shape. A hard
pruning is needed every three to five years.
Beautiful berries Firethorns (Pyracantha)
make excellent informal, burglar-proof
boundary hedges, their thorny stems
keeping unwanted visitors at bay. These
shrubs come into their own in fall when
covered in berries, and are pruned lightly
in spring. Take care not to cut back too
much, or you risk losing the berries.
Natural border The success of this
scheme is no accident; clever plant selection
and a careful pruning regimen ensure its
natural appeal. If left completely unpruned,
one or two plants would become dominant
and take over. The silver-leaved Santolina
and golden sage are lightly trimmed
annually, while the Hypericum Hidcote is
pruned every two or three years to maintain
its shape. When in full bloom, the border
looks like it has never been pruned.
Color and texture A good planting
combination and the correct plant spacing
ensures that this border of Ceanothus
Puget Blue, Mexican orange blossom
(Choisya Aztec Pearl), and shrubby
honeysuckle (Lonicera nitida Baggesens
Gold) needs only minimal pruning. If
vigorous plants had been chosen or this
selection had been placed too close
together, the border would need much
more work. The stems of the Ceanothus
are shortened annually after flowering (see
p.335) and the sideshoots of the Choisya
and shrubby honeysuckle are removed every
two or three years to keep them balanced.

151

152

Why and when to prune

Pruning for a formal look


Trees and shrubs can be pruned and
trained into many different shapes, and
used to great effect in formal designs.
Use them as focal points, to create views
or backdrops, and to introduce shape
and structure into the garden.
Pictures clockwise from top left
Pleached effects Trees such as lindens (Tilia) or
hornbeams (Carpinus) can be trained into a structure
that resembles a formal hedge on top of a series of
straight trunks. This is achieved by training the branches
horizontally so that they touch those of the next tree,
which is trained in a similar fashion. Each year, the shoots
that grow from these branches are pruned back to the
main branch, resulting in a hedge with a distinctive
structure. Use pleached trees to create high hedged
effects or as a screen for a formal garden.
Plant patterns A parterre is made from hedges laid out
in formal patterns and flowerbeds. The hedges can be of
different heights and widths, and the designs intricate or
simple. Plants used for a parterre must have a dense
growing habit and be tolerant of close clipping, such as
boxwood (Buxus) or yew (Taxus).
Rose covering Roses have been pruned and trained
to cover the wooden supports that frame the view of the
formal garden beyond. Mass plantings of hybrid tea and
floribunda roses also add to the formal design.
Elegant head This beautiful shrub, Viburnum
rhytidophyllum, has been pruned to create a stunning
focal point. The lowest side stems have been removed,
and the top allowed to form a branched head, which
appears to float on its elegant legs. This style of pruning
can be practiced on many different plants but works best
with evergreen shrubs.
Leafy canopy To create this leafy roof structure, several
Sorbus aria have been trained so that the upper branches
arch over to meet in the middle. No branches must be
allowed to grow from the trunks, as this would spoil the
effect, and those used to form the roof are pruned
annually so the structure doesnt lose its shape. This
eye-catching canopy takes many years to create.

Pruning for a formal look

153

154 Why and when to prune

Pruning to create space


Plants are often pruned to keep them in
check, but some delightful effects can
be achieved with more imaginative

techniques, like clearing lower stems of


trees and shrubs to create elegant shapes
and extra planting space beneath them.

Pruning to create space

Pictures from left to right

Training standard bays Lollipop shapes


are very useful in a gardens design, as they
create interest and structure. Plants that
are pruned to create a bare trunk are called
standards. This technique is an excellent
way of confining the size of large shrubs
and creating space underneath for a bed
of shade-loving plants.
Tiny treelike wisterias If left unpruned,
wisterias are large climbers, but it is possible
to restrain them with careful pruning. Fruit
trees can be trained and pruned in a similar
way to fit restricted spaces.
Long-legged birches The most beautiful
feature of a silver birch (Betula) is its
gleaming white stem. To show the trunks
off to the best effect, remove the lower
branches. This opens up planting spaces
beneath, which are perfect for shadelovers, such as these Rodgersia. This
pruning technique can be used for any
tree or shrub with attractive bark.

155

156

Why and when to prune

Pruning to encourage owering


Pruning plants correctly can increase the
number of owering shoots produced by
the plant, giving you more owers.

Knowing when and where to prune can


make the difference between a poor
show and a mass of color and scent.

Pruning to encourage owering

Pictures clockwise from left

Purple rain A curtain of scented flowers


in late spring, Wisteria sinensis needs to be
carefully trained and spur-pruned each year
in late winter to encourage flower bud
formation (see pp.172173). Wisteria grows
very vigorously, so in midsummer, shorten
the current seasons growth by at least half,
which also helps encourage the formation
of flower buds.
Snowy summer show During early
summer, Philadelphus Belle Etoile is
covered with large white scented flowers
on arching branches. Philadelphus produces
flowers on stems that formed the previous
summer, so after it has flowered, remove
about one-third of the oldest flowering
stems, pruning them almost to ground level.
Do this annually to help contain the overall
size and shape of the plant and encourage
plenty of new growth, which will be the
flowering stems of the future.
Rose heaven Training a climbing rose,
such as this Rosa Climbing Mrs. Sam
McGredy, over supports shows off the
blooms to their best effect. In late winter
or early spring, remove approximately
one-third of the oldest stems close to
ground level. On the remaining older stems,
spur-prune all the sideshoots and last years
flowering stems back to two or three
healthy buds (see pp.172173) from the
main stem. Flowering growths will be
produced from these spurs in the summer.
At the same time, tie in strong new growth
formed the previous year, which will need
this support when they produce flowers.
Less is more Clematis montana is a
vigorous plant, often grown over buildings
and large plant supports. No pruning is
required, but it may need trimming after
blooming to keep it in check. In fact,
some clematis are better left unpruned to
encourage maximum flower production.
In this instance, pruning reduces the volume
of flowers that appear in late spring.

157

158 Why and when to prune

Pruning for colorful stems and bark


Some trees and shrubs produce bold,
colorful stems and bark, which can be
enhanced by careful pruning to create
dazzling effects, especially during the
winter when the branches are bare.
Pictures clockwise from top left
Bright highlights Grown for its attractive white peeling
bark, the birch Betula utilis var. jacquemontii is especially
effective in the winter when silhouetted against an
evergreen backdrop. When the tree is young, use pruners
in early summer to remove the lowest small branches.
Then, when the stem has reached the height at which
you want the branches to form, allow them to grow but
continue to remove the smallest side branches. This will
give you a simple yet strong, distinctive branch shape,
and a clean white trunk.
Snakeskin decoration Unusual white striations on the
green bark of Acer White Tigress give rise to the trees
common namesnakebark maple. To see these markings
at their best, create a clear stem of between 4 and 6 ft
(1.21.8 m) by removing the lowest branches with pruners
annually, until you have the required length of stem.
Show-stopping stems The dogwood Cornus
stolonifera Flaviramea is grown for its outstanding winter
stem interest, with different cultivars ranging from green
to orange and dark red. This dogwood is most effective
when grown in groups of two or three plants. To achieve
the striking winter stem interest, prune the plants annually
in early spring using pruners (see pp.168169).
Burnished bark A member of the cherry family, Prunus
rufa is grown for its ornamental mahogany-colored bark
rather than its flowers, and is ideal for small gardens. The
beautiful bark looks best when you can see through the
branch structure. To achieve this, remove all the smaller
and crossing branches from the main structure.
Beautiful brambles Rubus cockburnianus is an
ornamental suckering bramble grown for its attractive
winter stems, which are white and red in color. This plant
is both a beauty and a beastthe stems are covered in
thorns and make an almost impenetrable barrier, so
you will need to wear gloves and eye protection when
pruning. To attain the attractive winter stem color, cut
the stems to the ground annually in early spring.

Pruning for colorful stems and bark

159

160 Why and when to prune

Pruning for fruit


Fruit brings welcome color into the yard
as well as edible treats. Fruit bushes and
trees require a lot of pruning, but the
blossoms and then the colorful and
delicious fruit make it all worthwhile.
Pictures clockwise from left
Colorful blueberries The bushes of this popular fruit
are of great value: they flower in the spring, fruit in the
summer, and then provide lovely foliage color in the fall.
Blueberries fruit on branches produced the previous year.
Prune the bushes during the winter, removing two or
three of the oldest stems each year, as well as any weak,
dead, or diseased growths. Also remove any of the lower
branches that may lie on the ground when laden with
fruit in the summer.
Decorative apples Apple trees are beautiful in blossom
and when covered in fruits. When choosing an apple tree
for your yard, bear in mind that different varieties grow
at different rates, so look for one that suits the size of
your yard and the space available. Prune apple trees in
the winter to give an open, airy structure. Do not prune
too hard as this stimulates vegetative growth at the
expense of flower buds and fruit.
Productive pears Pear trees are suitable for small yards
if trained in a pyramid shape. To keep a tree small, reduce
the length of the main leader (the tallest stem at the top
of the tree) in winter. Also remove any congested growths
during the winter when you can clearly see the skeleton
of the tree. Then, in late summer, reduce the side
branches by pruning them back to one leaf bud from the
main stem. Pear trees will fruit without any pruning, but
they can become too large for a small yard.
Wall-trained espaliers One of the most beautiful
and artistic ways to grow an apple tree is to train it as
an espalier against a wall, where pairs of branches are
trained horizontally from the central stem. Apple espaliers
are suitable for small yards, but require great care and
maintenance. During the late summer, prune all the
sideshoots, taking each one back to the first noticeable
leaf above the main horizontal branch. As the plant
grows older, the branches that produce fruit will become
crowded and will then require thinning in the winter.

Pruning for fruit

161

162 How to prune

Choosing pruning tools


Using the right tool for the right job is
one of the most important factors when
pruning. Choose your tools carefully and

look for good-quality products that are


safe to use and make sharp, clean cuts
that wont damage your plants.

Pruners There are two types of


pruners: anvil (above) and bypass
(right). The cutting blade of anvil
pruners presses down onto a metal
block edge, while the bypasss cutting
blade passes the bottom blade in a
scissor action. Bypass pruners give
a cleaner cut and are easier to use.
Only use pruners for cutting stems
less than in (1.5 cm) in diameter.

Pruning saw An essential tool, this


saw has either a folding or xed
blade that can be replaced when it is
worn or damaged. Pruning saws are
good for awkward situations.

Long-armed saw Use this saw for


cutting small branches above head
height. Always wear eye protection
and a safety helmet, and save large
branches for the professionals.

Bow saw Only use this tool for


cutting branches that have already
been pruned and removed. The
shape makes it unsuitable for use
in difcult and awkward situations.

Choosing pruning tools

163

Loppers Often used for pruning branches that are too


thick for prunersalthough a pruning saw is the ideal
toolor for reducing the length of branches and stems.
When using loppers, dont employ excessive pressure,
as you can easily twist and crush the pruned stem.

Long-armed loppers If you need to shorten stems, or


remove dead or diseased material that is above head
height, this is a useful tool. Never use long-armed loppers
to cut stems more than 1 in (2.5 cm) in diameter as they
can be quite difcult to control.

Electric hedge trimmer Useful for cutting most types of


hedges. Always work from the bottom to the top, make
sure the cord is behind you, use a GFI outlet, and never
use in damp or wet conditions. Wear ear protection and
read the instructions before use.

Gas hedge trimmer Usually much heavier than electric


types, gas trimmers can be tiring to use for long periods.
They will saw through most hedges, and are useful for
cutting those with thick sideshoots. Always wear ear
protection and read the instructions carefully.

164 How to prune

Tool care and safety tips


Using the right pruning tools and correct also protect yourself against accidents if
safety equipment helps to ensure that
your equipment is well maintained, and
pruning is safe and enjoyable. You will
extend the life of your tools.
Cleaning pruners

When pruning, plant sap dries and


sticks to the blades, making them stiff.
Scrape off the sap using a piece of
metal with a straight edge, such as
a metal plant label or penknife.

Then rub the blade with steel wool to


remove any remaining dried sap and
rust or other material. To prevent
accidental cuts, wear gloves while
cleaning your blades.

When the blade is clean, rub on


some lubricating oil. This guards
against rusting, and keeps the
pruners sharp and clean while they
are being stored.

Next, use steel wool to rub both sides


of the saw blade. This removes dried
sap and dirt, which can also make the
saw less efcient.

Before putting the saw away after


cleaning, rub some lubricating oil
onto it with a cloth to protect the
blade from rusting.

Cleaning pruning saws

When you have nished pruning, use


a coarse brush to remove any sawdust
lodged in the saws teeth. If this is left,
it can harden and reduce the saws
cutting ability.

Tool care and safety tips

Wear gloves Always wear sturdy


gloves when pruning to protect your
hands from sharp tools, and from
cuts and scratches caused by thorny
or sharp-edged plants.

Use protective goggles Protect


eyes from dust, sawdust, and plant
trimmings, especially when working
above head height. Goggles also
protect against thorns and shoots.

165

Keep electric wires behind you


When using electric hedge trimmers,
ensure that the cord is behind you so
you cannot cut through it, and plug it
into a GFI outlet.
Pruning your neighbors plants
Before pruning plants that are
overhanging your yard, speak to your
neighbors. You are more likely to
reach an agreement about how much
to cut off if you maintain a good
relationship. However, branches that
overhang your yard may be classed by
law as trespassing on your space, and
you may have the right to cut them
back to your boundary; check the
laws in your state or province before
you start. The branches that you have
cut and any fruit that was on them
should then be returned to your
neighbor. You are not allowed to
enter your neighbors property, or
to lean over it to prune your hedge,
without seeking permission rst.

Making ladders safe Use a tripod


ladder, and ensure it is stable by fully
extending the legs. Dont over-stretch
or lean out to either side. If possible,
ask someone to stand at the bottom.

Using platforms and ladders Before


using this equipment, ensure that
each set of legs is on level ground and
adjust if not. Do not over-stretch or
lean out too far on either side.

The dangers of chain saws Always


call in a trained arborist to cut down
large branches that can be only safely
removed with a chain saw. Do not
attempt to use one yourself.

166 How to prune

Essential pruning jobs


Most pruning tasks are
performed annually, but
those outlined here need
immediate attention and
are best tackled as soon
as problems are seen.

Crossing and rubbing branches


Branches that have grown too close
together and are rubbing against
each other are a common problem.
If you spot these, remove one of the
branches, either the weakest one
or the stem that has suffered the
most damage. Branches that rub
each other can create open wounds
through which disease may enter
the plant, causing serious problems.

Removing suckers

Cutting out reverted leaves

A sucker is a vigorous strong growth that emerges from


a point low down on a plant, close to the root system. If
left, it can choke the plant or reduce its vigor. Such shoots
are normally found on plants that have been grafted, such
as roses, and usually look quite different from the rest of
the plant. If seen early, remove such a shoot by quickly
tugging it away with a gloved hand, or if it has grown too
large, remove the shoot using pruners.

Reversion is when the leaves of a variegated plant turn


pure green. If left to grow, these green shoots, which
have greater vigor, can take over and ruin the
appearance of the plant. When you see any shoots that
are showing signs of reversion, remove them completely
using pruners, and make sure that you prune back to
where the shoots are still all variegated. This can be
done at any time of the year.

A sucker growing from below the graft (knobby bulge) on a rose

Remove green shoots from variegated plants like Euonymus cultivars

Essential pruning jobs 167

Dealing with twin leaders

Limiting frost damage

Twin leaders occur at the top of a tree when two stems


of similar vigor are growing close together. Remove the
weaker stem using pruners. If left unpruned, the stems
will try to grow away from each other, causing a
weakness to develop. One stem may then break away
from the tree, causing serious damage. Although this may
not happen until the tree is much older, prompt action
when the plant is young will prevent future problems.

Buds and young shoots can be damaged when caught by


spring frost. Prune plants back to healthy, unfrosted buds
to prevent dieback or diseases from starting at the frosted
points. Most plants will then produce new growths lower
down the stems. However, on some plants, such as
Hydrangea macrophylla, frost may damage all the new
ower buds produced on the previous seasons growth,
and you will lose the coming years blooms.

Remove the weaker stem

Hydrangea macrophylla Libelle with frost damage

A single leader has strength

Cutting out dead and diseased wood

Deadheading to promote owering

Whenever you see dead or diseased wood on any tree


or shrub, remove it immediately. If dead wood is left on a
plant, disease can enter more easily and it may move down
the stems, attacking healthy growth. Dead wood also
looks unsightly. When a tree or shrub has been damaged,
its natural defenses will eventually form a barrier in the
form of a slight swelling between the live and dead wood.
In this instance, remove the dead wood above the barrier.

The removal of dead owerheads can encourage many


repeat-owering plants, like roses, to produce more
blooms. These dead owers can be snapped off with the
ngers, or removed using pruners. On some shrubs, like
rhododendrons, removing the dead owers encourages
the plant to produce more stems, rather than wasting its
energy on making seeds. This enables the plant to
produce more owers the following spring.

Dead wood on a hornbeam

A dying rose bloom can be easily snapped off by hand

Coral spot on a branch

168 How to prune

Making pruning cuts


Trees, shrubs, and climbers grow in
many different ways, and their shoots,
buds, and stems may look completely
different too. To avoid confusion, before
you start pruning, try to identify the
position and type of buds and shoots
on your plant, and then make your cuts.

Identifying a shoot bud Buds come in many different


shapes, sizes, and colors. Some are slight swellings or
raised bumps on the stems; others may be a different
color from the rest of the stem, such as rose buds (see
right). Buds are always produced at the point where leaves
are growing, or have previously been attached to the
stem. When pruning, you always cut immediately above
a bud, which stimulates hormones in the plant to make
the bud develop into a new stem.

Pruning to a new shoot A new shoot is normally light

Pruning to new growth You can recognize the new

green in color and looks quite obvious, as on the clematis


shown here. New shoots can be quite soft and delicate,
and you have to be careful not to damage or break them
when pruning back to the new growth.

growth on a plant because it looks much fresher than old


wood. When pruning, cut off the old wood just above a
new stem, using a sloping cut so that excess moisture runs
away from the young growth.

Making pruning cuts

169

Cutting opposite buds The buds of some plants, such

Cutting alternate buds The buds of plants such as

as dogwoods (Cornus) and hydrangeas, are opposite each


other. Prune immediately above a pair of buds with a flat,
straight cut. When the buds grow, they will produce two
shoots growing in opposite directions from one another.

roses and wisteria grow alternately along the stems. Try


to prune to a bud that is facing outward, away from the
center of the plant. Make a sloping cut immediately above
the bud, so that excess moisture runs away from the bud.

Using a pruning saw If the stem you intend to prune is

Shearing When cutting shrubs or hedges with a dense

thicker than a finger, use a pruning saw to make the cut.


Many stems are spoiled by attempting to cut them with
incorrect tools. Pruning saws make a much cleaner cut
than loppers. Always wear protective gloves.

habit, such as yew (Taxus) or boxwood (Buxus), hand


shears are the best tool for the job. Shears are also very
useful for trimming lavenders and heathers. Make sure the
shears are sharp and clean so you get a good clean cut.

170

How to prune

Removing branches
It is very important to remove a branch
correctly. Bad or rough cuts can reduce
a plants ability to heal itself, which may
then allow disease to enter the wound.
Eventually this can cause rotting,
reducing the plants life span.
Hard to reach branches Branches that are difficult
to reach can lead the person who is pruning to take
shortcuts. Mistakes are more often made when one is
attempting to prune from a distance. If the branch that
needs to be pruned cannot be reached safely by a ladder,
seek the help of a trained and experienced arborist. If a
small branch is not too high, it may be possible to prune
it with a long-armed lopper or pruning saw, following
the same procedure shown opposite.

Torn branches A heavy branch is likely to tear when

Bad cuts Never cut flush to the trunk of the tree, as this

being pruned, as its weight will pull down the stem and
rip it before you can complete your cut. If you dont have
someone to hold the branch while you prune it, shorten
it in stages before attempting the final cut. Also make an
undercut first (see Step 1, facing page), which helps to
prevent tearing when you cut through it from above.

removes the trees own healing system. It can look tidy


to begin with, but the stem will not heal properly, and
the open wound may then allow disease to enter the
tree. Cutting branches flush with the trunk is one of the
major causes of decay and ultimately death in trees.

Removing branches

171

How to remove a branch

Reduce the weight of a heavy branch by cutting it back


to leave a 6-in (15-cm) stump. Then make the nal cut.
To prevent tearing, rst make an undercut where the
branch starts to swell or 1 in (3 cm) from the trunk.

Stop cutting when you are about halfway through the


branch. Then make another slightly angled cut from the
top, just behind the crease in the bark where the branch
meets the trunk. Be sure the upper cut meets the undercut.

Tip for success

This pruning method results in a clean cut, and preserves


the collar, part of the plants healing system. The cut
surface will begin to shrink as the tree produces protective
bark, which will eventually cover the exposed area.

When cutting a heavy branch, ask someone to help support the


weight when you saw. This helps to prevent tearing. It can also
stop the branch from swinging or falling, and damaging the plant
being pruned or injuring the person who is pruning.

172

How to prune

Spur pruning
Spur pruning encourages bud
formation on trees, shrubs,
and climbers. Where this rose
has been spur-pruned, it has
produced three new stems,
each of which will ower.

Spur pruning

173

Spur-pruning a rose

To spur-prune a climbing rose, nd a healthy sideshoot growing


from one of the main stems. Count two or three buds from the stem
along the shoot. Make an angled cut immediately above this second
or third bud, sloping away from it. Repeat farther up the main stem.

After pruning, you will be left with short growths, which are
described as spurs. From the buds on these spurs, two or three
owering stems will emerge, depending on how many buds were
left on the spur.

Spur-pruning wisteria

Spur-prune wisterias in late winter. Using pruners, shorten each


new shoot that has grown the previous season, so that two or three
healthy buds remain. Always make the cut immediately above the
outermost bud and sloping away from it.

This picture shows the stems once they have been shortened to two
or three buds. The buds on the short spurs will swell to produce
owers or owering stems in late spring and early summer,
producing cascades of sweetly scented purple or white blooms.

174

Pruning shrubs and trees

Pruning hydrangeas
Hydrangea paniculata owers in late
in early spring to promote new
summer on stems it has made that same owering wood. This also encourages
year. To keep the plants compact, prune larger ower panicles in the summer.

Hydrangea paniculata is an elegant plant with wonderful large


conelike owerheads. Most have white owers, but there are also
cultivars that are tinged with pink. They make excellent shrubs for
the late summer garden.

Any large, unhealthy branches should be cut back to


healthy wood or to the base using a pruning saw. This
prevents disease from spreading to the rest of the plant
and promotes the growth of new, vigorous stems.

In late winter or early spring, prune last seasons stems to


one or two buds from their base. Also take out any dead,
diseased, crossing, or weak branches.

After pruning, you will be left with an open framework of


branches. These will produce a mass of growth during the
summer and an abundance of beautiful white owers.

Pruning hydrangeas 175

Hydrangea macrophylla, or orists


hydrangea, owers in summer from
buds that have already been set the

Hydrangea macrophylla produces sumptuous large owerheads


in blue, pink or white during the summer months, before
H. paniculata. To ensure a good display, the developing ower
buds need some frost protection throughout winter.

When the danger of hard frost has passed in late spring,


remove the owerheads by pruning the stems back to a
pair of healthy buds, as shown.

previous summer. These buds are prone


to frost damage in the spring months,
and plants need careful pruning.

The hydrangeas old owerheads help to protect the


delicate new ower buds from frost, so leave them on the
plant during the winter months. The dried owers also add
structure and interest to the winter garden.

Do not be tempted to prune too hard, as this will remove


many of the ower buds, which will have already formed
on the stems that grew the previous year. New stems that
grow in the coming year will bloom the following summer.

176

Pruning shrubs and trees

How to prune a smoke bush


Grown for their outstanding summer
and fall foliage, and tiny, cloudlike
owers, smoke bushes (Cotinus) are
best pruned annually in the spring.

Other plants to prune this way

Catalpa bignonioides
Cotinus coggygria
Rhus chinensis
Rhus typhina

Sambucus nigra
Weigela Praecox
Variegata

Weigela Wine and Roses

Foliage effects

Pruning hard encourages the


plant to produce larger, more
decorative leaves, although you
may lose the smokelike blooms.

How to prune a smoke bush

Mature smoke bushes can outgrow their allotted location


and suffer from dieback. Both problems are easily
remedied by cutting plants back hard in the spring before
the leaves appear.

To keep a cotinus small and compact, cut back all of the


taller branches to about 2 ft (60 cm). Prune to healthy
wood, which you can identify by checking that it is green
in color beneath the bark, and make sloping cuts.

177

First, remove any dead growth using a pruning saw.


Also cut out diseased stems, taking them back to healthy
growth. When removing large branches, cut them back in
stages to ensure that they do not tear.

Continue around the plant until you are left with a core
structure of stems, each no higher than 2 ft (60 cm).
New growth will soon start to sprout, resulting in plenty
of fresh foliage that will provide exciting fall color.

178

Pruning shrubs and trees

Pruning witch hazel


With their fragrant, spidery
owers, witch hazels
(Hamamelis) are wonderful
shrubs in winter, but if left
unpruned, they can become
too large for a small garden.

Tip for success

Prune witch hazels just as the


owers are fading but before the
leaves unfurl. Cut just above a
healthy young sideshoot.

Pruning witch hazel

To reduce the size of this plant, in early spring prune back


the taller branches by 1220 in (3050 cm). Try to keep in
mind the overall shape you are aiming to achieve.

179

While pruning, step back occasionally to look at what


you have cut out, and what still needs to be done. Always
prune out old stems, leaving healthy young growth.

Tip for success

Occasionally you may nd some crossing branches in the


center of the bush that are difcult to reach. If a branch
is awkwardly positioned, it may be easier to cut upward
from below the branch.

If you are not sure how much to remove, reduce the length of the
stems a little at a time. Stand back, and then prune more if needed,
until you have created an attractive overall shape.

180 Pruning shrubs and trees

How to prune shrubby honeysuckle


Prune winter-owering shrubs, such as
Lonicera x purpusii Winter Beauty, in
early summer. Remove the oldest
owering stems to encourage new,
strong shoots to grow from the base.

Tip for success

It is much easier to use a pruning


saw to cut through branches
that are too thick for either
loppers or pruners.

How to prune shrubby honeysuckle

First, reduce one-third of the oldest stems on the plant.


Use loppers to cut back their length by about half, thereby
decreasing the weight of the stem and preventing tearing,
before you make the nal cut closer to the ground.

Using pruners, shorten the tallest of the new stems,


which may be over 6 ft (1.8 m) high, by several inches
(centimeters). This encourages buds farther down the
plant to shoot, creating a bushier plant with more owers.

181

With the loppers or a pruning saw, cut back to 12 in


(30 cm) above the ground the stems that you have already
pruned by half. Make a sloping cut immediately above a
sideshoot to allow rain to run off the cut surface.

When you have nished pruning, you should still have


some older stems that will produce ower buds the
following winter. The strong young growths coming from
the base will now have more room to develop.

182 Pruning shrubs and trees

Hard-pruning a camellia
Evergreen shrubs, such as camellias, that
have outgrown their position can be
hard-pruned in late spring or summer,
just after they have nished owering.

Other plants to prune this way

Aucuba japonica
Elaeagnus pungens
Erica arborea
Escallonia

Fatsia japonica
Prunus laurocerasus
Prunus lusitanica
Viburnum tinus

New growth

A year after pruning, the plant


will have produced a mass of
young stems but may not ower
for a further two or three years.

Hard-pruning a camellia 183

This plant has outgrown its location and now needs to


be cut back hard. Camellias respond very well to severe
pruning, a task best performed immediately after they
have nished owering in late spring or early summer.

Loppers are ideal tools for pruning back awkwardly placed


side stems, allowing you to reach them more easily. But
the nal cut close to the main branch must be made using
a pruning saw, as it gives a cleaner cut.

Use a pruning saw to reduce the height of the plant. To


prevent tearing, cut back large, heavy branches in stages,
rather than cutting off long sections.

Aim to reduce the plants height to about 24 in (60 cm).


By the time you are nished, the camellia will resemble a
small wooden stump, but it will not take long for new
shoots to start growing (see opposite page).

184 Pruning shrubs and trees

Cutting back California lilacs and philadelphus


Most California lilacs (Ceanothus) have
vivid blue owers in early summer. If left
unpruned, they can become large and

Here you can see an evergreen Ceanothus in full bloom


in early summer. To maintain its compact shape, it will
need to be lightly pruned later in the summer, after it is
nished owering.

Use pruners to prune the branches, and make each cut


immediately above a leaf bud. This will encourage the
plant to produce growths from below the cut, resulting
in a compact branching structure.

untidy, but if cut back too severely,


the plant will not regenerate. Prune
immediately after owering is nished.

After owering, you can more clearly see the branch


structure of the plant. To keep it in good shape, cut back
long, untidy branches by 912 in (2230 cm), but leave
some of the shorter stems unpruned.

After pruning, the overall size of the plant is reduced, but it


has not been cut back too severely, which would weaken
it. If pruned like this annually, the Ceanothus will remain
neat and bushy, suitable for a small garden.

Cutting back California lilacs and philadelphus 185

Philadelphus has white, scented owers


in early summer. Prune the plant after
owering to encourage the formation of

new growths, which will bear owers in


the future. An annual pruning also helps
to contain the size of the plant.

In early summer, mock orange (Philadelphus) is a mass


of white scented owers. As soon as owering is nished,
cut back about a quarter of the oldest owering stems to
6 in (15 cm) above the ground.

Cutting back hard some of the oldest stems promotes the


formation of new shoots below the pruning cut, but do
not be tempted to remove all the old stems, as this will
reduce the volume of owers the following summer.

Check the remaining old stems for young growths. These


are best shortened rather than being hard-pruned. Take
off the top third of these young stems, and prune them
back to new wood.

Finally, trim the tips of any strong young stems that are
already present in the plantsome may be as tall as 8 ft
(2.5 m). This encourages them to branch lower down,
which results in more owers.

186 Pruning shrubs and trees

How to prune a patio rose


Patio roses are small, repeat-owering
plants that can be grown in borders or
containers. Prune them in early spring
to encourage a mass of new shoots that
will ower in the summer.

Tip for success

As well as pruning your rose


every year, encourage it to keep
owering for longer by removing
the blooms as they fade.

How to prune a patio rose 187

The aim of pruning is to reduce the plants height by


one-quarter to a half and to create an open shape. Cut
back the outer stems, and then remove dead, diseased,
and damaged growths, plus any weak or crossing stems.

This strong stem is being cut back by one-half, which will


encourage many strong owering shoots to grow from it
in the forthcoming summer.

Always prune above a strong outward-facing bud if


possible. Ensure that the cuts are sloping so that rainfall
runs away from the bud, reducing the chance of its rotting.

As well as producing more owering stems, the resulting


simple framework allows air movement, which reduces the
incidence of fungal diseases. Fertilize and mulch roses
after pruning to further encourage healthy growth.

188 Pruning shrubs and trees

How to prune a shrub rose


Most modern shrub roses are
repeat-owering and do not
need to be pruned as hard as
some roses, since they ower
on older stems. Prune your
shrub roses in early spring.

How to prune a shrub rose 189

The aim of pruning a shrub rose is to create a strong


structure and to remove congested stems that were
produced the previous year. This improves air ow
through the plant, which helps prevent fungal diseases.

Reduce healthy main stems by a quarter, and prune


some of the sideshoots by just a few inches (centimeters).
Always cut above a healthy bud that faces outward, away
from the center of the plant, if possible.

Cut off any dead, damaged, or diseased branches. Then


remove any weak shoots not strong enough to support
new ower growths. Also prune a few of the oldest stems
down to the ground.

The pruned plant should be reduced in height by about


a quarter, and have a strong, open structure that appears
uncluttered in the center. By midsummer the plant should
be covered in beautiful blooms.

190 Pruning shrubs and trees

Pruning other types of roses


Different types of roses have different
pruning needs. Identify your roses and
then follow these guidelines to ensure
that yours produce their best show.
Old garden roses
These roses normally have
one ush of owers each
year. Prune in early spring,
rst removing any dead,
damaged, diseased, weak,
or crossing branches. They
do not need severe pruning:
aim to reduce the size of the plant by one-third. Always
make a sloping cut above an outward-facing bud. In the
fall, cut back the stems by one-third to reduce the risk
that wind will rock the plant and damage the roots.

Coubert
Rosa Boule de Neige
Rosa Charles de Mills
Rosa De Rescht
Rosa Fantin-Latour
Rosa Frau Dagmar
Hartopp
Rosa Louise Odier
Rosa Madame Isaac
Pereire

Rosa Madame Pierre

This group of roses normally


owers more than once
during the summer months.
They respond well to hard
pruning in early spring. First
remove all dead, damaged,
diseased, weak, or crossing
stems, and then prune out the oldest stems, taking them
back to the ground. Leave between three and ve young,
strong stems, which should be pruned to a height of 6 in
(15 cm) above the ground. As a guide, stand your pruners
on the ground, and as these are normally about 6 in
(15 cm) long, they will show you how far to prune back
the stems. Always make a sloping cut above an outwardfacing bud, if possible. In late fall or early winter, reduce
the height of the stems by one-third to reduce the risk
that wind will rock the plant and damage the roots.
Examples of hybrid tea roses

Examples of old garden roses

Rosa Blanche Double de

Hybrid tea roses

Oger
Rosa Maidens Blush
Rosa mundi
Rosa rugosa
Rosa rugosa Alba
Rosa Souvenir de la
Malmasion
Rosa William Lobb

Rosa Alexander
Rosa Blessings
Rosa Dawn Chorus
Rosa Deep Secret
Rosa Elina
Rosa Freedom
Rosa Ingrid Bergman
Rosa Just Joey
Rosa Lovely Lady

Rosa Paul Shirville


Rosa Peace
Rosa Remember Me
Rosa Savoy Hotel
Rosa Silver Jubilee
Rosa Tequila Sunrise
Rosa Troika
Rosa Warm Wishes

Pruning other types of roses

Floribunda roses
Floribundas are repeatowering roses that produce
clusters of blooms during
the summer months. Pruning
is very similar to hybrid tea
roses, but not quite as hard.
First, remove all dead,
damaged, diseased, weak, or crossing stems. Your aim
is to leave a framework of between six and eight of the
strongest, youngest stems. Prune them to a height of
between 8 and 12 in (2030 cm), always make a sloping
cut just above an outward-facing bud, if possible. In the
fall or early winter, reduce the height of the stems by
one-third to reduce the risk of damage if wind rocks the
plant and disturbs its root system.

Examples of oribunda roses

Rosa Arthur Bell


Rosa English Miss
Rosa Fascination
Rosa Fellowship
Rosa Fragrant Delight
Rosa Iceberg
Rosa Memento
Rosa Pretty Lady

Rosa Princess of Wales


Rosa Queen Elizabeth
Rosa Remembrance
Rosa Sexy Rexy
Rosa Sunset Boulevard
Rosa Tall Story
Rosa The Times Rose
Rosa Trumpeter

191

Extending owering
Deadhead repeat-owering roses throughout the summer
to encourage them to bloom for a longer period. By
removing the owers, you prevent the plant from using
its energy to form seed and stimulate it to produce more
owers instead. The easiest way to do this, and the way
now practiced in many large gardens, is to bend the stem
just below the old ower, as shown, until it snaps off.
The plant will soon start forming new ower buds.
Alternatively, use pruners to remove the ower and about
6 in (15 cm) of growth. The plant will then form more
ower buds, but it normally takes longer than the
snapping off method.

192

Pruning shrubs and trees

Shearing lavender
Lavender (Lavandula) is a beautiful,
aromatic shrub that can be grown on
its own or as a low-growing, colorful
hedge. To maintain a good shape, it is
best sheared twice a year.

Tip for success

After owering, remove all the


old owerheads with pruners.
This stops the plant from putting
all its energy into making seed.

Shearing lavender

To keep your lavender plants young, bushy, and healthy,


cut them back in late winter or early spring using clean,
sharp hedge shears.

Here, you can see how the lavender has been cut just
above where the new green shoots meet the old, brown
wood. Shear to this point, and work systematically along
and around the hedge, keeping it as level as possible.

193

Shear the lavender as close as possible without cutting


into the old wood. This is very important because the old
wood does not regenerate, which means that if you cut
into it, no new shoots will grow from the stems.

This form of pruning encourages the lavender to become


very bushy, and to produce a greater volume of owers.
The hedge then needs to be pruned again as the owers
fade in summer (see Tip for success, opposite).

194 Pruning shrubs and trees

How to prune wall shrubs


Euonymus fortunei cultivars are vigorous
plants that will grow even in poor soil.
They often form rounded shrubs, but

As with all variegated plants, it is important to remove any


growths that are showing signs of reversion, where stems
of all-green leaves appear. Cut these back to variegated
foliage using pruners as soon as possible.

To keep it neat and bushy, trim over the whole plant with
hedging shears. Keep one eye on the overall shape to
ensure that you trim it as evenly as possible.

will also grow vertically, the variegated


forms brightening walls and fences.
Prune plants in late spring.

Using pruners, cut back to a suitable length any very long


growths that are hanging away from the wall and causing
the plant to lose its neat shape.

Remove any growths that are growing toward or into


gutters or over doors and windows. When you are
nished, the plant should resemble a closely clipped
hedge growing against its supporting wall or fence.

How to prune wall shrubs 195

Garrya elliptica is a useful evergreen


shrub that produces long, pendulous
catkins in the winter. It prefers to grow

Any plant occasionally needs a trim to stop it from


growing too tall or wide. For a shrub trained against
a wall, trimming also prevents it from becoming too heavy
and pulling or falling away from its support.

Once you have trimmed the horizontal branches, start


pruning the tall, vertical stems. Cut them back to a height
that is appropriate for the position of the plant.

against the shelter of a wall for support


and protection, and is best pruned in
the spring, as the catkins are fading.

Start by pruning the longest horizontal branches to reduce


the width of the plant. Always make the cuts above a leaf
bud or stem shoot to encourage new, fuller growth during
the coming year.

If the plant is pruned carefully, it should still retain its


natural shape afterward. The new growths that appear
as a result of pruning will produce a good show of catkins
the following winter.

196 Pruning shrubs and trees

How to prune a mahonia


When evergreens such as this
mahonia have outgrown their
allotted space, they can be
pruned back severely from
midwinter to early spring,
after owering has nished.

Tip for success

To keep plants short and bushy


and to encourage greater ower
production, remove owerheads
immediately after owering.

How to prune a mahonia

Prune back tall stems, removing a little at a time, rather


than cutting back the whole growth at once. At this stage,
cut the stems to about 2 ft (60 cm) high, keeping in mind
the plants balanced shape as you prune.

Cut back the remaining young healthy stems so that they


are 1216 in (3040 cm) above the ground. If possible,
ensure that all the cuts you make are slightly sloping to
encourage the rain to run off.

197

Once you have cut back the tall growths, look to see
where you can make your nal pruning cuts. At the same
time, remove any damaged, diseased, or crossing stems,
and cut out any old growths to leave 5 or 6 strong stems.

Later in the year, a mass of young shoots will grow from


these shortened stems. The plant may not ower until two
years after a severe pruning like this. Thereafter, to keep it
bushy, follow the Tip for success (see facing page).

198 Pruning shrubs and trees

Pruning a holly bush


A well-shaped holly (Ilex) can
provide a wonderful structural
focal point in the garden
year-round. To maintain their
shape, it is best to prune holly
bushes in early spring.

Holly hedge

Holly has thick, chunky growth,


so holly hedges are best trimmed
in late summer using a gas or
electric hedge cutter.

Pruning a holly bush 199

To ensure that this young holly remains an attractive


feature in the garden, it needs to be pruned annually,
rst to form a conical shape, and then to retain it.

If two branches are growing closely together at the top of


the plant and causing it to lose its conical shape, cut the
weaker oneor the stem that is least verticalabove a
shoot that is growing in line with the conical outline.

Remove some of the lower branches to create space under


the bush and a short, clear stem. This is known as lifting
the skirt and produces a bolder appearance.

Work all around the bush, trimming back any branches


that are too long, until you have a conical shape that is
symmetrical and pleasing to the eye.

200 Pruning shrubs and trees

How to prune an apple tree


When carefully managed, an
apple tree is highly ornamental,
providing decorative blossoms
in the spring and a wealth of
colorful fruit in the fall. Prune
in the summer or winter.

How to prune an apple tree 201

Start by removing any branches that are crowding the


center of the tree. This will allow air to circulate, which
reduces the risk of fungal infections during the summer.
Also remove any dead, diseased, or damaged branches.

Only reduce the height of the tree yourself if you can reach
the top easily. Cut back any long branches by a half to
one-third, or to a suitable side branch that, if possible,
faces outward, to prevent crossing branches.

Cut the branches back to the collar (see pp.170171).


Make clean cuts with a sharp saw to reduce the risk of
infection entering the wounds. Dont prune too hard, as it
stimulates leafy growth at the expense of owers and fruit.

When pruning back to a side branch, make an undercut


rst, and saw halfway through the stem. Then make the
nal cut from above, sloping away from the side branch, to
meet the undercut. This prevents the branch from tearing.

202 Pruning shrubs and trees

How to prune an apple tree continued

The sloping cut you make after removing a branch (above)


allows moisture and rainfall to drain off the cut surface,
reducing the risk of rotting. The remaining side branch
should also point outward.

Where pruning cuts have been made in previous years,


remove any short, weak, or crowded stems growing
around the wound. These are of no use to the tree and
divert energy from the main branches and ower stems.

Shorten any long, thin, whippy growths by cutting them


back to short branches or spurs with a pair of pruning
shears. This encourages ower bud formation from
these branches.

Remove all branches that are crossing or are starting to


grow from the outside of the tree into the center. This
helps to prevent branches from rubbing against each other
in the future, thereby reducing the risk of disease.

How to prune an apple tree continued 203

Continue to work around the tree, removing unwanted


branches and taking care to make clean cuts. Step back
from the tree to ensure that you have created a balanced,
simple framework, with an uncongested center.

204 Pruning climbers

How to prune wisteria


Wisterias are beautiful plants for training
up house walls and other structures.
Prune these large, vigorous climbers

twice a year, once in summer to keep


the plant in check, and again in winter
to help stimulate owering.

Summer pruning

Wisterias are vigorous plants, and during the summer


after they have owered, the plants produce very long
tendril-like shoots that can block house windows or paths,
or swamp their supporting structures.

To keep your wisteria tidy, reduce these shoots by


two-thirds after the owers have faded. This process may
have to be repeated several times during the summer
months as the plant continues to grow.

How to prune wisteria 205

Winter pruning

In late winter, when the leaves have dropped, you will


be able to see the effects of your summer pruning. The
pruned stems will have developed new growth, which will
look lighter in color than older wood.

Also remove any stems that are growing into the eaves
of the house, under shingles, or around drain pipes or
down spouts. If left, they could cause damage to the
house structure.

Spur prune (see pp.172173 ) all the stems that you pruned
in the summer back to two or three healthy buds. These
buds will then swell to become ower buds in spring.

Ensure that all stems are tied to sturdy wires on the house
or plant supports, as wisteria is not self-clinging. The plant
will look quite bare, but the buds will develop into a wall
of scented owers in late spring or early summer.

206 Pruning climbers

Cutting back clematis


Admired for their beautiful owers,
clematis can put on an almost yearround show. They are divided into three

groups, each with different pruning


needs, so work out which one yours
belongs to and follow these guidelines.

Group 1

Group 2

Group 3

Group 1 clematis are vigorous plants,


and include C. montana, C. alpina,
and C. armandii. Flowering in late
spring on the previous years growth,
they require very little pruning. Prune
lightly immediately after they have
owered to contain their size, and
remove any dead, diseased, or
damaged growth.

This group of early summer-owering


clematis have large owers that are
produced from the previous year's
growth. Many will also produce a
second ush of owers in late
summer. Group 2 clematis require a
light prune in early spring. Prune back
stems to a pair of healthy buds.

Group 3 clematis include the


small-owered viticella and texensis
types, C. tangutica and its cultivars,
and some large-owered hybrids.
They bloom from midsummer to fall
on new seasons growth and require
hard pruning in early spring, or you
can prune them more lightly.

Clematis montana (Group 1)

Clematis "Nelly Moser" (Group 2)

Clematis "Etoile Violette" (Group 3)

Clematis "Frances Rivis" (Group 1)

Clematis "H.E.Young" (Group 2)

Clematis tangutica (Group 3)

Cutting back clematis 207

Pruning after planting

Pruning Group 1

Pruning Group 2

Help all groups of clematis to get


established by pruning them after
planting in spring, or in their rst year
immediately after owering. Reduce
the plant's height by one-half,
ensuring that you prune above a pair
of healthy buds. This encourages the
plant to produce growths from all the
buds on the stem below the pruning
cut, which will ultimately give you a
much stronger plant. It also
encourages root production, helping
to develop strong, healthy growth.
Take care when handling any clematis
as the shoots can be very brittle.

Immediately after owering, give


Group 1 clematis a light trim to help
contain the size of the plant and to
keep it looking tidy. Prune strong,
leggy new season's growths, cutting
above a pair of healthy buds. This
will also help to show off the plant's
attractive uffy seedheads, but don't
prune too hard or you will remove
them. If a plant becomes too large,
occasionally prune all stems back to
6 in (15 cm) from the ground in early
spring. Montanas may not recover
from this treatment, so only carry out
drastic pruning if you have no choice.

Prune Group 2 clematis in early spring


when the buds are already in growth
and new stems are visible. Work from
the top of the plant, pruning each
stem back to the rst pair of healthy
buds or growths. Remove any dead,
diseased, or damaged wood. New
growths will appear along the pruned
stems, and these produce the owers
in early summer. If the plant has
outgrown its site, hard-prune all
stems to 6 in (15 cm) from the
ground in early spring. It may not
ower during the coming summer,
or it may bloom later in the season.

Prune above a pair of healthy buds

Cut away excess growth in spring

Prune lightly back to new growth

New growth soon emerges

Pruning helps to show off seedheads

Buds open below the pruning cuts

208 Pruning climbers

How to prune a Group 3 clematis


The late-owering Clematis x jouiniana
is extremely vigorous, and is suitable for
clothing large supports or growing

This clematis has been grown over a large pyramid


support made from birch twigs. Start pruning by removing
all the loose growths that are covering the support.

Prune the growths hard back to one or two buds from the
ground, as shown. Always make straight cuts just above a
pair of healthy buds to reduce the risk of dieback.

through substantial shrubs or small


trees. As it belongs to pruning Group 3,
it requires hard pruning in early spring.

Once all the stems have been removed from the support,
you will have better access to the base of the plant. Prune
back all long growths to give a manageable clump of short
stems before making your nal cuts.

You will be left with a mound of growths about 6 in


(15 cm) high. To encourage healthy growth, add a little
fertilizer and mulch. The plant will then grow 610 ft
(23 m) and be covered in owers during late summer.

How to prune a Group 3 clematis 209

Lightly pruning late-owering Group 3


clematis, such as this Clematis tangutica,
encourages the plant to ower earlier.

In early spring and starting at the top of the plant, lightly


prune back the main stems to t the shape of the support.
As with any pruning, also remove dead, damaged, or
diseased stems as you work.

If there are strong young growths coming from the base


of the plant, tie them into the rest of the clematis so that
they will not blow around in the wind and get damaged
clematis stems are brittle and easily broken.

Follow these simple steps to create a


cascade of beautiful yellow nodding
owers throughout the summer.

Then lightly prune the side stems back to the plant


support. This will maintain the shape of the plant and
encourage strong new growths that will ower in the
summer. Make sure all cuts are made above two buds.

When you have nished, the clematis should look as if it


has had a light haircut, since you have just trimmed it back
to the shape of the supporting structure.

210

Pruning climbers

Cutting back honeysuckle and ivy


Climbing honeysuckles (Lonicera) are
grown for their beautifully scented
owers. Allow them to scramble over

Climbing honeysuckles are easy to grow, and produce masses


of sweetly scented blooms in the summer. As they age, plants can
become woody at the base, and look untidy and overgrown. Keep
them in check and owering prolically by pruning regularly.

Remove old, dead, damaged, or diseased stems. If your


plant is overgrown, cut all the stems back to about 6 in
(15 cm) from the ground. New shoots will soon appear
from the base, but you may lose the owers that year.

shrubs and trees in the garden, or


encourage them to climb up supports,
such as fences or trellises.

In spring, contain the size of a honeysuckle by removing


long, straggly growths and reducing the overall height of
the plant by 1220 in (3050 cm).

Unless you gave the plant a hard prune, by late summer


it will produce an even covering of owers. If the plant has
put on a lot of growth and is looking untidy, trim it again
immediately after owering has nished.

Cutting back honeysuckle and ivy

211

Ivies are versatile evergreen climbers that spring or early summer, prune these
will grow in sun or shade, and adhere to vigorous plants to contain their spread
almost any support or surface. In late
and keep stems from clogging gutters.

The aim of pruning here is to reduce the plants spread


over the fence and to remove it from the tree trunk in
front. Ivy can collect a lot of dust and dirt, so wear a dust
mask when pruning if this affects you.

Remove ivy growing up walls and into gutters. When


removing ivy from walls, you will reveal marks left by the
roots, which help the ivy to cling to the surface. Use a stiff
brush to remove the root residue.

Working from the top of the fence panel, pull away long
lengths of ivy. When you are happy with the amount
removed, cut off the stems with pruning shears. Also cut
away any ivy growing on tree trunks or other plants.

The ivy has been cut back from the top of the fence by
about 18 in (45 cm) to allow room for regrowth. It has
also been removed from the tree trunk, resulting in a less
cluttered and lighter part of the garden.

212

Pruning climbers

How to prune a rose on a tripod


Climbing roses, such as this
R. White Cockade, can be
trained over a wooden tripod
to create a lovely focal point in
a small space. Prune the rose
in the fall or early spring.

Before pruning

The plant is a mass of stems,


some of which are old and must
be removed, while younger
stems need to be tied in.

How to prune a rose on a tripod

Start by removing the rose stems from the tripod support.


Cut all the ties that are holding the rose to the support,
and then carefully unwind the stems, working down from
the top of the plant.

With the unpruned older stems that you left to cover the
tripod, spur-prune the previous seasons owering stems
(see pp.172173 ), and tie them into the tripod. These
spurs will produce owering stems in the coming summer.

213

Cut out any dead, damaged, or diseased wood. Then


remove about one in three of the oldest stems by pruning
them close to the base of the plant. Leave enough stems
unpruned to cover the tripod.

Tie back the remaining young exible stems using garden


twine. To give the best coverage over the tripod, tie some
in a clockwise and others in a counterclockwise direction.

214

Pruning climbers

Pruning rambling and climbing roses


Ensure a mass of owers each year by
pruning rambling and climbing roses
during the fall while their stems are still

Remove one in three of the oldest owering stems.


These growths will be quite thick and should be cut back
to almost ground level using a pruning saw or loppers.

quite exible. If you dont have time in


the fall, these roses can also be pruned
in late winter or early spring.

Use sharp pruning shears to spur-prune the previous


summers owering stems back to two or three healthy
buds (see pp.172173 ). These will then produce owering
stems during the coming summer months.

Summer maintenance

Use garden twine or special rose ties to tie in all the


stems. Bending exible stems over and tying them onto
horizontal supports or wires encourages the production
of more owering growths.

Do not attempt to prune a rambling rose in the summer. Tie in and


support the long, strong new growths that have been produced, so
that they are not damaged or broken. These are the stems that you
will be cutting back when pruning and training in the fall.

Pruning rambling and climbing roses

This climbing rose has been carefully


pruned and trained along horizontal
wires that have been attached to the

Cut all the ties that are holding the rose to the wires and
pull the stems away from the wall. Remove one in three
of the oldest owering stems. Do not remove any of the
strong new growths produced from the base of the plant.

Tie all the remaining growths back onto the wires, and
try to cover as much of the wall as possible. You may nd
some of the stems cross over each other, but this wont be
a problem as long as they dont rub.

215

wall with vine eyes. Place galvanized


wire at about 12-in (30-cm) intervals up
the wall before planting your rose.

Spur-prune last seasons owering stems back to two or


three healthy buds (see pp.172173 ) to encourage them to
produce more owering stems in the months ahead.

Step back from time to time to ensure that you have tied
the stems in a fan shape over the wall. By the time
summer arrives, the plant will have produced more stems
covered in leaves and owers and the wall will be hidden.

216

Where to start

VEGETABLE GARDENING

Choosing a site
Growing vegetables in ideal conditions
is not always possible, particularly if
you have limited space, but it pays to

nd a sunny spot that is sheltered


from the wind and easily accessible
for watering and weeding.

Sheltered or sunny walls

Small vegetable beds

A wall that faces the sun provides plants with protection


from the wind and reects the suns heat back onto your
crops during the day. It will also absorb heat and release
it at night when the air temperature falls. A sheltered
microclimate is ideal for growing heat-loving vegetables,
such as tomatoes, eggplants, and peppers, so if you have
one in your garden, make the most of it. Improve the soil,
create a raised bed, or position pots at the base of the
wall. Remember to keep plants well watered.

Make the most of a small space by planning your crops


carefully and squeezing as much variety into the plot as
possible. Many vegetables are attractive plants in their
own right, but add extra color to the beds by including
some owers, too, which will not only look good but
also help attract pollinating insects. Planting vegetables
close together also means that there is little bare soil
on which weeds can establish, helping to minimize
maintenance, but crop yields may be slightly reduced.

Tips for sunny walls


Add supports, such as wire mesh, to the wall to secure
tall and scrambling plants as they grow.
Take advantage of a sunny wall as the perfect backdrop
for tomatoes in a growing bag.
Be adventurous and try growing more unusual crops,
such as sweet corn and chili peppers.

Tips for small vegetable beds


Densely planted vegetables need rich soil, so work in
plenty of organic matter in fall.
Choose vegetable varieties with interesting colors and
forms to add drama to your beds.
Be wary of planting too close to tall hedges, which cast
shade and take moisture from the soil.

A greater range of vegetables can be grown by a sunny wall.

Rows of vegetables packed tightly together will suppress weeds.

Choosing a site

217

Growing under cover

Container growing

Protecting crops from cold and wet weather in a


greenhouse, cold frame, or under cloches gives them a
head start in spring, extends the growing season into fall,
and allows a range of tender vegetables to be grown that
may not perform well outdoors. Fitting large structures
into a small garden can be difcult, so consider whether
you have a suitable site before buying costly equipment.
Site greenhouses and frames in full sun, away from
overhanging trees, but sheltered from the wind as much
as possible. Plants under cover rely on the gardener to
provide adequate water and temperature control, which can
amount to a lot of work, so make sure you have the time.

Filling pots, troughs, and window boxes with a range of


vegetables is one of the best ways for those with little
or even no garden to harvest their own homegrown
produce. Tomatoes, salads, dwarf beans, herbs, and some
root vegetables are just a few of the crops that will thrive
in containers and can make attractive displays on patios,
steps, and windowsills. Containers lled with good-quality
potting mix are also useful in gardens with very poor soil
or where soil-borne pests and diseases make vegetable
growing difcult. However, containers can be expensive
to buy and ll with potting mix, and without regular
watering and fertilizing, plants will not perform well, so
consider the practicalities before you begin.

Tips for growing under cover


Control greenhouse ventilation to regulate
temperatures and remove damp air that can encourage
disease. Automatic ventilation is a good investment.
Use cold frames and mobile cloches for raising
seedlings and protecting young plants.
Where there is no space outdoors, try sowing seeds
and growing heat-loving crops on a sunny windowsill.
Install a water supply, such as a rain barrel, next to the
greenhouse to make life easier.

Tips for container growing


Keep costs down and be creative by making your own
pots from galvanized metal bins or plastic containers.
Good drainage is vital to prevent soil from becoming
waterlogged, so be sure pots have holes in their bases.
Choose large pots, as they hold more soil, take longer
to dry out, and suit many vegetables well.
Look for vegetable varieties suited to container
growing, such as short, round carrots.

It is crucial to choose a site in full sun for your greenhouse.

Colorful crops, like this chard, are easy to grow in pots.

218

Where to start

Making compost
Every gardener should
nd space for a compost
pile or bin, as it turns
garden and kitchen waste
into a valuable source of
organic matter to dig into
soil or use as a mulch.

The final product Compost should


be dark brown with a crumbly texture
and pleasant, soil-like smell. The
decomposition of bulky organic
materials requires oxygen, moisture,
and the right balance of carbon- and
nitrogen-rich waste (opposite), which
means that careful management is
necessary. However, a successful
compost pile is easy to achieve.

Different compost bin designs Your first task is to


find a compost bin that suits the size of your garden and
the amount of waste to be broken down. It is best to have
two bins, to allow the contents of one to be aerated by
turning it into a second bin, which means that a new pile

Wooden bins look good and can be bought


or homemade. Choose a design with
removable front slats for easy turning.

can be started in the first. The type of bin you choose


depends on appearance, space, and cost considerations,
but ensure that it has a loose-fitting cover to prevent
waterlogging. Place your bin on bare soil, add
compostable material, and let nature do the rest.

Plastic bins are relatively cheap and simple


to install, but their design means that
turning the contents can be tricky.

Bins constructed from wire mesh are


particularly suitable for composting fallen
leaves to make leafmold.

Making compost

219

What goes on the pile? Almost


all garden and kitchen waste can be
composted, except for diseased
material, perennial weeds, and meat
and cooked waste, which attracts
vermin. Nitrogen-rich (green) waste
aids decomposition, but this must be
balanced with carbon-rich (brown)
waste to open up the structure of the
pile and allow air to circulate. Aim to
add a 50:50 mix of green and brown
waste to your pile during the year.
What to add

Carbon-rich woody prunings and

hedge trimmings (which usually


need to be shredded), plant
stems, fall leaves, shredded
newspaper and cardboard.
Nitrogen-rich grass cuttings,
herbaceous plant material, weeds,
vegetable plants, fruit and vegetable
peels, tea bags, coffee grounds.

Carbon-rich brown material adds bulk.

Chop up woody material before adding.

Scatter waste on the bottom of the trench.

Fill with alternate layers of soil and waste.

Making a compost trench


Kitchen waste, such as fruit and
vegetable peels, tea bags, and
eggshells can also be composted in
a long trench. The trench is best made
during the fall, when large areas of
soil are often bare and the waste has
time to break down before planting
begins in spring. Vigorous plants,
such as runner beans and squashes,
respond particularly well to the high
nutrient levels provided by kitchen
leftovers.
Dig a trench about 12 in (30 cm)
wide to one spades depth and fill it
with alternate layers of waste and
soil. Then add a layer of soil on top.
Allow at least two months before
planting over the trench. As with any
composting method, do not include
meat or cooked waste because it may
attract vermin.

220 Where to start

Water-wise gardening
Droughts and water metering can cause
problems during hot, dry summers, but
the solution is to know how to use
resources efciently and to store your
own supplies.

Keeping plants healthy Plants in dry soil are susceptible


to disease and yield less, so it pays to keep soil moist.
Watering thoroughly so the moisture penetrates deep into
the soil is better than wetting the surface daily. Water in
the evening or early morning to minimize evaporation.

Water-wise gardening 221

Storing rainwater Water can be


collected from the roofs of houses,
garages, sheds, and greenhouses,
and stored in rain barrels that have
spigots at their bases. These supplies
of rainwater are a valuable alternative
to city water or well water, although
during hot summer months, rainfall
rarely keeps up with demand.
Rain barrels are often easier to
install in a convenient part of the
garden than running a hose to the
area. Make sure that you set your
rain barrel on a stack of bricks, slabs,
or a specially made base, to allow a
watering can to fit under the spigot.
Although many gardeners dislike the
appearance of plastic barrels, they
are easy to disguise with ornamental
planting, such as grasses and bamboo
(right), or tall rows of runner beans.

Using gray water Water that has already been used

Water the roots Pour water around the stem base,

in the home is usually suitable for watering plants in the


garden. Normal household soaps and detergents do not
damage plants, but avoid bleaches and strong disinfectants.
Allow hot water to cool before applying it to the soil.

beneath the plants foliage, so that it is absorbed into


the soil around the roots where it is needed. The shade
of the foliage also helps to prevent evaporation, and
neighboring weeds are not inadvertently watered, too.

222 Where to start

Cloches and cold frames


Protect crops from pests and bring on
their growth in cold weather by covering
them with cloches or growing them in
permanent cold frames.

Plastic bottle cloches Many plants benefit


from protection in cool spring and fall weather.
Commercial cloches can be expensive; large,
clear plastic bottles, cut in half and placed over
plants, are an effective alternative.

Cloches and cold frames 223

Corrugated plastic cloches Whole rows of plants can


be covered using long, low tunnel cloches, which are left
open at the ends for thorough ventilation or closed off
when greater protection is required. No rain will reach
cloched plants, so remember to water them as necessary.

Rigid plastic cloches These large cloches are ideal


for protecting blocks of young plants or more substantial
crops, such as zucchini or early potatoes. The warm, dry
atmosphere is also perfect for drying onion crops after
harvest. Anchor these light structures to the ground.

Cold frames Usually permanent


structures of brick with framed
glass lights, cold frames are useful
for hardening off young plants and
extending the productive season of
crops such as salads and zucchini.
Constructed in a sheltered, sunny
spot, they are a good alternative
to a greenhouse in a small garden,
with the angled glass allowing
water to run off and the maximum
amount of light to reach the plants.
A frame with a hard base is suited
to acclimatizing pot-grown plants
to outdoor temperatures, while a
bed of improved soil allows crops
to be grown in the frame. Prop
the lights open during the day to
provide ventilation, and keep plants
inside well watered.

224 Where to start

Root crops
Cultivation tips
How to grow Easy to grow, most root
crops simply need to be sown outdoors
and kept free of weeds and pests to do
well. With carefully selected varieties and
successional sowing, you can harvest root
crops all year.
Site and soil Many root crops like
well-drained, slightly acidic soil that holds
organic matter, with some nutrients dug
in. Potatoes, however, crop best on
recently manured soil. Brassica root crops
may succumb to clubroot in acidic soil
that has not been limed. Stony soil may
cause malformation of long-rooted crops.
Sowing Most root crops can be grown
from seed outdoors from early spring.
Sow into drills at a depth of about in
(2 cm) Potatoes need a depth of 4 in
(10 cm). Cover with soil and water in. Sow
carrots, beets, turnips and radishes every
few weeks for a continuous supply.

Care and potential problems Thin


seedlings out, leaving strong plants to
grow on at the correct spacing. Keep the
surrounding soil weed-free and moist,
watering in dry spells. Protect potato
plants from frost and cover their lower
stems and leaves with soil as they grow.
Roots in pots Carrots, beets, and
radishes all grow happily in containers at
least 10 in (25 cm) wide and deeplarger
pots are needed for potatoesas long as
they are kept well watered. This is a good
way to start the earliest crops under cover.
Growing potatoes through black plastic
If earthing up potatoes sounds like too
much effort, try planting your crop
through holes cut in a layer of thick black
plasticpush the edges into the soil to
secure the plastic in place. This keeps out
the light and helps warm the soil for a
fast-maturing crop.

Crops to choose

Potato Early varieties suit


small gardens since they are
harvested by midsummer,
whereas maincrops tie up
the soil until mid-fall.

Beet Not all beets are


red, so you can choose
unusually colored varieties
and opt for bolt-resistant
types for early sowings.

Parsnip These roots will


stand in the soil through
winter with a covering of
straw, but seeds need to be
sown the previous spring.

Radish Sow radishes


successionally for crops
over a long season. Exotic
hardy winter radishes can
also be sown in summer.

Brassicas 225

Brassicas
Cultivation tips
How to grow Encompassing many of the
hardiest winter crops, including cabbages
and Brussels sprouts, this group also
includes many summer favorites and
Asian greens.
Site and soil Moist, well-drained, fertile
soil suits most brassicas, so it is best to
work in plenty of organic matter well in
advance of planting. Lime should be
added to soil with a pH lower than 6.8 to
prevent clubroot. Brassicas prefer full sun,
but will tolerate partial shade, while taller
plants, such as Brussels sprouts, need to
be staked on windy sites.
Sowing Most brassicas are best sown into
an outdoor nursery bed under cover in
spring and transplanted into their nal
positions as young plants. However, sow
summer sowings of calabrese and kohlrabi
directly into seedbeds in their nal
positions.

Care and potential problems Brassicas


like cool weather and tend to bolt during
hot, dry spells. Water transplants daily and
mature plants once a week in dry weather.
Cover plants with oating row cover to
prevent butteries from laying eggs on
them. Slugs, aphids, and whiteies all enjoy
brassicas. Take measures to avoid clubroot.
Thwarting insect pests To keep cabbage
maggots and cutworms from destroying
young plants, buy protective collars, or
make your own. Cut 6-in (15-cm) squares
of thick paper, cut a slit, and t.
Coming back for seconds Broccoli and
calabrese continue to produce secondary
spears after the central one is cut, and
frequent harvesting encourages even
more. When harvesting summer cabbages,
leave 2-in (5-cm) stumps and cut a cross
in (1 cm) deep in the top. This will
encourage a second crop to develop.

Crops to choose

Cauliower Best in rich,


heavy soils with plenty of
manure. Snap outer leaves
over each curd to protect
them from sun and frost.

Kale Hardy and tolerant


of poor soil, kale is easy to
grow. Colorful, textured
varieties brighten up the
winter garden.

Brussels sprouts Harvest


this classic winter vegetable
from the base of the stem
upward, by snapping off
each sprout by hand.

Kohlrabi Eat the swollen


stems of these fastgrowing exotics in salads
or stir-fries. Harvest when
no larger than a tennis ball.

226 Where to start

Legumes
Pea and bean crops require less fertilizer
than other vegetables because their
roots are home to bacteria that take

nitrogen from the air and x it in the


soil. Leave the nutrient-rich roots to
break down in the soil after harvest.
How to grow
Site and soil These climbing plants do best in full sun
in fertile, slightly alkaline soil, improved with plenty of
organic matter. Since they are susceptible to similar pests
and diseases, practice crop rotation (see p.270). Fava
beans prefer clay soil, while other peas and beans do best
in lighter soil. Provide shelter from strong winds.
Sowing and planting out All legume seeds need warm
soil in which to germinate, so wait until mid-spring to
sow outdoors or start them off under cloches or in pots
indoors. Successional sowings help to ensure a steady
supply of produce. Erect appropriate supports before
sowing or planting out to avoid damaging young plants.
Care and potential problems Beans are commonly
grown up teepees or rows of canes held together with
string; peas scramble up chicken wire supported by canes
or twiggy sticks. Beans may need coaxing up and tying
into their supports, while peas hold on with tendrils.
Keep plants well weeded, and mulch if possible. There is
no need to water before owering, unless plants are
wilting. Begin watering generously when owering starts,
to encourage pods to set. For bushier plants, pinch out
growing tips when plants reach the top of their supports.
Rodents love legume seeds, so sow indoors if this
is a problem. Protect crops from pea moths with oating
row cover. Infestations of aphids are also common.
Harvest and storage Peas and beans are at their tastiest
when small and freshly picked, so harvest frequently; this
also encourages greater yields. Eating quality deteriorates
quickly, even when crops are refrigerated, so either use
right away or freeze any excess as soon after harvest
as possible. Cranberry beans can be left on the plant to
mature, then dried and stored in a cool, dark place.
Sowing depths and spacing
CROP

Fava beans
French beans, dwarf
climbing
Runner beans

Sugar snap peas ready for harvesting.

Peas

SOWING DEPTH

SPACING
Plants

Rows

3 in (8 cm)

10 in (25 cm)

12 in (30 cm)

2 in (5 cm)

4 in (10 cm)

18 in (45 cm)

2 in (5 cm)

6 in (15 cm)

18 in (45 cm)

6 in (15 cm)

18 in (45 cm)

2 in (5 cm)
1 in (4 cm)

4 in (10 cm) 1824 in (4560 cm)

Legumes 227

Cultivation tips

Discouraging black aphids on fava beans Black aphids


are fond of the young, sappy growth at the tips of fava
bean plants. Deter them by pinching out the tips when
plants have plenty of owers and the rst pods have set.

Supporting runner beans Climbing French and runner


beans need the support of sturdy canes, ideally at least
7 ft (2.2 m) tall, to hold up their lush growth. Teepees
of six or eight canes tied at the top are easy to construct.

Crops to choose

Colorful peas With violet


owers and pods, the snow
pea Ezethas Krombek
Blauwschok adds color to
the productive garden.

Fava beans Rarely


available fresh in stores,
these delicious beans are
easy to grow and can be
sown in fall for a welcome
late spring crop.

French beans Dwarf


varieties of this heavycropping legume suit the
small garden very well.
They thrive in pots to yield
plenty of gourmet beans.

Cranberry beans Grown


in the same way as a
climbing French bean, this
Italian variety has pinkecked pods. Eat the beans
fresh or use them dried.

228 Where to start

Alliums
Cultivation tips
How to grow Alliums include onions,
leeks, and garlic. All are strongly avored
and simple to grow in free-draining soil.
Site and soil A sunny, open site with
fertile, well-drained soil is ideal for
members of the onion family because they
are prone to fungal diseases in damp
conditions. Treat soil with a pH of less
than 6.5 with lime, and dont grow alliums
in the same place every year. Manure the
ground a few months in advance to stop
too much soft growth.
Sowing and planting out All alliums,
except garlic, can be grown from seed.
Sow in modules in early spring under glass
for early crops, or outdoors for later crops.
Harden off seedlings and plant out at the
desired spacing, or thin direct-sown rows.
The nal spacing dictates the harvest size
of the bulbs. Transplant leek seedlings
when they are pencil-size. Drop them into

holes 6 in (15 cm) deep and the width


of a spade shaft. Water well, but do not
backll with soil. Succession-sow green
onions. Onions and shallots can also be
planted as sets (and garlic as cloves). Place
sets 4 in (10 cm) apart in shallow drills.
Care and potential problems Water
onions and shallots in very dry weather.
Leeks respond well to regular watering
and a mulch. All alliums are susceptible to
fungal diseases, including onion white rot,
downy mildew, and fusarium. Maintain
good air ow around the plants and
remove any infected material.
Harvest and storage Harvest leeks and
green onions when green, but allow the
leaves of onions, shallots, and garlic to
yellow and die down before lifting them.
Store onions, shallots, and garlic on a wire
rack until the leaves rustle; then hang
them in a cool, dry place.

Crops to choose

Onions Small or heattreated onion sets are less


likely to bolt and are a good
choice for novices wanting
a trouble-free crop.

Shallots A single shallot


set will divide to produce a
crop of several small, sweet
bulbs, which are expensive
in stores.

Garlic Do not plant


supermarket cloves; you
will achieve better yields
using virus-free stock of
cooler-climate varieties.

Green onions A quick,


easy onion, ideal for the
gaps between slowergrowing crops. Try one of
the unusual red varieties.

Cucurbits 229

Cucurbits
Cultivation tips
How to grow Vigorous and high-yielding,
these plants, which include pumpkins,
zucchini, and cucumbers, are great fun
to grow. Trailing varieties look good
scrambling up a fence or over an arch.
Some cucurbits may need hand
pollination: female owers have mini-fruit
behind them, while male owers grow on
a thin stem. Remove male cucumber
owers in the greenhouse to prevent
pollination and deformed, bitter fruits.
Site and soil Plants in the pumpkin family
come from hot climates and thrive on
well-drained soil enriched with organic
matter. Once established, their growth
can be rapid and extensive, so leave them
enough space. Cucumbers do well in pots
or growing bags.
Sowing and planting out These tender
plants cannot tolerate frost and will not
grow in the cold. Sow seeds indoors, in

biodegradable pots to prevent root


disturbance, and plant seedlings out when
the weather improves. Harden seedlings
off before planting out after the last frost.
Care and potential problems Cucurbits
require lots of watering. Cucumbers and
squashes often benet from sturdy
supports: cane teepees, fan trellises, and
wires in the greenhouse are all effective.
Cucurbits are mostly pollinated by insects.
Powdery mildew may occur and cucumber
mosaic virus can cause deformed fruits.
Red spider mite and whiteies can also be
a problem.
Harvest and storage Leave pumpkins,
and squashes on the plant until they have a
hard skin and cracked stem, and for longer,
if possible, if they are to be stored. Cut
with a long stem and cure in a warm room
for several days, before storing somewhere
cool and dry.

Crops to choose

Zucchini Easy to grow and


productive, zucchini usually
has a bush, rather than
trailing, habit, and suits
small gardens.

Cucumber The smoothskinned greenhouse types


of cucumbers are more
difcult to grow than
outdoor ridge varieties.

Summer squash Strangely


shaped, soft-skinned
squashes taste the same as
zucchini and can be cooked
in the same way.

Pumpkin A late summer


bounty in the garden.
Select varieties grown for
avor rather than size if
they are for the kitchen.

230 Where to start

Fruiting vegetables
These sun-loving crops are a popular
choice for patio containers and warm
windowsills. There are varieties to suit

every size of garden and all kinds of


climate, and the right selection will yield
delicious late summer crops.

How to grow
Site and soil Provide a warm, sunny site, with light,
fertile, well-drained soil for these tender crops. All, except
sweet corn, will ourish in containers, in a greenhouse or
by a sunny wall. Warm the soil by covering with cloches
or clear plastic before planting.
Sowing and planting out Sow crops under cover, at
60F (16C) or warmer, in early spring. Where small
numbers are required, sow seeds into individual pots of
multipurpose potting mix, and cover with sifted potting
mix. Keep growing seedlings in a well-lit place. Harden
plants off in a cold frame or outside under oating row
cover for a week before erecting supports and planting
out in the nal positions. Pots should be at least 10 in
(25 cm) wide and deep. Sweet corn can be direct-sown
outdoors in mild areas from mid-spring.
Care and potential problems Water well during
owering and when fruits are developing. Cordon
tomatoes need tying into supports, and sideshoots that
appear where leaves join the main stem should be
pinched out. Pinch out the growing tips of eggplants and
peppers to encourage compact growth. When fruits begin
to set, apply a liquid fertilizer weekly. Aphids, red spider
mites, and whiteies are common on crops grown under
cover, as is botrytis (gray mold). Tomatoes are susceptible
to blight, potato cyst eelworm, and viruses. Sweet corn is
a favorite with animal pests; mice eat seed in the soil,
while birds, squirrels, and raccoons can ruin crops.
Harvest and storage Pick eggplants while the skin is
glossy. Uproot outdoor tomatoes and peppers before
the rst frost and hang in a greenhouse to ripen the last
fruits. Check sweet corn for maturity when the silks turn
brown by piercing a kernel; white juice shows ripeness.
Sowing depths and spacing
CROP

SOWING DEPTH

SPACING
Plants

Rows

in (1 cm)

18 in (45 cm)

24 in (60 cm)

Peppers (sweet and hot)

in (1 cm)

18 in (45 cm)

24 in (60 cm)

Tomatoes, bush

in (2 cm)

24 in (60 cm)

24 in (60 cm)

in (2 cm)

18 in (45 cm)

24 in (60 cm)

1 in (4 cm)

18 in (45 cm)

18 in (45 cm)

Eggplants

cordon
Sweet corn

A truss of tomatoes, ripe for harvesting.

Fruiting vegetables 231

Cultivation tips

Watering tomatoes The best way to water tomatoes


is to insert a pot, or a plastic bottle cut in half, with holes
in the base, into the soil next to each tomato plant and
water into it. This delivers moisture directly to the deeper
roots and reduces evaporation rates.

Assisting sweet corn fertilization Arrange plants in


dense blocks where the pollen will be concentrated, to
maximize the yield. These plants rely on the wind to
disperse their pollen, and planting in this way encourages
the best possible crop.

Crops to choose

Sweet corn These plants


look stately in ower beds,
and the freshly picked cobs,
cooked seconds after
harvest, taste terric.

Sweet pepper Easy to


grow, the long, thin-walled
varieties of grilling pepper
look pretty on the plant
and have good avor.

Eggplant When pinched


out to keep them bushy,
eggplants make attractive
plants for patio pots in
warm areas.

Chili pepper Easy to grow,


these ery fruits only ripen
reliably under cover. Try
them on a windowsill and
freeze any excess.

232 Where to start

Perennial and stem vegetables


Often disappointing when store-bought, grow, and perennial types also suit the
these vegetables are a gourmet treat
ornamental garden. The stem vegetables
when freshly picked. They are easy to
celery and celeriac are not perennials.
How to grow
Site and soil Choose a sunny, open site, with deep,
free-draining soil, and fork in plenty of organic matter
before planting. Celery thrives only in very rich, moist soil,
so if your soil is poor, you may do better with celeriac.
Sowing and planting out Asparagus and globe
artichokes are difcult to grow from seed, so many
gardeners start in spring with asparagus crowns and
young globe artichoke plants. To plant asparagus, dig
a trench 8 in (20 cm) deep and at the bottom make a
central ridge with soil; spread the crowns roots over the
ridge and cover with soil so that just the tips are showing.
Plant globe artichokes in rows, keeping the leaf rosette
above the soil. Simply bury Jerusalem artichoke tubers
in the soil. Sow celery and celeriac seed indoors from
mid-spring and harden off when they have ve to six
leaves, before planting out. Water plants in well. Selfblanching celery is an easy choice for beginners.
Care and potential problems Jerusalem artichokes may
need support. Water and mulch globe artichokes in dry
weather. Mulch the asparagus bed with organic matter,
and apply fertilizer in early spring and after harvesting.
Cut down when growth yellows in fall. Water celery and
celeriac weekly, and mulch with straw or compost. Globe
artichokes may be attacked by black bean aphids, and
Jerusalem types can be invasive, so keep them in check.
Fungal rots may affect all crops in wet weather.
Harvest and storage Harvest celery plants whole before
the rst frost. Celeriac is hardy and best left in the ground
until required. Cut asparagus spears about 2 in (5 cm)
below the soil surface when they are about 6 in (15 cm)
tall. Cut the heads of globe artichokes while still tight.
Unearth Jerusalem artichokes as and when required.
Sowing depths and spacing
CROP

Celery
Celeriac
Asparagus
Globe artichoke

Apply fertilizer to asparagus in early spring.

Jerusalem artichoke

SOWING DEPTH

On surface

SPACING
Plants

Rows

10 in (25 cm)

10 in (25 cm)

On surface

12 in (30 cm)

12 in (30 cm)

1 in (2.5 cm)

10 in (25 cm)

12 in (30 cm)

n/a

30 in (75 cm)

36 in (90 cm)

4 in (10 cm)

12 in (30 cm)

12 in (30 cm)

Perennial and stem vegetables 233

Cultivation tips
Earthing up celery Trench celery is a traditional garden
crop (see left). The stems are blanched by covering the
stems with soil, known as earthing up, to exclude light.
Tie the stems together with string when the plant is 12 in
(30 cm) tall, and pile soil around them to half their height.
Repeat every three weeks until just the tops are showing
in late fall.
Mulching globe artichokes Globe artichokes,
particularly young plants and those growing in cold areas,
can be damaged by frost, so protect them during the
winter by earthing up around them and covering the plant
with a 6-in- (15-cm-) thick mulch of straw, or a double
layer of oating row cover.
Harvesting young asparagus plants Patience is a virtue
when establishing an asparagus bed. Resist harvesting the
spears for the rst two years after planting, to allow the
plants to gather strength for future years. Harvest for six
weeks in late spring in the third year and for eight weeks
in the years that follow.

Crops to choose

Celery Self-blanching
varieties are best grown
close together in tight
blocks or cold frames to
produce tender, pale stems.

Celeriac This knobby


vegetable tastes much
better than it looks and is
delicious roasted, mashed,
or in soups.

Globe artichoke A tall,


easy-to-grow decorative
plant with silvery foliage.
The mature ower buds
are a real delicacy.

Jerusalem artichoke
The tubers are usually
cooked but can be eaten
raw. Plants are tall and
make a good windbreak.

234 Where to start

Salad and leafy vegetables and herbs


Everyone has room for a little pot of
herbs or a window box of cut-andcome-again salad leaves. They are so

easy to grow that youll wonder how


you managed before without all those
fresh avors on your doorstep.

How to grow
Site and soil Salad crops, chard, and many herbs tolerate
most soils, except waterlogged, and dont demand a lot of
soil preparation. However, spinach and Asian greens need
rich, fertile, nonacidic soil. All do well in containers and full
sun, but lettuces need shade in high summer.
Sowing and planting out Leafy salads germinate quickly
in warm conditions, but avoid extremes of heat or cold.
Sow salads in modules under cover from early spring; sow
spinach, Swiss chard, and bok choy outdoors in light
shade. Successional sowings of small numbers of seeds
help to guarantee a continuous supply of leaves. Plant out
module-grown seedlings when their roots have lled the
container, and water well. Thin directly sown seedlings to
the appropriate spacing.
Tender herbs, such as basil, are often grown from seed;
hardy herbs are usually bought as young plants. Sow seeds
under cover in early spring; plant out after the last frost.
Care and potential problems Keep rows of salads and
leafy crops weed-free and dont let them dry out, to
discourage bolting. Protect early or late crops from frost
with cloches or oating row cover. Trim herbs regularly to
keep them productive; water containers frequently.
Slugs and snails, as well as clubroot and caterpillars on
brassicas, are the biggest problems. Lettuces are prone to
fungal rots in wet weather; mildew can spoil spinach crops.
Harvest and storage Leafy salads are best eaten fresh. Cut
hearting lettuces and bok choy at their base; pick leaves as
needed from loose-leaf lettuces, cut-and-come-again crops,
spinach, and chard. Use herbs fresh, or dry or freeze them.
Sowing depths and spacing
CROP

SOWING DEPTH

SPACING
Plants

Rows

Lettuce

in (1 cm)

612 in (1530 cm) 612 in (1530 cm)

Mizuna/mibuna

in (1 cm)

46 in (1015 cm)

Arugula

in (1 cm)

6 in (15 cm)

6 in (15 cm)

Spinach

1 in (2.5 cm)

36 in (815 cm)

12 in (30 cm)
18 in (45 cm)

6 in (15 cm)

Chard

1 in (2.5 cm)

8 in (20 cm)

Basil

in (0.5 cm)

8 in (20 cm)

8 in (20 cm)

Parsley

in (0.5 cm)

8 in (20 cm)

12 in (30 cm)

Cilantro

in (0.5 cm)

8 in (20 cm)

12 in (30 cm)

Colorful red-leaved lettuce Great Dixter.

Salad and leafy vegetables and herbs 235

Cultivation tips
Preventing lettuce and spinach from bolting In hot
weather and when the soil is dry, lettuces, spinach, and
many other leafy crops bolt, which is when plants go
to seed and leaves become bitter (see left). Prevent or
delay this by keeping the soil moist with regular watering
and by planting summer crops in light shade rather than
full sun.
Halting the spread of mint With its underground
runners, mint can become an invasive nuisance in the
garden, so it is best to grow it in a container or at least
in a pot sunk into the soil. The latter will help to prevent
it from taking over, but may not conne it forever.
Propagating perennial herbs Renew the vigor of
old woody perennial herbs by digging them up in late
summer and dividing them. Using pruners, cut the plants
into small sections with plenty of healthy roots and leaves,
which you can then replant. This works particularly well
for thyme, chives, and oregano, but division is not suitable
for shrubby herbs, such as sage and rosemary.

Crops to choose

Spinach A very nutritious


crop and easy to grow.
Harvest baby leaves to use
in salads, or mature leaves
for steaming.

Swiss chard This striking


crop is grown for its
colored stems, which look
good on the plate, and can
be steamed or eaten fresh.

Apple mint Furry, with a


mild, sweet avor, this is
the best mint for avoring
vegetables and to stroke
as you walk past.

Purple sage This bushy,


purple-tinged plant is so
attractive that it is often
planted in owerbeds. It
tastes good, too.

236 How to grow vegetables

Sowing beet seeds outside


When sowing outdoors, the soil must
be warm enough in spring for seeds to
germinate (wait for the rst weed seeds
to sprout if you are unsure). Choose a dry
day when the soil is moist to rake it to a
ne, crumbly texture (tilth) for sowing.

Tip for success

For easy sowing, buy seeds that


are attached at intervals to a
biodegradable tape, which can
simply be laid in the drill.

Sowing beet seeds outside 237

For a straight row, pull a string line tight across the seed
bed and make a V-shaped drill by dragging the corner of
a hoe along the string. Make the drill about 1 in (2.5 cm)
deep for beet seeds (the depth varies for different crops).

As soon as sowing is complete, use the back of a rake


to push the soil gently over the drill. Mark the row clearly
with a plant label so you know what you have sown
where, and dont disturb the germinating seeds.

Pour seeds into the palm of your hand and sow them one
at a time at 2-in (5-cm) intervals along the row. (Spacings
vary for different seeds according to their size; tiny seeds
should be sown as thinly and evenly as possible.)

Keep rows free of weeds. Remove excess seedlings by


pulling them out with their roots, or pinching them off
at soil level when they are large enough to handle. This
ensures that the remaining plants have enough space.

238 How to grow vegetables

Growing zucchini from plug plants

Buy compact, green plants with a healthy root system.


Water well and plant out or pot on immediately to avoid
slowing their growth. Beware of buying zucchini and other
half-hardy plants before the risk of frost has passed.

Gently rm the soil around each plant so that it is stable,


and water well to help it get established. Add a mulch of
organic material around each plant (but not touching the
stem) to retain soil moisture and suppress weeds.

Carefully remove each seedling from its packaging and,


holding the root ball rather than the delicate leaves, plant
them into prepared soil so that the top of the root ball is
just below soil level.

Label, and add supports for plants that need them as


they grow. Cloches are often useful to protect young
plants from cold and windy weather. Continue to water
the plants regularly until they are established.

Growing rst early potatoes 239

Growing rst early potatoes

In late winter, place your seed potatoes in egg cartons or


trays with the maximum number of buds (eyes) pointing
upward. Stand the boxes in a cool, light place indoors for
about six weeks to produce sturdy, dark sprouts.

Fill each hole with soil, rake over the row, and mark its
position. A general-purpose fertilizer can also be applied
at the specied rate on either side of the row at this stage,
or it may be worked into the soil before planting.

When shoots reach about 1 in (2.5 cm) long, in early


spring, mark a row in prepared soil. At 12-in (30-cm)
intervals, dig holes about 4 in (10 cm) deep and plant
a single tuber in each, with its shoots pointing upward.

Tubers exposed to light will turn green, making them


toxic and inedible. To avoid this, earth up the plants as
they emerge by mounding soil around their stems to a
height of around 6 in (15 cm).

240 How to grow vegetables

Growing runner beans


Runner beans grow best in rich, fertile
soil, so prepare your site by digging in
plenty of organic matter at least two
weeks before planting. Plant scented
owers, such as sweet peas, nearby to
attract pollinating insects to the garden.

Growing runner beans

Support is vital for these climbing plants. Build a teepee


from eight canes, ideally at least 7 ft (2.2 m) long, pushed
rmly into the soil about 12 in (30 cm) apart, in a circle.
Tie the canes securely at the top and again halfway down.

After germination, remove the weaker seedling. Twist


the remaining plant around its cane and tie it in with
twine. A companion sweet pea plant will attract insects
to the runner bean owers, promoting a good crop.

241

From late spring, when the soil is at least 54F (12C),


plant two seeds at a depth of 2 in (5 cm) by each cane
and water thoroughly. In cold areas or where the soil is
heavy, sow the seeds in deep pots indoors in mid-spring.

It is important to pick runner beans regularly (at least


twice a week), when they are young and tender, because
overly mature pods are less appetizing and suppress the
formation of new owers.

242 How to grow vegetables

Planting tomatoes in a growing bag


Growing bags dry out rapidly, but the
volume of potting mix can be increased,
and the need to water reduced, by
planting into open-ended pots inserted
into holes in the bag, as shown here.

Tip for success

Other summer crops, such as


lettuce, suit growing bags,
taking only 812 weeks from
seed to the cropping stage.

Planting tomatoes in a growing bag 243

Using a knife, carefully cut three openings in the top of


the growing bag and cut drainage holes in the base. If
using bottomless pots (buy ready-made, or make your
own), insert them into the openings and ll with soil.

Add canes or strong wires for support. Take care to pinch


out all fast-growing sideshoots between the leaves and
stemthey divert valuable energy away from fruit
production. Apply a liquid tomato fertilizer weekly.

When the plants are hardened off and the rst owers are
about to open, plant into the bag or the pots so that the
top of the root ball is just below the soil surface. Firm the
soil around the roots and water well.

Tie in the main stems with twine as they grow. Stop the
plant from growing taller by removing the growing tip, two
leaves beyond the fth or sixth cluster (truss) of fruit. This
diverts the plants energy into the last fruits of the season.

244 How to grow vegetables

Growing chard in a container


A large pot lled with the glossy green
leaves and neon-colored stems of chard
Bright Lights will add color to any
patio. Harvest the baby leaves for salads
when young, or allow them to mature
for steaming and stir-frying.

Tip for success

Test different layouts in your


container while the plants are
still in their own pots to help
create the best color display.

Growing chard in a container 245

Position the empty pot in a sunny, sheltered spot. Ensure


that the container has drainage holes, cover the base with
a layer of crocks, and add multipurpose potting mix to
within about 1 in (2.5 cm) of the containers lip.

Place the plants into holes made in the potting mix at the
correct spacing, checking that the top of the root ball is
just below soil level. Gently rm soil around each plant
and water the container thoroughly.

Water the young chard plants and carefully remove them


from their pots, holding them by the roots rather than the
leaves. Gently tease out the roots to help them establish
quickly, and space them about 4 in (10 cm) apart.

Water the chard regularly to keep the large leaves rm


and in good condition, especially during hot summer
weather. You can also apply a nitrogen-rich fertilizer to
help maintain vigorous healthy growth.

246 How to grow vegetables

Intercropping lettuce and corn


Planting a slow-growing and a fastmaturing crop together in a grid pattern
is an efcient way to make the most of
limited space. Lettuces can be grown
among sweet corn plants and picked
before the cobs mature.

Intercropping lettuce and corn

Measure and mark out a grid of 18-in (45-cm) squares.


Use bamboo canes to mark the lines in the soil. This
block arrangement is also ideal for maximizing the wind
pollination of sweet corn.

Mix the lettuce seed with ne sand and scatter thinly in


between the corn plants. Rake over carefully. The lettuces
will mature in 812 weeks and ll the gaps in between
the corn plants.

Transplant one young corn plant in the corner of each


square. Firm the soil around the base of each plant.
(Corn plants are tender, so they may have to be raised
from seed under cover, see p.217.)

Thin the lettuce seedlings to 34 plants per square.


Sweet corn takes at least 16 weeks to produce mature
cobs, but the lettuce can be harvested long before the
corn casts too much shade on them.

247

248 How to grow vegetables

Planting an herb garden


This formal herb feature takes only a day
to build and a season to mature. Here,
bricks have been used to edge the beds
and divide them into quarters. A potted
bay tree forms the centerpiece.

Planting an herb garden 249

Mark out a cross with pegs and string. Dig trenches


following the string lines, just wider and not quite as deep
as the bricks to allow space for the bricks to settle. Use a
hammer handle to rm in the bricks.

Arrange the plants in their pots before they go in the


ground, so you can adjust the spacing if required. Water
each plant thoroughly before removing it from its pot.
Make planting holes and insert the plants. Water well.

Finish the last quarter and bed the bricks down securely,
packing the soil rmly against them (no need to mortar
them in). If you wish to have a plant in the center of the
feature, make sure you leave space for it.

Finish off the design with a central planta bay tree,


which can be clipped into shape, has been used here.
Water all the plants regularly until they are fully
established, especially in hot, dry weather.

250 Planting recipes

Vertical vegetable garden


Vertical space is often underused, but
it has great potential in small gardens,
increasing the space for growing a range
of crops. Attaching pots of herbs and
bush varieties of vegetables to a sturdy
wire mesh can turn a bare sunny wall
into a riot of color, and they are simple
to care for and convenient to harvest.
Vigorous climbing beans, squashes,
and nasturtiums can be planted in large
containers at the base of the wall and
are easy to train up the mesh for a
fabulous, lush display.

Garden basics
Size 6 x 7 ft (1.8 x 2.2 m)
Suits Any sunny location with a wall or
fence as a backdrop
Soil Light, multipurpose potting mix
Site Wall in full sun

Eggplant Mohican

Basil Sweet Genovese, Red Rubin

Tomato Tumbling Tom Red

Cucumber Masterpiece

Zucchini Tromboncino

Runner bean Wisley Magic

Shopping list
2 x eggplant Mohican
3 x basil Sweet Genovese
3 x basil Red Rubin
3 x tomato Tumbling Tom Red
1 x cucumber Masterpiece
1 x zucchini Tromboncino
3 x runner bean Wisley Magic
Planting and aftercare
Attach wood battens to the wall and
secure a sturdy wire mesh to them.
Drill holes in the sides of plastic pots and
window boxes and thread galvanized
wire through them before planting. After
the risk of frost has passed, ll the pots
with a lightweight potting mix, plant
with hardened-off plants, secure pots to
the mesh, and arrange larger ones at the
base of the wall. Leave space for plants
to develop, and train climbing crops up
the mesh. Water the plants frequently
because they will dry out rapidly in their
exposed position. Tie in climbing plants
as they grow, and harvest frequently to
encourage further crops.

Vertical vegetable garden

251

252 Planting recipes

Hanging herb and vegetable basket


Vegetable gardening does not get
much more convenient than picking juicy
cherry tomatoes and fragrant herbs from
just outside your back door. Hanging
baskets are often associated with
bedding plants, but why not try planting
a combination of cascading cherry
tomatoes, vibrant nasturtiums, and
delicious herbs instead? Kept fertilized
and watered, they will look great over
a long season and provide tasty fresh
produce for the kitchen as well.

Container basics
Size Basket at least 10 in (25 cm) in
diameter
Suits Area close to the kitchen
Soil Multipurpose potting mix
Site Wall in full sun and sheltered from
strong winds

Peppermint Chocolate

Parsley Forest Green

Lemon thyme Golden Lemon

Tomato Tumbler

Chives

Nasturtium African Queen

Shopping list
1 x chocolate peppermint

Chocolate
1 x parsley Forest Green
1 x lemon thyme Golden Lemon
1 x tomato Tumbler
1 x chives
1 x nasturtium African Queen

Planting and aftercare


Ensure that drainage holes have been
made in the base of the basket. Place
a layer of lightweight potting mix in
the bottom of the basket, then position
the plants, still in their pots, to see
where they will look best. Remember
that trailing plants should be near the
edge. Once you have settled on a
design, water the plants well, remove
them from their pots, and place in the
basket. Fill the gaps with potting mix,
rming around the plants, and water
the basket thoroughly. Hang it on a
sturdy hook and water regularly. Once
tomatoes begin to set, apply a liquid
tomato fertilizer weekly.

Hanging herb and vegetable basket 253

254 Planting recipes

Cut-and-come-again window box


Even without a garden, it is possible to
grow a good supply of tasty baby salad
leaves. Cut-and-come-again salads are
one of the quickest and easiest crops
to grow from seed and, when grown
in a window box, could not be more
convenient to care for and harvest. Try
growing your own mix of lettuce, Asian
greens, and arugula to create a peppery
salad, which tastes wonderfully fresh
when it has gone from plant to plate in
a matter of seconds.

Window box basics


Size 20 x 6 in (50 x 15 cm)
Suits Window sill where a window box
can be secured
Soil Good multipurpose potting mix
Site Window sill with access for watering,
in full sun or partial shade

Shopping list
1 x packet mibuna seeds
1 x packet mizuna seeds
1 x packet lettuce Oakleaf or Salad

Mibuna

Mizuna

Additional plant idea

Bowl Mixed seeds

1 x packet arugula seeds


Planting and aftercare
Choose a window sill in sun or partial
shade, which can be reached easily for
watering and harvesting. Make sure the
window box is secured and has drainage
holes in the base. Add a layer of crocks
to the box and ll it to within in (2 cm)
of the top with multipurpose potting
mix. Blend the different seeds together
in a bowl and sow thinly from the palm
of your hand from mid-spring until late
summer. Cover with a thin layer of
potting mix and water well. Germination
is rapid and the rst leaves can be cut
with scissors after 35 weeks, leaving
a 2-in (5-cm) stump to regrow. Two or
three further harvests can be cut at
35-week intervals. Water the window
box regularly for a healthy crop.
Lettuce Oakleaf

Arugula Rocket Wild

Cut-and-come-again window box 255

256 Planting recipes

Decorative climbing display


Few ower and vegetable combinations
could be more eye-catching than this
mix of exotic purple blooms and bulging
orange squashes. The vigorous growth
of squash is perfect for training up a
fence and provides an interesting contrast
to the delicate foliage of the climbing
passion ower and cup-and-saucer plants.
All of these plants ourish in summer
heat, and will perform best in warmer
areas with a long growing season.

Border basics
Size 6 x 6 ft (2 x 2 m)
Suits Vegetable or ornamental garden
with a fence or trellis as a backdrop
Soil Fertile, moist, but well-drained
Site Border in front of fence or trellis in
full sun

Shopping list
1 x squash Uchiki Kuri or Jack Be

Little
1 x passion ower (Passiora caerulea)
1 x cup-and-saucer plant (Cobaea
scandens)

Squash Uchiki Kuri

Passion ower (Passiora)

Alternative squash

Planting and aftercare


Sow squash and cup-and-saucer plant
seeds under cover in mid-spring, in
either a warm room or a heated
propagator. Passion owers are readily
available as plants and will persist as
perennial climbers in warm regions.
Attach wires or trellis to a bare fence,
so the climbing plants can be tied in or
use their own tendrils for support.
After the last frost date, plant the young
plants about 12 in (30 cm) away from
the base of the fence, about 18 in
(45 cm) apart, and water them well.
Tie the stems to the supports when they
are long enough, after which the passion
ower and cup-and-saucer plant should
nd their own way, while the squash may
need further tying in. Water the squash
regularly once fruits have formed.

Cup-and-saucer plant (Cobaea)

Squash Jack Be Little

Decorative climbing display 257

258 Planting recipes

Exotic vegetable raised bed


If you have a sheltered, sunny wall that
absorbs the suns heat during the day and
warms the surrounding air at night, take
advantage of this microclimate to grow
exotic crops. This raised bed has been
lled with heat-loving tomatoes, peppers,
eggplants, and feathery-leaved garbanzo
(chickpea) plants, as well as cucumbers
and sweet potatoes that scramble up
the wall. Some of these vegetables only
crop well in hot summers, but they make
attractive curiosities that are fun to try.

Border basics
Size 6 x 3 ft (2 x 1 m)
Suits Any style of garden
Soil Fertile, moist, but free-draining
Site Border in front of a wall in full sun, in
warm regions

Eggplant Moneymaker

Cucumber Carmen

Sweet pepper Gypsy

Tomato Summer Sweet

Garbanzo Principe

Sweet potato Beauregard

Shopping list
1 x eggplant Moneymaker
1 x cucumber Carmen
1 x sweet pepper Gypsy
1 x tomato Summer Sweet
1 x garbanzo Principe
1 x sweet potato Beauregard
Planting and aftercare
Sow seeds of tomatoes, cucumbers,
sweet peppers, and eggplants under
cover in spring. Once the risk of frost has
passed, harden the young plants off and
plant them out in the raised bed. It is a
good idea to soak the garbanzos in
regularly changed water for a few days
until they sprout before planting them
in their nal positions. Plant the sweet
potato slips with about 2 in (5 cm)
of stem above the soil and, as with the
other young plants, water well. Attach
wire mesh to the wall and train the
cucumber and sweet potato stems
through it. Once the rst fruits have set,
fertilize weekly with a tomato fertilizer
that is high in potash. Crops should be
ready to harvest in late summer.

Exotic vegetable raised bed 259

260 Planting recipes

Courtyard vegetable garden


Even a modest corner of the garden can
be enough to grow an interesting range
of vegetables that will crop well over a
long season. Here, cordon tomatoes and
runner beans have been trained up the
wall and fence to make the best use of
the vertical space. Edging the path is a
densely sown crop of cut-and-comeagain lettuce. Red cabbage and sweet
corn will extend the harvest into late
summer and early fall, the zucchini in
the pot until mid-fall.

Border basics
Size 12 x 6 ft (4 x 2 m)
Suits Courtyard garden
Soil Fertile, moist, but free-draining
Site Corner of garden, sheltered by a wall
or fence, in full sun

Tomato Gardeners Delight

Runner bean Liberty

Zucchini Burpees Golden

Sweet corn Swift

Lettuce Salad Bowl Mixed

Cabbage Marner Early Red

Shopping list
3 x tomato Gardeners Delight
3 x runner bean Liberty
1 x zucchini Burpees Golden
9 x sweet corn Swift
1 x packet lettuce seed Salad Bowl

Mixed
3 x cabbage Marner Early Red

Planting and aftercare


Prepare the area by digging in plenty of
organic matter, ideally in fall. Buy plug
plants or, where there is space under
cover, sow tomato, runner bean, red
cabbage, and sweet corn seeds in pots,
harden them off, and plant out after the
risk of frost has passed. Plant tomatoes
in a growing bag because they thrive on
the rich soil, adding canes for support
and pinching out sideshoots as they
grow. Give the runner beans wires to
climb up. Plant sweet corn in a block
to aid pollination, and direct-sow a
few lettuce seeds regularly to ensure
a continuous crop. Water young plants
in, and continue watering and fertilizing
regularly those in growing bags.

Courtyard vegetable garden

261

262 Planting recipes

Pretty potager
Formal patterns and exquisite color
combinations characterize the Frenchstyle potager, where vegetables look
as attractive as ornamental plants.
Planting a potager is not difcult, but it
does require careful planning to select
and arrange colored varieties that
mature to provide interest throughout
the year. Here, sweet corn and runner
beans add valuable height to a scheme
dominated by gray and purple foliage.

Border basics
Size 20 x 25 ft (6 x 8 m)
Suits An area with easy wheelbarrow
access and a water supply
Soil Fertile, moist, and free-draining
Site Large open plot in full sun, with
shelter from strong winds

Runner bean Liberty

Sweet corn Lark

Cabbage Red Jewel

Fava bean The Sutton

Kale Red Russian

Shallot Golden Gourmet

Shopping list
1 x packet runner bean Liberty seed
1 x packet sweet corn Lark seed
1 x packet cabbage Red Jewel seed
1 x packet fava bean The Sutton
seed

1 x packet kale Red Russian seed


1 x pack shallot Golden Gourmet
sets

Planting and aftercare


Prepare the soil by adding plenty of
well-rotted manure the fall before
planting. Draw out your design on
paper, calculating the number of plants
required to ll each row and what they
can be replaced with once harvested.
Plant the seeds in spring, harden off
where required, and transplant into neat
rows in early summer, adding supports
for the runner beans. Water the young
plants well, tie climbers to supports,
and protect from pests as necessary.
Harvest crops as they mature and plan
to have replacement plants ready to ll
the empty ground as soon as possible
to maintain the gardens appearance.

Pretty potager 263

264 Caring for your crops

Garden allies
Some wild creatures help to pollinate
plants, break down compost, and prey
on pests, so make these friendly visitors
welcome in your garden.

Busy bees The owers of many vegetables, such as runner


beans, need to be pollinated by insects in order to set their
crop. Bees are excellent pollinators, so include ornamental
owers in your vegetable garden to entice them in.

Garden allies 265

Friendly pest predators


Not all insects found in the vegetable garden are pests,
and many of them prey on harmful insects that can
destroy entire crops if left unchecked. It is, therefore, well
worth encouraging the good guys into your vegetable

Hoveries Sometimes mistaken


for bees, adult hoveries are great
pollinators, while the larvae feed
voraciously on insect pests.

garden to try to achieve a natural balance and keep pest


numbers low. Remember, too, that many pesticide sprays,
even organic ones, kill benecial insects as well as pests,
and are best used only as a last resort.

Ladybugs The adults are familiar


friends, but the less appealing larvae
enjoy nothing better than feasting
on juicy aphids.

Lacewings The delicate


appearance of the adult lacewing
belies the enormous appetites of its
larvae for common garden pests.

Helpful animals and birds


Although they may be elusive, many larger garden
residents, such as birds and toads, can be a gardeners
best friend, feeding on slugs and all kinds of other
unwelcome visitors. Birds soon ock to gardens where

Song thrushes These birds break


snails from their shells, so plant a
berry-bearing shrub or tree on your
patch to give them winter food, too.

food is provided, and different species will pick off insects


and even feed on snails during a visit. Create suitable
habitats for all kinds of creatures and they will repay you
with a healthier and more productive garden.

Brandling worms Smaller and


redder than the usual earthworm,
these creatures rapidly reduce
vegetable matter to compost.

Frogs and toads Even a small pond


can become home to a number of
frogs and toads, which will help to
keep the slug population in check.

266 Caring for your crops

Gallery of weeds
Perennial weeds

Field bindweed (Convolvulus


arvensis) This climber, with its pretty
white owers and heart-shaped
leaves, will regrow from the tiniest
fragment of root and quickly spread.

Bramble (Rubus) A scrambling


shrub, with long, arching, prickly
stems, that can rapidly become
invasive and hard to remove. The
stems also re-root at the tips.

Creeping buttercup (Ranunculus


repens) This low-growing plant with
yellow owers spreads by runners that
form a dense mat of shallow roots,
which are relatively easy to remove.

Couch grass (Agropyron repens)


This leafy grass spreads incredibly fast
by tough, underground roots that can
be hard to dig up intact. It will regrow
from any pieces left in the soil.

Dandelion (Taraxacum ofcinale)


Catch the rosettes of toothed leaves
while small and easy to remove
once the taproot grows and the seeds
disperse, the job is much harder.

Dock (Rumex) Large pointed leaves


and tall ower spikes grow above a
eshy taproot that extends deep into
the soil and takes considerable effort
to remove once established.

Ground elder (Aegopodium


podagraria) The creeping roots make
this a pernicious garden weed, easily
recognized by its elderlike leaves and
clouds of white owers.

Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica)


The coarse, jagged leaves are covered
with stinging hairs. The bright yellow,
creeping roots are easy to see, but a
challenge to remove.

Horsetail (Equisetum) Almost


impossible to eradicate, the dark
brown, bootlace-like roots of these
feathery plants can extend several
yards (meters) underground.

Gallery of weeds 267

Annual and biennial weeds

Annual meadowgrass (Poa annua)


This insignicant-looking, lowgrowing grass colonizes any available
space, including cracks in paving, so
remove it before it sets seed.

Ragwort (Senecio jacobaea) The


yellow daisy owers of this tall plant
are produced in its second year,
followed by uffy white seeds that
colonize open ground.

Common chickweed (Stellaria media)


Rather delicate, with charming little
white, starlike owers, this weed
establishes and sets seed rapidly, and
its sprawling habit smothers seedlings.

Groundsel (Senecio vulgaris) The


white uffy seeds of this weed oat
on the breeze, so it can spread far
and wide. Remove plants before
the tiny yellow owers mature.

Shepherds purse (Capsella-bursa


pastoris) A rosette of cut-edged
leaves gives rise to a spike of small
white owers, which quickly form
heart-shaped seed capsules.

Hairy bittercress (Cardamine


hirsuta) Best pulled up as a seedling,
when it has small, watercress-like
leaves, because the ower stem
rapidly forms long seed pods.

Cleavers (Galium aparine) This


scrambling weed is covered with little
hooked bristles that enable it to climb
through plants. Uproot it rather than
pulling the stems.

Fat hen (Chenopodium album) The


gray-green, diamond-shaped leaves
of this common weed are easily
recognized. It quickly grows tall,
with a loose ower spike at its tip.

Plantain (Plantago) Low-growing


rosettes of almost leathery leaves
turn up in beds, paving, and lawns.
Remove them before the little
bottlebrush owers are produced.

268 Caring for your crops

Dealing with pests


Every garden has its share of pests, so
dont panic and reach for the insecticide
spray at every sighting. Healthy plants
can usually tolerate them, and some are
also food for benecial insects, which
you can encourage into your garden.
A healthy balance Help plants stay healthy by providing
plenty of water and rich, well-drained soil, and prevent a
buildup of pests by planting each crop in a different part
of the garden every year. Encourage benecial creatures,
such as birds, hoveries, and frogs, with suitable food
and habitats. This helps achieve a natural balance, where
predators keep pest numbers at an acceptable level, and
there is less need for chemical intervention.
Control strategies Check plants regularly and pick off
any unwelcome arrivals immediately. If you anticipate a
problem, put a barrier, such as oating row cover for
carrot ies, in place, or grow companion plants alongside
the crop to entice benecial insects or confuse pests. If
necessary, use chemical sprays in the evening when bees
and other benecial insects are not ying. Sticky sheets
are useful in the greenhouse, as are biological controls,
which introduce a predatory organism to kill the pests.

Sticky sheets in the greenhouse help to control airborne pests.

Keeping out animal pests


Large animal pests can devastate a vegetable patch
overnight, so where you anticipate a problem, the best
way to stop them from reaching your plants is to create
a physical barrier. Deer and rabbits need fences to keep
them at bay, but there are a number of cheap and easy
ways of outwitting slugs, snails, mice, and birds.

Plastic bottles and copper tape deter slugs.

Halved plastic bottles with copper tape around the


base protect young plants from slugs, snails, and birds.
Netting supported with canes or wire keeps out birds; a
ne net separates egg-laying butteries from brassicas.
Tightly secured netting deters burrowers like rabbits
(see opposite), which eat roots, brassicas, and peas.

Prevent bird damage with netting.

Floating row cover keeps out carrot ies.

Dealing with pests 269

Gallery of pests

Aphids Sap-sucking insects


(greenies, blackies) weaken growth
and carry diseases. Encourage birds
and insect predators, pick off small
groups, or use a suitable insecticide.

Rabbits Keep these voracious


vegetable eaters out of the garden
with a small-meshed fence that
extends 1 ft (30 cm) underground
to prevent them from burrowing in.

Carrot ies Cover crops with


oating row cover, sow carefully to
reduce the need for thinning, or grow
resistant varieties to prevent carrot y
larvae from tunneling into roots.

Potato cyst eelworm These


microscopic, sap-sucking nematodes
cause potato leaves to discolor and
die. Avoid replanting the same crop
where an infestation has occurred.

Caterpillars Different parts of


various plants may be damaged by
caterpillars. Pea moth caterpillars
(above) live inside the pods. Net
crops to exclude egg-laying adults.

Flea beetles These tiny black beetles


eat holes in the leaves of brassicas,
turnips, radishes, and arugula. Keep
them at bay by covering seedlings
with oating row cover.

Whiteies Treat greenhouse


whitey with the biological control
Encarsia formosa (parasitic wasp),
and the brassica whitey with a
suitable insecticide.

Red spider mites Small mites cause


mottling on leaves, particularly in the
greenhouse. Mist plants to increase
humidity, and use the predatory mite
Phytoseiulus persimilis.

Slugs and snails Protect vulnerable


plants, and try beer traps and
ashlight hunts. Nematode biological
controls are less harmful to other
animals than slug pellets.

270 Caring for your crops

Dealing with diseases


Just like people, strong, healthy plants
are more able to ght off infection than
weak, malnourished ones. Heres how
to keep yours in shape.
Prevention is better than cure Good cultivation is
as much a part of ghting diseases as recognizing and
treating them, and with few fungicides available to the
amateur, preventative measures are essential.
Plants require a ready supply of nutrients and water to
sustain healthy growth, so add plenty of organic matter
to the soil to release nutrients and help retain moisture.
Additional watering may also be needed, particularly in
hot weather. It is important not to forget plants under
cover and in containers, which rely on regular watering
and feeding to sustain them. Damp conditions and poor
air circulation can encourage fungal problems, such as
damping-off of seedlings, so use free-draining potting
mix and provide good ventilation when sowing indoors.
A neat garden also helps to keep diseases at bay.
Ensure that sources of infection, such as dead leaves,
harvested plants, and nearby weeds, are removed at the
rst opportunity. Burn or discard any diseased material;
dont compost it because infection could spread.

Keep the garden well watered to encourage vigorous, healthy


growth that is less susceptible to all kinds of infection.

Although not easy in a small garden, it is advisable to


practice crop rotation, where related groups of crops
are grown together and moved to a new bed each year,
helping to prevent the buildup of diseases in the soil.
Where diseases are known to be a problem, try growing
resistant varieties. Be aware that plants brought into your
garden can introduce disease, so check any purchases or
gifts carefully before planting.
Deciency, not disease Signs of nutrient deciency,
such as yellowing leaves and blossom end rot on tomatoes
and peppers, are often mistaken for diseases. Learn to
recognize these disorders, so that you can act quickly and
minimize their effects. Sometimes the remedy is as simple
as improving the water supply;
other problems may need
fertilizer added to the soil.

Use fresh seed


starting mix and
new or sterilized
pots and trays
to prevent
damping-off
disease.

Add lime to acidic soil before planting brassicas to increase the pH


level and reduce the incidence of clubroot.

Dealing with diseases 271

Gallery of diseases and disorders

Potato/tomato blight Brown patches


on leaves, fruits, and tubers, caused
by a fungus that thrives in warm, wet
weather. Grow resistant varieties or
spray with copper-based fungicide.

Sclerotinia Fungus that causes


brown, slimy rot with uffy, white
growth, predominantly on stems and
fruits of various vegetables. Remove
and burn or discard affected plants.

Magnesium deciency Older leaves


of various vegetables show yellowing
between veins, especially in acidic soil
or after heavy rains. Apply Epsom
salts to the soil or as a foliar spray.

Clubroot This soil-borne slime mold


infects brassicas, causing swollen roots,
wilting foliage, and even death. Ensure
good drainage, add lime to acidic soil,
and choose resistant varieties.

Blossom end rot Dry conditions


affect calcium uptake, which causes
sunken, black patches at the tips of
tomatoes and sweet peppers. Correct
with adequate, regular watering.

Powdery mildew A wide range of


crops are affected by these fungi,
causing powdery white growth on
leaves in dry soil conditions. Water
the soil well, but not over the leaves.

Onion white rot This fungus persists


in the soil for up to seven years and
causes uffy white growth on bulbs
and roots and yellowing of leaves.
Remove and burn infected plants.

Rust Orange or brown spots appear


on the leaves and stems of various
vegetable crops, particularly in damp
weather. Remove infected leaves and
grow resistant varieties.

Botrytis A uffy, gray mold (or


whitish spots on tomatoes) that enters
plants through wounds or owers.
Remove dead and infected plant
material to reduce risk of infection.

272 Planting a small garden: plant guide

PLANTING A SMALL GARDEN: PLANT GUIDE

Tall plants for sun (AbCy)


Abutilon x suntense

Acacia dealbata

Arbutus unedo

This spectacular evergreen shrub is a


ne choice for a sunny, sheltered site
by a wall or fence. The hairy, graygreen leaves are shaped like those of
a grapevine. In late spring, clusters
of large, open, purple or white owers
cover the plant for many weeks.

Reaching tree-sized proportions,


this quick-growing evergreen has
fernlike, sea green foliage. In
sheltered spots, it produces scented,
puffball-shaped, yellow owers in
late winter. If it grows too large, it
can be pruned to size in spring.

The strawberry tree is one of the best


evergreen trees for a small garden.
Shrubby when young, it has glossy,
dark green leaves and bell-shaped,
white or pink owers in late fall,
followed by strawberry-like fruits. The
bark is reddish brown.

H: 12 ft (4 m), S: 6 ft (2 m)

H: 50 ft (15 m), S: 20 ft (6 m)

H: 30 ft (10 m), S: 20 ft (6 m)

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Betula utilis var. jacquemontii

Buddleja davidii Dartmoor

Cestrum parqui

With its light canopy and slender


form, this silver birch suits small sites
well. In winter, the dazzling white
trunk with its peeling bark provides
interest; catkins and young leaves are
an attraction in spring. The leaves
turn butter yellow before falling.

Buddlejas are easy to grow and


attractive to butteries. In mid- to
late summer, this graceful selection
has reddish purple, cone-shaped
owerheads on long, arching stems,
giving a weeping appearance. Prune
in spring to keep under control.

An unusual shrub that is ideal for a


warm, sunny wall. Its greenish yellow
owerheads, which are scented at
night, appear from spring until frost.
In cold areas, the plant may die to the
ground, but will usually grow again
from the root.

H: 50 ft (15 m), S: 23 ft (7.5 m)

H: 10 ft (3 m), S: 6 ft (2 m)

H: 10 ft (3 m), S: 6 ft (2 m)

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Tall plants for sun (AbCy) 273

Clematis Alba Luxurians

Clematis cirrhosa

Clematis Perle dAzur

One of the most rewarding clematis,


this plant bears masses of small
green-tipped white owers with
black anthers. Mature plants scramble
up trellis to cover a wall or fence, but
may overwhelm shrubs or small trees.
In late winter, cut back to 8 in (20 cm).

Both evergreen and winter-owering,


this scrambling climber needs a sunny
position, but is a quick-growing, easy
plant. The shiny leaves make a good
foil to the creamy, bell-shaped
owers, which can be speckled with
red inside; uffy seedheads follow.

This plant makes an excellent addition


to a small garden. It produces blue
blooms in succession from midsummer
to fall. The owers are tinged violet
as they open, but fade to blue as they
age. Prune stems to 8 in (20 cm)
in late winter.

H: 15 ft (5 m), S: 5 ft (1.5 m)

H: 20 ft (6 m), S: 10 ft (3 m)

H: 10 ft (3 m), S: 5 ft (1.5 m)

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Cornus kousa var. chinensis

Cotinus coggygria Royal Purple

Cynara cardunculus

This must rank as one of the best


garden plants. White or pink spring
owers with showy bracts are
followed by red, strawberry-like
fruits. Mature plants become more
treelike and the ower displays ever
more spectacular.

For lovers of colored foliage, this


large shrub is a good choice. The
rich red-purple leaves offset palecolored owers at the back of a
border. In summer, wispy owerheads
may be produced; in fall, leaves
gradually turn scarlet before falling.

The cardoon makes a ne plant even


in small gardens, with its architectural
form, silver-green foliage, and purple,
thistlelike owers, which attract bees.
Place at the back of a border or use
as a feature plant for a sunny corner.
It dies to the ground in winter.

H: 22 ft (7 m), S: 15 ft (5 m)

H: 15 ft (5 m), S: 12 ft (4 m)

H: 6 ft (2 m), S: 4 ft (1.2 m)

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274

Planting a small garden: plant guide

Tall plants for sun (JaTr)


Jasminum nudiorum

Juniperus communis Hibernica

Mahonia x media Buckland

Of all winter-owering plants, this


jasmine, usually grown as a climber,
is perhaps the most reliable. Small,
bright yellow owers appear all
winter on leaess, dark green stems.
Hard frost will claim some blooms,
but more are produced in mild spells.

This conifer brings contrast, structure,


and backbone to the small garden.
With blue-green, prickly needles and
a dense-growing, compact habit, it
eventually forms a column several
yards high, standing out from
rounded and horizontal growth.

A useful shrub with glossy evergreen


foliage, architectural form, and
sweetly scented, bright yellow owers
held in spikes during the darkest
winter months. The leaves are spiny;
weeding beneath these plants is best
done wearing gloves.

H: 12 ft (4 m), S: 12 ft (4 m)

H: 15 ft (5 m), S: 24 in (60 cm)

H: 12 ft (4 m), S: 10 ft (3 m)

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Malus John Downie

Olea europaea

Photinia x fraseri Red Robin

This compact crabapple is perhaps


the best of its kind for a profusion
of ornamental fruit in late summer.
Yellow and orange in color, and
large, the apples stand out from the
deciduous foliage. In spring, pure
white blossoms open from pink buds.

The olive has become viable for


temperate gardens, thanks to milder
winters. It needs a sheltered site and
as much sun as possible. It then makes
a noble specimen with evergreen,
silver-green foliage and a gray trunk.
Small white owers appear in summer.

Evergreen photinia is at its glorious


best in spring when the new bright
copper-red growth appears; the large,
smooth leaves retain a reddish tinge
as they mature. It can be used as a
hedge, since it responds well to
pruning, and is quite compact.

H: 30 ft (10 m), S: 20 ft (6 m)

H: 20 ft (6 m), S: 15 ft (5 m)

H: 10 ft (3 m), S: 10 ft (3 m)

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Tall plants for sun (JaTr) 275

Prunus x subhirtella
Autumnalis Rosea

Robinia pseudoacacia Frisia

Romneya coulteri

This tree suits those who like to


enjoy the garden all year. Delicate,
starry, pale pink owers are produced
between fall and spring. New spring
growth is bronze-green, turning dark
green as the leaves expand.

This deciduous trees golden foliage


provides dramatic contrast to other
plants and illuminates dark urban
gardens. Plants are usually grafted
and have thorny, brittle stems;
remove any suckers with green
leaves that appear from the base.

The tree poppy is a distinguished


perennial that sends up tall yet
slender, unbranched stems with
silvery leaves that in mid- to late
summer are topped by huge, scented,
gold-centered owers with delicate
white petals.

H: 25 ft (8 m), S: 20 ft (6 m)

H: 50 ft (15 m), S: 25 ft (8 m)

H: 6 ft (2 m), S: 6 ft (2 m)

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Solanum crispum Glasnevin

Sorbus cashmiriana

Trachelospermum asiaticum

This glamorous relative of the potato


has scrambling stems, and makes a
beautiful wall shrub. Small purple
owers with yellow centers appear
in bunches all summer and associate
well with clematis and roses. Plants
respond well to light trimming in spring.

With its open growth habit, delicate


foliage, and pink owerheads in early
summer, this tree is a good choice.
In fall and early winter, the canopy
is resplendent with clusters of shiny
white fruits the size of small marbles
that linger after the leaves have fallen.

This evergreen climber is an excellent


plant for the smaller garden; it does
best in a sheltered spot. Small glossy
leaves form dense cover up walls or
over fences, and from early summer,
clusters of starry, strongly scented
cream owers appear.

H: 12 ft (4 m), S: 6 ft (2 m)

H: 25 ft (8 m), S: 20 ft (6 m)

H: 12 ft (4 m), S: 10 ft (3 m)

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276

Planting a small garden: plant guide

Tall plants for shade (AcSt)


Acer palmatum var. dissectum
Dissectum Atropurpureum Group

Camellia sasanqua

Cercis canadensis Forest Pansy

This is one of the most popular of


small Japanese acers, with rich purple
foliage. Slow-growing, it eventually
forms a low, mounded shrub. The
delicate leaves may be damaged by
drying winds, so give it some shelter.

Most camellias bloom in spring, but


those of C. sasanqua open in late
fall. There are many cultivars, with
scented single or semidouble owers
in white or pink. Train stems against a
sheltered wall to protect the owers
from frost. Needs acidic soil.

One of the most desirable of all


deciduous shrubs, this is grown for
its heart-shaped, rich purple foliage
and clusters of purple, pealike owers
in spring. In fall, the leaves develop
orange tints before falling. Grow it
in a sheltered position.

H: 6 ft (2 m), S: 10 ft (3 m)

H: 12 ft (4 m), S: 6 ft (2 m)

H: 10 ft (3 m), S: 10 ft (3 m)

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Daphne bholua Jacqueline


Postill

Dicksonia antarctica

Fatsia japonica

It is worth spending time nding a


good spot for this evergreen daphne.
In winter, it bears a profusion of waxy
pink owers with an intoxicating
perfume that carries on the wind.
It is best planted in a sheltered spot.

This tree fern is one of the most


recognizable of exotic plants. Its
bright green fronds unfurl from tight
croziers that appear from the tip of
the slow-growing trunk. These
plants need shelter, moisture, and
protection in cold winters.

Few hardy plants provide more


impact than fatsia, with its large,
leathery, hand-shaped leaves. In fall,
heads of white owers are followed
by drooping bunches of shiny, black
berries. It develops an elegant,
upright habit with age.

H: 10 ft (3 m), S: 5 ft (1.5 m)

H: 20 ft (6 m), S: 13 ft (4 m)

H: 10 ft (3 m), S: 6 ft (2 m)

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Tall plants for shade (AcSt) 277

Hydrangea quercifolia

Ilex aquifolium Silver Queen

Most hydrangeas are grown for their


showy owerheads, but this species
is better known for its oaklike foliage,
which develops dramatic autumnal
colors before falling. Creamy white,
conical owerheads are long-lasting.
It remains a compact shrub.

This slow-growing holly is a reliable


performer. It eventually forms a large,
cone-shaped shrub with prickly
evergreen leaves edged with silver.
An undemanding shrub for a dark
corner or shaded border, it is a male
plant and will not produce berries.

H: 5 ft (1.5 m), S: 3 ft (1 m)

H: 40 ft (12 m), S: 10 ft (3 m) or more

H: 12 ft (4 m), S: 10 ft (3 m)

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Phyllostachys

Sambucus racemosa Plumosa


Aurea

Stewartia monadelpha

Beloved of garden designers, this


bamboo is an excellent, well-behaved,
clump-forming plant. P. nigra has rich
ebony stems that contrast well with
the bright green foliage. Remove
lower branchlets and older stems to
show off the color of the stems.

Lonicera periclymenum
Graham Thomas
This is one of the best honeysuckles.
It is shade-tolerant, free-owering,
and well scented, especially in the
evening. Creamy yellow, tubular
owers appear in early summer and
throughout the season.

In spring and summer, this deciduous


shrub is furnished with delicate, gold
feathery foliage; the young shoots
are tinged bronze. It is best if the
stems are cut down annually to
about 24 in (60 cm) in early spring.

Stewartias are deciduous trees,


often developing mottled trunks and
impressive autumnal tints before leaf
fall. This species is one of the more
widely available, producing white
summer owers like those of a small
camellia. Grow it in a sheltered spot.

H: 22 ft (7 m), S: 15 ft (5 m)

H: 10 ft (3 m), S: 6 ft (2 m)

H: 70 ft (20 m), S: 15 ft (5 m)

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278 Planting a small garden: plant guide

Medium-sized plants for sun (AcCo)


Acanthus mollis
With mounds of glossy architectural
foliage and handsome prickly spires
of purple owers, this perennial
will add a touch of drama to any
garden. The large, rich green leaves
that emerge in early spring may be
damaged by frost.

Allium hollandicum
Purple Sensation

Angelica archangelica

This bulb owers after the spring


bulbs but before summer owers
get going. Rounded, metallic purple
owerheads are carried on tall,
slender stems that punctuate lower
plantings. Plant in drifts in spring.

This herbaceous plant owers, sets


seed, and dies in two years. In its rst
year, it produces unremarkable clumps
of large, divided leaves, but in the
second year, it is transformed. A thick
stem is topped by soccer-ball-sized
heads of bright green owers.

H: 6 ft (2 m), S: 6 ft (2 m)

H: 4 ft (1.2 m), S: 8 in (20 cm)

H: 8 ft (2.5 m), S: 4 ft (1.2 m)

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Aster turbinellus

Berberis thunbergii f.
atropurpurea Darts Red Lady

Bupleurum fruticosum

Reaching its best in early fall, this


aster has mauve daisy owers held
aloft on slender stems. The yellowcentered blooms are produced in
profusion, creating a dainty effect.
The stems may need extra support;
position any canes or twigs early.

Berberis are tough and easy to grow,


but some make rst-rate owering or
foliage plants. This deciduous cultivar
with viciously spiny stems is grown for
its richly colored red leaves, making a
good foil for other garden plants.

This is a ne shrub for a sunny spot,


forming a mound of silver-green
evergreen foliage, and producing
delicate heads of tiny, bright yellow
owers all summer. It thrives in dry,
chalky soil and also in the open in
mild coastal areas.

H: 3 ft (1 m), S: 3 ft (1 m)

H: 4 ft (1.2 m), S: 6 ft (2 m)

H: 6 ft (2 m), S: 6 ft (2 m)

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Medium-sized plants for sun (AcCo) 279

Buxus sempervirens

Canna Striata

Chimonanthus praecox

Boxwood has a long history in


cultivation, thanks to its evergreen
nature and responsiveness to clipping.
Use as topiary, a low hedge, or shape
it to add formality. Marginata
(pictured) has yellow-edged leaves.
Dislikes waterlogged soil.

Thanks to their exotic owers and


bold foliage, cannas make great
plants for a sunny garden. Striata
has yellow-striped green leaves and
orange owers in summer. Lift the
rhizomes and keep frost-free, or
protect with a thick mulch in winter.

In summer, this deciduous shrub


is unremarkable; in winter, small
rounded buds swell and open to
waxy, creamy yellow, bell-shaped
owers with a purple center. Their
spicy perfume gives the plant its
common name of wintersweet.

H: 1012 ft (34 m) if unclipped,


S: 6 ft (2 m) qdeab

H: 6 ft (2 m), S: 3 ft (1 m)

H: 10 ft (3 m), S: 6 ft (2 m)

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Choisya ternata Sundance

Cistus x hybridus

Correa Dusky Bells

This neat shrub is popular due to its


golden evergreen foliage, which is
lightly aromatic, as are the sprays
of white owers. It is best grown in
some shade, where it becomes lime
green and has an illuminating
presence. Dislikes waterlogged soil.

This easy, evergreen shrub is a sight


to behold in early summer. For two
to three weeks, it is smothered in
masses of single, white owers with
a yellow eye. Cistus are not longlived, but they will endure drought
for a while.

This charming, winter-owering


plant is worth growing in a sheltered,
sunny position. Low and shrubby, it
has small, evergreen leaves and bears
pinkish-red, bell-shaped owers
with protruding anthers in mild spells
during winter. It needs shelter.

H: 6 ft (2 m), S: 5 ft (1.5 m)

H: 4 ft (1.2 m), S: 5 ft (1.5 m)

H: 3 ft (1 m), S: 24 in (60 cm)

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280 Planting a small garden: plant guide

Medium-sized plants for sun (CrHi)


Crocosmia x crocosmiiora
Venus

Dahlia Bishop of Llandaff

Deutzia x rosea Campanulata

The common montbretia has strappy


leaves topped by sprays of orange
owers in late summer, but there are
many rather more desirable selections.
C. x crocosmiiora Venus, with gold
and red owers, is a good example.

This popular old cultivar produces


velvety, red, single owers above
purple foliage. It is compact, making it
good for the smaller yard, and a ne
companion for other late-owering
perennials. Lift the plant in winter
and keep the tubers frost-free.

This compact, deciduous shrub


makes a good undemanding plant
for the smaller garden. It has upright,
twiggy growth and hairy leaves. The
blooms, which are bell-shaped and
white with a pink tinge, remain
beautiful for several weeks.

H: 20 in (50 cm), S: 24 in (60 cm)

H: 4 ft (1.2 m), S: 24 in (60 cm)

H: 4 ft (1.2 m), S: 4 ft (1.2 m)

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Dierama pulcherrimum

Echinacea purpurea

Euphorbia characias

The wand ower or angels shing


rod is aptly named. In summer, long,
arching sprays of large, bell-shaped
owers appear from tufts of tough,
strappy, evergreen leaves. Flowers
are usually pink but sometimes white
or even dark purple.

The coneower is a most appealing


herbaceous plant, producing pinkypurple daisylike owers with a large,
dark central cone, tinged orange.
The owers are held on sturdy stems,
although sideshoots carry later blooms
that appear well into fall.

This evergreen perennial is a superb


early summer-owering plant, with
rounded heads of lime green bracts
surrounding insignicant owers.
The sea green, lance-shaped leaves
are carried on eshy stems that bleed
a milky, toxic sap if cut.

H: 5 ft (1.5 m), S: 24 in (60 cm)

H: 4 ft (1.2 m), S: 24 in (60 cm)

H: 5 ft (1.5 m), S: 3 ft (1 m)

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Medium-sized plants for sun (CrHi) 281

Euphorbia x martinii

Grevillea Canberra Gem

Hebe Midsummer Beauty

This spurge is a good choice, being


of compact but upright growth and
particularly effective in ower. The
green blooms have red centers and
appear in spring on tall, rounded, airy
heads, carried on purple stems with
dark evergreen leaves.

For much of the year, this unusual


evergreen shrub is quietly attractive,
clad in narrow, almost needlelike,
bright green leaves. In summer, it
is transformed with exotic-looking,
pink-red owers dangling here and
there. It needs acidic soil.

The length of its oral display makes


this evergreen hebe worthy of space
in the garden. In midsummer, long
spikes of violet and white owers
are produced. They have a delicate
fragrance and continue into fall,
even winter, if the weather is mild.

H: 24 in (60 cm), S: 24 in (60 cm)

H: 5 ft (1.5 m), S: 5 ft (1.5 m)

H: 6 ft (2 m), S: 6 ft (2 m)

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Helenium Moerheim Beauty

Hemerocallis Corky

Hibiscus syriacus Oiseau Bleu

This late-owering border perennial


is deservedly popular. From mid- to
late summer to early fall, it produces
shuttlecock-shaped, daisylike owers
in rich marmalade shades on sturdy,
upright stems. Deadheading ensures
a later ush of blooms.

A clump-forming perennial with


narrow, strappy foliage. Slender stems
appear in summer, carrying clusters
of orange-yellow, funnel-shaped
owers, each displaying a red tinge
to the outside. The blooms last just a
day but are soon followed by others.

Few shrubs better this hibiscus in


full bloom. Just as many other plants
are fading, it produces a profusion of
3-in- (8-cm-) wide, open bell-shaped
owers of rich bluea rare color so
late in the season. The owers last
until early fall.

H: 4 ft (1.4 m), S: 3 ft (1 m)

H: 24 in (60 cm), S: 24 in (60 cm)

H: 8 ft (2.5 m), S: 5 ft (1.5 m)

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282 Planting a small garden: Plant guide

Medium-sized plants for sun (InPh)


Inula hookeri

Iris laevigata

Iris sibirica Perrys Blue

This clump-forming perennial should


be more widely grown. It produces
beautiful yellow owers with slender
petals that appear from midsummer
at the tips of soft stems bearing hairy
oval leaves. In late fall, the shoots can
be cut to the ground.

This plant is perfect for moist areas,


growing well even in standing water.
The sword-shaped foliage provides a
contrast to other shrubby growth. In
early to midsummer, owering stems
bear a succession of beautiful blooms,
usually lavender-blue in color.

Siberian irises are good for ground


that does not dry out. In spring,
slender, strappy foliage erupts from
clumps, followed by tall, branched,
owering stems. These bear dainty
sky blue owers with white markings,
2 in (6 cm) across, over several weeks.

H: 24 in (60 cm), S: 24 in (60 cm)

H: 20 in (50 cm), S: 12 in (30 cm)

H: 3 ft (1 m), S: 20 in (50 cm)

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Lavandula stoechas

Lilium regale

Lobelia tupa

With its aromatic foliage and


long-lasting owers, French lavender
lends a Mediterranean feel to sunny
gardens. The owerheads have
distinctive purple ears, or bracts,
held on stems above the narrow,
grayish-green leaves. Grow in a
sheltered spot.

This is an easy lily to grow. Fleshy


stems furnished with narrow leaves
appear in spring and grow rapidly.
Large buds swell and burst to reveal
silver-white, trumpet-shaped owers
with protruding stamens and a
wonderful scent.

In spring, this exotic-looking plant


produces eshy, red-ushed shoots
with large, rather downy leaves. In
late summer, heads of red, tubular
owers open over several weeks,
and last well into fall. Cut stems to
the ground after the rst frost.

H: 5 ft (1.5 m), S: 12 in (30 cm)

H: 6 ft (2 m), S: 3 ft (1 m)

H: 24 in (60 cm), S: 24 in (60 cm)

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Medium-sized plants for sun (InPh) 283

Melianthus major

Miscanthus sinensis Zebrinus

Nandina domestica

A remarkable foliage plant, with


dramatic, blue-silver, deeply cut
leaves that look superb in a white
border or with contrasting purple
foliage. Usually it is cut to the ground
by frost, and should be covered with
a thick mulch to protect the roots.

With its tall stems and strappy


foliage, this ornamental grass is a
favorite. The leaf blades are marked
with broad yellow stripes, giving
the plant a remarkable appearance,
especially when grown in full sun,
which helps intensify the markings.

A most useful shrub, this plant checks


all the boxes. It has a delicate yet
architectural form with large, divided
leaves that develop attractive autumnal
tints. In early summer, sprays of white
owers appear, followed by clusters of
orange berries that persist into winter.

H: 6 ft (2 m), S: 3 ft (1 m)

H: 6 ft (2 m), S: 3 ft (1 m)

H: 6 ft (2 m), S: 6 ft (2 m)

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Pennisetum setaceum Rubrum

Perovskia Blue Spire

Phlomis russeliana

This delightful grass is a tender


perennial, ideal for a container in
a sunny spot during summer. Best
treated as an annual, it will produce
purple uffy owerheads (known as
cats tails) held on arching stems,
above rich red foliage.

This delicate-looking, shrubby plant


is a good choice for a sunny, dry
position. It forms an upright bush
with strongly aromatic, silver-green
foliage. From late summer until fall,
clouds of violet-blue owers are
produced.

A dependable, useful perennial with


large, soft, heart-shaped leaves that
cover the ground well, even in winter.
In early summer, attractive stout
stems of soft yellow owers appear.
After owering, these stems provide
structure into fall and winter.

H: 3 ft (1 m), S: 24 in (60 cm)

H: 4 ft (1.2 m), S: 3 ft (1 m)

H: 3 ft (1 m), S: 4 ft (1.2 m)

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284 Planting a small garden: plant guide

Medium-sized plants for sun (PhWe)


Phormium Yellow Wave

Pinus mugo Ophir

Pittosporum tobira

This tried-and-tested phormium is


graceful and compact. Its broad,
evergreen, strappy foliage is lavishly
marked with yellow, set against
green, each blade arching gracefully
to give established clumps an
elegant appearance.

This compact, slow-growing pine is


ideal for the smaller garden, growing
well even in a container. Its short
branching stems are covered in dense
bristles and it will form a large shrub.
However, it is most attractive in winter,
when its needles turn bright gold.

With its shiny, evergreen leaves and


heads of cream-colored, sweetly
scented summer owers, this plant
should be seen more often. It grows
throughout the Mediterranean, so is
a good choice for those who like to
be reminded of warmer climes.

H: 4 ft (1.2 m), S: 3 ft (1 m)

H: 5 ft (1.5 m), S: 5 ft (1.5 m)

H: 6 ft (2 m), S: 6 ft (2 m)

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Rosa x odorata Mutabilis

Rosa xanthina Canary Bird

Rosmarinus ofcinalis

A most beautiful rose that owers


from late spring until late fall. Clusters
of dainty, single owers open a warm
orange-yellow and turn rich pink with
age. The young stems and leaves of
this compact, but open, bush are
tinged purple.

This rose is one of the earliest to


bloomin late spring. It produces a
profusion of single, sunshine yellow
owers, which have a light perfume,
and has attractive apple green
foliage. A second reduced display
appears in fall.

This dense evergreen has strongly


aromatic foliage and attractive blue
owers in spring and sometimes fall.
It will grow well in pots, is droughttolerant, and responds well to
trimming. It is a useful herb for
cooking.

H: 3 ft (1 m), S: 3 ft (1 m)

H: 6 ft (2 m), S: 6 ft (2 m)

H: 5 ft (1.5 m), S: 5 ft (1.5 m)

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Medium-sized plants for sun (PhWe) 285

Salvia ofcinalis Purpurascens

Salvia x sylvestris Mainacht

Stipa gigantea

Purple sage is a useful plant for the


smaller garden: it is easy, quickgrowing, and has aromatic, oval,
soft, purple leaves. The plant forms
ground-covering mounds, and in
summer sends up owering stems
with small purple blooms.

Many salvias are rst-rate plants for


their summer owers; this compact
selection is useful in the smaller plot.
Its early summer owers are of an
intense purplish-blue that is unusual
for the time of year. They are carried
in profusion in stiff upright spikes.

The perennial giant oat, although


large, is manageable in almost any
garden. It forms a low hummock
of long, narrow leaves, and in
summer, produces tall stems bearing
transparent golden owerheads
that shimmer in the breeze.

H: 3 ft (1 m), S: 3 ft (1 m)

H: 3 ft (1 m), S: 20 in (50 cm)

H: 6 ft (2 m), S: 3 ft (1 m)

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Trachycarpus wagnerianus

Verbena bonariensis

Weigela Eva Rathke

This is the perfect hardy palm for


smaller yards, as it is slow-growing
and compact. The plant forms a
trunk gradually and is furnished
with fan-shaped, dark, evergreen,
deeply pleated leaves that give it
a most rened appearance.

This must-have perennial is a useful


plant even in small gardens because,
although tall, it has a transparent
quality, allowing views of plantings
behind it. It is long-owering, with
heads of purple blooms appearing in
summer and lasting into fall.

These shrubs are grown for their spring


and early summer blossoms. This
compact selection forms a dense
shrub. Dark red ower buds appear
in profusion in late spring and open
to crimson, funnel-shaped owers.
Remove oldest stems after owering.

H: 6 ft (2 m) after 10 years, S: 6 ft (2 m)

H: 6 ft (2 m), S: 24 in (60 cm)

H: 5 ft (1.5 m), S: 5 ft (1.5 m)

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286 Planting a small garden: plant guide

Medium-sized plants for shade (AcDe)


Acer shirasawanum Aureum

Anemanthele lessoniana

This slow-growing, compact plant is


striking, especially in late spring and
early summer when its foliage is at
its best. As the golden leaves expand,
they resemble little Chinese fans,
seen to best effect in shade where
they stand out from other plantings.

This grass is better known as Stipa


arundinacea. It makes a neat clump
of fairly broad, evergreen foliage,
the leaves arching attractively. In late
summer, tiny owers are produced.
In fall, the clump develops russet
tints, adding to its desirability.

H: 5 ft (1.5 m) after 10 years, S: 3 ft (1 m)

H: 4 ft (1.2 m), S: 4 ft (1.2 m)

H: 5 ft (1.5 m), S: 24 in (60 cm)

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Aquilegia McKana Group

Aruncus dioicus

Astilboides tabularis

A cottage-garden favorite, this


perennial is a good choice for its
spring owers in a wide range of
different colors. The clumps of foliage
develop in spring and are soon
topped by distinctive owers lasting
for several weeks.

This large but easy-to-grow perennial


is suited to moist sites. In spring,
shoots soon form hummocks of leafy
stems. By midsummer, plumes of tiny
creamy white owers appear. They
are held in handsome owerheads
and last for several weeks.

A plant of great beauty, this species


main feature is its large, parasol-like
leaves, each roughly circular, with the
leaf stem attached to the center. Soft
green and delicate in early summer,
they darken as the season progresses.
White owers appear in late summer.

H: 3 ft (1 m), S: 20 in (50 cm)

H: 6 ft (2 m), S: 4 ft (1.2 m)

H: 5 ft (1.5 m), S: 3 ft (1 m)

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Anemone x hybrida
Honorine Jobert
There are few perennials to match this
noble plant in late summer. Vigorous
clumps of bold, divided foliage build
up steam through the summer until
owering stems appear, topped by
sprays of single, white owers.

Medium-sized plants for shade (AcDe) 287

Aucuba japonica

Berberis darwinii

Camellia japonica Bobs Tinsie

This evergreen deserves recognition


as one of the best shrubs for yearround appeal. It will also withstand
mistreatment. Its large oval leaves are
spangled with golden spots. In spring,
heads of red-purple owers appear
and develop into crimson berries.

This spiny evergreen is one of the


most spectacular spring-owering
shrubs and deserves a spot at the
back of a border. The glossy foliage
is an attractive foil to the clusters of
bright orange owers that cover the
plant, followed later by blue berries.

This plant is a favorite, thanks to


its unusual owers and neat,
compact habit. The glossy, oval,
evergreen foliage is a good foil
to the small, cup-shaped, red
owers that appear in abundance
throughout spring.

H: 8 ft (2.5 m), S: 8 ft (2.5 m)

H: 6 ft (2 m) after 10 years, S: 6 ft (2 m)

H: 5 ft (1.5 m), S: 3 ft (1 m)

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Cornus sanguinea Winter Beauty

Cotoneaster horizontalis

Desfontainia spinosa

This shrub is grown for the color of


its twigs. In summer, it is forgettable,
but once the leaves turn butter yellow
in fall, the show begins. The stems
are bright orange-yellow, the younger
shoots tinged red, making the plant
look like a glowing ame.

This shrub has much to recommend


it. In spring, the soft green foliage is
the attraction, followed by pink-white
owers in summer. In fall, the leaves
turn crimson before they drop; in
winter, the stems are often peppered
with red berries.

At rst glance, this plant resembles


a compact holly with its small, dark,
spine-edged leaves. In summer, it
has a trick up its sleeve: long, tubular,
pendent, red and yellow owers
appear, and are of great beauty,
especially against the dark foliage.

H: 6 ft (2 m), S: 6 ft (2 m)

H: 6 ft (2 m), S: 6 ft (2 m)

H: 3 ft (1 m), S: 24 in (60 cm)

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288 Planting a small garden: plant guide

Medium-sized plants for shade (DiLe)


Dicentra spectabilis

Digitalis purpurea

The bleeding heart is a popular plant


for light shade. Fleshy shoots emerge
as winter ends and are easily damaged
by late frosts. The soft foliage, which
dies down in midsummer, is topped
by arching sprays of pink and white
owers that last for several weeks.

The foxglove is easy to grow, thrives


in shade, and seeds freely. It is usually
a biennial, which means it lives for two
years, building up a rosette of large
oval leaves in the rst, and producing
its tall ower spike in the second. The
owers are usually purple or white.

H: 3 ft (1 m), S: 24 in (60 cm)

H: 6 ft (2 m), S: 24 in (60 cm)

H: 4 ft (1.2 m), S: 3 ft (1 m)

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Hedychium densiorum

Helleborus argutifolius

Hosta Jade Cascade

This hardy ginger makes a ne


late-owering perennial. In summer, it
develops vigorous, eshy shoots that
grow quickly and display lush foliage.
At the tips of each shoot appear
spikes of scented, orange owers that
are produced well into fall.

This evergreen perennial is a useful


plant, growing well in shade and lling
gaps with its handsome serrated
foliage, held on rather shrubby stems.
In winter, bright green, open owers
appear. After owering, stems wither
and yellow and should be cut out.

This huge, sturdy yet elegant hosta


is well named. The long, pointed,
rich green leaves, up to 12 in (30 cm)
long, are strongly veined and held in
a distinctive, downward-facing way
on tall leaf stems. In early summer,
tall spires of lilac blooms appear.

H: 4 ft (1.2 m), S: 6 ft (2 m)

H: 3 ft (1 m), S: 3 ft (1 m)

H: 4 ft (1.2 m), S: 3 ft (1.1 m)

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Geranium x oxonianum
Claridge Druce
This herbaceous plant is one of the
toughest, and ideal for dry shade. It
develops a mound of foliage that is
often semievergreen, above which
appear bright pink owers from
spring until late fall.

Medium-sized plants for shade (DiLe) 289

Hosta sieboldiana

Hosta Sum and Substance

This large hosta has ne foliage.


The leaves, which emerge from
blue, toothlike shoots in spring, are
blue-gray at rst, developing a green
tinge as they age. Mature clumps make
large mounds of puckered leaves 12 in
(30 cm) long and the same across.

A spectacular hosta cultivar that is


one of the largest and easiest to grow
of all, with huge golden-green leaves,
especially bright as they rst emerge
in spring. In summer, tall spikes of
lavender owers appear. This hosta
is also relatively slug-resistant.

Hydrangea macrophylla
Lanarth White

H: 3 ft (1 m), S: 3 ft (1 m)

H: 30 in (75 cm), S: 4 ft (1.2 m)

H: 3 ft (1 m), S: 3 ft (1 m)

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Ilex crenata var. latifolia

Iris foetidissima

This holly looks rather like boxwood,


but it is quicker-growing. It responds
well to trimming and can be kept as
a low hedge. Other selections include
I. crenata Golden Gem, which has
glowing yellow foliage and makes a
superb plant for shade.

This perennial is great for shade, even


under trees and shrubs. The lanceshaped foliage remains in good
condition in winter, and in spring,
purple owers appear. The orange
seeds, which remain showy
all winter, are the main talking point.

Leucothoe fontanesiana
Rainbow

H: up to 5 ft (1.5 m), S: 5 ft (1.5 m)

H: 3 ft (1 m), S: 24 in (60 cm)

H: 5 ft (1.5 m), S: 4 ft (1.2 m)

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This hydrangea forms a rounded dome


of growth. The attened heads are
composed of tiny blue or pink fertile
owers surrounded by pure white
orets, and appear in late summer.
The owers show up best in shade.

A clump-forming evergreen shrub with


an attractive, arching, fountain-shaped
habit. The leaves are splashed and
ecked with cream, pink, and orange.
In summer, white, bell-shaped
owers hang from the stems.

290 Planting a small garden: plant guide

Medium-sized plants for shade (LeVi)


Leycesteria formosa

Ligularia dentata Desdemona

Osmunda regalis

An excellent shrub for a range of


situations, including dry shade. In
summer, clusters of pinky-purple
owers hang from arching stems
amid lush oval leaves. By fall, purple
berries develop. The green stems are
attractive in winter.

This leafy perennial is a dramatic


choice for moist sites. Clumps of
large, rounded leaves ushed with
purple are held on long stems, which
appear from the ground in spring.
These are followed by tall stems with
orange-yellow, daisylike owers.

A large, deciduous fern, ideal for


moist areas. In spring, croziers
unwind from the ground and fresh,
bright green fronds unfurl. Clumps
provide an architectural element
in summer; in fall, they turn bright
yellow.

H: 5 ft (1.5 m), S: 4 ft (1.2 m)

H: 4 ft (1.2 m), S: 24 in (60 cm)

H: 4 ft (1.2 m), S: 3 ft (1 m)

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Pieris Forest Flame

Primula orindae

Rhododendron Olive

This evergreen shrub is grown for its


dramatic, bright red shoots and sprays
of white, bell-shaped owers. The
owers appear in early spring before
the scarlet shoots. As the leaves
mature, they fade to pink before
turning green. It needs acidic soil.

The largest and most spectacular of


primulas, this perennial resembles a
giant cowslip. Clumps of broad, soft
green leaves 12 in (30 cm) long
develop in spring, followed by tall
ower stems that carry scented, bellshaped owers in yellow or orange.

This evergreen rhododendron needs


a sheltered position and acidic soil to
do well. The small, green, oval leaves
serve as a good foil to the clusters of
bright mauve-pink, funnel-shaped
owers up to 1 in (4 cm) across.
These are produced in late winter.

H: 8 ft (2.5 m), S: 6 ft (2 m)

H: 4 ft (1.2 m), S: 24 in (60 cm)

H: 5 ft (1.5 m), S: 3 ft (1 m)

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Medium-sized plants for shade (LeVi) 291

Rhododendron Persil

Ribes sanguineum Brocklebankii

Sarcococca hookeriana var. digyna

This plant is a wonderful sight in


late spring. Heads of large, scented,
white owers with a yellow ash in
the center appear at the same time as
the soft, hairy leaves. The owers last
for several weeks, and show up well
in shade. The plant needs acidic soil.

This compact owering currant is


most attractive in spring, the pink
owers appearing at the same time
as the yellow leavesto spectacular
effect. This plant shows up well in
shade and grows better out of sun
because the leaves can scorch.

Evergreen, compact, and winter


owering, this shade-loving plant is
ideal for small gardens. The narrow
leaves are shiny and the plant forms
a dense, rounded mound. In winter,
small, white tassels appear: these
have a delicious, spicy scent.

H: up to 6 ft (2 m), S: 6 ft (2 m)

H: 5 ft (1.5 m), S: 3 ft (1 m)

H: 3 ft (1 m), S: 3 ft (1 m)

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Skimmia x confusa Kew Green

Viburnum davidii

Viburnum tinus Eve Price

With its glossy, pointed leaves, this


skimmia cultivar is one of the most
reliable. The large, conical, greenishcream owerheads, produced in early
spring, have a delicious scent. This is
a male plant; for berries, a female or
hermaphrodite plant is required.

This evergreen shrub, which forms a


low mound, is a plant for all seasons.
The oval leaves are attractively pleated
and rich green. In summer, large
heads of small, white owers appear.
Bright blue berries follow, provided
male and female plants are grown.

A compact and free-owering


evergreen plant that makes an ideal
backdrop at the back of a border.
It forms dense cover and has small,
green, oval leaves. Heads of pinktinged owers are displayed through
winter and spring.

H: 3 ft (1 m), S: 5 ft (1.5 m)

H: 3 ft (1 m), S: 6 ft (2 m)

H: 6 ft (2 m), S: 6 ft (2 m)

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292 Planting a small garden: plant guide

Short plants for sun (AlDi)


Allium schoenoprasum

Artemisia alba Canescens

Aster Coombe Fishacre

Chives are not only useful in an herb


gardenthey are also an easy-togrow choice for a ower garden and
ideal as border edging. The narrow,
blue-green leaves are especially
attractive when topped by pinkishmauve owers that last several weeks.

This useful front-of-border perennial,


with its silver leaves, should be more
widely grown. The lacy foliage is
held on stems that tend to sprawl,
covering the soil well. Cut plants to
the ground in a cold winter, and new
shoots will appear in spring.

In early fall, few plants can compete


with asters. This selection has a long
owering period and is well suited
to smaller gardens. The blooms are
daisylike, pink with a darker eye, and
appear in a multitude, lasting until
the rst frost.

H: 12 in (30 cm), S: 8 in (20 cm)

H: 12 in (30 cm), S: 12 in (30 cm)

H: 24 in (60 cm), S: 24 in (60 cm)

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Astrantia major

Bergenia purpurascens

Calluna vulgaris Silver Knight

These beautiful perennials are


becoming popular, thanks to the range
now available. Clumps of leaves appear
in spring and are topped by dainty
owers held on tall stems. The showy
white or pink bracts resemble petals
and encircle the true owers.

This perennial has beautiful foliage


and owers. It is more compact and
has a longer season of interest than
most bergenias, so it is better suited
to small gardens. The glossy foliage
develops rich purple tints in winter; in
spring, pinkish-purple owers appear.

For silver foliage, few heathers create


a better effect than this shrubby,
evergreen plant. When mature, it
produces a wonderful wispy silver
cloud of dense, quite upright, but
ground-covering, growth. Although
easy to grow, it must have acidic soil.

H: 18 in (45 cm), S: 12 in (30 cm)

H: 12 in (30 cm), S: 24 in (60 cm)

H: 12 in (30 cm), S: 24 in (60 cm)

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Short plants for sun (AlDi) 293

Campanula glomerata

Catananche caerulea

Ceratostigma plumbaginoides

One of the simplest campanulas to


grow, this low, spreading perennial
makes a good summer ground cover,
and self-seeds freely. From early
summer until fall, heads of bellshaped blue or white owers appear
on short stems.

This sun-loving perennial is grown for


its lavender-blue owers, which look
rather like pale cornowers, produced
in summer and fall. The blooms are
held on a wiry stalk above clumps of
silvery foliage. They combine well
with other pale-colored plants.

Easy to grow, this low shrub owers


when most other plants have
nished. It spreads at the root and,
under ideal conditions, forms a large
clump. The rich blue owers are held
in clusters above the leaves, which
turn red before falling.

H: 12 in (30 cm), S: 3 ft (1 m)

H: 24 in (60 cm), S: 12 in (30 cm)

H: 12 in (30 cm), S: 24 in (60 cm)

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Cerinthe major

Convolvulus cneorum

Growing swiftly from seed, this


annual develops into a low bush,
covered in blue-silver leaves.
Long-lasting, purple, bell-shaped
owers appear in late spring, giving
an attractive, almost iridescent
appearance. It self-seeds freely.

This evergreen, low-growing shrub


is grown for both its soft, bright silver
foliage and the multitude of white,
cup-shaped owers that appear in
summer. Each ower lasts little more
than a day, but the bush is covered
in blooms for weeks.

Diascia barberae Blackthorn


Apricot

H: 18 in (45 cm), S: 12 in (30 cm)

H: 20 in (50 cm), S: 3 ft (1 m)

H: 12 in (30 cm), S: 12 in (30 cm)

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Often grown as an annual, this plant


is perennial in the right position.
Although cut to the ground in winter,
new stems appear in spring to make a
small sprawling clump. The stems bear
peach-colored owers all summer.

294 Planting a small garden: plant guide

Short plants for sun (ErGe)


Erica carnea Foxhollow

Erigeron karvinskianus

Erysimum Bowles Mauve

There are many winter-owering


heathers, but this is a favorite,
bearing small, pale pink, bell-shaped
owers throughout the coldest
weather. The needlelike, pale green
leaves become tinged with red in
winter. A good low-growing plant.

The little Mexican daisy is a welcome


plant in many gardens, often growing
in gaps in paving or out of dry stone
wallsanywhere hot and dry. The
small pink-tinged white daisy owers
appear from early summer to winter
on low, sprawling plants.

This is a superb plant for injecting


color into cottage-garden-style
plantings in spring and summer. It
forms an evergreen, shrubby plant
with gray-green leaves. In spring,
the owering stems are soon covered
with purple owers.

H: 8 in (20 cm), S: 24 in (60 cm)

H: 8 in (20 cm), S: 24 in (60 cm)

H: 24 in (60 cm), S: 24 in (60 cm)

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Euphorbia cyparissias Fens Ruby

Euphorbia rigida

Francoa sonchifolia

This low-growing perennial is a


useful, if somewhat invasive, plant,
grown for its foliage and spring
owers. In spring, purplish-green
shoots appear, producing delicate
foliage. As the season progresses,
small, lime green owers develop.

This sprawling plant is superb in a


sunny rock garden. Fleshy stems arise
from a central crown, then grow along
the ground in an almost snakelike
fashion, holding narrow, triangular
blue-silver leaves. Lime green owers
appear in early summer.

In a sunny, warm area, this perennial


makes a good ground cover. The
eshy leaves grow from a creeping
stem, which in mid- to late summer
sends up tall stems, well above the
foliage, of pale pink owers spotted
with darker pink.

H: 12 in (30 cm), S: 6 ft (2 m)

H: 8 in (20 cm), S: 24 in (60 cm)

H: 24 in (60 cm), S: 24 in (60 cm)

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Short plants for sun (ErGe) 295

Fuchsia Genii

Gaura lindheimeri

Geranium Ann Folkard

This compact, hardy fuchsia is a


reliable cultivar. It produces masses
of pendent purple and red owers
in late summer and fall, until the rst
frost. The blooms are held against
bright yellow leaves, adding to the
plants impact.

A delicate-looking perennial for the


front of a sunny border that produces
wands of open, white owers held
on slim stems from midsummer until
mid-fall. A hard frost will kill the top
growth, but fresh shoots appear in
spring if protected in winter.

This hardy geranium is appealing for


both owers and foliage. The leaves
are hand-shaped and bright gold in
color, especially when young; they
become greener as they age. Large,
open, bright magenta owers with
dark centers are produced all summer.

H: 24 in (60 cm), S: 24 in (60 cm)

H: up to 3 ft (1 m), S: 3 ft (1 m)

H: 24 in (60 cm), S: 3 ft (1 m)

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Geranium Rozanne (Gerwat)

Geum coccineum

Geum rivale

One of the nest of all cranesbills,


this selection has trailing, non-rooting
stems that cover the ground from late
spring, producing masses of large,
open, bright blue owers from early
summer well into fall. Cut back stems
in winter.

This clump-forming perennial is a


ne summer-owering plant. It forms
a rosette of toothed green leaves,
and attractive, open, saucer-shaped,
orange-red owers with yellow
stamens for several weeks. Plants
like sun but not overly dry soil.

A European native, the little water


avens is attractive for wet areas,
perhaps in wilder patches of the
garden. This perennial forms clumps
of leaves, and over several weeks in
early summer produces dusky pink
and red bell-shaped owers.

H: 18 in (45 cm), S: 24 in (60 cm)

H: 20 in (50 cm), S: 12 in (30 cm)

H: 20 in (50 cm), S: 12 in (30 cm)

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296 Planting a small garden: plant guide

Short plants for sun (HaPe)


Hakonechloa macra Aureola
This ornamental grass is a ne
garden plant. It forms a low clump
of gold and green striped foliage.
The plant spreads slowly from slender
rhizomes and will grow in a range
of situations, including sun, as long
as the soil is moist.

Helianthemum Rhodanthe
Carneum (Wisley Pink)

Hemerocallis Golden Chimes

This low-growing plant is ideal for


sunny rock gardens. Plants are evergreen with small, oval, silvery foliage.
In early summer, silver-pink owers
with a soft yellow eye appear. They last
a day, but are produced in profusion.

A dainty day lily, ideal for the small


garden because it is compact and
free-owering. In summer, owering
stems appear from clumps of narrow,
arching leaves. The bright yellow,
open, trumpet-shaped owers have
brownish-red reverses.

H: 12 in (30 cm), S: 16 in (40 cm)

H: 12 in (30 cm), S: 20 in (50 cm)

H: up to 3 ft (1 m), S: 20 in (50 cm)

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Hypericum olympicum

Iris unguicularis

Lychnis os-cuculi

An ideal plant for open, sunny


positions, this low-growing shrub
is a ne sight in summer. The small
leaves are gray-green and a good
foil to the open, starry, golden yellow
owers produced in clusters at the
ends of the stems.

Few herbaceous plants are of interest


in winter, but this evergreen iris is a
stellar performer. For much of the
year, it is unremarkable, but in mild
spells during winter, delicate
lavender-mauve owers with yellow
markings open, lasting several days.

The ragged robin is a European


native. It is a short-lived perennial
that sends up tall owering stems in
early summer. The owers are open,
starry, usually pale pink, sometimes
white, with long narrow petals.
Plants grow well in damp shade.

H: 12 in (30 cm), S: 20 in (50 cm)

H: 12 in (30 cm), S: 24 in (60 cm)

H: 30 in (75 cm), S: 12 in (30 cm)

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Short plants for sun (HaPe) 297

Narcissus Jetre

Nepeta x faassenii

Oenothera speciosa

There are many narcissi to choose


from, but this selection, with its
elegant and brightly colored early
spring blooms, is a favorite. The ower
petals are rich gold and reexed,
while the trumpet is a contrasting
reddish orange.

Useful and easy, catmint is a clumpforming plant with spreading stems


and blue-green, soft, aromatic foliage
that is attractive to cats. In summer,
sprays of blue owers appear. If the
plant is cut back after owering, it
will produce a second crop.

Low-growing and sun-loving, this plant


spreads freely at the root, especially
in light soil, producing short, upright
stems. The large, cup-shaped, pink
owers open from pointed buds and
are short-lived, but appear in great
profusion throughout summer.

H: 9 in (22 cm), S: 4 in (10 cm)

H: 20 in (50 cm), S: 20 in (50 cm)

H: 12 in (30 cm), S: 20 in (50 cm)

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Osteospermum Sunny Serena

Penstemon Alice Hindley

A tender perennial, grown for its


dazzling daisy owers in summer
and well into fall, this plant is well
suited to container cultivation
or lling gaps in sunny beds and
borders. Remove blooms as they
fade and fertilize regularly if in a pot.

With its shimmering, pale mauveviolet owers carried in upright


owerheads, this is one of the most
desirable penstemons. Oval leaves are
carried on woody stems that should
not be cut back until spring, when new
shoots arise from the base of the plant.

Penstemon Andenken an
Friedrich Hahn

H: 24 in (60 cm), S: 12 in (30 cm)

H: 30 in (75 cm), S: 20 in (50 cm)

H: 30 in (75 cm), S: 24 in (60 cm)

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A most popular penstemon, this plant


is better known as P. Garnet. Loose
but upright owerheads of rich red,
tubular blooms appear throughout
summer and well into fall, until the
rst frost.

298 Planting a small garden: plant guide

Short plants for sun (PeZa)


Persicaria afnis Superba

Phlox Chattahoochee

For ground cover, there are few plants


to match this perennial, particularly
in late summer and fall, when the
blooms open pale pink and age to
crimson, giving a ne two-tone look
on the same plant. Rust-brown leaves
carpet the ground in winter.

A low-growing perennial that is ideal


for the front of a border or a rock
garden. In early summer, owers
are carried in clusters. They are a
delightful rich lilac color with a
central reddish-purple eye, and are
produced in profusion.

H: 12 in (30 cm), S: 24 in (60 cm)

H: 12 in (30 cm), S: 24 in (60 cm)

H: up to 3 ft (1 m), S: 24 in (60 cm)

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Pulsatilla vulgaris

Rudbeckia fulgida var. sullivantii


Goldsturm

Sedum Herbstfreude

Pittosporum tenuifolium
Tom Thumb
This evergreen makes a great addition
to the smaller garden, with its compact
form and mahogany-colored foliage.
The leaves are particularly attractive in
spring as green new growth emerges,
giving the plant a two-tone effect.

The pasque ower is one of the most


beautiful spring owers. The fernlike
foliage forms a small clump, while its
star-shaped owers are usually rich
purple, but can be pink, red, or white,
and have a boss of golden stamens.
The plant prefers chalky soil.

Perennials that ower in fall are


valuable, and this plant is also compact.
Its daisylike owers, with narrow,
golden petals and a black central cone,
open atop sturdy stems, which should
be cut to the ground after owering.

With its succulent gray-green stems


and foliage, this plant is well adapted
to withstand hot sun and drought.
In late summer, at heads of rust
red owers open, lasting for several
weeks; the dry owerheads remain
attractive into winter.

H: 12 in (30 cm), S: 8 in (20 cm)

H: 24 in (60 cm), S: 24 in (60 cm)

H: 24 in (60 cm), S: 3 ft (1 m)

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Short plants for sun (PeZa) 299

Sisyrinchium striatum Aunt May

Stachys byzantina Big Ears

Stipa tenuissima

This choice plant earns its keep. All


year, the rapier-like foliage, striped
lengthwise with cream and graygreen, provides striking contrast
to more rounded shapes. In early
summer, spikes of primrose yellow
owers open in succession.

This selection of the common lambs


ears has large, oval leaves, which are
covered with silvery white wool.
The low-growing plant is particularly
attractive at the front of a palecolored border. In summer, erect
spikes of mauve owers appear.

This perennial grass is a good choice


for the garden, since it is beautiful for
much of the year. In spring, the bright
green growth is attractive, but in
summer, the owerheads give clumps
a uffy appearance, and as the seeds
form, plants become straw-colored.

H: 24 in (60 cm), S: 12 in (30 cm)

H: 24 in (60 cm), S: 3 ft (1 m)

H: 24 in (60 cm), S: 12 in (30 cm)

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Veronica gentianoides
Tissington White

Vinca difformis

Zauschneria californica

A good plant for early summer, this


low-growing perennial carpets the
ground with its shiny oval leaves.
Numerous spikes of gray-white
owers arise in late spring and
remain attractive for several weeks.

Periwinkles are popular groundcovering plants, but this species is


more rened than many. The owers
are its main attraction. They are
produced through much of winter
and spring and are pale blue to nearly
white and propeller-shaped.

Spectacular in ower, this plant needs


a hot situation to grow well, but is an
excellent choice for a sunny corner.
It forms a low plant with small graygreen leaves. In late summer, sprays
of vibrant, orange-red owers appear,
each bloom shaped like a small fuchsia.

H: 24 in (60 cm), S: 24 in (60 cm)

H: 24 in (60 cm), S: 4 ft (1.2 m)

H: 24 in (60 cm), S: 24 in (60 cm)

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300 Planting a small garden: plant guide

Short plants for shade (AlHe)


Alchemilla mollis

Arum italicum subsp. italicum


Marmoratum

Brunnera macrophylla
Dawsons White

This perennial is grown for its winter


foliage. Leathery leaves, richly veined
in silver-white, appear in late fall.
The green owers in summer are
unremarkable, but later displays of
red berries (poisonous) are attractive.

This compact perennial needs a


cool, moist position. The hairy,
heart-shaped leaves, margined with
white, are particularly attractive with
the sprays of blue owers that are
carried on stems above the foliage.

H: 12 in (30 cm), S: 24 in (60 cm)

H: 24 in (60 cm), S: 12 in (30 cm)

H: 12 in (30 cm), S: 12 in (30 cm)

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Carex elata Aurea

Cornus canadensis

Corydalis exuosa

With vibrant fountains of rich, golden,


grassy foliage, this clump-forming
deciduous perennial is a desirable
plant for moist, even wet, soil in
shade. Here, it shines out from darker
plants, especially in spring when the
leaves are young.

A seldom-seen ground-cover plant


that spreads by rhizomes in acidic
soil. The leaves are held around short
stems, and showy white owerheads
are borne in early summer. Each has
four petals that are actually bracts,
and may be followed by red berries.

This dainty perennial is easy to grow


in a cool corner. It comes into growth
early, eshy shoots producing fernlike leaves. The electric blue owers
are held in clusters and look rather like
shoals of little sh. After owering,
plants often die down quickly.

H: 28 in (70 cm), S: 18 in (45 cm)

H: 8 in (20 cm), S: 3 ft (1 m)

H: 8 in (20 cm), S: 24 in (60 cm)

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Commonly known as ladys mantle,


this perennial thrives in the shade.
The soft green leaves form a mound
of growth, and have a charming
way of catching water droplets. In
summer, heads of lime green, small
owers appear.

Short plants for shade (AlHe) 301

Cyclamen hederifolium

Daphne laureola subsp. philippi

Epimedium x versicolor

This is an essential plant for its fall


ower displays. The plant grows from
a corm just below the surface of the
soil, sending up masses of pink or
white owers, followed by attractive
leaves that are marked with silver or
darker green.

This upright bushy evergreen is slowgrowing and suited to the smaller yard.
The leaves are shiny and clustered
toward the tops of the stems, from
where, in late winter, strongly
perfumed, green bell-shaped owers
appear, followed by black berries.

These easy-to-grow, clump-forming


perennials are good for shaded spots
under shrubs. The dainty, divided
foliage is attractive, especially in
spring, and is often bronze-tinged.
Clusters of yellow, orange, or pink
owers appear at the same time.

H: 4 in (10 cm), S: 8 in (20 cm)

H: 24 in (60 cm), S: 3 ft (1 m)

H: 8 in (20 cm), S: 12 in (30 cm)

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Galanthus nivalis

Geranium macrorrhizum

Helleborus x hybridus

The rst owers of the common


snowdrop are a sign to gardeners
that spring is on the way. These
plants grow well in shade and will
quickly bulk up to form large clumps,
which need to be split regularly to
keep them owering.

This is one of the lower-growing


cranesbills, good for planting under
larger shrubs and forming a dense
ground cover with its soft aromatic
foliage. In spring, short stems
produce clusters of pink, mauve,
or white owers over several weeks.

Also known as Lenten roses, these


perennials are very popular spring
plants. In late winter, new shoots
emerge; the nodding owers appear
rst, followed by the leaves. The
owers come in many colors (but
not blue), and they last for weeks.

H: 4 in (10 cm), S: 8 in (20 cm)

H: 12 in (30 cm), S: 24 in (60 cm)

H: 20 in (50 cm), S: 12 in (30 cm)

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302 Planting a small garden: plant guide

Short plants for shade (HeUv)


Heuchera Plum Pudding

Lysimachia nummularia Aurea

Meconopsis cambrica

This foliage plant makes an attractive


addition to a shady border. The
rounded, evergreen, wavy-edged
leaves are purple-red with silver
markings that give the plant a
metallic shimmer. In summer, spires
of owers are held above the foliage.

This perennials brightly colored


foliage means it can be used in
the garden to dramatic effect. The
golden, oval leaves are held on stems
that grow at on the ground, forming
a dense mat. Yellow, cup-shaped
owers appear in summer.

The delightful Welsh poppy is a


welcome plant in many gardens;
its fresh foliage and owers make
a wonderful show in shaded
positions. The owers, carried on
slender stems above the leaves,
appear in shades of yellow or orange.

H: 24 in (60 cm), S: 12 in (30 cm)

H: 1 in (3 cm), S: 3 ft (1 m)

H: 20 in (50 cm), S: 12 in (30 cm)

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Omphalodes cappadocica
Cherry Ingram

Ophiopogon planiscapus
Nigrescens

Pachysandra terminalis

This little perennial is a delight in


spring. Its small leaves form a
compact clump that starts early into
growth. Starry, mauve-blue owers
are carried in small spires and are
beautiful for several weeks.

A useful perennial that can be


combined with many other plants.
It is clump-forming and evergreen
with almost black, grasslike foliage.
In summer, small, mauve owers
appear, followed by black berries.

This evergreen, ground-covering


plant is one of few that will grow in
dry shade under shrubs and trees. Its
toothed leaves form a mat of growth
that prevents weeds; the plant
spreads via underground runners.
In summer, white owers appear.

H: 8 in (20 cm), S: 12 in (30 cm)

H: 6 in (15 cm), S: 8 in (20 cm)

H: 8 in (20 cm), S: 24 in (60 cm)

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Short plants for shade (HeUv) 303

Primula pulverulenta

Primula vulgaris

Pulmonaria Sissinghurst White

This perennial must have moist, rich


soil to thrive. The leaves emerge in
spring before the owerheads. The
stout stems, which are covered in a
chalky white coating, are striking and
contrast well with the rounded heads
of small, reddish purple blooms.

The common primrose is a worthy


garden plant and will grow in shady
borders under trees and shrubs, in
cool rock gardens, or naturalized in
grass. In early spring, a succession of
yellow, or sometimes white, or even
pink, owers open over many weeks.

With attractive, bell-shaped owers


produced over many weeks in
spring, and silver-green foliage,
these perennials are excellent garden
plants. This dependable selection
has white owers that show up
well in shade.

H: 24 in (60 cm), S: 12 in (30 cm)

H: 6 in (15 cm), S: 8 in (20 cm)

H: 8 in (20 cm), S: 24 in (60 cm)

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Saxifraga fortunei

Tiarella cordifolia

Uvularia grandiora

This perennial is remarkable for its


late-owering habit, although some
selections bloom during summer.
It is a clump-forming plant with
handsome, glossy, hand-shaped
leaves. Showy owerheads of white
owers appear before the frost.

A good ground-cover plant, this


perennial spreads from runners,
colonizing small areas. The handshaped leaves are soft and tinted
purple. Small, white, pink-tinged
owers are held in short spires
during spring.

A most elegant perennial that bears


owers in mid-spring. Tall, slender
stems with oval leaves arise, from
which dangle bell-shaped, yellow
owers with long twisted petals. It
is not an easy plant and likes cool,
moist soil with added organic matter.

H: 20 in (50 cm), S: 12 in (30 cm)

H: 8 in (20 cm), S: 24 in (60 cm)

H: 24 in (60 cm), S: 12 in (30 cm)

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304 Low-maintenance garden: plant guide

LOW-MAINTENANCE GARDEN: PLANT GUIDE

Trees, large shrubs, and hedging


Acer palmatum Sango-kaku
This elegant Japanese maple is a
shade-loving deciduous tree for all
seasons. In spring and fall the
palmate leaves are distinctly yellow,
and in winter the bright lacquer-red
stems make a striking feature.
Provide shelter and fertile soil.

Amelanchier x grandiora
Ballerina

Arbutus unedo

A small spreading tree for acidic, clayrich soils and exposed sites. White
blossoms smother the bare branches
in spring, followed by red, ripening to
black, fruits. The oval leaves, bronzetinted in spring, color red in fall.

This evergreen with aky red-brown


bark forms a large shrub or small tree
in sheltered gardens. Lily-of-thevalley-like blooms appear in early
winter, and the rounded fruits,
ripening red in fall, give rise to the
common name, strawberry tree.

H: 20 ft (6 m); S: 15 ft (5 m)

H: 20 ft (6 m); S: 25 ft (8 m)

H: 25 ft (8 m); S: 25 ft (8 m)

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Betula utilis var. jacquemontii

Camellia x williamsii

Cornus controversa Variegata

For winter garden impact, plant this


white-barked Himalayan birch as a
multistemmed tree or a cluster of
three saplings. Cultivars, including
Jermyns and Grayswood Ghost,
have even brighter bark. Long catkins
dangle in early spring.

An evergreen, shade-loving shrub


that owers through mid- and late
spring and drops its spent owers
neatly. Single to fully double blooms
are white through to deep pink, and
cultivars are suitable for large pots or
as wall shrubs. Requires acidic soil.

Tiered whorls of branches create a


distinctive architectural prole, and
with bright green and white foliage
and at heads of white owers in
early summer, this charming tree
makes a beautiful focal point.
Requires neutral to acidic soil.

H: 60 ft (18 m); S: 30 ft (10 m)

H: 615 ft (25 m); S: 310 ft (13


m) qeb

H: 23 ft (7 m); S: 23 ft (7 m)

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Trees, large shrubs, and hedging 305

Cornus kousa var. chinensis


China Girl

Crataegus laevigata
Pauls Scarlet

Cupressus sempervirens
Stricta Group

This small conical tree, for neutral


to acidic soils, has tiny green owers
in early summer, surrounded by
creamy white, petal-like bracts. Fleshy
red fruits develop later, followed by
purple-red fall leaves.

Like many hawthorns, this hardy


tree with a long season of interest
is suitable for exposed sites. Pauls
Scarlet has a mass of raspberry red
blossoms in late spring followed by
a crop of red berries loved by birds.

The narrow columns of Italian


cypress act like exclamation marks.
Informal groups also work well in
Mediterranean-style gravel gardens,
casting little shade. Maintain a single
leading shoot when plants are young.

H: 22 ft (7 m); S: 15 ft (5 m)

H: 25 ft (8 m); S: 25 ft (8 m)

H: 70 ft (20 m); S: 10 ft (3 m)

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Fagus sylvatica

Fatsia japonica

Ilex x altaclerensis Golden King

Beech makes an excellent hedge or


windbreak, holding on to its coppery
fall leaves through winter; the new
spring foliage is bright green. Plant
bareroot hedging between late fall
and early spring. Trim once in late
summer.

The false castor-bean plant is a shadeloving evergreen that adds a tropical


or contemporary touch with its glossy,
hand-shaped leaves and branched
owerheads in fall. Plant in late spring
in a sheltered spot. Remove frostdamaged leaves in spring.

Sparkling in winter sunshine with its


glossy, almost spineless, yellow-edged
leaves, this holly makes a neat conical
shape with little pruning. Despite its
name, Golden King is female and,
with male pollen in the vicinity,
produces crops of red berries.

H: 420 ft (1.26 m); S: 46 ft (1.22

H: 512 ft (1.54 m); S: 512 ft (1.54 m)

H: 20 ft (6 m); S: 13 ft (4 m)

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306 Low-maintenance garden: plant guide

Trees, large shrubs, and hedging


Magnolia x loebneri
Leonard Messel

Mahonia x media Charity

Malus x robusta Red Sentinel

This rounded tree or large shrub


blooms on bare branches in midspring. The eye-catching owers are
lilac pink and produced in abundance.
Provide fertile, moisture-retentive soil
and shelter from wind. Tolerates lime.

As well as upright ower clusters


in late fall and blue-black berries
loved by birds, Charity is strikingly
architectural, with whorls of large,
evergreen, spiny leaves. Winter Sun
blooms through winter. Prune lightly
after owering to keep compact.

Crabapples are two-season plants,


offering both blossoms and attractive
fruits. Red Sentinel is very hardy
and bears white owers in late spring
followed by small yellow-red glossy
fruits that turn dark red with age
and last well into winter.

H: 25 ft (8 m); S: 20 ft (6 m)

H: 15 ft (5 m); S: 12 ft (4 m)

H: 22 ft (7 m); S: 22 ft (7 m)

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Photinia x fraseri Red Robin

Phyllostachys nigra

Although this evergreen can be kept


fairly compact through spring and
summer pruning, it makes an
excellent back-of-border plant or
informal hedge. The new growth is
bright coppery red and large heads of
tiny white owers appear in late spring.

Black bamboo produces a column of


slender arching stems, glossy black
when mature and contrasting with
the light green leaves. Associate with
other architectural plants or grow in
a pot. Thin out weak canes from the
base and cut off low side shoots.

Prunus x subhirtella
Autumnalis Rosea

H: 15 ft (5 m); S: 15 ft (5 m)

H: 1015 ft (35 m); S: 610 ft (23 m)

H: 25 ft (8 m); S: 25 ft (8 m)

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Perfect for the smaller garden, this


cherry bears tiny clusters of delicate,
double pale pink owers during mild
periods from fall through to spring.
The leaves are narrow, bronze when
young, and the habit airy.

Trees, large shrubs, and hedging 307

Rhamnus alaternus
Argenteovariegata

Sorbus aria Lutescens

Sorbus vilmorinii

A white-variegated form of Italian


buckthorn with contrasting black
stems, this dense evergreen makes a
handsome wall shrub. In a sheltered
spot it can also be grown freestanding,
or clipped into a broad cone or dome.

A compact, oval-headed whitebeam,


the unfurling felted leaves are silverywhite, becoming light sage with white
undersides. In late spring, prominent
clusters of white owers appear,
followed by dark red fruits. An ideal
lawn specimen. Tolerates chalk.

This dainty Chinese rowan eventually


forms a small tree. The dark, glossy
green divided leaves turn rich
red-purple in fall, and late spring
owers produce drooping clusters
of crimson berries, aging to pink and
white. Likes deep, fertile, acidic soil.

H: 15 ft (5 m); S: 12 ft (4 m)

H: 30 ft (10 m); S: 25 ft (8 m)

H: 15 ft (5 m); S: 15 ft (5 m)

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Taxus baccata

Viburnum x bodnantense Dawn

Viburnum tinus Eve Price

Clipped as a hedge, the shade-loving


common yew produces a smooth,
dense nish. Cut once in late summer.
Plant bare-root plants in the dormant
season, ideally before Christmas, and
container plants year-round. The whole
plant is poisonous.

In frost-free periods, from late fall to


spring, this upright deciduous shrub
produces clusters of pink blooms
with a strong scent of sweet
almonds. It is happy in clay and
requires little pruning. Deben and
Charles Lamont are similar cultivars.

This compact and tough evergreen


tolerates a wide range of soils and
owers from early winter to midspring. Flower clusters are pink in bud,
opening white and honey-scented,
and these are followed by blue-black
berries that are attractive to birds.

H: 612 ft (24 m); S: 35 ft (11.5 m)

H: 10 ft (3 m); S: 6 ft (2 m)

H: 10 ft (3 m); S: 10 ft (3 m)

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308 Low-maintenance garden: plant guide

Climbers
Clematis Bill MacKenzie

Clematis Etoile Violette

Clematis Markhams Pink

This vigorous cultivar owers from


midsummer to late fall and bears
intriguing lemon peel blooms
with dark red centers. Fluffy silver
seed-heads follow, and the foliage is
light green and feathery. Prune stems
almost to the ground in early spring.

From midsummer through to fall,


violet-purple nodding blooms are
produced on the new seasons
growth. As with all viticella clematis,
prune hard in early spring to about
12 in (30 cm) from ground level, just
above a pair of fat buds.

This dainty, double-owered clematis


has rose-pink blooms from spring to
early summer and silvery ornamental
seedheads. It is ideal for decorating
a trellis, covering a low wall, or
training up a shrub or small tree.
Prune only to remove dead stems.

H: 22 ft (7 m)

H: 15 ft (5 m)

H: 8 ft (2.5 m)

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Clematis Perle dAzur

Euonymus fortunei Silver Queen

Hedera helix Glacier

Profuse in bloom, this sky-blue,


small-owered clematis shines from
midsummer to fall even on a northfacing wall. Prune back to about
12 in (30 cm) from ground level in
spring, just above strong buds.
Prince Charles is more compact.

Though usually grown as ground cover,


euonymus cultivars will climb walls
and fences, self-clinging via aerial
roots. Silver Queen makes dense,
bushy wall cover, adding light to a
shady view, and the white edges
turn pink in winter. Trim to neaten.

The gray-green, three- to ve-lobed


leaves of this English ivy are marbled
with a variable white margin that is
brightest in good light. Self-clinging
stems make a close-knit wall or fence
covering, and it can be pruned at
any time to control spread.

H: 15 ft (5 m)

H: 20 ft (6 m)

H: 8 ft (2.5 m)

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Climbers 309

Hydrangea anomala subsp.


petiolaris

Parthenocissus henryana

Pileostegia viburnoides

Although this deciduous, self-clinging


climber takes a few years to begin
climbing and owering in earnest, it is
a stunning sight on a shady wall when
covered in its white midsummer
blooms. It has yellow fall foliage.

This well-behaved form of Virginia


creeper develops silvery veins and red
tints in partial shade but has better
fall color in full sun, when the leaves
turn crimson before falling. It clings
to vertical surfaces via sticky-ended
tendrils. Prune to control size.

An evergreen, self-clinging climber


that thrives in sheltered sites on fertile
soil. The architectural leaves are long,
leathery and pointed and, in late
summer and fall, frothy sprays of
white owers appear. May take a
few years to reach owering size.

H: 50 ft (15 m)

H: 30 ft (10 m)

H: 20 ft (6 m)

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Schizophragma integrifolium

Trachelospermum jasminoides

Vitus vinifera Purpurea

This self-clinging, deciduous hydrangea


relative blooms in midsummer and
bears heads of tiny fertile owers
surrounded by showy sterile bracts.
Schizophragma hydrangeoides
Roseum has pink bracts. Shade the
roots and provide initial support.

Confederate or star jasmine is an


evergreen twining climber with small,
fragrant, white pinwheel blooms in
midsummer. Thrives in a hot, sheltered
site. Provide wire supports. Growth
may be slow at rst. Trachelospermum
asiaticum is similar.

The leaves of this deciduous vine are


intricately cut and a rich red-purple
shade, becoming darker in fall when
clusters of unpalatable small, round,
purple grapes ripen. Provide support
for the tendrils to cling to and plant
on fertile soil.

H: 40 ft (12 m)

H: 28 ft (9 m)

H: 22 ft (7 m)

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310

Low-maintenance garden: plant guide

Medium-sized shrubs
Acer palmatum var. dissectum
Dissectum Atropurpureum Group

Aucuba japonica Variegata

Buddleja Lochinch

Purple-red, nely cut foliage, which


turns a vibrant red in fall, covers the
arching stems of this slow-growing
deciduous shrub. Like other Japanese
maples, it prefers rich, moistureretentive soil and a sheltered site.

Spotted laurel is a shade-loving


evergreen whose gold-splashed leaves
lighten gloomy corners. Tolerant of
pollution, it is ideal for city gardens.
Female forms, like Crotonifolia and
Variegata, have bright red berries.
Remove frost-damaged tips in spring.

This buttery bush has silvery-white


stems and gray-green leaves that
make a lovely foil for the pale
lavender owerheads, which appear
from mid- to late summer. Each tiny
bloom has an orange eye. Prune
back hard in early spring.

H: 6 ft (2 m); S: 10 ft (3 m)

H: 10 ft (3 m); S: 10 ft (3 m)

H: 8 ft (2.5 m); S: 10 ft (3 m)

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Ceanothus x delileanus
Gloire de Versailles

Choisya Aztec Pearl

Choisya ternata Sundance

A deciduous California lilac, this


bushy shrub owers prolically from
midsummer to mid-fall. The blooms
are a soft powder-blue and work
well in a mixed border. Prune to a
low framework in mid-spring.

This rounded, evergreen Mexican


orange blossom has glossy narrow
leaves that produce an airy effect.
Flowering abundantly in late spring,
with a second late-summer show,
its star-shaped blooms are pink-tinged
white and fragrant.

Lime-colored and slow-growing,


this popular, neat evergreen makes a
vibrant addition to a shady border; it
rarely owers. On drier soils or in full
sun, the foliage is golden. Avoid poor
soils, and frost-prone or exposed
sites. A good container plant.

H: 5 ft (1.5 m); S: 5 ft (1.5 m)

H: 8 ft (2.5 m); S: 8 ft (2.5 m)

H: 8 ft (2.5 m); S: 8 ft (2.5 m)

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Medium-sized shrubs

311

Cornus alba Sibirica

Cornus alba Spaethii

Daphne bholua Jacqueline Postill

This slowly suckering dogwood has


red fall foliage and lacquer-red winter
stems. Plant in groups for maximum
impact, and prune hard in early
spring to promote plenty of new
growth with vibrant color. Tolerates
waterlogged clay.

Variegated dogwoods provide foliage


contrast in mixed borders and help
to lighten evergreen plantings. When
established, prune out one-third of
the oldest growth in early spring to
promote the cherry-red winter stems.
Remove all-green shoots.

This late-winter-owering evergreen


daphne is hard to beat for fragrance,
especially when planted in a spot
sheltered from wind. The small but
numerous blooms are deep purplepink outside and white within.
Mulch to retain moisture.

H: 10 ft (3 m); S: 10 ft (3 m)

H: 10 ft (3 m); S: 10 ft (3 m)

H: 612 ft (24 m); S: 5 ft (1.5 m)

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Escallonia laevis Gold Brian

Fargesia murielae Simba

Hebe Great Orme

This compact cultivar is grown mainly


for its attractive bright, lime-green
to gold, glossy foliage. A reliable
evergreen for most gardens, it resents
exposure to cold, drying winds. Deep
pink blooms are produced during
summer. Pruning is rarely required.

An excellent dwarf form of bamboo,


Simba is well behaved either in the
border or in a large container. The
uttering leaves clothing the upright
stems are a fresh, light green. Thin
out weak stems, and some older than
three years, to maintain an airy habit.

A long-owering hebe with tapering,


rich pink, fading to white blooms
from midsummer to fall. The stems
are purple, contrasting attractively
with the narrow, glossy, mid-green
leaves. Ideal for city or seaside gardens
with shelter from cold winds.

H: 4 ft (1.2 m); S: 4 ft (1.2 m)

H: 6 ft (2 m); S: 24 in (60 cm)

H: 4 ft (1.2 m); S: 4 ft (1.2 m)

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312

Low-maintenance garden: plant guide

Medium-sized shrubs
Hebe salicifolia

Hydrangea arborescens Annabelle

Hydrangea paniculata

A hardy species, this narrow-leaved


hebe owers between early summer
and mid-fall. Tapering white or
lilac-tinged blooms are borne on
upright to arching stems clothed in
light green leaves. Hebe Spenders
Seedling is similar but more compact.

The blooms of this long-owering


American hydrangea rst appear
in early summer; they are fresh
apple-green in bud, expanding to
form very large creamy-white domes.
They then make attractive papery
heads in fall. Prune lightly in spring.

With abundant cone-shaped creamywhite heads in late summer, forms of


H. paniculata are ideal for the mixed
border; pink tints often develop in
fall, especially in cultivars like
Unique. Prune to a low framework
each spring for larger blooms.

H: 8 ft (2.5 m); S: 8 ft (2.5 m)

H: 8 ft (2.5 m); S: 8 ft (2.5 m)

H: 10 ft (3 m); S: 8 ft (2.5 m)

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Hydrangea Preziosa

Hydrangea serrata Bluebird

This compact hydrangea has dark


mahogany stems and red fall tints.
Late-summer owers beautifully
combine young, pale pink blooms
with mature heads of deep red,
tinted purple in acidic soil. Trim shoot
tips to the rst fat buds in spring.

A lacecap type with narrow, tapered


leaves, this dainty hydrangea bears
porcelain-blue heads over a long
period through summer into fall.
Grayswood, with mauve blooms,
acquiring raspberry tints in fall,
is slightly taller at 6 ft (2 m).

Juniperus x ptzeriana
Sulphur Spray

H: 5 ft (1.5 m); S: 5 ft (1.5 m)

H: 4 ft (1.2 m); S: 4 ft (1.2 m)

H: 5 ft (1.5 m); S: 5 ft (1.5 m)

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The arching to upright branches of


this juniper are covered in feathery
sprays of pale sulfur-tinted foliage,
the coloring most pronounced at the
shoot tips. Stems may be removed to
control height and spread.

Medium-sized shrubs

313

Nandina domestica

Olearia x haastii

Osmanthus x burkwoodii

Heavenly bamboo is an evergreen


or semievergreen shrub with upright
stems. The divided leaves are tinted
coppery red when young and develop
strong red-purple tones in winter.
Midsummer ower sprays are white,
developing into orange-red berries.

This small-leaved evergreen is neat


and compact and thrives in sheltered
urban gardens or in seaside areas.
The leathery leaves have a white
felted reverse. Frothy heads of tiny
white, yellow-centered daisies appear
between mid- and late summer.

In mid-spring this small-leaved


evergreen is smothered in clusters
of tiny white tubular blooms with a
strong perfume. A compact shrub,
it doesnt require pruning but can be
clipped immediately after owering
to form simple topiary shapes.

H: 6 ft (2 m); S: 5 ft (1.5 m)

H: 6 ft (2 m); S: 10 ft (3 m)

H: 10 ft (3 m); S: 10 ft (3 m)

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Phormium Alison Blackman

Phormium tenax Purpureum Group

Physocarpus opulifolius Diabolo

A New Zealand ax with olive-greencentered leaves carrying gold stripes


with a narrow red margin. Tall ower
shoots sometimes appear in summer.
Tougher than many other coloredleaf cultivars. Sundowner has similar
coloring but is larger.

Ideal for a dramatic focal point in the


border, members of this group have
tapering, strap-shaped leaves that
arch at the tip and, when mature,
produce towering, rodlike ower
stems. The cultivars Platts Black
and All Black are particularly dark.

Use this dark-purple-leaved form of


the deciduous ninebark for foliage
contrast in the mixed border. The
leaves are trilobed and toothed, and
in early summer dome-shaped heads
of pale pink blooms appear. Springprune for larger leaves.

H: 4 ft (1.4 m); S: 4 ft (1.4 m)

H: 6 ft (2 m); S: 8 ft (2.5 m)

H: 68 ft (22.5 m); S: 8 ft (2.5 m)

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314

Low-maintenance garden: plant guide

Medium-sized shrubs
Pittosporum Garnettii

Rhododendron yakushimanum

Rosa glauca

These New Zealand natives make


useful evergreen backdrops or wall
shrubs for sheltered town gardens and
seaside plots. Garnettii has mahogany
stems with gray-green, white-edged
leaves, pink-tinged in winter, and
dark purple, scented spring blooms.

An evergreen for acidic soil that makes


a neat dome shape. It produces
rose-pink buds in spring that open
to large heads of white and pale pink
bell-shaped blooms. The new leaf
growth, covered in a colorful felting
of light cinnamon, is also a feature.

Even when not in ower, this shrub


rose makes an attractive foil for
owers in the mixed border. Arching
red-purple stems bear soft purplegray leaves and, in summer, single
cerise-tinted blooms appear, later
producing dark red spherical hips.

H: 10 ft (3 m); S: 6 ft (2 m)

H: 6 ft (2 m); S: 6 ft (2 m)

H: 6 ft (2 m); S: 5 ft (1.5 m)

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Rosa rugosa Alba

Sambucus nigra Black Lace


(syn. Eva )

Sarcococca hookeriana var. digyna

A shrub rose with apple-green,


virtually disease-free foliage and
yellow fall color. All summer, ushes
of large, single, fragrant white
blooms appear, each with a yellow
eye. Showy tomato-red hips follow,
which are attractive to nches.

Aptly named, this deciduous elderberry


has nely-cut, purple-black foliage
and, if only lightly pruned, at plates
of pink summer blossoms and black
berries. Prune to a low framework
in early spring to keep compact.

The upright stems of this suckering


evergreen shrub are clothed in shiny,
narrow, tapering leaves. In winter,
tiny blooms with tufts of cream
anthers release a pervasive perfume,
giving rise to the common name of
sweet box. Shiny black berries follow.

H: 6 ft (2 m); S: 6 ft (2 m)

H: 10 ft (3 m); S: 10 ft (3 m)

H: 5 ft (1.5 m); S: 6 ft (2 m)

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Medium-sized shrubs

315

Skimmia japonica Rubella

Syringa meyeri Palabin

Taxus baccata Standishii

This glossy, evergreen woodlander


has showy cones of crimson ower
buds that develop in fall and open to
sweetly fragrant white blooms in
spring. This cultivar is male, so it does
not produce berries. It is slow-growing,
and needs shelter and fertile soil.

This dwarf lilac has fragrant, lavenderpink blooms in late spring and early
summer and small oval leaves. It
thrives in neutral to alkaline soil.
Syringa pubescens subsp. microphylla
Superba owers intermittently from
spring to fall.

Ideal for lightening a shady area or


as a focal point among ground cover,
this golden-leaved yew makes a
compact column over time. Prune back
competing leading shoots to reduce
spread. Taxus baccata Fastigiata
Aureomarginata is larger.

H: 5 ft (1.5 m); S: 5 ft (1.5 m)

H: 6 ft (2 m); S: 5 ft (1.5 m)

H: 5 ft (1.5 m); S: 24 in (60 cm)

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Viburnum x burkwoodii
Anne Russell

Viburnum davidii

Weigela orida Foliis Purpureis

In mid- and late spring this compact,


deciduous viburnum produces domed
heads of waxy-textured, sweetly
fragrant blooms that are pink in
bud, opening white. Red fruits and
colorful tints feature in fall.

This evergreen has handsome dark


leaves, held on red leaf stalks, with
distinctive, deeply grooved, parallel
veins giving a pleated effect. Small
ower clusters in late spring produce
lustrous blue berries on female
shrubs when both sexes are present.

The bronzy-purple foliage of this


compact, deciduous weigela is its
main feature. In late spring and early
summer, clusters of crimson buds
open to funnel-shaped blooms with
pale pink interiors, and these contrast
well with the dark leaves.

H: 6 ft (2 m); S: 5 ft (1.5 m)

H: 3 ft (1 m); S: 5 ft (1.5 m)

H: 3 ft (1 m); S: 5 ft (1.5 m)

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316

Low-maintenance garden: plant guide

Low shrubs, shorter perennials, and ground-cover plants


Acorus gramineus Ogon
This variegated Japanese rush
produces fans of grassy foliage with
bold gold and green stripes. Often
grown as a marginal plant in ponds,
this variety also thrives in fertile,
moisture-retentive soil and makes
an excellent foliage container plant.

Anaphalis triplinervis
Sommerschnee

Armeria maritima

Pearly everlasting is a clump-forming


perennial with felted, gray-green,
lance-shaped leaves. From mid-to late
summer it bears ball-shaped owers
made of pure white papery bracts.
Avoid very dry soil in summer.

Varieties of sea pink or thrift are


drought-tolerant evergreens that
make ne grassy tussocks. The
abundant white, pink, or red-purple
owers of A. maritima are borne
in spherical clusters between late
spring and early summer.

H: 10 in (25 cm); S: 6 in (15 cm)

H: 28 in (70 cm); S: 24 in (60 cm)

H: 8 in (20 cm); S: 12 in (30 cm)

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Artemisia schmidtiana Nana

Artemisia stelleriana
Boughton Silver

Arum italicum Marmoratum

Both the species and the dwarf form


Nana create low domes of bright,
silvery-green, ligree foliage. Closeplanted to form an evergreen carpet,
they are ideal as drought-tolerant
ground cover or to front a dry border.
The owers are insignicant.

The white-felted foliage of this low


evergreen is intricately cut and looks
more like lace than leaves. Use it to ll
gaps between other plants, especially
toward the front of the border, or to
provide textural contrast in a container.

From late fall through to mid-spring,


the marbled, arrow-shaped leaves
of lords and ladies cover the ground.
In spring, pale green owers appear,
followed by gleaming spikes of fall
berries. Good on heavier soils, it
needs moisture in sunshine.

H: 3 in (8 cm); S: 12 in (30 cm)

H: 6 in (15 cm); S: 18 in (45 cm)

H: 12 in (30 cm); S: 6 in (15 cm)

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Low shrubs, shorter perennials, and ground-cover plants

317

Astilbe Bronce Elegans

Bergenia cordifolia Purpurea

Carex agellifera

This pretty, dwarf astilbe has nely


cut, rich copper foliage in spring and
feathery pink plumes from mid- to
late summer. Plants form creeping
herbaceous colonies and are suitable
for the front of a border. Tolerates
full sun given plentiful moisture.

This evergreen elephants-ears has


magenta bell-shaped owers in late
winter and rich purple-red leaf tones
through fall and winter. Its large,
glossy, rounded leaves make a strong
contrast with grassy foliage plants.
Bergenia purpurascens is similar.

One of the New Zealand sedges, this


evergreen has upright then arching
clumps of ne wiry foliage, tinted
gingery-brown. Plant singly to accent
low creepers, or in multiples for
ground cover with a contemporary
look. Carex testacea is similar.

H: 12 in (30 cm); S: 10 in (25 cm)

H: 24 in (60 cm); S: 30 in (75 cm)

H: 3 ft (1.1 m); S: 36 in (90 cm)

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Carex oshimensis Evergold

Ceratostigma plumbaginoides

Cistus x dansereaui Decumbens

This bright, gold and green-striped


evergreen sedge from Japan makes
hummocks of narrow, arching, grassy
leaves. Planted in groups, it provides
colorful ground cover, but it also
works well in containers. Remove
or trim brown leaves in spring.

This creeping plant attracts the eye in


late summer when the red stems are
studded with gentian-blue blooms.
In fall, the carpet of bright green
leaves turn red or purple, providing
a striking foil for the remaining
owers. Avoid very poor dry soils.

From late spring to midsummer, this


rock rose produces a succession of
pure white, tissue-paper blooms
marked with maroon blotches. The
sticky evergreen foliage makes ne
ground cover for banks and hot, dry
borders. Cistus x hybridus is similar.

H: 12 in (30 cm); S: 14 in (35 cm)

H: 18 in (45 cm); S: 12 in (30 cm)

H: 24 in (60 cm); S: 36 in (90 cm)

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318

Low-maintenance garden: plant guide

Low shrubs, shorter perennials, and ground-cover plants


Cistus x lenis Grayswood Pink

Convolvulus cneorum

Cotoneaster horizontalis

Blooming in summer, this pretty


pink-owered rock rose is one of the
hardiest in cultivation. Low-growing,
it spreads to cover a large area,
sometimes rooting where the stems
touch the ground. Useful for gravel
gardens, walls, and banks.

With leaves like strips of silvery metal,


this compact, dome-shaped evergreen
gleams in sunshine. Starting in spring,
ushes of pink buds open to white
funnel-shaped blooms. Thrives in
shelter in poor, slightly alkaline soil
with sharp winter drainage.

This tough, deciduous shrub produces


a herringbone pattern of branches
clothed in small, glossy, dark green
leaves that turn red in fall. In late
spring, it is smothered in tiny blossoms
that ripen to long-lasting red berries.
It makes good ground or wall cover.

H: 12 in (30 cm); S: 10 ft (3 m)

H: 24 in (60 cm); S: 36 in (90 cm)

H: 4 ft (1.2 m); S: 5 ft (1.5 m)

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Cyclamen hederifolium

Diascia barberae
Blackthorn Apricot

Dicentra Stuart Boothman

Carpets of this self-seeding cyclamen


steadily build up under established
trees and shrubs, thriving in soil rich
in leafmold. The delicate pink blooms
appear in fall before the marbled,
arrow-shaped leaves, which last
throughout winter and spring.

Providing summer-owering ground


cover in well-drained gardens, several
diascias are hardy, especially the brickpink Ruby Field, but need plentiful
summer moisture. Clip over in spring.
They overwinter best in containers.

This low-growing bleeding heart


has feathery blue-gray foliage and,
from mid-spring to late summer,
arching sprays of deep pink blooms.
It prefers fertile, moisture-retentive
soil, conditions that prolong both
owering and foliage displays.

H: 5 in (13 cm); S: 6 in (15 cm)

H: 10 in (25 cm); S: 20 in (50 cm)

H: 12 in (30 cm); S: 16 in (40 cm)

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Low shrubs, shorter perennials, and ground-cover plants

Erica carnea Springwood White

Erigeron karvinskianus

Between midwinter and mid-spring,


the carpet of emerald-green foliage is
covered in tiny, white, honey-scented
owers that attract early bees. It has a
trailing habit. Another excellent white
is Erica x darleyensis Silberschmelze.
Clip after owering.

This dainty eabane self-seeds freely,


growing in cracks in walls and paving
and forming colonies in gravel. All
summer, a profusion of little daisylike
blooms are produced; these mature
from white through to deep pinkypurple, creating a two-tone effect.

H: 6 in (15 cm); S: 18 in (45 cm)

H: 6 in (15 cm); S: 3 ft (1 m)

H: 24 in (60 cm); S: 36 in (90 cm)

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Geranium Ann Folkard

Geranium Johnsons Blue

Geranium sanguineum

From midsummer to mid-fall, this


cranesbills trailing stems produce
vivid magenta-purple blooms, each
with a prominent black eye. The
deeply cut, ve-lobed leaves are a
bright lime green. Foliage darkens
with age and in excessive shade.

A rm favorite with gardeners, this


light-lavender-blue-owered cranesbill
is easy to please and blooms from
late spring well into summer. The
dish-shaped owers are enhanced
by prominent pinky-blue centers.
G. Rozanne is longer in bloom.

The bloody cranesbill forms neat


hummocks of nely cut leaves and
bears small magenta-pink owers
for many weeks in summer. Ideal
for gravel gardens and raised beds,
it also provides good fall color.
Album is white-owered.

H: 24 in (60 cm); S: 3 ft (1 m)

H: 18 in (45 cm); S: 30 in (75 cm)

H: 8 in (20 cm); S: 12 in (30 cm)

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319

Euonymus fortunei
Emerald n Gold
With copious gold variegation, this
evergreen shrub is ideal for a winter
border. As temperatures plummet,
the foliage becomes pink-tinged. May
be clipped to simple shapes. Canadale
Gold is similar but stronger growing.

320 Low-maintenance garden: plant guide

Low shrubs, shorter perennials, and ground-cover plants


Hakonechloa macra Aureola
The arching, ribbonlike leaves of this
Japanese grass are striped yellow and
lime green, developing red tints in full
sun, and becoming greener in deep
shade. Best in slightly acidic soil and
excellent in containers. Cut back
foliage in spring.

Hebe cupressoides
Boughton Dome

Hebe Red Edge

A remarkably hardy, neat evergreen


with gray-green foliage in the form of
overlapping scales. The domed shape
contrasts well with narrow-leaved
ground cover; or plant it in groups
to create a repeating pattern.

The gray-green leaves of this


small-leaved, hardy hebe are edged
with a ne red line and become
red-tinged in winter. Small, lilac-blue
owers appear in summer, unless
plants have been clipped over in late
spring to enhance the domed form.

H: 14 in (35 cm); S: 16 in (40 cm)

H: 12 in (30 cm); S: 24 in (60 cm)

H: 18 in (45 cm); S: 24 in (60 cm)

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Hedera helix Parsley Crested

Hedera helix Little Diamond

Helleborus x hybridus

Non-variegated ivies are useful for


covering the dry ground beneath
trees, or for making a lawn substitute
surrounded by paving. Parsley
Crested has mid-green leaves with an
undulating margin. Mandas Crested
is similar but copper-tinted in winter.

An aptly named ivy, perfect for


the front of a border or edging a
container. The small, diamond-shaped
leaves are marbled gray-green with
a creamy-white edge. A compact,
slow-growing plant, it provides
dense, bushy cover.

This group of mostly evergreen


perennials owers from midwinter
to mid-spring in colors from white,
through pinks and reds, to dark
maroon. Centers are usually speckled.
Remove withered foliage. Prefers
heavy, fertile, moisture-retentive soil.

H: 8 in (20 cm); S: 6 ft (2 m)

H: 3 in (8 cm); S: 12 in (30 cm)

H: 18 in (45 cm); S: 18 in (45 cm)

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Low shrubs, shorter perennials, and ground-cover plants

321

Heuchera Plum Pudding

Hosta Halcyon

Juniperus squamata Blue Carpet

A compact evergreen perennial with


heart-shaped, lobed leaves colored
red-purple with deeper veining. From
late spring, dark wiry stems carry tiny
white owers. Pewter Moon has
purple leaves overlaid with silver.
Susceptible to vine weevil.

An elegant hosta with tapered, slugresistant, gray-blue leaves and soft


lavender summer owers. The blue
hostas Krossa Regal and Big Daddy,
and the yellow-centered Great
Expectations, are also slug-resistant.
For added protection, grow in pots.

This blue-leaved conifer makes a


dense evergreen, weed-suppressing
carpet and ultimately needs room to
spread. It tolerates thin, chalky soil
and requires minimal care, but may
be pruned to control its spread by
cutting out whole branches.

H: 16 in (40 cm); S: 12 in (30 cm)

H: 16 in (40 cm); S: 28 in (70 cm)

H: 12 in (30 cm); S: 6 ft (2 m)

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Lavandula angustifolia Hidcote

Leucothoe Scarletta (syn. Zeblid )

Libertia peregrinans

One of the best dwarf lavenders,


Hidcote makes mounds of silvery
gray leaves topped in midsummer
by dark purple spikes. To keep plants
bushy and well clothed in foliage,
clip over with shears after owering.
Munstead is similar but paler.

This member of the heather family


has small, glossy, evergreen leaves
that turn a rich bronze red in fall,
and it produces equally colorful
new foliage. It requires fertile, acidic,
moisture-retentive soil and shelter
from wind. A good container plant.

A slow-spreading grassy evergreen


from New Zealand with amber-tinged
foliage that brightens in winter, and
white, starry spring blooms. The
warm-brown-leaved Taupo Sunset
is an eye-catching newcomer with
contrasting white owers.

H: 24 in (60 cm); S: 30 in (75 cm)

H: 24 in (60 cm); S: 3 ft (1.1 m)

H: 20 in (50 cm); S: 20 in (50 cm)

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322 Low-maintenance garden: plant guide

Low shrubs, shorter perennials, and ground-cover plants


Liriope muscari

Muscari armeniacum

Narcissus February Gold

Lilyturf is a hard-working evergreen


perennial that makes a slow-spreading
tuft of narrow, leathery, strap-shaped
leaves. In late summer, long-lasting
spikes of violet-purple owers
emerge. Good as fall-interest path
edging or shady ground cover.

Grape hyacinth owers in mid-spring,


attracting early bees with its
honey-scented blooms. The dense
spikes of blue owers emerge
through grassy carpets. Unusually,
this bulbs leaves appear in late
summer and last until late spring.
Blue Spike is a double.

Dwarf, cyclamineus daffodils are


invaluable for creating early spring
color, and most naturalize well in
informal lawns and under trees.
With the narrow foliage dying down
gracefully, they are also suitable for
borders, even in heavy soil.

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H: 8 in (20 cm); S: 2 in (5 cm)

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Ophiopogon planiscapus
Nigrescens

Origanum laevigatum
Herrenhausen

Osteospermum jucundum

Black mondo grass, actually a


member of the lily family, makes a
spreading carpet of virtually black,
strappy leaves. Tolerating a wide
range of conditions, it keeps its
color well even in dry shade.

This pretty ornamental oregano is a


drought-buster. With purple-tinged
leaves and stems, it makes excellent
edging. From midsummer, it produces
small, rounded heads of pink blooms
followed by pretty seedheads.

This South African daisy bears


long-stemmed owers, with a darker
eye and smoky reverse, through
summer and into fall. The evergreen
carpeting foliage can be used to ow
over the edge of retaining walls or to
soften paving on a hot, sunny patio.

H: 8 in (20 cm); S: 12 in (30 cm)

H: 18 in (45 cm); S: 18 in (45 cm)

H: 20 in (50 cm); S: 36 in (90 cm)

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H: 12 in (30 cm); S: 18 in (45 cm)

H: 12 in (30 cm); S: 3 in (8 cm)

Low shrubs, shorter perennials, and ground-cover plants 323

Pachysandra terminalis Variegata

Penstemon Evelyn

Persicaria afnis Superba

The cream-variegated form of this


glossy-leaved, evergreen ground
cover is slightly slower-growing than
the species and useful for lightening
areas in dappled shade beneath trees
or shrubs. Best given shelter and
acidic, moisture-retentive soil.

Unlike most border penstemons, this


evergreen, narrow-leaved perennial
is compact and ideal for edging a
bed or for planting in pots. The
rose-pink tubular blooms continue
from midsummer into fall, especially
with frequent deadheading.

This creeping knotweed produces


mini pokers of crimson-opening-topink blooms from midsummer to
fall. The neat carpet of foliage turns
brown in winter but remains
attractive. Good between rocks and
for fronting shrub borders.

H: 10 in (25 cm); S: 24 in (60 cm)

H: 24 in (60 cm); S: 12 in (30 cm)

H: 10 in (25 cm); S: 24 in (60 cm)

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Phormium Bronze Baby

Pieris japonica Purity

Pinus mugo Mops

A dwarf New Zealand ax, this


cultivar has deep purple, arching,
strap-shaped leaves that form bold
tufts among low-growing plants.
It is also excellent for providing height
in containers. Protect from sharp frost
with a thick mulch of bark.

Many varieties of Pieris japonica are


compact and ideal for urban gardens.
Purity produces upright sprays of
white, lily-of-the-valley owers in
spring and pale green new leaves
in whorls at the shoot tips. Provide
acidic soil and avoid frosty sites.

This slow-growing, dwarf mountain


pine is almost spherical in habit,
with multiple upright stems that are
covered in long, evergreen, needlelike leaves. Perfect for gravel-mulched
gardens with rocks and pebbles, or as
specimens in containers on the patio.

H: 32 in (80 cm); S: 32 in (80 cm)

H: 36 in (90 cm); S: 36 in (90 cm)

H: 24 in (60 cm); S: 36 in (90 cm)

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324 Low-maintenance garden: plant guide

Low shrubs, shorter perennials, and ground-cover plants


Polystichum setiferum
Divisilobum Group

Potentilla fruticosa
Primrose Beauty

Rhodanthemum hosmariense

This evergreen soft shield fern has


highly dissected, dark green fronds
with a felted texture. It makes an
attractive sculptural feature in
winter shade borders and containers.
Remove tired fronds in spring.

Shrubby cinquefoil does well in clay,


and soft-colored cultivars also enjoy
partial shade. This compact, graygreen-leaved form owers from
summer to fall. Prune in spring,
removing a third of the oldest stems.

Almost never out of ower, this


silver-green, ligree-leaved evergreen
produces most of its daisylike blooms
from early to late summer. Use it to
soften the edge of a sunny retaining
wall, or in gaps in paving, and in
poor, stony soil.

H: 28 in (70 cm); S: 28 in (70 cm)

H: 24 in (60 cm); S: 36 in (90 cm)

H: 12 in (30 cm); S: 12 in (30 cm)

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Rhododendron Vuyks Scarlet

Rosa Surrey

Scabiosa Buttery Blue

This dwarf evergreen has a low


prole, making it ideal for the front
of a shrub border in acidic soil. The
scarlet-tinged crimson blooms are
single bells with wavy margins and
are produced in abundance during
mid- or late spring. Tolerates sun.

One of the best of the County series,


this ground-cover rose bears double
pink, lightly fragrant blooms in ushes
between midsummer and fall.
Relatively disease-free. Cut plants
back in spring with a hedge trimmer.
Also try the Flower Carpet series.

Buttery Blue, and the lilac-pink


Pink Mist, are dainty mini scabious,
owering over a long period through
summer into fall, especially if
deadheaded regularly. Plant at the
border edge or in containers. The
owers attract bees and butteries.

H: 30 in (75 cm); S: 4 ft (1.2 m)

H: 32 in (80 cm); S: 4 ft (1.2 m)

H: 16 in (40 cm); S: 16 in (40 cm)

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Low shrubs, shorter perennials, and ground-cover plants 325

Sedum Ruby Glow

Sempervivum tectorum

Sisyrinchium striatum Aunt May

Carpeting stonecrops, like Ruby


Glow and Vera Jameson, combine
dusky purple-tinged succulent leaves
with crimson owerheads that appear
from midsummer to fall. Effective en
masse in gravel gardens. Droughtresistant and attractive to butteries.

Common houseleek, also named


hen-and-chicks as the rosettes of
leaves are surrounded by offshoots,
bears upright, red-purple ower
stems in summer; the leaves may
also be red-tinted. These evergreen
succulents are used for living roofs.

This cultivar produces white-striped


evergreen leaf fans from which
upright stems of creamy owers arise
in summer. Architectural in character,
they work well planted in swaths
in gravel gardens. Deadhead to
prevent seeding.

H: 10 in (25 cm); S: 18 in (45 cm)

H: 6 in (15 cm); S: 20 in (50 cm)

H: 20 in (50 cm); S: 10 in (25 cm)

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Stipa tenuissima

Yucca lamentosa Bright Edge

Yucca accida Ivory

Although this diaphanous grass makes


a good pot specimen, it works best
weaving through borders or planted
in clumps near paving. It bears pale,
biscuit-colored ower stems through
summer, and the light green leaves
fade but remain attractive all winter.

This brightly variegated form of


Adams needle is best planted as a
single specimen or in small groups
mulched with gravel or pebbles. Spires
of creamy bells may appear in summer,
but this is chiey an evergreen foliage
plant. Makes a ne container specimen.

These architectural evergreens can


be temperamental about blooming,
but Ivory produces its exotic-looking
owers freely. In summer, tall stems
bearing a profusion of green-tinted
cream bells rise from the basal rosette
of blue-green, swordlike leaves.

H: 24 in (60 cm); S: 12 in (30 cm)

H: 30 in (75 cm); S: 4 ft (1.4 m)

H: 22 in (55 cm); S: 5 ft (1.5 m)

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326 Low-maintenance garden: plant guide

Perennials and ornamental grasses


Acanthus spinosus

Agapanthus Loch Hope

This statuesque perennial sends up


glossy leaves in early spring that
expand to form a mound of deeply
toothed blades armed with spines. In
early summer, spires of white-hooded
blooms with long-lasting purple bracts
appear. A paving or gravel specimen.

This Nile lily has clumps of strapshaped leaves and tall stems topped
with striking round heads of deep
blue owers. Combining well with
hot-colored blooms, they brighten
agging displays in late summer
and early fall. Mulch in winter.

H: 4 ft (1.4 m); S: 36 in (90 cm)

H: 4 ft (1.2 m); S: 24 in (60 cm)

H: 3 ft (1 m); S: 3 in (7 cm)

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Anemanthele lessoniana

Anemone hupehensis
Hadspen Abundance

Aster x frikartii Mnch

The pheasants-tail grass, formerly


Stipa arundinacea, makes a dense
clump of narrow, ribbonlike foliage.
Arching purple-tinted ower stems
reach almost to the ground and,
from fall through winter, the olive
leaves are tinted orange and red.

Allium hollandicum
Purple Sensation
In early summer, this ornamental
onion bears drumstick heads of rich
purple above a tuft of gray-green
leaves. The sculptural seedheads are
long-lasting and good for drying, but
seedlings will produce paler blooms.

An upright, free-owering perennial


that bears unevenly shaped, deep
pink blooms with golden stamens
from mid- to late summer. The vinelike leaves form substantial clumps.
Also try Anemone x hybrida cultivars.

Superior to most Michaelmas daisies,


this adaptable lavender-blue aster
blooms from midsummer to fall. It
doesnt usually need staking and has
good mildew resistance. Working well
with most color schemes, it is also
charming with ornamental grasses.

H: 36 in (90 cm); S: 4 ft (1.2 m)

H: 36 in (90 cm); S: 16 in (40 cm)

H: 28 in (70 cm); S: 16 in (40 cm)

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Perennials and ornamental grasses 327

Astrantia Hadspen Blood

Calamagrostis x acutiora

Centranthus ruber

This easy-care perennial colonizes


wilder parts of the garden in dappled
shade but is just as valuable in the
early- and midsummer border. The
dark red blooms are like tiny posies
surrounded by papery bracts, and
the leaves are attractively lobed.

A strikingly erect grass with a strong


winter presence. Popular cultivars
include the arching, cream-striped
Overdam and the taller Karl
Foerster, which in midsummer bears
pinkish-brown plumes. In fall, both
take on bronze or biscuit tones.

The red valerian is a droughttolerant, eshy-leaved self-seeder


that blooms from late spring to late
summer. The cone-shaped crimson
ower clusters are great buttery
attractors. It benets from
deadheading. Albus is white.

H: 36 in (90 cm); S: 18 in (45 cm)

H: 5 ft (1.5 m); S: 24 in (60 cm)

H: 36 in (90 cm); S: 36 in (90 cm)

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Chelone obliqua

Deschampsia cespitosa

Dryopteris afnis Cristata

This turtlehead is a hardy late-summerowering perennial that tolerates


clay soil and occasional waterlogging.
The upright ower stems bear curious
pink blooms that open from tightly
clustered buds. Chelone leyonii is
similar but taller. Protect from slugs.

Varieties of the tufted hair grass, such


as Goldschleier (syn. Golden Veil),
form clumps of narrow, evergreen
leaves that produce gracefully arching
ower stems in early summer. The airy
owerheads catch the breeze and
remain attractive well into fall.

Often referred to as the king of


British ferns, this handsome cultivar
has arching shuttlecocks of semievergreen fronds with frilled or
crested tips. Surprisingly tolerant, it
will withstand some sun and wind
exposure. A good container plant.

H: 24 in (60 cm); S: 12 in (30 cm)

H: 4 ft (1.2 m); S: 4 ft (1.2 m)

H: 36 in (90 cm); S: 36 in (90 cm)

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328 Low-maintenance garden: plant guide

Perennials and ornamental grasses


Echinops ritro Veitchs Blue

Eryngium x oliverianum

Globe thistles are statuesque plants


with coarse, deeply-toothed leaves
and spherical, macelike owerheads
that are a magnet for bees, butteries,
and moths. This cultivar produces an
abundance of steely blue blooms
on upright, silvery stems.

One of the most ornamental of the


sea hollies, from midsummer this
hybrid has branching stems carrying
abundant thimblelike heads of
metallic blue, each with an elegant
spiny ruff. Although the blooms
fade, they persist into fall.

Euphorbia characias
Humpty Dumpty

H: 4 ft (1.2 m); S: 18 in (45 cm)

H: 36 in (90 cm); S: 18 in (45 cm)

H: 24 in (60 cm); S: 20 in (50 cm)

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Helictotrichon sempervirens

Hemerocallis Corky

Iris foetidissima

Blue oat grass is evergreen and


drought tolerant. In early and
mid-summer, the tussocks of narrow,
steely blue-gray leaves send up long
stems carrying oatlike owerheads.
Use as a specimen in gravel or
for massed plantings.

A free-owering daylily that blooms


from early to midsummer. Slender
stems with dark buds produce a
succession of starry yellow blooms
with brown stripes on the back of
the petals. Clumps of narrow, strapshaped leaves appear in early spring.

The stinking iris (its bruised leaves can


smell unpleasant) has striking orange
berries that burst from large pods in
fall and remain attractive for weeks
against the glossy, evergreen foliage.
An invaluable plant for dry shade.
Variegata is white-striped.

H: 4 ft (1.2 m); S: 24 in (60 cm)

H: 28 in (70 cm); S: 16 in (40 cm)

H: 36 in (90 cm); S: 4 ft (1.2 m)

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This compact, evergreen spurge


blooms in spring, its chunky, acidgreen owerheads contrasting well
with the gray-green foliage. Remove
faded ower stems but avoid touching
the sap, which may irritate the skin.

Perennials and ornamental grasses 329

Iris sibirica Perrys Blue


Early-summer-owering Siberian iris
cultivars produce blooms in shades
of blue, purple, and white and give a
strongly vertical accent to the border.
Their grassy foliage contrasts nicely
with broadleaved plants and they
have attractive seed pods.

Knautia macedonica
Melton pastels

Kniphoa Little Maid

This pincushion-owered perennial


bears blooms in shades of deep
crimson through to pinks and purples.
The loose tangle of branched stems
creates a natural effect suitable for
informal gardens. Deadhead regularly.

An unusual and dainty red-hot poker


that forms stiff, grassy clumps from
which pale green ower buds appear
in late summer and early fall. These
expand to form pokers of pale yellow
blooms that fade to cream. Protect
ower buds from slugs.

H: 4 ft (1.2 m); S: 36 in (90 cm)

H: 4 ft (1.2 m); S: 20 in (50 cm)

H: 24 in (60 cm); S: 18 in (45 cm)

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Leucanthemum x superbum

Libertia grandiora

Lilium Enchantment

The ubiquitous Shasta daisy tolerates


a range of situations, including heavy
clay, and will even hold its own in
light grass cover. The long-stemmed
white owers emerge from a clump
of leathery, dark green leaves from
early summer to early fall.

This architectural New Zealander


produces handsome, fan-shaped
tufts of olive-green leaves. In late
spring and early summer, sprays of
white owers appear, followed by
brown seed pods, which turn black
as they mature. Mulch for winter.

An easy, clump-forming lily, this is


perfect planted near the front of the
border. In early summer, the uprightfacing, star-shaped blooms of bold
orange open to reveal black-speckled
centers. Add compost to sandy soils
and watch out for lily beetles.

H: 36 in (90 cm); S: 24 in (60 cm)

H: 36 in (90 cm); S: 24 in (60 cm)

H: 24 in (60 cm); S: 6 in (15 cm)

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330 Low-maintenance garden: plant guide

Perennials and ornamental grasses


Miscanthus sinensis
Kleine Silbespinne

Miscanthus sinensis Variegatus

Panicum virgatum Heavy Metal

This compact ornamental grass with


white-ribbed leaves is ideal for small
gardens. In late summer, it is crowned
with silky tufts of purple-tinged
blooms that fade to white in fall and
remain attractive into winter.

Variegated with creamy-white stripes,


this tall grass adds light and stature to
the border. For small gardens, choose
Morning Light, which reaches 45 ft
(1.21.5 m) and has narrower blades
with a ne white margin. Both bear
red-brown owers in late fall.

The prairie switchgrasses are noted


for their fall foliage tints and airy
panicles. Heavy Metal has upright
clumps of metallic, blue-gray
foliage, which begin turning yellow
in fall. From late summer, plants have
a halo of purple-tinged owers.

H: 4 ft (1.2 m); S: 36 in (90 cm)

H: 6 ft (1.8 m); S: 4 ft (1.2 m)

H: 36 in (90 cm); S: 30 in (75 cm)

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Penstemon Schoenholzeri

Penstemon Stapleford Gem

Perovskia Blue Spire

Narrow-leaved penstemons, like this


free-owering cultivar, are particularly
hardy. These evergreen perennials
produce a long succession of owers
from midsummer, especially if
deadheaded regularly. Cut back
to new leaf growth in spring.

This pretty, two-tone penstemon has


broad leaves and an upright habit.
The newer bird series has produced
several excellent taller cultivars, such
as Osprey, with pink and white
blooms, the striking purple Raven,
and the reddish-purple Blackbird.

Russian sage forms a clump of


gray-green, toothed leaves. In late
summer, wiry, branched, white stems
carry tiny clusters of violet-blue
owers. A good dry garden specimen
and bee magnet. The frosty-looking
stems are attractive in winter.

H: 30 in (75 cm); S: 24 in (60 cm)

H: 24 in (60 cm); S: 18 in (45 cm)

H: 4 ft (1.2 m); S: 36 in (90 cm)

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Perennials and ornamental grasses

331

Phlomis russeliana

Rudbeckia fulgida var. deamii

Salvia x superba

This perennials charm comes from


the way the pale yellow owers are
arranged in ball-like clusters along the
upright stems. The hooded blooms
reach their peak in early summer
but continue until early fall. Combine
with other drought-tolerant plants.

This black-eyed Susan provides vivid


late summer and fall color with its
golden, daisylike blooms, each with
a dark, raised center. It is happy in
heavy soil, and the dried owers
offer winter interest. R. fulgida var.
sullivantii Goldsturm is similar.

A hybrid sage, used most effectively


in large swaths, which produces
upright spires of glowing violet-purple
owers between midsummer and
early fall. S. nemorosa Lubecca and
S. verticillata Purple Rain are
longer-owering and more compact.

H: 36 in (90 cm); S: 30 in (75 cm)

H: 24 in (60 cm); S: 18 in (45 cm)

H: 36 in (90 cm); S: 18 in (45 cm)

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Sedum Matrona

Stipa gigantea

Verbena bonariensis

This fashionably dark-leaved sedum


produces domed heads of tight buds
that open to pink blooms in late
summer, and form attractive seedheads in fall. Both foliage and stems
are a dusky purple. Divide every 34
years. Also try Herbstfreude .

Giant feather grass is an evergreen,


tussock-forming species that, in
summer, produces tall, arching stems
with large, oatlike owers. These are
green at rst, turning a glistening
golden yellow with age. Excellent as
a specimen or mingled with owers.

Superb planted en masse, this tallstemmed, elegant, self-seeding plant


can be used toward the front of a
border or beside paving. The many
small, domed heads of violet owers
are produced from midsummer to fall
and attract butteries.

H: 24 in (60 cm); S: 24 in (60 cm)

H: 8 ft (2.5 m); S: 4 ft (1.2 m)

H: 6 ft (1.8 m); S: 18 in (45 cm)

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332 Easy pruning: plant guide

EASY PRUNING: PLANT GUIDE

Plant pruning guide (AbCa)


Abelia x grandiora

Acer davidii

Acer palmatum

This Abelia is grown for its owers or


attractive variegated or gold foliage.
In spring, prune out any stems with
leaves that have lost their variegation.
Usually requires little pruning except
for leggy branches, and dead or
damaged stems.

The snakebark maple is famed for


its bark, which provides wonderful
winter interest. It is best grown on a
single, clear trunk, which is achieved
when the plant is small by removing
the lower branches in summer or
winter with pruning shears.

All cultivars are grown for their lovely


foliage and fall colors. Prune leggy
branches in midsummer to maintain
a good shape. Remove any winter
dieback in early spring and dead,
diseased, or damaged branches when
you see them.

H: 10 ft (3 m); S: 12 ft (4 m)

H: 50 ft (15 m); S: 50 ft (15 m)

H: 25 ft (8 m); S: 30 ft (10 m)

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Actinidia deliciosa

Artemisia Powis Castle

Aucuba japonica

Kiwi fruit is a climber grown for its


lovely foliage and fall colors. Prune
leggy branches in midsummer to
maintain a good shape. Remove any
winter dieback in early spring and
dead, diseased, or damaged branches
when you see them.

This feathery shrub has attractive


silver foliage that is lightly trimmed
in spring to maintain its shape and
to encourage growth. Give it a light
shear as for lavender (see p.344), but
do not cut back too hard or the plant
will not rejuvenate.

Grown for its glossy evergreen leaves,


female plants can also bear attractive
red berries, and many cultivars have
decoratively spotted or variegated
foliage. Prune plants lightly at any
time to keep their shape; they also
respond well to hard pruning.

H: 30 ft (10 m)

H: 24 in (60 cm); S: 36 in (90 cm)

H: 10 ft (3 m); S: 10 ft (3 m)

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Plant pruning guide (AbCa) 333

Berberis x stenophylla

Berberis thunbergii

Betula utilis var. jacquemontii

Grow this prickly gold-owering plant


as a freestanding shrub or hedge. If it
gets too big, prune as for a mahonia
(see p.346). To keep compact, after
owering remove one-third of the
oldest stems and shorten leggy
stems. Wear thick gloves.

Compact, with yellow owers, bright


red berries, and great fall color, this
berberis has many uses. Wearing
thick gloves, lightly prune in late
summer or early fall to maintain its
shape, or prune like a mahonia (see
p.346) if it becomes too big.

Grown for its attractive silvery-white


bark. Remove the lower branches
over several years as it matures. A
trunk of 6 ft (2 m) is ideal for showing
off the bark. Remove any damaged,
diseased, or crossing branches from
the canopy in midsummer or winter.

H: 10 ft (3 m); S: 15 ft (5 m)

H: 3 ft (1 m); S: 8 ft (2.5 m)

H: 60 ft (18 m); S: 30 ft (10 m)

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Buddleja davidii

Buxus sempervirens

Calluna vulgaris

The buttery bush is a vigorous


summer-owering shrub. Prune it in
late winter or early spring. Cut the
branches back to two buds from the
base of last seasons growth. After
owering, also remove spent owers
to prevent them from seeding.

Often used as a small, formal hedge,


this evergreen can also be trained
into topiary shapes. When trained in
either way, it is advisable to prune at
least twice a year: once in late spring,
and then again in midsummer.

Common Scottish heather owers


during the summer months, and
some cultivars have lovely golden
foliage. For best results, it should be
trimmed annually with shears in early
spring, but dont cut back into old
wood as the plant will not rejuvenate.

H: 10 ft (3 m); S: 15 ft (5 m)

H: 15 ft (5 m); S: 15 ft (5 m)

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H: 424 in (1060 cm); S: up to 30 in


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334 Easy pruning: plant guide

Plant pruning guide (CaCh)


Camellia japonica

Camellia x williamsii Donation

Campsis x tagliabuana

This evergreen spring-owering


shrub does not require much pruning.
To maintain its shape, branches may
need trimming back after owering.
If the plant has grown too large,
reduce and rejuvenate it by very hard
pruning in summer.

A spring-owering evergreen shrub


that is grown as a specimen plant
or informal hedge. Remove leggy
growths after owering to maintain
the plants health. If it has grown too
large, hard-prune to rejuvenate after
owering has nished.

Train this vigorous exotic-looking


climber, which owers in the summer,
up a wall, fence, or other permanent
structure. To keep the plant at a
manageable size, spur-prune each of
the stems back to two pairs of buds
in early spring.

H: 28 ft (9 m); S: 25 ft (8 m)

H: 15 ft (5m); S: 8 ft (2.5 m)

H: 30 ft (10 m)

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Carpinus betulus

Caryopteris x clandonensis
Arthur Simmonds

Catalpa bignonioides

Hornbeam is a deciduous tree that


can be used as either a freestanding
ornamental plant or hedging. When
grown as a tree, minimal pruning is
required, but trim a hedge in late
summer, or renovate old hedges
in late winter).

This lovely small shrub has beautiful


blue owers in late summer and
decorative, aromatic silver foliage.
Prune it lightly in early spring, as
for Fuchsia magellanica (see p.341).

When grown as a tree, prune only to


remove dead, diseased, and crossing
stems. Alternatively, coppice young
plants annually, to contain their size
and encourage strong growths with
extra-large, decorative leaves.

H: 80 ft (25 m); S: 70 ft (20 m)

H: 3 ft (1 m); S: 5 ft (1.5 m)

H: 50 ft (15 m); S: 50 ft (15 m)

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Plant pruning guide (CaCh) 335

Ceanothus Blue Mound

Ceratostigma willmottianum

Cercis canadensis Forest Pansy

This form of the evergreen California


lilac owers in early summer. A light
pruning after owering helps to limit
the size of Ceanothus, but do not cut
back into the old wood as plants
dont normally regenerate.

This wonderful little shrub has lovely


blue owers in the late summer.
To prune, cut all the previous years
growths down to just above ground
level in early to mid-spring. Mulch
with garden compost and the plant
will erupt into growth.

A small tree that is grown for its early


summer lilac-pink owers and purple
foliage, which turns vibrant red in the
fall. Prune carefully when young to
create a good branch structure.
Thereafter, prune only if it becomes
too large or branches get in the way.

H: 3 ft (1 m); S: 5 ft (1.5 m)

H: 30 ft (10 m); S: 30 ft (10 m)

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Chaenomeles cultivars

Chimonanthus praecox

Choisya ternata

Grow owering quinces as freestanding shrubs or train against a


wall. Prune after owering, cutting all
new growths back to ve or six buds.
These will produce spurs covered in
owers the following spring. Also
remove long or wayward branches.

A highly scented, winter-owering


shrub whose owers are produced
from stems that are several years old,
so prune just the leggy growths after
owering has nished. If it is too
large, hard-prune in the winter, but it
then will not ower for several years.

The Mexican orange blossom is a


owering evergreen shrub. It requires
little pruning, aside from removing in
spring growths damaged by winter
frosts. If the plant is looking untidy,
it responds very well to hard pruning
almost to ground level in early spring.

H: up to 8 ft (2.5 m); S: up to 10 ft
(3 m) qdab

H: 12 ft (4 m); S: 10 ft (3 m)

H: 8 ft (2.5 m); S: 8 ft (2.5 m)

qda

qdEa

H: 5 ft (1.5 m); S: 6 ft (2 m)

PdEaB

336 Easy pruning: plant guide

Plant pruning guide (ClCo)


Clematis alpina

Clematis armandii

Clematis Etoile Violette

Violet-blue owers appear in spring


on last years growth, followed by
attractive uffy seedheads. To prune,
remove dead or damaged growths in
early spring. For an overgrown plant,
hard-prune to 6 in (15 cm) from the
ground in early spring.

This evergreen clematis has large


white, scented owers. It is not fully
hardy and prefers the shelter of a
warm, sunny wall or fence. To prune,
remove any growths in spring that
have died or been damaged by cold
winter weather.

A vigorous clematis that produces


masses of purple owers in late
summer on its current years growth.
To prune, cut back all growths to
612 in (1530 cm) above ground
level in early spring.

H: 610 ft (23 m), Group 1

H: 1015 ft (35 m), Group 1

H: 1015 ft (35 m), Group 3

qdEab

pdEab

qdEab

Clematis H.F. Young

Clematis Jackmanii

Clematis Nelly Moser

This clematis has large blue owers


in early summer. Prune lightly in early
spring. From the top, prune each
stem to the rst pair of healthy buds.
If the plant becomes too large, hard
prune in early spring to 6 in (15 cm)
above ground level.

Producing masses of deep purpleblue owers in summer on its current


years stems, this old favorite should
be pruned in early spring. Cut back
all growth to 612 in (1530 cm)
above ground level.

This popular clematis produces large


pink owers in late spring and again
in late summer. Prune lightly in early
spring, cutting each stem back to the
rst pair of healthy buds. Hard prune
overgrown plants to 6 in (15 cm) from
the ground in early spring.

H: 8 ft (2.5 m), Group 2

H: 10 ft (3 m), Group 3

H: 610 ft (23 m), Group 2

qdEab

qdEab

qdEab

Plant pruning guide (ClCo) 337

Cornus alba

Cornus alternifolia Variegata

Cornus kousa var. chinensis

Dogwood is grown for its lovely


winter stem colors and, of the many
varieties, C. alba is a cheerful red.
To encourage strong, colorful stems,
prune in spring. If left unpruned, the
stems start to lose their winter colors
as they age.

This lovely shrub has white owers


in spring, and variegated leaves cover
its tiered branches. To prune, remove
lower branches of young plants for a
more distinct shape, and occasionally
thin the canopies of older trees to
emphasize their horizontal structure.

The white bracts in late spring, red


summer fruits, and fall leaves make
this a valuable garden plant. In
summer or winter, remove some
lower branches on young plants so
you can see the ornamental bark, and
cut out crossing stems in the canopy.

H: 10 ft (3 m); S: 10 ft (3 m)

H: 10 ft (3 m); S: 8 ft (2.5 m)

H: 22 ft (7 m); S: 15 ft (5 m)

qdEFab

qdEab

qdEab

Cornus sanguinea Winter Beauty

Corylus avellana Contorta

Cotinus coggygria

To produce multicolored stems during


the winter, prune this plant in late
spring to encourage strong growth.
When young, it is best not to prune
for two years to help it to establish;
then prune annually.

A slow-growing shrub with contorted


stems, this hazel looks its best during
the winter. In spring and summer, the
branches are hidden under a mass of
untidy leaves. Prune it only to remove
any damaged, diseased, dead, or
crossing branches.

The smoke bush is grown for its


colorful foliage and plumelike
owers. If left unpruned, it can
become very large, so trim annually,
but you may lose the owers. For
strong growth with larger leaves,
hard-prune annually.

H: 10 ft (3 m); S: 8 ft (2.5 m)

H: 15 ft (5 m); S: 15 ft (5 m)

H: 15 ft (5 m); S: 15 ft (5 m)

qdEFab

qdEab

qdeab

338 Easy pruning: plant guide

Plant pruning guide (CoEu)


Cotoneaster horizontalis

Crataegus monogyna

Cytisus x praecox

This low-growing shrub is excellent


for covering walls and banks, and it
is also suitable as ground cover.
Cotoneaster has wonderful red
berries in the fall. Prune in early
spring to retain its shape and to
prevent it from spreading too far.

The hawthorn is widely grown as an


ornamental tree or as a hedging
plant. It has scented owers in late
spring and is covered in red berries in
fall. No pruning is required for a tree,
but trim a hedge in early spring to
reduce any wildlife disturbance.

This owering broom is covered with


golden yellow owers in early
summer. It requires minimal pruning,
but can be given a light trim
immediately after owering to retain
its shape. Do not cut back into the
old wood as it will not regenerate.

H: 3 ft (1 m); S: 5 ft (1.5 m)

H: 30 ft (10 m); S: 25 ft (8 m)

H: 4 ft (1.2 m); S: 5 ft (1.5 m)

qdEaB

qdeab

qda

Daboecia cantabrica f. alba

Daphne bholua

Deutzia x hybrida Mont Rose

Give summer-owering members


of the heather family a light trim
with a pair of shears in early spring.
Remove all the old owers, but dont
be tempted to cut into the old wood
as this will not regenerate.

The sweetly scented owers of this


shrub appear in winter. Pinch out the
growing tips of young plants to
encourage a bushy habit. This can
also be done to older specimens, but
do not hard-prune as the plant will
not respond well.

This lovely early summer-owering


shrub is easy to grow. Prune after
owering as for Philadelphus (see
p.347), and aim to remove about
one-third of the old stems to
encourage new growths to push
through from the base of the plant.

H: 1016 in (2540 cm); S: 26 in


(65 cm) qdaB

H: 612 ft (24 m); S: 5 ft (1.5 m)

H: 4 ft (1.2 m); S: 4 ft (1.2 m)

pdab

qDeaB

Plant pruning guide (CoEu) 339

Elaeagnus pungens Maculata

Erica arborea var. alpina

Erica carnea

This evergreen with gold-splashed


foliage is grown as a freestanding
shrub or a hedge. Prune in winter or
spring by cutting back the previous
seasons growth to two or three leaf
buds. To avoid reversion, cut back
all-green leaves to golden foliage.

The heather family includes many


varieties, and this is one of the larger
members. Tree heather produces
masses of scented white owers in
the spring. Unlike other heathers,
overgrown plants respond very well
to hard pruning in mid-spring.

This pretty winter-owering member


of the heather family should be
pruned with shears in mid- to late
spring. Remove the owers, but do
not cut into the old wood, as the
plant will not regenerate.

H: 12 ft (4 m); S: 15 ft (5 m)

H: 6 ft (2 m); S: 34 in (85 cm)

qda

qda

H: 810 in (2025 cm); S: 22 in


(55 cm) qda

Erica cinerea f. alba

Escallonia Apple Blossom

Eucalyptus gunnii

The bell heather owers from midto late summer. Trim in early spring
using shears to remove the old ower
spikes. Dont cut into old wood, as
the plant will not regenerate.

Grow this evergreen, early-summerowering shrub as a hedge or a


freestanding plant. From mid- to late
summer, cut back owering shoots by
one-half to keep the plant relatively
compact. For plants that are too
large, hard-prune after owering.

This beautiful plant has distinctive


silver-blue foliage. It can be allowed
to grow into a large tree, but to keep
it as a small bush, hard-prune
annually in early spring. The resulting
vibrantly colored young foliage also
makes an excellent focal point.

H: 12 in (30 cm); S: 22 in (55 cm)

H: 8 ft (2.5 m); S: 8 ft (2.5 m)

H: to 80 ft (25 m); S: to 50 ft (15 m)

qda

qdea

pDea

340 Easy pruning: plant guide

Plant pruning guide (EuHa)


Euonymus europaeus

Euonymus fortunei

The spindle tree is grown for its fall


colors and interesting fruits. Prune
young trees to create a good shape
and structure; older trees require
little pruning aside from the removal
of dead, damaged, or diseased wood
and crossing stems.

Train this evergreen foliage plant up


a wall or fence, or grow it as ground
cover or a freestanding shrub. Lightly
trim in early spring to maintain a
good shape. Remove immediately
any reversion (stems with all-green
foliage) on variegated forms.

H: 10 ft (3 m); S: 8 ft (2.5 m)

H: 24 in (60 cm); S: indenite

H: 6 ft (2 m); S: 10 ft (3 m)

qdeab

qdEaB

qdeab

x Fatshedera lizei

Forsythia x intermedia
Lynwood Variety

Fremontodendron
California Glory

The vivid yellow spring owers of this


large shrub appear on the previous
seasons branches. After owering,
remove annually one in three of the
oldest branches. Hard-prune
overgrown plants in early spring.

This evergreen shrub is normally


grown against a sunny wall.
Occasionally, very long growths may
need to be reduced in length in early
summer. Be careful when pruning as
the plant can cause skin irritation.

H: 46 ft (1.22 m); S: 10 ft (3 m)

H: 10 ft (3 m); S: 10 ft (3 m)

H: 20 ft (6 m); S: 12 ft (4 m)

pdeab

qdeab

pda

This evergreen shrub has large, shiny


leaves similar in shape to ivy, and is
suitable for shady areas. It is an
excellent foliage plant and requires
very little pruning apart from
removing leggy growths. This is
best done in the spring.

Exochorda x macrantha The


Bride
This pretty shrub has masses of white
owers in late spring. To maintain a
young, vigorous plant, remove some
of the oldest stems in spring. Hardprune an overgrown plant in spring,
but you will lose a years owering.

Plant pruning guide (EuHa) 341

Fuchsia magellanica

Garrya elliptica James Roof

Gaultheria mucronata

An elegant summer-owering plant,


this fuchsia is grown as a freestanding
shrub or a owering hedge. In early
spring, lightly trim the plant just back
into green, healthy stems. After a
severe winter, however, prune back
to ground level.

A large, slightly tender, evergreen


shrub normally grown against a sunny
wall for winter protection. It is covered
with long, decorative, dangling catkins
in winter that provide an exciting
feature. Prune annually in early spring
to contain its size.

A dwarf evergreen, suckering shrub,


Gaultheria is covered with very
showy, waxlike fruits during the fall.
Minimal pruning is required unless
the plant is spreading too much and
needs to be contained. This is best
done in early spring.

H: 10 ft (3 m); S: 610 ft (23 m)

H: 12 ft (4 m); S: 12 ft (4 m)

H: 4 ft (1.2 m); S: 4 ft (1.2 m)

pdeab

pdab

qeAb

Genista aetnensis

Griselinia littoralis

Hamamelis x intermedia Pallida

The Mount Etna broom is a large,


graceful shrub with scented summer
owers. To keep it in shape and
encourage owering growths, prune
lightly immediately after owering.
Do not cut back into old wood as
the shrub will not regenerate.

This is an excellent evergreen that


can be grown as a specimen shrub
or a hedge. Trim hedges in late
summer and freestanding shrubs in
early spring if they become too large.
Remove growths damaged by cold,
frosty weather in early spring.

This is a scented late-winter- or earlyspring-owering shrub. It is suitable


for a small garden if growth is kept in
check. To do this, spur-prune previous
years growths to two or three buds
after owering (see pp.172173).

H: 25 ft (8 m); S: 25 ft (8 m)

H: 25 ft (8 m); S: 15 ft (5 m)

H: 12 ft (4 m); S: 12 ft (4 m)

qda

qda

qdeab

342 Easy pruning: plant guide

Plant pruning guide (HeJa)


Hedera helix
Ivies are very versatile, self-clinging
climbers. They will cover walls,
fences, and trees, and also make
good ground cover. When too large,
prune back hard in spring to reduce
the size. Trim at any time from late
spring to midsummer to keep neat.

Hydrangea arborescens
Grandiora

Hydrangea macrophylla

This summer-owering hydrangea


has large, creamy white owerheads.
It owers on new growth and can be
pruned like a perennial plant, cutting
back to 24 in (510 cm) above
ground level in early spring.

Florists hydrangea owerheads are


produced on the previous seasons
growth. Leave them on the plant over
winter to give frost protection. In midspring, cut back last years growth to
a pair of healthy buds and remove
weak or dead shoots.

H: 30 ft (10 m)

H: 8 ft (2.5 m); S: 8 ft (2.5 m)

H: 6 ft (2 m); S: 8 ft (2.5 m)

qdeFab

qdeab

qdeab

Hydrangea paniculata

Hydrangea petiolaris

Hypericum Hidcote

These hydrangeas produce large


cone-shaped owerheads on the
current seasons growth. To keep
them small, prune all the previous
seasons stems back in early spring
to two or three pairs of buds, to leave
a low structure of stems.

This self-clinging, climbing hydrangea


requires little pruning. Remove
growths that are too long in early
spring, and old owerheads after
owering. If the plant is too vigorous,
prune hard in early spring, but it may
then not ower for up to two years.

To keep this plant compact and


producing masses of yellow summer
owers, remove dead or diseased
wood in early spring and prune the
remaining stems to 24 in (510 cm)
from the ground. Also cut out onethird of older stems on large shrubs.

H: 1022 ft (37 m); S: 8 ft (2.5 m)

H: 50 ft (15 m)

H: 4 ft (1.2 m); S: 5 ft (1.5 m)

qdeab

qdeab

qdeab

Plant pruning guide (HeJa) 343

Ilex aquifolium Pyramidalis


Aureomarginata

Ilex crenata

Indigofera heterantha

Box-leaved holly has small leaves


and glossy black berries and makes
an excellent clipped hedge or topiary
plant. It is a suitable alternative to a
boxwood hedge (Buxus) and is
trimmed in the same way (see p.169).

This owering shrub is covered


with masses of pink, pealike owers
during the summer. Hard-prune large
plants in early spring. In severe
winters, it may suffer from dieback,
but if hard-pruned, it will produce a
mass of shoots from low down.

H: 20 ft (6 m); S: 15 ft (5 m)

H: 15 ft (5 m); S: 12 ft (4 m)

qdeab

qdeab

H: 610 ft (23 m); S: 610 ft


(23 m) qdea

Itea ilicifolia

Jasminum nudiorum

Jasminum ofcinale

This evergreen shrub has masses of


ngerlike stems of green owers in
the summer. It can be grown as a
freestanding shrub or against a wall.
When young, prune and pinch the
plant to shape it in early spring.
When older, just trim long growths.

The winter jasmine produces bright


yellow owers over a long period
throughout winter and early spring.
It is normally trained against a wall
or fence. Prune long, leggy growths
immediately after it has nished
owering in early spring.

Common jasmine has white, scented


owers in the summer. It is a vigorous
climber and can be trained up walls
or over other structures. Trim at any
time to keep the plant within bounds.
Hard-prune plants that have grown
too large in early spring.

H: 1015 ft (35 m); S: 10 ft (3 m)

H: 10 ft (3 m); S: 10 ft (3 m)

H: 40 ft (12 m)

pdea

qdEab

pdEab

This holly makes a bold, freestanding


tree. It can also be trained into a
formal shape or used as a hedge.
Prune in early spring (all hollies
tolerate severe pruning) and remove
all-green foliage on sight.

344 Easy pruning: plant guide

Plant pruning guide (KeLu)


Kerria japonica Golden Guinea

Kolkwitzia amabilis Pink Cloud

Laurus nobilis

A clump-forming suckering shrub


covered with large, golden owers in
late spring, Kerria can soon outgrow
its situation. To contain its size, prune
it hard or thin out old stems after
owering each year.

The beauty bush is a large shrub with


pendulous branches covered in pink
owers in late spring. Prune it after
owering, removing about one-third
of the old owering stems. Cut back
large plants in early spring to 12 in
(30 cm) above the ground.

Bay laurel is an evergreen shrub


that can be trained into many formal
shapes and makes an excellent
topiary specimen. Prune formal and
topiary plants during early summer,
but use pruning shears to shape them.

H: 6 ft (2 m); S: 8 ft (2.5 m)

H: 10 ft (3 m); S: 12 ft (4 m)

H: 40 ft (12 m); S: 30 ft (10 m)

qdEab

qdEa

pdeab

Lavandula angustifolia

Lavatera x clementii Barnsley

Lespedeza thunbergii

This lavender is a mass of blue-purple


aromatic owers during the summer.
It makes an excellent low-growing
hedge. For best results, prune twice
a year: shear back in early spring and
then trim lightly once it has nished
owering.

Mallow is a shrubby perennial that


produces an abundance of large, pale
pink summer owers. To keep a plant
young and healthy, prune in spring to
a framework of strong stems about
12 in (30 cm) high. Also remove any
dead, diseased, or weak branches.

A lovely late summer-owering


shrubby perennial, bush clover has
arching stems covered in deep pink,
pealike owers. Prune back all the
stems in spring to just above ground
level and new young shoots will
quickly appear.

H: 3 ft (1 m); S: 4 ft (1.2 m)

H: 6 ft (2 m); S: 6 ft (2 m)

H: 6 ft (2 m); S: 10 ft (3 m)

qda

qda

qda

Plant pruning guide (KeLu) 345

Leycesteria formosa

Ligustrum lucidum

Lonicera nitida

This shrub has white owers


surrounded by maroon bracts during
the summer, followed by purple
berries. It is almost indestructible and
can be left unpruned, or it grows just
as well if it is hard-pruned every year
in early spring.

The panicles of white owers on


this evergreen shrub appear during
late summer. It has a lovely, even
shape and requires minimal pruning.
Occasionally, it may be necessary
to trim a few of the branches to
maintain its shape.

This form of evergreen honeysuckle


is often used as a hedging plant or
a shrub. When grown as a hedge,
trim it several times in the summer
to maintain its shape. For a freestanding shrub, remove about a third
of the older stems in early spring.

H: 6 ft (2 m); S: 6 ft (2 m)

H: 30 ft (10 m); S: 30 ft (10 m)

H: 11 ft (3.5 m); S: 10 ft (3 m)

qdEab

qdab

qdEab

Lonicera periclymenum
Graham Thomas

Lonicera x purpusii

Luma apiculata

This shrubby honeysuckle is grown


for its creamy white, highly scented
winter owers. To keep the plant to
a manageable size, remove one-third
of the old stems to almost ground
level in early spring.

An evergreen shrub or small tree


grown for its attractive peeling
bark and small white owers, which
appear in late summer. As it grows,
remove some of the lower branches
in the summer so that you can fully
appreciate the wonderful bark.

H: 22 ft (7 m)

H: 6 ft (2 m); S: 8 ft (2.5 m)

qdEab

qdab

H: 3050 ft (1015 m); S: 3050 ft


(1015 m) pdab

If its a highly scented summerowering climber that you are after,


this is the plant for you. If it becomes
straggly, prune in early spring. Also
remove any dead or damaged wood
at this time.

346 Easy pruning: plant guide

Plant pruning guide (MaPh)


Magnolia grandiora
Grow this lovely evergreen, summerowering tree against a south-facing
wall, and prune in the spring or
summer to maintain its shape.
Pruning reduces the chance of dieback and allows the wounds to heal
before the cold winter months set in.

Magnolia x loebneri
Leonard Messel

Mahonia aquifolium

This spring-owering tree requires


minimal pruning. When it is young,
you may need to remove a few lower
branches in the spring or summer to
give it a good shape. As it gets older,
cut back any obstructive branches.

An evergreen suckering shrub that


owers in the winter and makes good
ground cover. To keep Oregon grape
at a reasonable size, cut it down to
ground level every three or four years
after owering, or remove one-third
of the oldest stems every year.

H: 2060 ft (618 m); S: 50 ft (15 m)

H: 25 ft (8 m); S: 20 ft (6 m)

H: 3 ft (1 m); S: 3 ft (1 m)

pdeab

qdeab

qdeAbc

Mahonia x media Charity

Malus Golden Hornet

Malus hupehensis

If this evergreen, winter-owering


shrub has outgrown its site, hardprune in early spring. To keep it in
good shape, shorten leggy growths
in early spring and remove owering
shoots to encourage growth from
lower down.

When this owering and fruiting


ornamental crab apple is young,
remove lower branches in winter
to encourage a good shape. On an
older tree, remove dead or diseased
wood immediately, and cut off any
branches causing an obstruction.

This is an ornamental owering and


fruiting apple tree. When it is young,
remove lower branches in winter to
encourage a good shape. Remove
dead or diseased branches on old
plants at any time, and cut off any
others that are out of place.

H: to 15 ft (5 m); S: to 12 ft (4 m)

H: 30 ft (10 m); S: 25 ft (8 m)

H: 40 ft (12 m); S: 40 ft (12 m)

qdeabC

qdeab

qdeab

Plant pruning guide (MaPh) 347

Nandina domestica

Olearia stellulata

This evergreen, clump-forming shrub


has white owers during the summer
followed by berries in the fall. It
requires minimal pruning to maintain
its shaperemove the oldest stems
in the summer. Over-pruning reduces
the number of owers produced.

The daisy bush is a compact,


free-owering evergreen shrub that
is covered in white owers in late
spring. Hard-prune leggy, untidy
specimens immediately after
owering has nished.

H: 6 ft (2 m); S: 5 ft (1.5 m)

H: 6 ft (2 m); S: 6 ft (2 m)

H: 15 ft (5 m); S: 15 ft (5 m)

pdea

pda

pdab

Parthenocissus tricuspidata

Perovskia Blue Spire

Philadelphus

Boston ivy is a vigorous, self-clinging


climber that is grown for its attractive
fall foliage colors, which range from
brilliant red to purple. Prune in spring
before it comes into leaf or in fall
after leaf drop to maintain its shape
and keep it in check.

This is an attractive compact shrub


with blue owers in the late summer
and attractive silvery foliage. Prune
annually in spring, cutting back the
stems to 6 in (15 cm) to encourage
strong growths, which will ower
during the forthcoming summer.

Mock orange is grown for its white,


highly scented owers, which appear
in early summer. Hard-prune the
shrub to 6 in (15 cm) in early spring
every three or four years, or remove
one-third of the oldest stems annually
after owering.

H: 70 ft (20 m)

H: 4 ft (1.2 m); S: 3 ft (1 m)

H: to 10 ft (3 m); S: to 8ft (2.5m)

qdEab

qda

qdEab

Osmanthus heterophyllus
Variegatus
An evergreen compact shrub with
small, fragrant white owers and
hollylike leaves, used for hedging or
topiary. Prune hedges in late spring
or early summer, and clip topiary in
the summer.

348 Easy pruning: plant guide

Plant pruning guide (PhRh)


Photinia x fraseri Red Robin

Phygelius x rectus African Queen

An evergreen shrub that has


attractive bright red new growths
and can be grown as a freestanding
shrub or decorative hedge. If grown
as a hedge, trim in late summer; a
freestanding plant should be shaped
in early spring.

This plant has long, tubular, orange


owers during the summer. To
prevent the plant from becoming
leggy, treat it like a perennial, cutting
back all the stems to almost ground
level in the spring.

Physocarpus opulifolius
Darts Gold

H: 15 ft (5 m); S: 15 ft (5 m)

H: 5 ft (1.5 m); S: 5 ft (1.5 m)

H: 6 ft (2 m); S: 8 ft (2.5 m)

Qdeab

pdea

qdeab

Pittosporum tenuifolium

Potentilla fruticosa Goldnger

Prunus avium Plena

Many of the forms of this evergreen


shrub have variegated foliage and
it makes an attractive formal focal
point. The only pruning required is
to retain the plants symmetry by
lightly trimming it in late spring.

An attractive small shrub with golden


owers during the summer, this
pretty shrubby potentilla requires just
a light trim in early spring to maintain
its rounded shape.

This ornamental cherry has large


white owers in mid-spring. Prune
in early summer to reduce the risk
of infection. Remove dead, diseased,
or crossing branches. Young trees
should be pruned at the same time.

H: 1230 ft (410 m); S: 615 ft


(25 m) pdeab

H: 3 ft (1 m); S: 5 ft (1.5 m)

H: 40 ft (12 m); S: 40 ft (12 m)

qda

qdea

An attractive clump-forming shrub


with bright yellow new foliage, it
produces white owers in early
summer. Little pruning is required,
except to remove any of the outer
stems that are spoiling its shape.

Plant pruning guide (PhRh) 349

Prunus laurocerasus

Prunus mume

Prunus serrula

Cherry laurel is an evergreen with


glossy green leaves. Prune freestanding
shrubs in early spring to reduce their
size, and a hedge in early fall. Use
pruning shears to avoid shredding the
leaves. Prune overgrown plants to just
above the ground in spring.

This attractive, early owering


ornamental cherry blossoms on last
years shoots. In early summer, reduce
the length of all main branches by
12 in (30 cm) to encourage new
growths, which will be covered in
owers the following spring.

The attractive mahogany-red bark on


this ornamental cherry makes an eyecatching feature in winter. In early
summer, remove the lower branches
of a young tree to give at least 6 ft
(1.8 m) of clear trunk. Remove dead
and diseased branches as seen.

H: 25 ft (8 m); S: 30 ft (10 m)

H: 28 ft (9 m); S: 28 ft (9 m)

H: 30 ft (10 m); S: 30 ft (10 m)

qdeab

qdea

qdea

Pyracantha Orange Glow

Pyrus salicifolia var. orientalis


Pendula

Rhamnus alaternus
Argenteovariegata

This attractive silver-leaved weeping


pear has creamy-white owers and
small brown, inedible fruits. Remove
the lower branches of a young tree in
winter to create a clear stem for the
weeping branches to cascade down.

Prune this fast-growing evergreen


shrub in early spring to remove any
leggy growths and to maintain the
shape of the bush. If any stems with
all-green leaves appear, remove them
without delay.

H: 10 ft (3 m); S: 10 ft (3 m)

H: 15 ft (5 m); S: 12 ft (4 m)

H: 15 ft (5 m); S: 12 ft (4 m)

qdabC

qda

pda

Firethorn is an evergreen shrub or


small tree grown for its orange fall
and winter fruits. It can be grown
against a wall, as a hedge, or as a
freestanding shrub. Prune in spring
to maintain its shape, taking care
not to remove ower buds.

350 Easy pruning: plant guide

Plant pruning guide (RhRo)


Rhamnus frangula (syn. Frangula
alnus Aspleniifolia)

Rhododendron luteum

Rhododendron Nobleanum Group

In the fall, alder buckthorn has


attractive yellow foliage and
ornamental berries. The shrub
responds well to being hard-pruned
to almost ground level every three
or four years.

This deciduous, clump-forming azalea


is grown for its attractive yellow,
scented owers in early summer
and its fall foliage color. It normally
requires very little pruning, but you
can hard-prune overgrown plants to
almost ground level in early spring.

Most hybrid rhododendrons require


little or no pruning, although plants
that have rough bark, such as those
in the Nobleanum Group, can be
pruned in early spring if they are too
large. They will regenerate.

H: 1012 ft (34 m); S: 610 ft

H: 12 ft (4 m); S: 12 ft (4 m)

H: 15 ft (5 m); S: 15 ft (5 m)

(23 m) qeab

qdeAb

qdeab

Rhododendron Rose Bud

Rhus typhina

This attractive evergreen azalea


normally requires very little pruning.
However, it can be trained into formal
shapes and also makes an attractive,
low-growing hedge. In early summer,
after owering has nished, lightly
trim with shears.

A deciduous shrub or small tree,


the staghorn sumac has attractive
divided foliage, which turns a brilliant
orange-red in the fall. Hard-prune it in
early spring to keep compact: cut the
stems back to between 1224 in
(3060 cm) from the ground.

Ribes sanguineum Pulborough


Scarlet

H: to 36 in (90 cm); S: to 36 in

H: 15 ft (5 m) or more; S: 20 ft (6 m)

H: 10 ft (3 m); S: 8 ft (2.5 m)

(90 cm) qdea

qdea

qdEaB

The stems of this ornamental currant


bear masses of dark red, whitecentered owers in spring. To contain
the plants size and vigor, remove
one-third of the oldest stems annually
immediately after owering.

Plant pruning guide (RhRo)

351

Ribes speciosum

Robinia pseudoacacia Frisia

Rosa Baby Love

This currant is normally grown and


trained against a wall or fence, and
has beautiful red owers from
mid- to late spring. Remove one-third
of the older stems immediately after
owering and tie the remaining stems
to the wall or support.

The main feature of this deciduous


tree is its golden foliage. To produce
a small golden shrub, coppice young
plants every spring (see pp.158159).
Do not prune large trees except to
remove dead or diseased wood as
the wounds heal slowly.

This patio rose is grown for its single,


clear yellow summer owers. Prune
in early spring, cutting the stems back
by one-half to encourage owering
growths (see pp.186187). Also
remove any dead or diseased stems
and crossing growths.

H: 6 ft (2 m); S: 6 ft (2 m)

H: 50 ft (15 m); S: 25 ft (8 m)

H: 3 ft (1.2 m); S: 30 in (75 cm)

qdEaB

qdea

qdea

Rosa Climbing Iceberg

Rosa Crimson Shower

Rosa Flicit Parmentier

Prune climbing roses in fall or early


spring. Remove the oldest stems and
spur-prune the previous seasons
owering growths to two or three
buds to encourage more owers in
early summer (see also pp.214215).
Tie in any strong new stems.

Grow this rambling rose for its rich


red owers. If trained on a support,
remove some of the oldest canes
in early spring and spur-prune
(see pp.172173). When trained
through a tree, you only need to cut
out dead or diseased growth.

This is a lovely scented, old-fashioned


shrub rose. Prune in early spring,
reducing the height of the plant by
cutting back the main stems by onequarter, and lightly trimming the sideshoots (see pp.188189). Remove any
dead, diseased, and crossing stems.

H: 10 ft (3 m)

H: 8 ft (2.5 m); S: 7 ft (2.2 m)

H: 4 ft (1.3 m); S: 4 ft (1.2 m)

qdea

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qdea

352 Easy pruning: plant guide

Plant pruning guide (RoSa)


Rosa glauca

Rosa Lovely Lady

Rosa mulliganii

This rose is mainly grown for its


attractive blue-green foliage. To keep
it tidy and to encourage strong young
growths, prune in early spring by
removing one-third of the older stems.
Hard-prune overgrown plants to
about 6 in (15 cm) from ground level.

A hybrid tea rose with salmon-pink


scented owers, Lovely Lady is
pruned in early spring like other
hybrid tea roses. Remove all but three
or four older growths, and cut these
back to about 6 in (15 cm), ideally to
an outward-facing bud.

Covered with white, scented owers


in the summer and red hips in the
fall, this rose will climb up supports
or into trees. Remove the oldest
canes in early spring and spur-prune
lateral growths to three buds to
encourage owers.

H: 6 ft (2 m); S: 5 ft (1.5 m)

H: 30 in (75 cm); S: 24 in (60 cm)

H: 20 ft (6 m)

qdea

qdea

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Rosa Paul Shirville

Rosa Queen Elizabeth

Rosa Queen Mother

The dark reddish-green foliage of this


hybrid tea rose contrasts beautifully
with its fragrant rose-pink owers,
which appear from summer to fall.
Prune as for Lovely Lady (above).

Queen Elizabeth is a pink-owered


oribunda rose that blooms from
summer to fall. Prune in early spring,
leaving 6 or 8 strong stems. Cut these
back to about 812 in (2030 cm)
from the ground, to an outwardfacing bud if possible.

Prune this oriferous, pale-pinkowered patio rose in early spring.


Prune all the stems back by about
one-half to encourage lots of
owering growths. Also remove
dead or diseased stems, and any
crossing growths.

H: 3 ft (1 m); S: 30 in (75 cm)

H: 7 ft (2.2 m); S: 3 ft (1 m)

H: 16 in (40 cm); S: 24 in (60 cm)

qdea

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Plant pruning guide (RoSa) 353

Rosa rugosa

Rosa Sally Holmes

Rosa Trumpeter

This species rose has thorny stems


and red, richly perfumed owers
from summer to fall. It makes an
effective hedging plant and requires
minimal pruning aside from removing
one or two of the oldest stems each
year in late winter or early spring.

Sally Holmes is a modern shrub


rose that owers from summer
to fall and needs to be pruned in
early spring. Reduce its height by
one-quarter and remove any dead,
diseased, or crossing stems and any
weak, twiggy growths.

Like Queen Elizabeth (facing page),


this rose is a oribunda. It is
appreciated for its clusters of vivid
orange-red owers that brighten
up beds and borders from summer
to fall. Prune as for Queen Elizabeth.

H: 38 ft (12.5 m); S: 38 ft

H: 6 ft (2 m); S: 3 ft (1 m)

qdea

(12.5 m) qdea

qdea

Rosmarinus ofcinalis

Rubus cockburnianus

Salix alba var. vitellina Britzensis

This aromatic herb has small, silvery


evergreen leaves and blue owers in
late spring. Old plants do not respond
well to hard pruning and are best
replaced. Shear young plants in early
summer after the owers have faded
to maintain an even shape.

Grow this thorny decorative bramble


for its winter interest, when the stems
are covered in brilliant white bloom.
Prune to almost ground level annually
in early spring to encourage strong
growths. Take care when cutting this
shrub because the thorns are vicious.

The orange-yellow stems make this


form of white willow a must for
winter interest. Coppice or pollard
all shoots, rst removing weak, dead,
or diseased growth, to two or three
pairs of healthy buds.

H: 5 ft (1.5 m); S: 5 ft (1.5 m)

H: 8 ft (2.5 m); S: 8 ft (2.5 m)

pdea

qda

H: 24 in (60 cm); S: 20 in (50 cm)

H: 80 ft (25 m) if unpruned;
S: 30 ft (10 m) qdeFa

354 Easy pruning: plant guide

Plant pruning guide (SaSy)


Salix daphnoides

Sambucus nigra Aurea

Santolina chaemaecyparissus

Violet willow is grown for winter


interest when the stems are covered
in white blooms. Gray catkins follow.
Prune hard in spring, cutting strong
branches back to two or three pairs
of buds from the ground. Remove
all weak, dead, or diseased stems.

This ornamental elder is grown for its


white owers, ornamental fruit, and
golden yellow leaves. Prune annually
in early springcut back all its stems
to two or three buds of the previous
years growth, to leave a structure
similar to Cotinus (see p.337).

Aromatic gray foliage and bright


yellow pompon owers in the
summer dene this shrub. It can
be grown as a low hedge or edging
plant and also on its own. Trim over
in spring using shears in a similar
fashion to lavender (see p.344).

H: 25 ft (8 m); S: 20 ft (6 m)

H: 20 ft (6 m); S: 20 ft (6 m)

H: 20 in (50 cm); S: 3 ft (1 m)

qdea

qdeab

pda

Schizophragma hydrangeoides

Skimmia japonica Nymans

Solanum crispum Glasnevin

This vigorous, self-clinging climber


produces fragrant, creamy-white,
at-topped owerheads in
midsummer, which are set off by
the dark green leaves. Its pruning
requirements are the same as for
Hydrangea petiolaris (see p.342).

A useful evergreen shrub with


scented owers that appear in midto late spring followed by red berries.
It requires minimal pruning aside
from occasionally shortening some
shoots to maintain its shape.

The Chilean potato tree is a vigorous,


slightly tender climber grown for its
scented, purple-blue summer owers.
It requires minimal pruning, but can
be cut back in spring if it has
outgrown its location.

H: 40 ft (12 m)

H: 20 ft (6 m); S: 20 ft (6 m)

H: 20 ft (6 m)

qdeab

qdebc

pdea

Plant pruning guide (SaSy) 355

Sorbus commixta

Spiraea japonica

Spiraea nipponica Snowmound

A small, upright tree grown for its fall


foliage color and red berries. Sorbus
trees require little pruning aside from
shaping young specimens in early
summer. Remove any dead or
diseased branches as soon as you
see them.

This is a small, deciduous clumpforming shrub with pink or white


owers that appear from mid- to late
summer. It owers on the current
years growth, so hard-prune in early
spring if required.

A fast-growing shrub, with white


midsummer owers that appear
on shoots formed the previous year.
To encourage these shoots, cut
back one-third of the older stems
to the base of the plant immediately
after owering.

H: 30 ft (10 m); S: 22 ft (7 m)

H: 6 ft (2 m); S: 5 ft (1.5 m)

H: to 8 ft (2.5 m); S: to 8 ft (2.5 m)

qdEab

qdea

qdea

Stachyurus Magpie

Stewartia pseudocamellia

Syringa vulgaris

A variegated shrub that produces


pendulous stems of creamy yellow
owers in spring. It can be grown on
its own or against a wall. Freestanding
plants require no pruning, while
those grown as wall shrubs can be
pruned to shape after owering.

White owers in summer and good


fall foliage color distinguish this tree.
It also has ornamental bark, which
can be enjoyed by removing young
lower branches in early spring to
achieve a clear stem of up to 6 ft
(1.8 m). No other pruning is required.

Lilac trees offer richly scented owers


from late spring to early summer.
They grow without pruning, but if
plants need containing, they tolerate
being cut back hard every year after
owering, when some of the oldest
growths can be removed.

H: 312 ft (14 m); S: 10 ft (3 m)

H: 70 ft (20 m); S: 25 ft (8 m)

H: 22 ft (7 m); S: 22 ft (7 m)

qdeab

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356 Easy pruning: plant guide

Plant pruning guide (TaWi)


Tamarix parviora
Tamarisk is a delightful small tree
with ne green foliage and masses of
small pink owers in late spring. As
the plant ages, it becomes messy and
needs pruning to maintain its shape.
It owers on the previous years
growth, so prune after owering.

Tamarix ramosissima
Pink Cascade
This form of tamarisk has ne green
foliage and masses of rich, pink, airy
owers, which form on new shoots
from late summer to early fall. Prune
in early spring, cutting back stems to
maintain its shape.

Taxus baccata
Yew is an evergreen conifer that can
be used as a hedging plant or topiary
specimen, or trained into formal
shapes. Prune yew hedges in late
summer, and trim topiary and
formal-shaped specimens in summer.

H: 15 ft (5 m); S: 20 ft (6 m)

H: 15 ft (5 m); S: 15 ft (5 m)

H: to 70 ft (20 m); S: to 30 ft (10 m)

qdea

qdea

qdaBc

Tilia cordata Winter Orange

Toona sinensis Flamingo

Trachelospermum jasminoides

This linden tree has bright yellow


foliage in the fall. It can ultimately
become a large tree, but with careful
training it is ideal for pleaching. Prune
to shape in the winter.

A clump-forming tree grown for its


bright pink new foliage, Toona also
has white owers in late summer
and attractive fall tints. Remove any
frost-damaged growths in late spring,
and hard-prune large plants in spring,
cutting back to almost ground level.

An evergreen climber with sweetly


scented white owers during the
summer, star jasmine prefers to grow
against a sheltered wall. No routine
annual pruning is required, but you
can reduce its height by pruning in
late spring.

H: 90 ft (25 m); S: 50 ft (15 m)

H: 50 ft (15 m); S: 30 ft (10 m)

H: 28 ft (9 m)

qdeab

qda

pdab

Plant pruning guide (TaWi) 357

Viburnum x bodnantense Dawn

Viburnum tinus Eve Price

Vitex agnus-castus var. latifolia

Grown for it scented pink owers


that are produced during the fall and
early winter, this shrub can be left
unpruned to become a large plant
or kept small in size by removing
one-fth of the oldest stems to
ground level in early spring.

This evergreen shrub is grown for its


white owers, which are produced
from fall to early spring. It does not
require routine annual pruning, but
remove damaged or diseased
growths when seen. Hard-prune
overgrown plants in early spring.

The chaste tree is a deciduous shrub


with attractively divided foliage that
sets off the spikes of lilac- to dark
blue late summer owers. Prune the
previous years growths back to two
or three buds in early spring.

H: 10 ft (3 m); S: 6 ft (2 m)

H: 10 ft (3 m); S: 10 ft (3 m)

qdeab

qdeab

H: 625 ft (28 m); S: 625 ft


(28 m) pda

Vitis vinifera Purpurea

Weigela orida

Wisteria sinensis

In fall or early winter, cut back this


vigorous climbing grape. Spur-prune
all side stems to two buds from the
previous seasons growth to leave
short, stubby growths on either side
of the main stem. Shorten overly long
stems in summer.

A deciduous shrub grown for its


tubular dark pink owers that appear
mainly from late spring to early
summer. To prune, thin out and
remove one-third of the oldest
growths immediately after owering
in the summer.

Wisteria is a vigorous climber that


produces long, scented chains of
owers in late spring. In the winter,
spur-prune all the summers growth
back to two buds. During the
summer, shorten long, leggy stems
by up to two-thirds.

H: 22 ft (7 m)

H: 8 ft (2.5 m); S: 8 ft (2.5 m)

H: 28 ft (9 m) or more

qdEa

qdab

qdeab

358 Pruning calendar: spring

PRUNING CALENDAR

Pruning calendar: spring


Trees to prune
Evergreens, such as Magnolia grandiora and holly (Ilex),
prefer to be pruned at this time of year, but most other
trees are best pruned in summer or winter. In particular,
avoid pruning trees that bleed sap profusely, such as birch
(Betula) and walnut (Juglans), from mid-spring onward.

Shrubs to prune
Prune winter-owering shrubby honeysuckles, such as
Lonicera fragrantissima and Lonicera standishii. In midspring, cut back heather (Erica), Buddleja davidii, earlyowering Camellia, witch hazel (Hamamelis), Mahonia,
winter-owering viburnum (Viburnum x burkwoodii),
dogwood (Cornus), willow (Salix), and Rubus. In late
spring, prune hydrangeas and, after owering, forsythia.

Prune mahonias after owering.

Climbers to prune
Prune clematis in Groups 2 and 3 in the spring, plus any
long, wayward stems of climbing hydrangeas (Hydrangea
petiolaris), and any climbing or rambling roses you missed
in fall. Also trim climbing honeysuckles (Lonicera),
Jasminum nudiorum, and overgrown ivy (Hedera).

Hedge care
In late winter or early spring, renovate hornbeam
(Carpinus), beech (Fagus), yew (Taxus), and holly (Ilex)
hedges, and prune wildlife hedges before birds begin to
nest. Pruning the latter also ensures that plants develop
plenty of owering shoots and, later, fall berries for
wildlife. Prune lavender (Lavandula) in mid-spring.
Renovate hornbeam and beech hedges in early spring.

Main pruning tasks

Other jobs to do now

Spring is a busy time for pruning jobs. The sap is rising


and buds are swelling, which means that plants are more
likely to recover from a haircut.

In spring, tie in the new, exible stems of climbers. When


pruning, you will have removed a lot of the old twining
growths that helped the plants hold on to their supports,
so they will now need extra help until the new stems have
become more established.

The main pruning tasks in the spring are cutting back


shrubs with winter stem interest, such as dogwood
(Cornus), willow (Salix), and decorative bramble (Rubus).
Follow this by pruning oribunda, hybrid tea, and shrub
roses. You can also still prune climbing and rambler roses
now if you didnt have time in the fall.
As there are no leaves on most deciduous trees and
shrubs at this time of year, you can clearly see and cut out
wood damaged in winter by the cold and windy weather.

Climbing and rambling roses, in particular, dont have a


natural twining habit, so they denitely need to be tied in.
Likewise, clematis has lots of soft growth that is easily
damaged by the wind if it is not secured.
Use garden twine to tie plants to their supports. If you are
tying in large climbers with thicker stems, such as roses,
you could use sturdy, exible tube ties.

Pruning calendar: summer 359

Pruning calendar: summer


Trees to prune
Summer is a good time to prune all trees, especially the
stone fruits, such as cherries, owering cherries, and
plums (Prunus), and members of the rowan (Sorbus)
family. These trees are prone to bacterial cankers, and
pruning now helps to avoid these diseases. In late
summer, prune espalier apple and pear trees.

Shrubs to prune
In early summer, prune Garrya. Shorten leggy growths on
late-owering Camellias after owering has nished; if
they have outgrown their situation, they can be hardpruned now. Prune spring- and early summer-owering
shrubs like Deutzia, Philadelphus, shrubby Lonicera,
Kolkwitzia, and Weigela so they grow plenty of new stems
for next years owers. In late summer, prune Escallonia.

Prune all stone fruits, such as Prunus serrula.

Climbers to prune
In early summer, trim Clematis macropetala and C. alpina,
and trim overgrown C. montana. Prune leggy growth of
wisterias to help ower bud production, and ivy (Hedera)
if you didnt prune it in spring. After owering, cut back
climbing honeysuckles (Lonicera) and the old owerheads
of climbing hydrangeas (Hydrangea petiolaris).

Hedge care
Prune all types in late summer once nests are abandoned;
berrying hedges can be left until spring to provide food
for wildlife. Prune formal hedges at least twice in summer.
Trim lavender (Lavandula) hedges lightly after owering.
You can prune ivy from spring to fall to keep it neat.

Main pruning tasks

Other jobs to do now

Summer is the time to enjoy the results of your winter and


spring pruning, but there are still important pruning jobs
to do to keep your garden looking its best.

Continue to train and tie in climbers during the summer.


Climbing and rambling roses must be tied in regularly to
protect long growths from wind damage, since they hold
next years owering display. Also tie in Group 3 clematis
to hold plants together, and wisteria to ll any gaps in
coverage and to protect stems from wind damage.

Formal hedges need to be trimmed several times during


the summer to keep their clean, sharp edges. Topiary
should also be trimmed a few times to maintain its shape.
Do not prune boundary hedges until late summer.
Deadhead roses to encourage repeat owering, and
prune late spring- and early summer-owering shrubs
immediately after they have bloomed, since next years
owers will be on stems made this year. Also prune back
any shrubs, trees, or climbers that are putting on too
much growth or causing an obstruction.

Remove any diseased or dead growth on trees at any


time. Dispose of diseased material by burning responsibly
or taking it to a waste disposal sitedont compost it.
Trees can look quite different when clothed with leaves,so
compare them in summer and winter before deciding what
to prune. Leaves weigh down branches and can block
paths or views, so some stems may need to be removed.

360 Pruning calendar: fall

Pruning calendar: fall


Trees to prune
Fall is not a good time to prune trees as fungal spores can
land on pruning cuts, increasing the risk of infection.

Shrubs to prune
Although most pruning jobs are best left until late winter
or early spring, you should reduce the height of hybrid tea
and oribunda roses by one-third to prevent their stems
from rocking in winter winds and damaging the main
stem and roots. Also remove Buddleja owerheads and
the top one-third of the shoots to stop the plant from
self-seeding. Do not remove spent hydrangea owerheads
as they help to protect developing ower shoots from
frost, and also provide attractive architectural structure in
winter. Seedheads, fruits, and berries that are left on
shrubs now have both wildlife and decorative value.

Trees are prone to infections in fall, so do not prune them.

Climbers to prune
Fall is the ideal time to prune climbing and rambling roses.
These plants still have sap in their stems, which makes
them pliable and easy to train onto their supports. If the
job is left until winter, the stems lose their exibility and
are more likely to snap. You can also prune Virginia
creeper and Boston ivy (Parthenocissus) after leaf fall.

Hedge care
Any hedges not pruned in summer can be cut back now,
but do not prune wildlife hedges, which are best left until
spring, as their fruit and berries provide food for birds and
other wildlife through the colder months.
Prune the climber Parthenocissus after leaf drop.

Main pruning tasks

Other jobs to do now

Dont prune trees and shrubs in the fall unless it is


absolutely necessary. There are many fungal spores
around at this time of the year and a high risk of diseases
penetrating the cut surfaces.

Fall is tidying-up time. Cover trees or shrubs that need


frost protection, such as palms, tree ferns, and fruits like
apricots. Leave the fronds on tree ferns and palms, as they
protect plants from frost. For further protection, tie them
together over the crown.

It is, however, a good time to prune and train climbing


and rambling roses as their stems are quite exible and
easily trained now. Reduce the height of hybrid tea and
oribunda roses by one-third to prevent wind rock. Catch
up with any pruning that you missed or didnt have time
for in the summer, such as pruning back leggy growths
on wisterias. It is also an ideal time to clean and sharpen
pruning tools. Then sit back and admire the foliage and
fruiting displays around you.

As the leaves fall, the basic structure of plants becomes


more visible, and you will be able to see more clearly what
needs to be pruned in spring. Rake up fallen leaves and
fruit, such as apples, and use to make compost and
leafmold, which you can later spread under pruned plants
to feed and mulch them.
If you have any logs left from pruning in the summer, you
could construct a log pile, which benets wildlife.

Pruning calendar: winter

361

Pruning calendar: winter


Trees to prune
This is a good time to prune a wide range of trees and
shrubs (with the exception of stone fruits) as you can
clearly identify crossing branches and diseased wood.
Prune trees with ornamental bark, such as Acer davidii
and Acer griseum and birches. Apple and pear trees
should also be pruned in winter.

Shrubs to prune
Prune any large or overgrown shrubs, such as Mahonia or
Philadelphus, which can be cut back hard now or in early
spring. You may lose the coming years owers by hardpruning, but the plant will recover the following year.

Climbers to prune
Spur-prune wisteria in the winter, as the buds are not
swelling and are less likely to be damaged. Also tackle
Actinidia and Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus), and
renovate overgrown ivies (Hedera). Remove long growths
from around doors and window frames, and also where
they have invaded gutters and grown under roof shingles.
Shorten the main stems of all overly tall climbers, such as
Hydrangea petiolaris.

Prune apple trees in winter when their structure is more visible.

Hedge care
Winter is the time for renovation work, reducing the
height and width of overgrown hedges. Brush off snow
from at-topped hedges as its weight can damage their
structure. Leave the crisp, bronzed foliage on hornbeam
and beech hedges in the winter months because it adds
ornamental value and also makes an excellent windbreak.
Brush snow off the top of hedges to prevent structural damage.

Main pruning tasks

Other jobs to do now

Late winter or early spring is a good time to hard-prune


overgrown shrubs, which are dormant at this time of the
year. You can also see clearly the structure and naked
silhouettes of trees, making them easier to prune.
Summer is the ideal time to prune many trees, but winter
is sometimes better because you may have more time to
do the job properly. However, do not prune cherries and
plums (Prunus), or members of the rowan (Sorbus) family.

Tie in anything that needs to be supported. At the


same time, check that ties and supports have not been
damaged during storms, or become too tight around
stems and trunks. Bring berries and evergreen branches
into the house for festive winter decorations.

You can also now admire the results of your earlier


pruning efforts, with the attractive trunks and stems of
trees and shrubs like the snakebark maple (Acer davidii),
birch (Betula), cherry (Prunus serrula), and dogwood
(Cornus) creating stunning winter features.

You can dispose of pruning material (and old Christmas


trees) in a variety of ways. Shred the woody waste to
make a valuable mulching material, and compost soft
growth. Burning material is an alternative method, but
check your local regulations before you burn, and be
considerate of neighbors. Alternatively, take all your
off-cuts to your local waste disposal site, along with any
diseased material, if you do not plan to burn it.

362 Vegetable gardening: plant guide

VEGETABLE GARDENING: PLANT GUIDE

Root vegetables: potatoes


Potato Red Duke of York

Potato Foremost

Potato Arran Pilot

A vigorous rst early, producing


abundant, good-sized, red-skinned
tubers with delicious pale yellow esh.
Perfect in salads when small, and
boiled or baked when larger. Young
shoots need protection from frost.

Harvest this useful early variety


from early summer or lift as required
throughout the summer. The whiteskinned, white-eshed crop has a rm
texture, ideal for salads and boiling.
Protect young shoots from frost.

A popular rst early, excellent for


gardeners eager to enjoy large yields
of small potatoes with creamy, waxy
esh. Good scab resistance and
tolerance of dry spells. Young
shoots need protection from frost.

Plant: early spring


Harvest: early to midsummer

Plant: early spring


Harvest: early to late summer

Plant: early spring


Harvest: early to midsummer

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Potato Mimi

Potato Charlotte

Potato Saxon

The ideal rst early for containers,


producing masses of small red tubers
with incredibly tasty, waxy, creamcolored esh. An excellent salad
potato with good scab resistance.
Protect new shoots from frost.

A supermarket favorite because of


its long, smooth, yellow tubers, with
fabulously avored, waxy esh. This
second early is easy to grow in the
garden, and one of the best salad
potatoes.

For baking, boiling, and french-frying,


try this oury-textured second early.
The large, white tubers have a mild,
creamy avor, and the plants display
a useful resistance to both blackleg
and eelworm.

Plant: early spring


Harvest: early summer

Plant: mid-spring
Harvest: mid- to late summer

Plant: mid-spring
Harvest: mid- to late summer

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Root vegetables: potatoes 363

Potato Royal Kidney

Potato Ratte

Potato Pink Fir Apple

An old maincrop salad variety, Royal


Kidney produces delicious, yelloweshed salad potatoes from late
summer. It is also tempting to dig up
the plants earlier for crops of tender
baby potatoes.

The long, slightly knobby tubers


harvested from this maincrop variety
are a real treat. Their dense, waxy,
yellow esh has a strong nutty
avor, making them perfect
for salads.

A curious old maincrop variety,


producing long, irregular tubers with
pink-tinged skin that is best left on
during cooking. The waxy esh, with
its earthy avor, is popular in salads,
and the tubers store well.

Plant: mid-spring
Harvest: late summer

Plant: mid-spring
Harvest: late summer

Plant: mid-spring
Harvest: from early fall

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Potato Kerrs Pink

Potato Sante

Potato Nicola

This versatile and high-yielding


maincrop variety is reliable in most
soils. The blush pink tubers have
delicious oury cream esh that is
perfect for mashing, french-frying,
roasting, and baking. Stores well.

An excellent choice for organic


gardeners because of its excellent
pest and disease resistance, this
maincrop variety yields large cream
tubers that are great for baking,
boiling, and roasting. Stores well.

Resistance to eelworm and blight


makes this variety a good option
for maincrop salad potatoes. Large
crops of long, yellow, waxy tubers
are reliably produced and store
well over winter.

Plant: mid-spring
Harvest: from early fall

Plant: mid-spring
Harvest: from late summer

Plant: mid-spring
Harvest: from late summer

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364 Vegetable gardening: plant guide

Root vegetables: carrots, beets, parsnips


Carrot Parmex

Carrot Innity F1

Carrot Flyaway F1

Dumpy, spherical roots make this one


of the best carrots for sowing into
patio pots or shallow soil. Despite
their shape, they have a ne sweet
avor. The earliest crops can be sown
under glass or protected with cloches.

This late maincrop carrot has an


elegant, slender root that is delicious
raw or cooked. The sweet carrots are
deep orange right to their core and
keep well in the soil into fall or can
be lifted and stored successfully.

Specially bred to be less prone to


attack by carrot ies, this maincrop
carrot produces good crops where
the pest would render others
inedible. The thick, cylindrical roots
are smooth-skinned and sugary.

Sow: early to late spring


Harvest: late spring to early fall

Sow: early spring to midsummer


Harvest: late summer to late fall

Sow: early spring to midsummer


Harvest: late spring to mid-fall

da

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Carrot Purple Haze F1

Carrot Bangor F1

Carrot Carson F1

As its name suggests, this variety


has unconventional dark purple roots,
which reveal contrasting orange cores
when they are sliced. Flavor is not
sacriced and is particularly good
when raw.

Long, stocky roots are produced in


large quantities, especially in moist
soil, by this excellent maincrop
variety. Crops can be harvested from
late summer and throughout fall, and
store well once lifted.

Fall and winter bring good crops of


this medium-sized, tapering variety.
The rich orange color, combined with
the delicious crunchy texture and
sweetness, makes them irresistible
when eaten raw.

Sow: early spring to early summer


Harvest: early summer to late fall

Sow: mid-spring to early summer


Harvest: midsummer to late fall

Sow: mid-spring to midsummer


Harvest: late summer to early winter

da

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Root vegetables: carrots, beets, parsnips 365

Beet Boltardy

Beet Chioggia Pink

Beet Forono

A reliable variety yielding traditional


deep red globe-shaped roots with a
ne sweet avor. Perfect for sowing
under cloches in early spring because
of its excellent resistance to bolting.

A beautiful curiosity; the rich red skin


of this spherical root conceals esh
marked with concentric rings of blush
pink and white. Its sweet, mild avor
is delightful raw or cooked.

Sow: early spring to midsummer


Harvest: early summer to

Sow: mid-spring to midsummer.


Harvest: early summer to

Elongated, burgundy-colored roots


make this variety ideal for slicing.
Tender young roots have a particularly
intense avor, so sow successionally
for a continuous supply. Prone to
bolting if sown too early.

mid-fall

mid-fall

Sow: mid-spring to early summer


Harvest: midsummer to late fall

da

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Beet Pablo F1

Parsnip Gladiator F1

Parsnip Tender and True

One of the best varieties for growing in


patio containers and perfect to harvest
as baby beets. The smooth, deep red,
spherical roots taste exceptionally
sweet; they also stand well in the soil
without bolting or becoming woody.

A popular hybrid parsnip that


matures quickly, producing
consistently reliable, early-maturing
crops of white-skinned roots.
Gladiator also benets from good
canker resistance.

In deep soil, this variety forms


exceptionally long roots, which are
often considered to have one of the
nest parsnip avors. It is also
resistant to canker and is a rm
favorite with exhibition growers.

Sow: mid-spring to early summer


Harvest: midsummer to mid-fall

Sow: late winter to mid-spring


Harvest: mid-fall to early spring

Sow: late winter to mid-spring


Harvest: late fall to early spring

da

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366 Vegetable gardening: plant guide

Root vegetables: turnips, rutabagas, radishes


Turnip Snowball

Turnip Purple Top Milan

Rutabaga Brora

For a quick crop, this fast-maturing


variety is one of the best. The pure
white globes are best harvested while
young, when their deliciously crisp,
rm, white esh can be enjoyed raw
or cooked.

A good choice for early sowings under


cloches, this turnip crops reliably and
matures quickly. The at-topped roots
are a vivid shade of purple above the
soil and pure white beneath it, making
them attractive as well as delicious.

This gem among rutabagas has the


classic purple top and cream base,
but has been bred to produce the
nest smooth esh without any
bitterness. Best harvested in early
winter to avoid woodiness.

Sow: early spring to midsummer


Harvest: late spring onward

Sow: early spring to midsummer


Harvest: mid-spring onward

Sow: late spring to midsummer


Harvest: mid-fall to midwinter

dEaB

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Radish French Breakfast

Radish Cherry Belle

Chinese radish Mantanghong F1

A torpedo-shaped variety with rosy


red skin and a bright white tip. Its
shape makes it great for slicing, and
the crunchy esh has a mild avor
with just a hint of peppery heat.
Easy and quick to grow.

Probably one of the best vegetables


for the absolute beginner, these
small, round, brilliant red radishes
tolerate poor-quality soil. They grow
rapidly, are slow to become woody,
and have tasty, mild-avored esh.

For a taste of the exotic, try these


easy-to-grow, tennis-ball-sized
radishes. Their plain, pale green skin
hides vivid magenta esh with a white
outer layer, which has a nutty avor
and a touch of heat.

Sow: early spring to early summer


Harvest: late spring to mid-fall

Sow: early spring to early summer


Harvest: late spring to mid-fall

Sow: early summer to midsummer


Harvest: late summer to early winter

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Brassicas: cabbages 367

Brassicas: cabbages
Cabbage Pixie

Cabbage Derby Day

Cabbage Hispi F1

One of the earliest pointed cabbages,


which can be picked young as spring
greens or allowed to mature into a
rm-hearted cabbage. A reliable crop
that can be harvested in time to leave
soil clear for spring sowings.

A traditional, pale green ballhead


cabbage for early summer harvest.
Its resistance to bolting has long
made it popular with gardeners, and
the mature cabbages can stand even
summer heat.

Another favorite, this pointed


cabbage reliably produces compact,
tasty, dark green heads. The
cabbages mature rapidly, and
successional sowings provide a
harvest from late spring into fall.

Sow: midsummer
Harvest: midwinter to late spring

Sow: late winter to early spring


Harvest: early to late summer

Sow: late winter to late summer


Harvest: late spring to late fall

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Cabbage Marner Early Red (syn.


Marner Fruerot )

Cabbage Minicole F1

Cabbage Red Jewel F1

This dense-hearted cabbage is one


of the rst reds to reach maturity.
The outer leaves are tinged with gray;
the head is an intense red and has a
peppery avor best appreciated raw.

Ideal for small gardens, this white


ballhead cabbage produces small,
uniform heads on compact plants.
Plant closely for a bumper harvest
of fall cabbages, which will stand in
the ground for up to three months.

The claret-colored leaves dusted


with silver make this one of the best
cabbages for ornamental plantings.
The tight round heads also taste
delicious and will stand in the ground
well or store indoors.

Sow: midwinter to early spring


Harvest: midsummer to late summer

Sow: early to late spring


Harvest: early fall to early winter

Sow: early spring to early summer


Harvest: midsummer to early fall

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368 Vegetable gardening: plant guide

Brassicas: cabbages, calabrese, broccoli, cauliower


Cabbage January King 3

Cabbage Tundra F1

Cabbage Savoy Siberia F1

This traditional winter cabbage


has good frost resistance and
appetizing, sweet, crunchy leaves.
The frilly-edged leaves are tinged
with pink and also look beautiful
in the winter garden.

A cross between a savoy and a white


cabbage, this extremely hardy variety
produces solid round heads of tasty
crisp leaves. The long cropping
season makes this a really useful
addition to the vegetable patch.

A truly tough vegetable, this savoy


withstands hard winters, so is ideal
for exposed or cold gardens. The
blue-green, blistered leaves taste
sweet, and the cabbages stand
well in the ground for long periods.

Sow: mid-spring to early summer


Harvest: late fall to late winter

Sow: early spring to early summer


Harvest: mid-fall to early spring

Sow: early spring to early summer


Harvest: early fall to midwinter

DEaB

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Calabrese Corvet F1

Broccoli Bordeaux

Broccoli White Star

A reliable variety of fall vegetable,


producing robust plants and a bumper
crop of dense, green heads. Cut the
central head while its owers are still
tightly closed for a second harvest of
smaller shoots a few weeks later.

This purple sprouting variety is very


useful for those who cant wait until
spring for broccoli. It is not winterhardy and does not require the usual
exposure to cold to produce its tasty
spears.

Creamy white rather than purple


owers make the spears of this spring
variety reminiscent of cauliower;
many consider the taste similar, too.
Reliably high yields produced over a
long period make it a popular choice.

Sow: mid- to late spring


Harvest: late summer to early fall

Sow: late winter to mid-spring


Harvest: midsummer to mid-fall

Sow: mid- to late spring


Harvest: early to mid-spring

DEa

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Da

Brassicas: cabbages, calabrese, broccoli, cauliower 369

Broccoli Claret F1

Broccoli Late Purple Sprouting

A large, vigorous plant that may need


staking in windy gardens, this variety
produces huge yields of chunky,
succulent spears in spring. The purple
owerheads are tightly packed and
uniform, and taste delicious.

To extend your broccoli crop into


late spring, try this slightly laterowering variety. It is slow to go
to seed, and the delicious purplebudded spears can be cut over a
long period.

Sow: mid- to late spring


Harvest: early to mid-spring

Sow: mid- to late spring


Harvest: early to late spring

Sow: mid- to late spring


Harvest: early to late spring

Da

Da

DEa

Cauliower Mayower F1

Cauliower Romanesco

Cauliower Violet Queen F1

High-quality, dense white curds


are consistently produced by this
vigorous early summer variety. Unlike
many others, it does not require high
nitrogen levels and is harvested early
enough to avoid midsummer droughts.

If you want something different, try


this strange summer/fall variety, with
pyramid-shaped heads in a vibrant
shade of acid green. Grow over a
long season for large heads or sow
successionally for frequent small crops.

The vivid purple curds formed by


this variety will brighten up any
vegetable patch, although they
turn green when cooked. Plenty of
nitrogen and water are required to
sustain strong growth.

Sow: mid- to late winter and


mid-fall Harvest: late spring

Sow: early to late spring


Harvest: late summer to early winter

Sow: late spring to early summer


Harvest: late summer to early fall

to midsummer DEa

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Cauliower Walcheran Winter


Armado April
An extremely hardy winter variety that
tolerates heavy frost and produces
large, solid, pure white heads. It ties
up a bed for 12 months, so it may not
be suitable for very small gardens.

370 Vegetable gardening: plant guide

Brassicas: Brussels sprouts, kale, kohlrabi, oriental greens


Brussels sprouts Red Delicious

Brussels sprouts Trafalgar F1

Brussels sprouts Bosworth F1

This magnicent variety is a striking


shade of red-tinged-purple from its
crowning leaves to the base of its
stem. Unlike many other red varieties,
the sprouts retain their color after
cooking and have a ne avor.

If your aim is sweet sprouts for


Christmas, then this variety will
not disappoint. Dense crops of rm,
uniformly-sized sprouts grow on tall,
sturdy plants and can be harvested
throughout the winter.

Dark green, dense, sweet sprouts are


produced in abundance by this tough
hybrid variety, which will stand well
through cold winter weather. Some
tolerance to downy mildew helps
ensure a healthy crop.

Sow: early to mid-spring


Harvest: early winter

Sow: early to mid-spring


Harvest: late fall to midwinter

Sow: early to mid-spring


Harvest: late fall to early winter

DEa

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Kale Redbor F1

Kale Starbor F1

Kale Nero di Toscana

All kales are useful hardy winter


crops, but the tall leaves of this
variety resemble large clumps of
burgundy, curly-leaved parsley and
add some welcome color to dull
days. Great steamed or stir-fried.

More compact than most kales, this


variety is well suited to the small or
windswept garden. The tightly curled
green leaves stand up well to winter
cold. Try successional sowings for a
year-round crop of tasty baby leaves.

Also known as Black Tuscany or Cavolo


Nero, this is the favored kale in Italian
kitchens. Its upright leaves are almost
black and blistered like those of savoy
cabbages. Use mature leaves in soups
and stews, baby ones in salads.

Sow: early to late spring


Harvest: early fall to early spring

Sow: early spring to early summer


Harvest: early fall to early spring

Sow: early spring to early summer


Harvest: early fall to early spring

DEAB

DEAB

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Brassicas: Brussels sprouts, kale, kohlrabi, Asian greens

371

Kohlrabi Olivia F1

Kohlrabi Purple Danube F1

Bok choy Joi Choi

Harvest the swollen stem that sits


just above soil level when it is about
the size of a tennis ball, and enjoy the
crisp, white esh grated raw in salads
or lightly steamed. Reliable, with little
woodiness, this variety is slow to bolt.

The vibrant purple skin and stems of


this variety are striking in the garden,
and its sweet nutty avor is one of
the best. Purple varieties take longer
to mature than white, so this makes
a good late summer and fall crop.

Summer stir-fries will be fresher and


tastier with the addition of these
succulent, crispy, home-grown leaves.
This variety has attractive bright white
stems that carry deep green, rounded
leaves, and it is easy to grow.

Sow: early spring to early summer


Harvest: late spring to mid-fall

Sow: mid-spring to early summer


Harvest: midsummer to late fall

Sow: mid-spring to early fall


Harvest: early summer to mid-fall

DEAB

DEAB

DEAB

Mizuna

Mibuna

Mustard Red Giant

Often found in supermarket salad


mixes, these jagged-edged, slightly
mustard-avored leaves are simple to
cultivate over summer. Harvest baby
leaves for salads or allow plants to
mature and use leaves for stir-frying.

Similar in avor to mizuna, but with


a stronger peppery tang and long,
smooth-edged foliage. Like mizuna,
this is an ideal cut-and-come-again
crop that can be sown successionally
from spring to fall.

Another beautiful, strongly avored


leaf, this ruby-tinged mustard is best
harvested while the leaves are small,
otherwise the peppery avor can be
overpowering. Hardy enough to stand
over winter from a fall sowing.

Sow: early spring to early fall


Harvest: late spring to late fall

Sow: early spring to early fall


Harvest: late spring to late fall

Sow: early spring to early fall


Harvest: late spring to midwinter

DA

DA

DA

372 Vegetable gardening: plant guide

Salad and leafy vegetables: lettuce, spinach, arugula


Lettuce Sangria

Lettuce Tom Thumb

Lettuce Little Gem

This butterhead type matures to form


a loose heart with soft leaves, and a
pretty red ush that will brighten up
a salad. Easy to grow and quick to
mature, it does well in poorer soil
and has some resistance to mildew.

A gardeners favorite, this compact,


green butterhead lettuce rapidly forms
dense, sweet-tasting hearts. Ideal
for small gardens because it can be
planted at high densities and is ready
for harvest quickly.

This cos lettuce is familiar from the


supermarket shelves, but is even
crisper and sweeter if you grow it
yourself. Its diminutive size makes it
perfect for small gardens, and it is
one of the fastest-cropping cos types.

Sow: early spring to late summer


Harvest: late spring to mid-fall

Sow: early spring to midsummer


Harvest: late spring to early fall

Sow: early spring to midsummer


Harvest: late spring to early fall

DEAB

DEAB

DEAB

Lettuce Freckles

Lettuce Delicato

Lettuce Catalogna

This semi-cos variety forms an open


head with green leaves that are
spectacularly splattered with red.
A good choice for ower borders,
where it matures quickly. Plants are
slow to bolt, even in warm weather.

Loose leaf lettuces are the quickest


and easiest to grow, either as cutand-come-again baby leaves or for
harvesting whole when mature.
This deep red oakleaf variety has
a pleasant avor.

A tasty, green oakleaf lettuce that


you will not want to forget to sow
successionally all through summer.
The tender leaves have a ne avor
and the non-hearting plants are slow
to bolt, should they get the chance.

Sow: early spring to late summer


Harvest: late spring to mid-fall

Sow: early spring to midsummer


Harvest: mid-spring to mid-fall

Sow: early spring to midsummer


Harvest: mid-spring to mid-fall

DEAB

DEAB

DEAB

Salad and leafy vegetables: lettuce, spinach, arugula 373

Lettuce Lollo Rossa-Nika

Lettuce Challenge

Lettuce Sioux

The red leaves of this frilled lettuce are


so dark as to be almost purple and
are incredibly ornamental as well as
appetizing. Young leaves taste sweet,
and, although they turn bitter as they
grow, the curled heads look fabulous.

Crisphead lettuces are similar to the


iceberg types. This reliable variety
forms large, solid hearts of crunchy
leaves and performs well when sown
early and late under cloches. Good
resistance to mildew and bolting.

A pretty red-tinged iceberg variety,


with leaves that intensify in color
in warmer weather, giving the plants
good ornamental qualities that are
so valuable in small gardens. Perfect
color and crunch for salads.

Sow: early spring to midsummer


Harvest: late spring to mid-fall

Sow: early spring to midsummer


Harvest: late spring to mid-fall

Sow: early spring to midsummer


Harvest: early summer to mid-fall

DEAB

DEAB

DEAB

Spinach Perpetual Spinach

Spinach Tetona F1

Arugula Apollo

Not a true spinach, but spinach beet,


with a taste similar to Swiss chard. It is
easy to grow because it rarely runs to
seed, even in dry conditions. Succulent
green leaves are produced prolically
and crops can be gathered all winter.

A high-yielding spinach producing


a profusion of rounded dark green
leaves. This is the perfect variety for
sowing as a cut-and-come-again crop
to produce baby leaves for salads, but
it can also be left to mature.

This cultivated variety has large,


rounded, green leaves and a strong
peppery avor without any bitterness.
The plant is easy to grow as a cut-andcome-again crop in pots or in the
ground. Water well in hot weather.

Sow: mid-spring to midsummer


Harvest: any time

Sow: early spring to late summer


Harvest: late spring to late fall

Sow: early spring to midsummer


Harvest: mid-spring to mid-fall

DEA

DEAB

DEAB

374

Vegetable gardening: plant guide

Leafy vegetables: arugula, chicory, Swiss chard


Arugula Rocket Wild

Chicory Italiko Rosso

Chicory Sugar Loaf

A popular salad leaf with slim, divided


leaves and a pungent peppery taste.
Easy to grow in pots or beds, it does
not bolt as quickly as cultivated forms,
but pick the leaves frequently for a
longer cropping period.

Red-stemmed asparagus, or catalogna


chicory, grows well in poor soil and
is ideal for harvesting as baby leaves
to add a slightly bitter tang to salads.
Alternatively, allow the foliage to
mature and eat lightly steamed.

Treat in the same way as lettuce


to produce tall, pale heads of crisp,
bitter leaves or cut-and-come-again
baby leaves. Chicory grows well in
poorer soil, although watering may
be required in dry spells.

Sow: early spring to early fall


Harvest: from mid-spring (through

Sow: late spring to early fall


Harvest: midsummer to late fall

Sow: mid-spring to late summer


Harvest: midsummer to mid-fall

winter under cover) EDAB

DAB

DAB

Swiss chard Bright Lights

Swiss chard Charlotte

Swiss chard Lucullus

Multicolored stems ranging from


white and yellow to pink and purple
make this a vibrant addition to the
vegetable garden and ower border.
Easy to grow, it reemerges in early
spring if given winter protection.

One of the most attractive ruby chards,


with bright red stems and contrasting
green leaves veined a striking red.
It looks fabulous in a pot or ower
border, and the baby leaves liven up
salads. A must for every garden.

Decorative and delicious, this chard


rapidly produces generous crops of
large green leaves on sturdy, pure
white stems. Leaves and stems may
be boiled, steamed, or stir-fried;
their mild avor is similar to beets.

Sow: mid-spring to midsummer


Harvest: early spring to mid-fall

Sow: mid-spring to midsummer


Harvest: at any time

Sow: mid-spring to midsummer


Harvest: early spring to mid-fall

EDA

EDA

EDA

Cucurbits: zucchini, summer squash 375

Cucurbits: zucchini, summer squash


Zucchini Zucchini

Zucchini Defender F1

Zucchini Burpees Golden

A reliable variety that forms a bushy


plant, well suited to growing in a
container. Zucchini with dark green
skins and tasty pale esh are produced
in profusion from midsummer. Like all
zucchini, they are best picked young.

A phenomenally productive early


variety. If harvested small, fruits will
keep coming until mid-fall, and they
are delicious. Plants are resistant to
cucumber mosaic virus, which can
cause other varieties to fail.

Another prolic zucchini variety


that bears numerous decorative
and delicious bright yellow fruits.
The zucchini have a particularly ne
avor, especially when harvested
small.

Sow: mid-spring to early summer


Harvest: midsummer to early fall

Sow: mid-spring to early summer


Harvest: midsummer to mid-fall

Sow: mid-spring to early summer


Harvest: midsummer to early fall

DEA

DEA

EDA

Zucchini Tromboncino

Zucchini Venus F1

Summer squash Long Green Bush

This vigorous Italian variety is best


trained up a sunny wall to afford
everyone a good view of its long,
curved, bulbous-ended fruits. The
pale green fruits can reach more
than 12 in (30 cm) long.

Unusually compact, these plants are


great for containers or small gardens,
and still produce ample crops of
delicious, mid-green zucchini. In good
conditions, fruits are ready to harvest
60 days after planting.

Despite its name, this variety forms


quite a compact, bushy plant, making
it suitable for the smaller garden. Long,
deep green fruits, with pale green
marrow stripes, swell rapidly, but
can be picked as zucchini when small.

Sow: mid-spring to early summer


Harvest: midsummer to early fall

Sow: mid-spring to early summer


Harvest: early summer to

Sow: mid-spring to early summer


Harvest: midsummer to mid-fall

EDA

mid-fall EDA

EDA

376

Vegetable gardening: plant guide

Cucurbits: squash, cucumbers


Squash Sunburst F1

Squash Uchiki Kuri

Squash Pilgrim Butternut F1

A yellow patty pan variety, this


squash has vibrant butter-colored
fruits, shaped like ying saucers.
Large crops of avorsome fruits are
produced by this easily grown variety
if regular harvesting is carried out.

Also known as Red Kuri, this squash


produces several medium-sized,
bright orange fruits, with delicious,
nutty, golden esh. It performs
particularly well in temperate climates.
Fruits store well once cured.

A less vigorous and so more


manageable butternut squash for the
smaller garden. The semi-bush habit
of the vine does not prevent a good
crop of beige-skinned, orange-eshed
squashes, which store well.

Sow: mid-spring to early summer


Harvest: midsummer to mid-fall

Sow: mid- to late spring


Harvest: late summer to mid-fall

Sow: mid- to late spring


Harvest: late summer to mid-fall

DEA

DEA

DEA

Squash Crown Prince F1

Squash Turks Turban

Squash Festival F1

This trailing squash is a favorite


because of its exceptionally good
nutty-avored esh. The steely
gray skin of the fruits contrasts
dramatically with the orange esh
and looks attractive on the vine.

Not an exceptional culinary squash,


with pale yellow esh and a turniplike avor, but often grown for its
ornamental qualities. The rich orange
skin folds and forms a bulge splashed
with green and cream.

Ornamental and delicious, this trailing


vine produces high yields of small,
squat, orange-and-cream-striped
squashes, with sweet, nutty-tasting,
cream esh. The squashes are perfect
for stufng or baking, and store well.

Sow: mid-spring to late spring


Harvest: late summer to mid-fall

Sow: mid- to late spring


Harvest: late summer to mid-fall

Sow: mid- to late spring


Harvest: late summer to mid-fall

DEA

DEA

DEA

Cucurbits: squash, cucumbers 377

Cucumber Bush Champion F1

Cucumber Marketmore

Cucumber Masterpiece

Grow this ridge cucumber outdoors


its compact plants are ideal for small
gardens and pots, and have good
tolerance to cucumber mosaic virus.
The slightly knobby, dark green, sweet
fruits reach about 4 in (10 cm) long.

An excellent, high-yielding cucumber,


producing sturdy, deep green fruit up
to 8 in (20 cm) long, with no bitterness.
This variety does well outdoors on a
teepee or trellis. Resistance to
cucumber mosaic virus is a bonus.

Crisp, juicy, white esh, under a deep


green, slightly spiny skin, makes this
ridge cucumber a good choice for
outdoor cultivation. This variety crops
reliably, but performs best when
allowed to climb.

Sow: mid-spring to early summer


Harvest: late summer to mid-fall

Sow: mid-spring to early summer


Harvest: late summer to mid-fall

Sow: mid-spring to early summer


Harvest: late summer to mid-fall

DEA

DEA

DEA

Cucumber Zeina F1

Cucumber Petita F1

Cucumber Carmen F1

An all-female variety that can be


grown in the greenhouse or outdoors.
Small, succulent, smooth-skinned
cucumbers can be harvested over a
long season and are a handy size to
eat at one meal.

For an abundance of juicy, miniature


cucumbers from the greenhouse, this
is the variety to choose. It is easy to
grow, even in difcult conditions, and
has all female owers so bitter fruits
are not produced.

Resistance to powdery mildew, scab,


and leaf spot makes this all-female
variety a good choice for greenhouse
cultivation. Impressive harvests of
straight, smooth, green fruits are
simple to produce.

Sow: early spring to early summer


Harvest: midsummer to mid-fall

Sow: early spring to early summer


Harvest: midsummer to mid-fall

Sow: early spring to early summer


Harvest: midsummer to mid-fall

DEA

DEA

DEA

378 Vegetable gardening: plant guide

Allium family: onions, shallots, green onions


Onion Ailsa Craig

Onion Sturon

Onion Red Baron

An old favorite, this reliable variety


yields heavy crops of large, sweet
onions, with smooth yellow-brown
skin. Best sown as seed in spring to
produce a good fall crop that stores
well if allowed to dry.

Traditionally grown from sets, this


variety produces large, round,
yellow-brown bulbs that have a
strong skin, which makes them an
excellent choice for winter storage.
Seed is occasionally available.

Widely available as both seeds and


sets, this variety has a rich red skin,
with pronounced pink stripes
between the bulbs layers. It will
store for only a limited time.

Sow: late winter to early spring


Harvest: late summer to early fall

Plant sets: late winter to early spring


Harvest: late summer to early fall

Sow: late winter to mid-spring


Plant sets: early spring
Harvest: early to mid-fall

DA

DA

DA

Onion Senshyu

Onion Shakespeare

Shallot Longor

Sets of this useful winter Japanese


variety should be planted in fall and
seeds sown a little before for an
early summer harvest. The semi-at,
straw-colored bulbs grow to a good
size and have a strong avor.

For an early summer crop of globeshaped onions with rich brown skins,
try this British overwintering variety.
The dense white esh and sturdy skin
mean that they store well, and they
have an excellent avor.

An attractive, elongated variety of


shallot, with a pink ush to the skin
and inner layers. The strongly avored
bulbs store well through fall and
winter if carefully dried. Quicker to
crop than traditional bulb onions.

Sow: late summer


Plant sets: early to mid-fall.
Harvest: early to midsummer DA

Sow: early to mid-fall


Harvest: early to midsummer

Plant sets: late winter to mid-spring


Harvest: mid- to late summer

DA

DA

Allium family: onions, shallots, green onions 379

Shallot Red Sun

Shallot Golden Gourmet

Green onion Paris Silverskin

One of the most reliable red shallots,


this variety has wonderful burgundy
skin and white esh with layers
divided by pink rings. Appetizing
chopped raw in salads, it is also
well suited to cooking and pickling.

Large and yellow-skinned, this highyielding variety produces bumper


crops of good-quality bulbs from sets
and is easy to store all through the
winter. It is less prone to bolting in
dry conditions than many shallots.

A dual-purpose small white onion


that can be harvested young as a
salad onion or left in the ground to
bulb up for pickling. Easy to grow
and compact, it makes an ideal crop
for small gardens.

Plant sets: early to mid-spring


Harvest: mid- to late summer

Plant sets: late winter to mid-spring


Harvest: mid- to late summer

Sow: early to mid-spring


Harvest: mid- to late summer

DA

DA

DA

Green onion Guardsman

Green onion North Holland


Blood Red

Green onion White Lisbon

An attractive variety with bold red


bases and a mild avor. Use thinnings
from early sowings as green onions,
leaving wider-spaced plants to develop
into red-skinned maincrop onions.

A trusted old favorite, this variety


produces white bulbs and bright
green tops with a good, strong avor.
It is easy to grow but prone to downy
mildew, so keep rows well spaced to
avoid the spread of disease.

Sow: early spring to mid-fall


Harvest: late spring to mid-fall; late

Sow: early spring to early summer


Harvest: late spring to late summer

Sow: early spring to midsummer


Harvest: late spring to early fall

winter to early spring DA

DA

DA

This trusted, white-stemmed variety


is extremely easy to grow. It is a
good choice to sow successionally
from spring to fall because it is hardy
enough to overwinter and give an early
spring crop. Resistant to white rot.

380 Vegetable gardening: plant guide

Allium family: leeks, garlic


Leek Musselburgh

Leek Hannibal

Leek Swiss Giant, Zermatt

An extremely hardy, sturdy leek, with a


broad white stem topped by impressive
green leaves, known as ags. This old
variety can withstand the coldest
winter, and can be harvested from
late fall until late winter.

This handsome leek has deep green


leaves and a long, white, straight
stem. Suitable for fall and early winter
cropping, it also produces impressive
mini leeks when planted close
together.

An elegant variety with a long, slender


stem, which despite its name forms
excellent mini leeks when planted at
high densities. It is ready for harvest
by late summeran advantage for
those with limited space in the garden.

Sow: early to mid-spring


Harvest: late fall to late winter

Sow: early to mid-spring


Harvest: early fall to early winter

Sow: early to mid-spring


Harvest: midsummer to late fall

DA

DA

DA

Garlic Solent Light

Garlic Early Light

Garlic Elephant Garlic

One of the best garlics for cool


climates, this is best planted in fall
but also does well planted in spring.
It matures in late summer and because
it is a nonowering, softneck type,
stores extremely well.

This owering, hardneck, purpleskinned variety is best used fresh but


will store for about three months. The
harvest will be eagerly anticipated, as
this is one of the earliest varieties to
crop in cool climates.

Closely related to the leek, this giant


produces bulbs up to 4 in (10 cm) in
diameter. Use the large, juicy cloves
fresh from the soil to enjoy their mild,
sweet avor, which makes them
particularly suitable for roasting.

Plant cloves: mid-fall to early spring


Harvest: midsummer to

Plant cloves: mid-fall to midwinter


Harvest: late spring to early summer

Plant cloves: mid-fall to midwinter.


Harvest: midsummer to early fall

early fall DA

DA

DA

Legumes: peas 381

Legumes: peas
Pea Feltham First

Pea Twinkle

Pea Hurst Greenshaft

Early and dwarf, this is a useful, highyielding pea variety for small gardens.
Better results are often achieved from
fall sowings in containers, where
plants are given some protection.

An excellent early variety, the rst


sowings of which perform best if
protected under cloches when young.
Dwarf plants give good crops of full
pods and have resistance to pea wilt
and tolerance to downy mildew.

Pairs of long pods develop high on


these plants, making harvesting of
this traditional varietys consistently
large crops somewhat easier. The
peas are large and sweet, and plants
have good disease resistance.

Harvest: late spring to midsummer

Sow: late winter to mid-spring


Harvest: late spring to midsummer

Sow: early spring to early summer


Harvest: late spring to early fall

EDA

EDA

EDA

Pea Rondo

Pea Sugar Snap

Pea Oregon Sugar Pod

One of the tastiest and heaviest


cropping peas, this double-podded
variety has dark green, straight pods
up to 4 in (10 cm) long. Plants need
supports, but the succulent peas
should be ample reward.

A versatile sugar snap variety that can


be picked young and eaten whole,
raw, or stir-fried, or harvested when
mature and podded for fresh peas.
Plants grow up to 6 ft (1.8 m) tall, and
need support from trellis or canes.

An excellent snow pea variety that


produces wide, at pods best eaten
whole, either raw, steamed, or
stir-fried. Expect large yields of these
crisp, sweet pods from plants that
grow to 36 in (90 cm).

Sow: early spring to early summer


Harvest: late spring to early fall

Sow: early spring to early summer


Harvest: late spring to late summer

Sow: early spring to early summer


Harvest: late spring to late summer

EDA

EDA

EDA

Sow: mid- to late fall; midwinter to


early spring

382 Vegetable gardening: plant guide

Legumes: beans
Runner bean Butler

Runner bean Liberty

Runner bean White Lady

This attractive, red-owered runner


bean grows vigorously and forms
many long, stringless pods lled
with pretty purple beans. They can be
picked over a long season and, being
stringless, are still palatable when a
little larger.

A favorite with exhibitors, this runner


bean has glorious scarlet owers
followed by extremely long (up to
18 in/45 cm) pods. The heavy crops
of smooth-skinned pods are prized
for their tasty, thick esh.

The pure white owers of this runner


bean are thought to be less attractive
to birds. Hot weather can prevent pods
from setting on other varieties, but
White Lady still performs well,
making it suitable for later sowings.

Sow: mid-spring to early summer


Harvest: midsummer to mid-fall

Sow: mid-spring to early summer


Harvest: midsummer to mid-fall

EDAb

EDAb

Runner bean Wisley Magic

French bean Purple Queen

French bean Delinel

A runner bean with bright red owers


that develop into slim pods up to 14 in
(35 cm) long, with a delicious fresh
avor. The plants grow rapidly and
produce good yields, but pods are not
stringless so are best harvested young.

Perfect for a container or border, this


compact dwarf French bean grows
without supports and develops heavy
crops of glossy, rich purple pods. The
stringless pods have a ne avor and
turn green when cooked.

A dwarf bean for a bumper crop. In


containers or beds, it produces large
yields of rounded, long green beans
with a rm texture and good avor.
Plants are resistant to common bean
mosaic virus and anthracnose.

Sow: mid-spring to early summer


Harvest: midsummer to mid-fall

Sow: mid-spring to midsummer


Harvest: early summer to late fall

Sow: mid-spring to midsummer


Harvest: early summer to late fall

EDAb

EDAb

EDAb

Sow: mid-spring to early summer


Harvest: midsummer to mid-fall

Legumes: beans 383

French bean The Prince

French bean Ferrari

French bean Cobra

This dwarf variety has long, at,


green pods, best harvested young
when they are stringless. The avor
is excellent, and crops can be reliably
harvested by early summer. They are
also produced over a long period.

A ne dwarf French beanslim,


succulent, bursting with avor, and
stringless. The plants do well sown in
mid-spring if protected from frost, and
thrive in containers. The connoisseurs
choice, as well as easy to grow.

Train up a teepee or trellis to achieve


large crops of stringless, tender green
beans, up to 8 in (20 cm) long. The
owers are an unusual shade of
violet, which make the plants
ornamental as well as productive.

Sow: mid-spring to midsummer


Harvest: early summer to late fall

Sow: mid-spring to midsummer


Harvest: early summer to late fall

Sow: mid-spring to midsummer


Harvest: early summer to late fall

EDAb

EDAb

EDAb

Borlotto Lingua di Fuoco

Fava bean Aquadulce Claudia

Fava bean The Sutton

Grown in the same way as a climbing


French bean, this Italian cranberry bean
has long, attish, pale green pods
marked with red. Eat whole when
young or remove the purple-blotched
seeds from mature pods and dry them.

An old favorite, this hardy fava bean


can overwinter outdoors. Plants grow
to 3 ft (90 cm) and yield a good crop
of tender white beans in cotton
gauze lined pods. Black bean aphid
is often a pest on shoots.

Compact and bushy, this fava bean


reaches only 18 in (45 cm), so is ideal
for small gardens and for sowing under
cloches in late winter and on windy
sites. It produces abundant small
pods packed with juicy white beans.

Sow: mid-spring to midsummer


Harvest: early summer to late fall

Sow: mid- to late fall; mid- to late


winter Harvest: late spring
to early summer DA

Sow: midwinter to early spring


Harvest: early to late summer

EDA

DA

384 Plant guide

Fruiting vegetables: tomatoes


Tomato Totem F1

Tomato Tumbler F1

Tomato Early Bush Cherry

A dwarf upright bush variety that is


the perfect size for patio containers
and large window boxes. It crops well
outdoors: by midsummer, its trusses
are heavy with small, tasty red fruits.

Ideal outdoors in hanging baskets or


large containers, this bush tomato has
stems that trail attractively over the
side of a pot. It provides a prolic
crop of sweet, red cherry tomatoes.

Easy to grow and quick to ripen,


this bush variety does well outdoors
in containers, or in a greenhouse.
Its huge numbers of small, round,
cherrylike fruits have a sweet avor.

Sow: (indoors) midwinter to


mid-spring; (outdoors) early spring
to mid-spring Harvest: midsummer
to mid-fall DEA

Sow: (indoors) midwinter to


mid-spring; (outdoors) early spring
to mid-spring Harvest: midsummer
to mid-fall DEA

Sow: (indoors) midwinter to


mid- spring; (outdoors) early spring
to mid-spring Harvest: midsummer
to mid-fall DEA

Tomato Sungold F1

Tomato Sweet Olive F1

Tomato Shirley F1

Masses of incredibly sweet, orange


cherry tomatoes make this a popular
variety. It is a cordon tomato, so
needs staking and side-shooting.
It grows well under glass or outdoors.

For baby plum tomatoes that grow


outdoors, try this reliable cordon
variety. The clusters of scarlet fruits
have an excellent, intense avor,
and the skins do not split readily.
Plants may require some staking.

This dependable greenhouse variety


yields heavy crops of large, rounded,
scarlet fruits, even in poor weather
conditions. A cordon variety, it
requires staking and side-shooting,
but has some disease resistance.

Sow: early to mid-spring


Harvest: midsummer to mid-fall

Sow: midwinter to early spring


Harvest: early summer to early fall

DEA

DEA

Sow: (indoors) midwinter to


mid-spring; (outdoors) early spring
to mid-spring Harvest: midsummer
to mid-fall DEA

Fruiting vegetables: tomatoes 385

Tomato Tigerella F1

Tomato Gardeners Delight

Tomato Ferline F1

Unusual red fruits striped with yellow


make this variety stand out, but they
also taste delicious and mature early.
A cordon tomato that crops well
indoors and outside.

Perfect for a sheltered spot outside


or a greenhouse, this is an extremely
popular cordon tomato variety
because of its bumper crops of
ne-avored, large cherry tomatoes.

An excellent cordon tomato


producing large, rounded, red fruits,
with increased blight tolerance.
Plants grow well inside or out, and
the fruits have a rich avor.

Sow: (indoors) midwinter to mid-

Sow: (indoors) midwinter to midspring; (outdoors) early to mid-spring


Harvest: midsummer to mid-fall

Sow: (indoors) midwinter to midspring; (outdoors) early to mid-spring


Harvest: midsummer to mid-fall

DEA

DEA

Tomato Supersweet 100 F1

Tomato Super Marmande

Tomato Summer Sweet F1

For long trusses of juicy, sugary,


scarlet fruits, this is a great variety to
try under glass. With good resistance
to verticillium wilt, these vigorous
cordon plants are easy to grow and
yield reliably generous crops.

This variety has a bushy habit, but


benets from some support. The
large eshy, puckered fruits are
bursting with avor and are a favorite
in France. Plants thrive outdoors in
warm areas.

An early plum tomato for a sunny


spot outdoors or in a greenhouse,
this cordon variety yields plenty of
small, tasty, red fruits over a long
season. Plants have resistance to
fusarium to help ensure a good crop.

Sow: midwinter to mid-spring


Harvest: midsummer to mid-fall

Sow: midwinter to mid-spring


Harvest: midsummer to mid-fall

Sow: midwinter to mid-spring


Harvest: midsummer to mid-fall

DEA

DEA

DEA

spring; (outdoors) early spring to


mid-spring Harvest: midsummer
to mid-fall DEA

386 Vegetable gardening: plant guide

Fruiting vegetables: eggplant, peppers, sweet corn


Eggplant Moneymaker F1

Eggplant Black Beauty

Eggplant Mohican

This is one of the most dependable


eggplants in cool climates. The
upright plants look good in containers,
and while the best long, dark purple
fruits are achieved under glass, plants
also do well in a sunny outdoor spot.

A prolic variety, producing many


glossy, deep purple, oval-shaped
fruits. The highest yields are achieved
with the protection of a greenhouse.
Plants are best tied to supports to
help bear the weight of the fruits.

With its compact bushy habit and


immaculate white fruits, this eggplant
makes a striking container plant for
a sunny patio or greenhouse. Plants
reach only 24 in (60 cm). Pick the
fruits small to increase the yield.

Sow: early to mid-spring


Harvest: midsummer to early fall

Sow: early to mid-spring


Harvest: midsummer to early fall

Sow: early to mid-spring


Harvest: midsummer to early fall

DEA

DEA

EDA

Pepper Gypsy F1

Pepper Marconi Rosso

Pepper Corno di Torro Rosso

Good, early crops are reliably produced


by this sweet pepper, which performs
well under glass. Tapering fruits ripen
to bright red from yellow-green and
have thick, succulent esh. Plants are
resistant to tobacco mosaic virus.

The elongated fruits of this pepper


are best eaten when red, because at
this stage they are extremely sweet
and ideal for roasting. Plants are
high-yielding indoors or in a warm,
sunny spot outside.

Delicious, long, thin-walled peppers


are sweet once they have turned
to purple and red. This early variety
appreciates the extra heat in a
greenhouse, but crops outdoors in
warm areas.

Sow: early to mid-spring


Harvest: midsummer to mid-fall

Sow: early to mid-spring


Harvest: midsummer to mid-fall

Sow: early to mid-spring


Harvest: midsummer to mid-fall

DA

DA

DA

Fruiting vegetables: eggplant, peppers, sweet corn 387

Pepper Hungarian Hot Wax

Pepper Prairie Fire

Pepper Friars Hat

An attractive, compact chili pepper


bearing tapering fruits that are sweet
and yellow when young, but hot and
bright red when mature. The best
crops are achieved with the protection
of a greenhouse or large cloches.

These tiny, bullet-shaped peppers are


extremely ery and look decorative
pointing up from the bushy plants,
which reach no more than 8 in (20 cm)
tall. Ideal for windowsills or against a
sunny wall. Plants crop heavily.

Best grown in a greenhouse, these


tall plants produce heavy yields of
bizarre peppers shaped like sun hats.
Plants need staking, while fruits need
a long, hot growing season to ripen
and build up a hot chili avor.

Sow: early to mid-spring


Harvest: midsummer to mid-fall

Sow: early to mid-spring


Harvest: midsummer to mid-fall

Sow: early to mid-spring


Harvest: midsummer to mid-fall

DA

DA

DA

Sweet corn Butterscotch F1

Sweet corn Indian Summer

Sweet corn Lark F1

A super-sweet mid-season variety,


forming large cobs up to 8 in (20 cm)
long that are lled with tender,
sugary, butter yellow kernels.
Grows vigorously and crops well
even in cool weather conditions.

These spectacular multicolored cobs


have sweet-tasting kernels in shades
of yellow, cream, red, and purple.
Keep the plants separate from other
sweet corn varieties to prevent crosspollination and maintain the colors.

This variety consistently produces a


high proportion of healthy seedlings
from each sowing, and is ideal for
beginners. The sweet, tender cobs
are delicious when boiled briey
and topped with melted butter.

Sow: mid- to late spring


Harvest: late summer to early fall

Sow: mid- to late spring


Harvest: late summer to mid-fall

Sow: mid- to late spring


Harvest: late summer to mid-fall

DA

DA

DA

388 Vegetable gardening: plant guide

Perennial/stem vegetables: asparagus, artichokes, celeriac, celery


Asparagus Connovers Colossal

Jerusalem artichoke Fuseau

Globe artichoke Green Globe

A traditional variety that yields a


heavy crop of thick green spears early
in the season. Buy young crowns and
try not to harvest in their rst year
just cut a few spears in the second
and reap the reward in the third.

This relative of the sunower


produces long, smooth tubers, with
a avor similar to globe artichokes,
which are usually eaten cooked.
Plants may reach 10 ft (3 m) in
height, each yielding about 10 tubers.

Often difcult to nd in stores, but


easy to grow, this reliable globe
variety has large owerheads with
delicious, tender hearts. Grow from
offsets where available.

Plant: late winter to early spring


Harvest: late spring

Plant: late winter to late spring


Harvest: early to late winter

DA

DEAB

Sow: late winter to early spring


Plant offsets: late spring to early
summer Harvest: late spring to
early summer DEAB

Celeriac Monarch

Celery Victoria F1

Celery Celebrity F1

Easier to grow than celery, with a


milder avor, celeriac is delicious raw,
steamed, or roasted. This cultivar has
unusually smooth skin, making it
easier to clean than most, and has
ne-textured, creamy esh.

The attractive pale green stems of


this variety have a particularly good
avor and crispness. There is no need
to earth up the stalks to blanch them,
and the plants are slow to bolt.

An excellent self-blanching variety


that grows equally well outdoors or
in a greenhouse. The light green
stems have a delicious, strong avor,
and plants resist bolting well.

Sow: early to mid-spring


Harvest: mid- to late fall

Sow: late winter to mid-spring


Harvest: late summer to mid-fall

Sow: late winter to mid-spring.


Harvest: late summer to mid-fall

DEAB

DEA

DEA

Herbs 389

Herbs
Parsley Plain Leaved 2

Parsley Envy

Basil Sweet Genovese

A ne French parsley, with soft, at,


rich green leaves that have a good,
strong avor. Easily grown as an
annual indoors or outside, although
parsley is biennial and hardy enough
to persist in most gardens.

Handsome and vigorous, this variety


produces a mass of tightly curled,
bright green, full-avored leaves.
Parsley seeds may be slow to
germinate, but be sure that the
soil is soaked after sowing.

Large-leaved and intensely aromatic,


this is the basil to use in Italian dishes.
The tender plants will grow in a sunny
spot outdoors, but often do best on a
bright windowsill or in a greenhouse.
Pinch out young leaves regularly.

Sow: early spring to late summer


Harvest: year round

Sow: early spring to late summer


Harvest: year round

Sow: early spring to midsummer


Harvest: year round

DEAB

DEAB

DA

Basil Magic Mountain

Thyme Silver Posie

Thyme Doone Valley

With its glossy, purple-tinted foliage


and tall spikes of lilac owers, this
tender herb makes a pretty garden
plant in its own right. The leaves
have a delicate aniseed scent, which
makes them suitable for Thai cooking.

The tiny gray and cream leaves of


this compact and low-growing thyme
are intensely fragrant, complementing
the avors of chicken and sh. An
evergreen hardy perennial, it has
clusters of pink owers in summer.

The vibrant yellow variegation of this


thymes evergreen foliage, combined
with a ush of purple summer owers,
makes it a beautiful plant for a pot or
herb garden. The lemon-scented leaves
taste good with sh or in stews.

Sow: early spring to midsummer


Harvest: year round

Sow: early to late spring


Harvest: year round

Sow: early to late spring


Harvest: year round

DA

DA

DA

390 Vegetable gardening: plant guide

Herbs and sprouting seeds


Oregano (Origanum vulgare)

Rosemary (Rosmarinus ofcinalis)

Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare)

A pungent Mediterranean herb


often used in Italian cuisine and
reliably perennial in freely draining
soil. Its rounded, yellow-green leaves
and low-growing habit make it an
attractive garden plant, useful for
edging paths.

This shrub bears the tough, narrow,


strongly scented leaves that combine
so well with lamb. As an evergreen,
rosemary provides useful structure in
the herb or vegetable garden, and
can be pruned to maintain its shape.

Elegant and airy, fennel comes in green


and bronze forms and may reach 6 ft
(1.8 m) tall. It is a good-looking perennial
in ornamental borders, where its
aniseed-avored leaves, and later its
seeds, can be harvested as required.

Sow: early to late spring


Harvest: year round

Sow: early to late spring


Harvest: late spring to early fall

DA

DA

Apple mint (Mentha suaveolens)

Spearmint (Mentha spicata)

Chives (Allium schoenoprasum)

Delicious, but invasive, this mint is best


conned to a pot in small gardens.
It is perennial and each spring sends
up new shoots clothed with soft,
furry, sweetly minty leaves, perfect
for cooking with new potatoes.

Spearmints clean, crisp avor is ideal


for adding to salads, desserts, and
drinks. The pointed, deep green
leaves are glossy and appealing, but
this is also an invasive perennial, so
keep its spreading shoots in check.

The clumps of these easy-to-grow


perennials have spiky leaves topped
with purple pompon owers, making
them an excellent path edging. The
delicate onion avor of chives suits
soups, salads, and quiches.

Sow: early to late spring


Harvest: late spring to late summer

Sow: early to late spring


Harvest: late spring to early fall

Sow: early to late spring


Harvest: at any time

DEB

DEB

EAB

Sow: early to late spring


Harvest: year round

Herbs and sprouting seeds

391

Cilantro Cilantro for Leaf

Common sage (Salvia ofcinalis)

Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus)

A lush, leafy annual, bred to yield


several cuts of spicy leaves, rather
than seeds. Sow successionally every
six weeks to ensure a constant supply
and keep plants well watered to stop
them from rapidly running to seed.

Ornamental, with many culinary uses,


this aromatic shrub has pale green
leaves covered in an attractive gray
down. Encourage bushy growth by
pinching out growing tips, but
replace old plants every ve years.

Tropical and tender, this grass needs


to be kept above 45F (7C) in winter.
The sturdy, citrus-scented stems can
be slow to bulk up in cool climates,
but form clumps from which stems can
be separated and used in Thai dishes.

Sow: mid-spring to early fall


Harvest: early spring to early fall

Sow: mid- to late spring


Harvest: at any time

Sow: mid- to late spring


Harvest: late spring to early fall

DA

DA

DA

Alfalfa

Mung beans

Garbanzos

A nutritious, crisp sprout, with a


slightly nutty avor, alfalfa is delicious
in salads and sandwiches. Soaking
the seeds for eight hours before
sprouting helps speed up the process.
Sprouts should be ready from trays
or jars in 45 days.

These tiny green beans burst rapidly


into life to become the well-known
white Chinese bean sprouts, so
often included in stir-fries. Soak
the beans for 812 hours, before
sprouting in a jar, tray, or sprouting
bag for 25 days.

Sprouted garbanzos (chickpeas) are a


tasty snack or addition to a salad and
require only 23 days in a jar, tray, or
sprouting bag before they are ready
to eat. Soak them in water for 812
hours before sprouting, to ensure
that the seed coat is softened.

Sow: at any time


Harvest: at any time

Sow: at any time


Harvest: at any time

Sow: at any time


Harvest: at any time

392 Index

Index
A
Abelia x grandiflora 332
Abutilon x suntense 40, 272
Acacia dealbata 40, 272
Acanthus 12
A. mollis 279
Acanthus spinosus 326
Acer (maple) 31, 361
A. davidii (snakebark maple) 332
A. japonicum 19, 27, 34, 35
A. palmatum d. Dissectum
Atropurpureum Group 43, 310,
332
A. p. var. dissectum 276
A. p. Sango-kaku 304
A. shirasawanum Aureum 286
A. White Tigress (snakebark
maple) 158, 159
acidic soil 270
planting 43
acidity testing 38
Acorus
A. gramineus Ogon 316
Actinidia deliciosa (kiwi) 332, 361
Adiantum venustum 126, 127
Agapanthus Loch Hope 16, 27, 326
agave 16
aggregates 99, 123
Akebia quinata 22
Alchemilla mollis (ladys mantle) 41,
42, 278
alfalfa 391
alkaline soil planting 42
alkalinity testing 38
Allium 27, 114, 228, 378380
A. hollandicum Purple Sensation
40, 81, 278, 326
A. schoenoprasum 292
alpines 100, 106, 146
Amelanchier x grandiflora Ballerina
304
Anaphalis
A. triplinervis 1301, 134
A. t. Sommerschnee 316
Anemanthele lessoniana 81, 286,
326
Anemone 22
A. hupehensis Hadspen
Abundance 326
A. x hybrida Honorine Jobert 41,
286, 326
Angelica archangelica 278
annuals, sowing 623
aphids 269
apples 160, 161, 2003
espaliers 160, 161
apple mint 235, 390
Aquilegia McKana Group 42, 286
Arbutus unedo 31, 272, 304
architectural plants 19, 28, 102, 104,
105, 108, 114, 1367
Armeria
A. maritima 316
A. m. Splendens 128, 129

Artemisia 24, 332


A. alba Canescens 40, 292
A. ludoviciana Valerie Finnis
128, 129
A. schmidtiana Nana 128, 129,
316
A. stelleriana Boughton Silver
316
arugula 2345
Apollo 373
Rocket Wild 254, 374
sowing 234
Arum italicum subsp. italicum
Marmoratum 28, 41, 300, 126,
127, 316
Aruncus dioicus 41, 286
Asian greens 371
asparagus 2323
Connovers Colossal 388
harvesting 232
sowing 232
assessing a site 1167
Astelia chathamica 128, 129
Astelia nervosa 35
Aster 20, 27, 30, 84
A. amellus Veilchenknigin 1301
A. Coombe Fishacre 42, 292
A. x frikartii Mnch 326
A. turbinellus 113, 130
Astilbe Bronce Elegans 317
Astilboides tabularis 43, 138
Astrantia 30, 35, 110
A. major 292
A. Hadspen Blood 327
Aucuba
A. japonica Crotonifolia 31, 35, 41,
182, 287, 310, 332
A. j. Picturata 72
A. j. Variegata 66, 310
automatic irrigation 108, 112, 113, 114,

B
bamboo 16, 19, 100, 102, 108,120, 277
see also Fargesia; Phyllostachys
banana 35
bark 155, 1589, 304
as mulch 126, 128, 134, 136, 138,
323
basil 2345
Magic Mountain 389
Red Rubin 250
sowing 234
Sweet Genovese 250, 389
bay, standard 154, 155
bay tree 2489
bedding plants 34
beech see Fagus
Begonia 16
B. fuchsioides 94
Berberis
B. darwinii 41, 287
B. x stenophylla 333
B. thunbergii f. atropurpurea Darts
Red Lady 278, 333

beets 224, 2367


Boltardy 262
Chiogga Pink 365
Forono 365
Pablo 365
sowing 2367
berries, pruning for 151
Bergenia
B. cordifolia Purpurea 317
B. Red Beauty 144, 145
Bergenia purpurascens 272
Betula (Birch) 43, 358
B. pendula 20
B. utilis var. jacquemontii 158, 272,
304, 333
removing lower branches 155, 158
bindweed, field 266
birds
as friends 263
protection against 268
bittercress, hairy 267
black bean aphid 232
blackflies, discouraging 227, 269
blight 271
blossom end rot 271
blueberries 160
blue planting 13
bog gardens 37
bok choy Joi Choi 371
bolting 235
borders 10, 447, 689, 725, 7885
borders, informal pruning 151
borlotti beans see cranberry beans
boundaries 118121
disguising 10
botrytis 271
boxwood see Buxus
brambles 266
branches
crossing and rubbing 166
removal 1703
torn 170
twin leaders 167
brassicas 224, 225, 367371
diseases 271
bricks 119, 123, 125
edging 48
mowing strips 113, 123
broad beans see fava beans
broccoli 225
Bordeaux 368
Claret 369
Late Purple Sprouting 369
White Star 368
Brunnera macrophylla Dawsons
White 300
Brussels sprouts 225
Bosworth 370
Red Delicious 370
Trafalgar 370
bud indentification 1689
Buddleja 360
B. davidii 42, 106, 113, 272, 333,
358
B. Lochinch 310

bulbs 92, 106, 108, 114, 126, 127, 322


fall planting 20, 27
as focal point 14
spring planting 20, 22, 37, 92
summer planting 24
see also Narcissus
Bupleurum fruticosum 40, 278
buttercup, creeping 266
Buxus 16, 30, 34, 102, 103, 108, 125,
134
B. sempervirens Suffruticosa 41,
42, 78, 134, 135, 279, 333
parterre 152
shearing 169

C
Cabbages 225
Derby Day 367
Hispi 367
January King 368
Marner Early Red 260, 367
Minicole 367
Pixie 367
Red Jewel 262, 367
Savoy Siberia 368
Corvet 368
Calabrese 225
Calamagrostis 110, 111
C. x acutiflora 327
C. x a. Karl Foerster 327
C. x a. Overdam 327
Calamagrostis brachytricha 78
Calibrachoa
Million Bells Cherry 94
Million Bells Red 94
California poppy 62
Calluna vulgaris Silver Knight 40, 43,
292, 333
Camassia 22
Camellia 43, 1823, 358, 359
C. japonica 334
C. x williamsii 304, 334
Campsis x tagliabuana 334
Campanula glomerata 41, 42, 292
Canna 16, 30, 35
C. Striata 279
orange hybrid 94
canopies 152
cardoon 273
Carex 99
C. comans bronze-leaved 70, 136,
137
C. elata 41
C. e. Aurea 43, 300
C. flagellifera 142, 143, 318
C. japonica Bobs Tinsie 287
C. oshimensis Evergold 317
C. sasanqua 34, 276
C. testacea 317
Carpinus (hornbeam) 152
C. betulus 334
dead wood 167
carrot flies 269
protection against 268

Index AD 393

carrots 224
Bangor 364
Carson 364
containers 217
Flyaway 364
Infinity 364
Parmex 364
Purple Haze 364
Caryopteris x clandonensis Arthur
Simmonds 334
Catalpa bignonioides 176, 334
Catananche caerulea 40, 293
caterpillars, protection against 234,
269
cauliflower 225
Mayflower 369
Romanesco 369
Violet Queen 369
Walcheran Winter Armado April
369
Ceanothus 117, 1845
C. Blue Mound 335
C. x delileanus Gloire de Versailles
310
C. Puget Blue, informal pruning
151
celeriac 2323
Monarch 388
sowing 232
celery 2323
Celebrity 388
earthing up 233
sowing 232
Victoria 388
Centaurea cyanus (cornflower) 16
Centranthus ruber 327
Ceratostigma plumbaginoides 293,
317
Ceratostigma willmottianum
335
Cercis canadensis Forest Pansy 43,
108, 109, 276, 335
Cerinthe major 293
Cestrum parqui 272
Chaenomeles cultivars (flowering
quince) 335
chain saws 165
Chamaecyparis lawsoniana 86
chard 2345
Bright Lights 374
Charlotte 374
containers 2445
Lucullus 374
sowing 234
Chelone
C. leyonii 327
C. obliqua 327
chickpeas 391
Principe 258
chickweed, common 267
chicory
Italiko Rosso 374
Sugar Loaf 374
child-friendly gardens 32, 100, 117,
123

chili peppers 216, 2301


Friars Hat 367
Hungarian Hot Wax 387
Prairie Fire 387
sowing 230
Chimonanthus praecox 28, 279
Chinese radish Mantanghong 366
chives 292, 252, 390
Choisya
C. Aztec Pearl 151, 310
C. ternata 35, 335
C. ternata Sundance 31, 42, 279,
310
Chrysanthemum 27
cilantro 2345, 391
sowing 234
Cistus 19
C. x dansereauiDecumbens 317
C. hybridus 40, 279, 317
C. lenis Grayswood Pink 318
clay pots 88
clay soil 38, 121, 142
plantings for 41, 132, 136
testing for 39
cleavers 26
Clematis 30, 42, 2069, 308, 359
C. Alba Luxurians 273
C. alpina 22, 206, 336
C. armandii 35, 206, 336
C. cirrhosa 42, 273
C. Bill MacKenzie 308
C. Etoile Violette 206, 308, 336
C. Frances Rivis 206
C. H. F. Young 206, 336
C. Jackmanii 124
C. x jouiniana 208
C. macropetala 22
C. Markhams Pink 308
C. montana 22
C. Nelly Moser 206, 336
C. Perle dAzur 273, 308
C. tangutica 206, 209
texensis type 206
viticella type 206
climate 117
climbers 22, 108, 115, 120, 204215,
3089,
358, 359
planting 601
climbing vegetables 240, 2501,
2567
cloches 216, 2223, 238
clubroot 234, 271
cobbles 99, 100, 123
cocoa shell mulch 49
Colchicum 20
cold frames 217, 223
color in garden 1213
fall planting 27
as focal point 14
hot 13, 745, 945
monochrome 13
pruning for 151, 1589
summer planting 245
winter planting 28, 867

combination planting 6687


compact planting 216
compost
homemade 501, 117, 126, 138,
140
making 2189
trench 219
compost bins 218
conifers 16
containers 32, 100, 105, 217, 224
fall planting 27
as focal point 14
chard 2445
contemporary 98, 99, 102, 103,
1445
cottage-style 1467
feeding 113, 225
Mediterranean planting 19
Moroccan planting 16
planting 901, 1447
selecting 889
subtropical planting 16
watering 115, 144, 146
contemporary gardens 98, 99, 102,
103, 104105, 108, 109
materials for 104105, 108, 109,
118, 120, 125
contemporary plantings 35, 98, 99,
110111, 1401, 1445
contractors 122
Convolvulus cneorum 40, 144, 145,
293, 318
Cordyline 78
cornflower 16
Cornus 20, 358
C. alba 337
C. alternifolia Variegata 337
C. canadensis 43, 300
C. a. Elegantissima
134, 135
C. kousa var. chinensis
43, 273, 337
C. a. Sibirica 311
C. a. Spaethii 311
C. controversa Variegata 304
C. kousa var. chinensis China Girl
305
C. sanguinea Midwinter Fire 132
C. sanguinea Winter Beauty 30,
41, 86, 287, 337
C. stolonifera Flaviramea 158, 159
cutting opposite buds 169
Corydalis flexuosa 43, 300
Corylus avellana Contorta 337
Cotinus (smoke bush) 1767
C. coggygria Royal Purple 42, 176,
273, 337
C. Grace 72
Cotoneaster
C. horizontalis 31, 40, 42, 287, 318,
338
C. salicifolius Gnom 106
cottage style 19, 35, 689, 118, 122,
125, 1467
couch grass 266

courtyard gardens 10, 108109


courtyard vegetable garden 2601
cranberry beans 226
Lingua di Fuoco 383
Crataegus laevigata Pauls Scarlet
305
Crataegus monogyna (hawthorn)
338
cream planting 13, 24
Crocosmia 24
C. x crocosmiiflora Venus 280
C. x c. Star of the East 94
crocus 20, 22
crop rotation 270
cucumbers 229
Bush Champion 377
Carmen 258, 377
Marketmore 377
Masterpiece 250, 377
Petita 377
Zeina 377
cucurbits 229, 3767
cup-and-saucer plant 256
cut-and-come-again crops 2345,
2545
Cupressus sempervirens Stricta
Group 305
currant, flowering 35
curry plant see Helichrysum
Cyclamen 27
Cyclamen hederifolium 95, 301, 318
Cynara cardunculus 142, 143, 273
Cytisus x praecox (broom) 338

D
Daboecia cantabrica f. alba 338
daffodil see Narcissus
Dahlia 20, 30, 35
D. Bishop of Llandaff 280
damping off 270
dandelion 266
Daphne
Daphne bholua Jacqueline Postill
43, 276, 311, 338
D. laureola subsp. philippi 303
Dasylirion 14
day lily see Hemerocallis
dead wood 167
deadheading 25, 27, 66, 90, 138,
144, 146, 167, 186, 192, 196,
323, 325, 330, 359
reducing 110, 112
decking 35, 99, 100, 102, 103, 105,
112, 123, 124
building 123
maintenance 148, 149
Delphinium 19, 35
D. grandiflorum Summer Blues
68
D. New Zealand Hybrids 68
Deschampsia cespitosa 327
Deschampsia flexuosa Tatra Gold
78
Desfontainea spinosa 43, 287

394

Index

Index
design ideas 98101
Deutzia 359
D. x hybrida Mont Rose 338
D. x rosea Campanulata 280
Diascia
D. barberae Blackthorn Apricot
293, 318
D. b. Ruby Field 318
D. Sunchimes Lilac 146, 147
Dicentra 22
D. spectabilis 288
Dicentra Stuart Boothman 318
Dicksonia antarctica 30, 34, 276
Dierama pulcherrimum 280
Digitalis (foxglove) 19
D. lutea 140, 141
D. purpurea 35, 41, 43, 288
diseased wood 167
diseases 134, 228, 2701
dividers 118121
dock 266
dogwood see Cornus
Doronicum 22
drainage 100
containers 144, 146
improving 128, 130, 134, 136,
142
drought-tolerant plants 113, 114,
1289, 1423, 146
Dryopteris affinis Cristata 327
dwarf beans 2267
containers 217

E
Echinacea purpurea 30, 280
Echinops 27
E. ritro 130, 131
E. r. Veitchs Blue 328
edging for lawns 478
eggplant 216, 2301
Black Beauty 386
Mohican 250, 386
Moneymaker 258, 386
sowing 230
Elaeagnus
E. pungens 182, 339
electricity 122
Encarsia formosa 269
entertaining outdoors 32
Epimedium 22
E. x versicolor 301
Erica 106, 358
E. arborea 182
E. a. var. alpina 339
E. carnea Foxhollow 42, 294,
339
E. carnea Springwood White
319
E. cinerea f. alba (bell heather)
339
E. x darleyensis Archie Graham
86
E. x darleyensis Silberschmelze
319

Erigeron 110
E. karvinskianus 294, 319
Eryngium x oliverianum 328
Erysimum 30
E. Bowles Mauve 40, 42, 294
Escallonia 182, 359
E. Apple Blossom 339
E. laevis Gold Brian 311
Eschscholzia 62, 106, 107
espaliers 160, 161
Eucalyptus gunnii 339
Euonymus 28
E. europaeus 340
E. fortunei Blondy 96, 194, 340
E. fortunei Canadale Gold 319
E. f. Emerald n Gold 319
E. f. Silver Queen 319
Euphorbia
E. amygdaloides Purpurea 70
E. characias 40, 41, 280
E. c. subsp. wulfenii 81
E. cyparissias Fens Ruby 294
E. griffithii Fireglow 74
E. characias Humpty Dumpty 328
E. x martinii 281
reversion, pruning out 166
Exochorda x macrantha The Bride
340
exotic vegetables 2589
exposure 367, 114, 116, 117

F
fall border 1301
fall planting 20, 267, 845
false perspective 10
Fargesia 120
F. murielae Simba 311
x Fatshedera lizei 340
fat hen 267
Fatsia japonica 31, 34, 76, 182, 276,
305
fava beans 2267
Aquadulce Claudia 383
blackfly 227
sowing 226
The Sutton 262, 383
fedges 121
feeding 112, 113, 115
fences 104, 105, 116, 118, 148, 149
against rabbits 269
borders by 37
climbers for 22
disguising 10
fennel 390
fennel, bronze 74
ferns 108
fertilizer 58
slow-release 113, 132, 144, 146
Festuca (fescue) 106
F. glauca Blauglut 128, 129
F. glauca Elijah Blue 95
flea beetles 269
floating row cover 128, 144, 268, 269

flowering, pruning to encourage


1567, 167, 186, 191
focal points 1415, 16, 667, 789,
98, 99, 100, 102, 103, 105, 304
Foeniculum (bronze fennel) 74
foliage plantings 1345, 1445
formal gardens 102103, 125
formal pruning 1523
fountain 16
foxglove 19
Forsythia x intermedia Lynwood
Variety 340
Francoa sonchifolia 294
French beans 2267
Cobra 383
Delinel 382
Ferrari 383
Purple Queen 382
sowing 226
The Prince 383
Fremontodendron California Glory
340
fritillaries 22
front yards 789
frost 115, 116, 117
frost damage 167
frost pockets 37
fruits in fall planting 27
fruit, pruning for 1601
Fuchsia Genii 295
F. magellanica 341
fungal diseases 270

G
Galanthus (snowdrop) 22, 92
G. nivalis 126, 127, 301
Galanthus (snowdrop)
Galtonia 24
garbanzos 391
Principe 258
garden waste 219
garlic 228
Early Light 380
Elephant Garlic 380
Solent Light 380
Garrya elliptica 194
G. e. James Roof 341
Gaultheria mucronata 341
Gaura lindheimeri 113, 295
Geranium (cranesbill) 35, 41
G. Ann Folkard 295, 319
G. Johnsons Blue 319
G. macrorrhizum 301
G. Nimbus 138, 139
G. x oxonianum Claridge Druce
288
G. Rozanne 295, 319
G. sanguineum 319
Genista aetnensis (Mount Etna broom)
341
Geum
G. Blazing Sunset 68
G. coccineum 295
G. rivale 295

giant oat 285


gingers 16, 35
gladiolus 24
globe artichokes 2323
Green Globe 388
mulching 233
sowing 232
gloves 165
goggles 165
grape hyacinth see Muscari
grass clippings for compost 51
grasses 19, 27, 28, 845, 100, 105,
108, 109, 110111
gravel 19, 112, 123, 125, 319
drainage 142, 144, 146
laid over membrane 98, 99, 113,
123
maintenance 34
as mulch 49, 323
gravel gardens 667, 106, 110, 305,
318, 325
gray water 221
green onions 228
Guardsman 379
North Holland Blood Red
379
Paris Silverskin 379
White Lisbon 379
green planting 13, 24, 701, 767
greenflies, discouraging 269
greenhouse 217
Grevillea
G. Canberra Gem 40, 43, 281
G. juniperina 72
Griselinia littoralis 341
ground elder 266
groundsel 267
growing bags 2423, 260

H
hairy bittercress 267
Hakonechloa macra Aureola 94, 296,
320
hanging baskets 2523
hard landscaping 9899, 104105,
112, 114, 1225, 148, 149
Hamamelis (witch hazel) 28, 1789,
358
H. x intermedia Pallida 341
heather see Erica
Hebe 42
H. cupressoides Boughton Dome
320
H. Great Orme 311
H. Midsummer Beauty 281
H. Red Edge 320
H. salicifolia 76, 312
H. Spenders Seedling 312
Hedera (ivy) 108, 120, 121, 211
H. helix 342
H. h. Glacier 96, 308
H. h. Little Diamond 320
H. h. Mandas Crested 320
H. h. Parsley Crested 320

Index DM 395

hedges 115, 117, 134, 148, 306


boxwood 102, 103, 125
parterre 152, 153
yew 120, 138, 139, 307
hedges, trimming 34
electric trimmer 163, 165
gas trimmer 163
Hedychium (ginger) 16
H. densiflorum 43, 288
H. gardnerianum 35
Helenium 30
H. Moerheim Beauty 281
Helianthemum Rhodanthe Carneum
(Wisley Pink) 40, 296
Helichrysum italicum 132, 133
Helictotrichon sempervirens 66, 328
Helleborus (hellebore)
H. argutifolius 40, 288
H. x hybridus 28, 126, 127, 301, 320
H. orientalis subsp. guttatus 126,
127
Hemerocallis (day lily) 31, 41
H. Corky 30, 281, 328
H. Golden Chimes 296
herb border 1423
herbs 16, 34, 80, 823, 100, 101, 146,
389391
containers 217
herb garden 2489
propagating 235
see also specific herbs, e.g., mint
Heuchera 70, 108, 302
H. Pewter Moon 321
H. Plum Pudding 321
Hibiscus syriacus Oiseau Bleu 42, 281
horsetail 266
Hosta 30, 41, 100
H. Big Daddy 321
H. Francee 76
H. Great Expectations 321
H. Halcyon 321
H. Jade Cascade 288
H. June 30
H. Krossa Regal 321
H. sieboldiana var. elegans 136,
137, 289
H. Sum and Substance 289
houseleek see Sempervivum
hurdles 118
Hyacinthus orientalis Ostara 92
Hydrangea 358, 359, 360, 361
H. anomala subsp. petiolaris 120,
309
H. arborescens Annabelle 312
H. arborescens Grandiflora 342
frost damage 167
H. macrophylla 174, 342
H. m. Lanarth White 41, 141
H. m. Libelle 167
H. paniculata 174, 312, 342
H. petiolaris 342
H. Preziosa 312
H. quercifolia 43, 277
H. serrata Bluebird 312
H. s. Grayswood 312

Hypericum
H. Hidcote 342
informal pruning 151
H. olympicum 296

I
Ilex (holly) 1989, 258
I. x altaclerensis Golden King 305
I. a. Pyramidalis Aureomarginata
343
I. aquifolium Silver Queen 31, 277
I. crenata 19, 343
I. c. var. latifolia 289
Indigofera heterantha 343
informal pruning 1501
intercropping 2467
Inula hookeri 282
Iris
I. foetidissima 289, 328
I. Jane Phillips 80
I. Katherine Hodgkin 92
I. laevigata 41, 282
I. pseudocorus var. bastardii 134,
135
I. reticulata 92
I. sibirica 134
I. s. Perrys Blue 41, 282, 329
Irrigation
automatic 108, 112, 113, 114
Isoplexis canariensis 94
Italian planting 16
Itea ilicifolia 343
ivy see Hedera

J
Japanese gardens 19, 23, 34, 105, 125
Japanese maple see Acer
Jasminum (jasmine) 16
J. nudiflorum 31, 41, 42, 274
Jerusalem artichokes 2323
Fuseau 388
sowing 232
Juniperus (juniper)
J. chinensis Stricta 95, 98
J. communis Hibernica 274
J. nudiflorum (winter jasmine) 343
J. officinale (common jasmine) 343
J. x pfitzeriana Sulphur Spray 312
J. squamata Blue Carpet
321

K
Kale
Nero di Toscana 370
Red Russian 262
Redbor 370
Starbor 370
kitchen waste 219
Knautia
K. macedonica 138, 139
K. m. Melton pastels 329

Kniphofia Little Maid 329


Kniphofia (red hot poker) 84
knot gardens 34
Kolkwitzia 359
K. amabilis Pink Cloud (beauty
bush) 344
kohlrabi 225
Olivia 371
Purple Danube 371

L
labor-intensive gardens 115
ladders 165
ladys mantle 300
lambs ears 299
landscape fabric see weed-suppressing
membrane
landscape materials 98, 99, 1225
Lantana 16
laurel, spotted 31, 35
Laurus nobilis (bay laurel) 344
Lavandula (lavender) 19, 30, 34, 102,
103, 110, 111, 113, 1923
L. angustifolia Hidcote 146, 147,
321, 344
L. angustifolia Twickel Purple 82
L. a. Munstead 321
L. Fathead 142, 143
L. stoechas 40, 42, 282
shearing 169, 1923
Lavatera x clementii Barnsley (mallow)
344
lawns 100, 112, 113, 115, 117, 123,
322
edging 478
mowing 113, 115, 123, 148
leaf
effects, encouraging 176
pruning out reversion 166
leeks 228
Hannibal 380
Musselburgh 380
Swiss Giant, Zermatt 380
legumes 2267, 3813
lemon grass 391
lemon thyme Golden Lemon 252
Lespedeza thunbergii 344
lettuce 2345
bolting 235
Catalogna 372
Challenge 373
Delicato 372
Freckles 372
intercropping 2467
Little Gem 372
Lollo Rossa-Nika 373
Oakleaf 254
planting in growing bag 242
Red Dixter 234
Salad Bowl Mixed 260
Sangria 372
Sioux 373
sowing 234
Tom Thumb 372

Leucanthemum x superbum (Shasta


daisy) 19, 329
Leucothoe fontanesiana Rainbow
43, 289
Leucothoe Scarletta 321
Leycesteria formosa 41, 290, 345
Libertia
L. grandiflora 329
L. peregrinans 321
L. p. Taupo Sunset 321
lighting 99, 108
Ligularia dentata Desdemona 290
Ligustrum
L. lucidum 345
Lilium (lily) 24, 30, 100, 101, 114
L. Enchantment 329
L. regale 30, 282
liming acidic soil 270
Limnanthes 106, 107
Liriope muscari 322
living willow screens 121
Lobelia tupa 282
lollipops 154, 155
Lonicera (honeysuckle) 42, 210, 358,
359
L. nitida 345
L. periclymenum Belgica 22
L. p. Graham Thomas 277, 345
L. x purpusii 28, 345
L. x p. Winter Beauty 1801
loppers 163
long-armed 163
low shrubs 316325
low-maintenance gardens 112114
Luma apiculata 345
Lupinus (lupine) 74
Lychnis flos-cuculi 296
Lysimachia nummularia Aurea 302

M
magnesium deficiency 271
Magnolia
M. grandiflora 346, 358
M. grandiflora Goliath 72
Magnolia x loebneri Leonard
Messel 306, 346
Mahonia 28, 31, 1967, 358, 361
M. aquifolium 346
M. x media Buckland 41, 42, 274
M. x media Charity 306, 346
M. x m. Winter Sun 306
Malus 28, 106
M. hupehensis (apple) 346
M. John Downie 41, 274
M. x robusta Red Sentinel 306
manure 126, 132, 138, 140
as mulch 112
maple see Acer
meadow planting 16
meadowgrass, annual 267
meadows 106, 107, 110, 111,
1401
Meconopsis 43
M. cambrica 302

396

Index

Index
Mediterranean plants 19, 36, 801,
108, 109
Mediterranean-style gardens 100,
101, 305
for shade 286291
for sunny sites 270285
medium-sized shrubs 310315
Melianthus major 30, 35, 40, 283
metal containers 88
mibuna 2345, 254, 371
sowing 234
microclimates 37, 108, 117
minimalist gardens 102, 104105
mint
apple 235, 390
controlling 235
peppermint Chocolate 252
spearmint 390
Miscanthus 102, 103, 110, 111
M. sinensis Gracillimus 140
M. s. Kleine Silberspinne 330
M. s. Morning Light 330
M. s. Variegatus 76, 330
M. s. Zebrinus 283
mizuna 2323, 254, 371
sowing 232
Modernist planting 34
Molinia caerulea subsp. caerulea
Variegata 70
montbretia see Crocosmia
Moroccan planting 16
mowing edges 113, 123
mulches 34, 49, 238
mulching 361
to conserve water 126, 130, 310
materials for 126
to suppress weeds 126, 130,
1423
mung beans 391
Musa basjoo (banana) 35
Muscari 106
M. armeniacum 92, 322
mustard Red Giant 371

N
Nandina domestica 31, 108, 283,
313, 347
Narcissus (daffodil) 20, 22, 114
N. February Gold 322
N. Jetfire 297
N. Sweetness 92
nasturtiums African Queen 252
naturalistic planting 33
nematodes 269
Nepeta x faassenii 42, 297
nettles 266
nutrients 270
deficiency 270

O
Oenothera speciosa 297
old wood, pruning 168

Olea europaea (olive) 16, 19, 40, 274


Olearia x haastii 80, 313
Olearia stellulata (daisy bush) 347
Omphalodes cappadocica Cherry
Ingram 302
onion white rot 271
onions 228
Ailsa Craig 378
Red Baron 378
Senshyu 378
Shakespeare 378
Sturon 378
Ophiopogon planiscapus Nigrescens
19, 34, 70, 76, 302
Ophiopogon
O. planiscapus Nigrescens 136,
137, 144, 145, 322
orange planting 13, 14, 745
oregano 390
Origanum
laevigatumHerrenhausen 322
organic matter mulch 49
Origanum vulgare
O. v. Aureum 82
O. v. Polyphant 82
Osmanthus x burkwoodii 313
Osmanthus heterophyllus Variegatus
347
Osmunda regalis 290
Osteospermum
O. jucundum 322
O. Sunny Serena 297
O. White Pim 146, 147

P
Pachysandra 302
P. t. Variegata 323
palms 16
Panicum 110, 111
P. virgatum Heavy Metal 330
pansy, winter 96
Papaver (poppy) 16
Parahebe perfoliata 66
parsley 2345
Envy 389
Forest Green 252
Plain Leaved 389
sowing 234
parsnips
Gladiator 365
Tender and True 365
parterres 34, 152, 153
Parthenocissus (Virginia creeper) 360,
361
P. henryana 309
P. tricuspidata (Boston ivy) 347
pasque flower 298
passion flower 256
paths 102, 1223
patios 37, 100, 115, 122, 322, 323
cleaning 148, 149
paved edging 48
pavers 123, 125

paving 99, 100, 102, 112, 114, 148,


149
materials 1223, 125
pea moth caterpillar 269
pears 160, 161
peas 269
Feltham First 381
Hurst Greenshaft 381
Oregon Sugar Pod 381
Rondo 381
sowing 226
Sugar Snap 381
Twinkle 381
peat soil 38
pebbles 102, 106, 114, 122
Pelargonium 16, 78
P. tomentosum 94
Pennisetum setaceum Rubrum 283
P. Alice Hindley 297
P. Andenken an Friedrich Hahn
297
P. digitalis Husker Red 68, 78
Penstemon
P. Evelyn 323
P. Schoenholzeri 330
P. Stapleford Gem 330
peppermint Chocolate 252
perennials 523, 108, 110111, 1389,
310330
tidying 112, 113, 130, 136, 138,
140, 142
perfume in garden 28
spring planting 22
winter planting 20
period style 102, 108, 119, 146
Perovskia atriplicifolia Blue Spire 40,
1301, 283, 330, 347
Persicaria affinis Superba 323
pests 2689, 321, 329
Phacelia campanularia 106, 107
Philadelphus 35, 1845, 347, 359, 361
P. Belle Etoile 157
Phlomis russeliana 283, 331
Phoenix canariensis 35
Phormium 16, 31, 100, 104, 105
P. Alison Blackman 313
P. Bronze Baby 323
P. Jester 144, 145
P. Sundowner 313
P. tenax Purpureum Group 35, 313
P. t. Atropurpureum 72
P. Tom Thumb 78
P. Yellow Wave 42, 284
Photinia x fraseri Red Robin 31, 35,
43, 274, 306, 348
Phygelius x rectus African Queen
348
Phyllostachys 120, 277
P. aureosulcata var. aureocaulis 136,
137
P. nigra 31, 34, 76, 277, 306
Physocarpus opulifolius Darts Gold
348
Physocarpus opulifoliusDiabolo 313
Phytoseiulus persimilis 269

Pieris 43
P. Forest Flame 290
P. japonica Purity 323
Pileostegia viburnoides 309
pink planting 13, 24
Pinus (pine) 19, 86
P. mugo Ophir 34, 284
P. mugo Mops 323
P. sylvestris Aurea Group 86
Pittosporum
P. Garnettii 314
P. tenuifolium Tom Thumb 35,
298, 348
P. tobira 40, 284
P. t. Nanum 72
plantain 267
planting 106, 112
containers 1447
recipes 6687
styles 3235
wildflower meadows 106
planting ideas 126147
plastic cloches 2223
plastic pots 89
platforms with ladders 165
pleaching 152
Potentilla fruticosa Goldfinger 348
Polygonatum x hybridum (Solomons
seal) 74
Polystichum setiferum Divisilobum
Group 324
pools 105, 108, 109, 124, 125
poppy 16
potager 2623
potato blight 271
potato cyst eelworm 269
potatoes 224, 239
Arran Pilot 362
Charlotte 362
Foremost 362
Kerrs Pink 363
Mimi 362
Nicola 363
Pink Fir Apple 363
protection 223
Ratte 363
Red Duke of York 362
Royal Kidney 363
Sante 363
Saxon 362
Potentilla fruticosa Primrose Beauty
324
pots see containers
powdery mildew 271
prairie planting 110111, 1401
Primula 22
P. florindae 290
P. pulverulenta 41, 43, 303
P. vulgaris 42, 303
P. v. Double Sulphur 96
propagating, herbs 235
protection
covers 217
walls 216
pruners 162, 164

Index MS 397

pruning 112, 113, 121, 134,


358361
clematis 308
Prunus (cherry) 359, 361
P. avium Plena 348
P. laurocerasus (cherry laurel)
182, 349
P. lusitanica 182
P. mume 349
P. rufa 158, 159
P. serrula 349
P. x subhirtella Autumnalis
Rosea 275, 306
Pulmonaria 22
P. Sissinghurst White 134, 135,
303
Pulsatilla vulgaris 42, 298
pumpkins 229
purple planting 13
Pyracantha (firethorn)
informal pruning 151
P. Orange Glow 349
pyramids 160, 161
Pyrus salicifolia var. orientalis
Pendula (weeping pear) 155,
349

R
rabbits 269
radishes 224
Cherry Belle 366
French Breakfast 366
raised beds 99, 100, 106, 108, 114,
122
ragwort 267
rain barrels 221
raised beds 2589
Ranunculus repens see buttercup,
creeping
red planting 13, 745
red-hot poker see Kniphofia
red spider mites 229, 269
reversion, pruning out 166
Rhamnus
R. alaternus Argenteovariegata
307, 349
R. frangula (alder buckthorn) 350
Rhodanthemum hosmariense 324
Rhododendron 43
R. luteum 350
R. Nobleanum Group 350
R. Olive 290
R. Persil 291
R. Rose Bud 350
R. Vuyks Scarlet 324
R. yakushimanum 324
Rhus 27
R. chinensis 176
R. typhina (staghorn sumac)
176, 350
Ribes (flowering currant) 35
R. sanguineum Brocklebankii
291

R. sangineum Pulborough
Scarlet 350
R. speciosum 351
Ricinus communis 35
Robinia pseudoacacia Frisia 275,
351
rodents, protection against 226
Rodgersia, for underplanting 155
Romneya coulteri 40, 43, 275
root crops 224, 3266
Rosa
R. Alexander 190
R. Arthur Bell 191
R. Baby Love 351
R. Blanche Double de Coubert
190
R. Blessings 190
R. Boule de Neige 190
R. Charles de Mills 190
R. Climbing Iceberg 351
R. Climbing Mrs. Sam McGredy
157
R. Crimson Shower 351
R. Dawn Chorus 190
R. De Rescht 190
R. Deep Secret 190
R. Elina 190
R. English Miss 191
R. Fantin-Latour 190
R. Fascination 190
R. Flicit Parmentier 351
R. Fellowship 190
R. Flower Carpet Series 324
R. Fragrant Delight 191
R. Frau Dagmar Hartopp 190
R. Freedom 190
R. glauca 324, 352
R. Iceberg 190
R. Ingrid Bergman 190
R. Just Joey 190
R. Louise Odier 190
R. Lovely Lady 190, 352
R. Madame Isaac Pereire 190
R. Madame Pierre Oger 190
R. Maidens Blush 190
R. Memento 190
R. mundi 190
R. x odorata Mutabilis 284
R. Paul Shirville 190, 352
R. Peace 190
R. Pretty Lady 190
R. Princess of Wales 191
R. Queen Elizabeth 191, 352
R. Queen Mother 352
R. Remember Me 190
R. Remembrance 190
R. rugosa 190, 352
R. rugosa Alba 190, 324
R. Sally Holmes 353
R. Savoy Hotel 190
R. Sexy Rexy 191
R. Silver Jubilee 190
R. Souvenir de la Malmaison
190
R. Sunset Boulevard 191

Rosa (continued)
R. Surrey 324
R. Tall Story 191
R. Tequila Sunrise 190
R. The Times Rose 191
R. Troika 190
R. Trumpeter 191, 353
R. Warm Wishes 190
R. White Cockade 212
R. William Lobb 190
R. xanthina Canary Bird 284
roses 27, 30, 35, 42, 100, 101, 106,
2124
alternate buds 169
climbing 157, 173, 2125
deadheading 167, 186
floribunda 191
hybrid tea 190
informal pruning 150
old garden 190
patio 1867
rambling 151, 2145
shoot buds 1689
shrub 1889
on tripods 2123
routine jobs 1123
rosemary 235, 390
Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary) 40,
82, 284, 353
R. cockburnianus 158, 353
R. o. Prostratus Group 66
Rubus thibetanus 132, 133
Rudbeckia 24, 102, 103
R. fulgida 110, 111
R. f. var. deamii 331
R. f. var. sullivantii Goldsturm
298, 331
runner beans 2267, 2401
Butler 382
Liberty 260, 262, 382
sowing 226
supporting 227
White Lady 382
Wisley Magic 250, 382
rust 271
rutabagas
Brora 366

S
safety
branch removal 171
tools 1645
sage 391
purple 235
salad leaves 2345, 2725
containers 217
protection 223
sowing 234
Salix (willow) 118, 120, 151, 358
S. alba var. vitellinaBritzensis 132,
133, 354
S. daphnoides (violet willow)
354

Salvia (sage) 84
S. nemorosa Lubecca 331
S. officinalis Icterina 82
S. n. Ostfriesland 139, 140
S. o. Purpurascens 285
S. x superba 331
S. x sylvestris Mainacht 140, 141,
285
S. verticillata Purple Rain 331
Sambucus nigra (elder) 176
S. n. Aurea 354
S. nigra Black Lace 314
S. n. Marginata 134, 135
Sambucus racemosa Plumosa
Aurea 30, 41, 277
sandy soil 38, 126, 136, 329
plants for 40
testing for 39
Santolina
informal pruning 151
S. chamaecyparissus 34, 66, 354
S. pinnata subsp. neapolitana
Edward Bowles 142
Sarcococca
S. confusa 96
S. hookeriana var. digyna 291,
314
saws
bow 162
chain 165
long-armed 162
pruning 162,164, 169
Saxifraga fortunei 27, 303
Scabiosa
S. Butterfly Blue 324
S. Pink Mist 146, 147, 324
Schizophragma
S. hydrangeoides Roseum 309,
354
S. integrifolium 309
sclerotinia 271
screens 10, 99, 108, 1201, 136, 137,
149
sculpture 102, 105, 114
sea holly see Eryngium
sea pink see Armeria maritima
seasonal planting 2029, 37
Sedum 106
S. Herbstfreude 42, 84, 132,
133, 298, 331
S. Matrona 331
S. Ruby Glow 146, 147, 325
S. spectabile 70
S. Vera Jameson 325
seedhead interest 20, 27
self-seeding plants 113, 115, 318,
319, 331
Sempervivum 106, 114
S. tectorum 325
Senecio cineraria 95
shade 108109, 117, 1267
shady sites 36
medium-sized plants for 286291
short plants for 300303
tall plants for 2767

398

Index

Index
shallots 228
Golden Gourmet 262, 379
Longor 378
Red Sun 379
shearing 1923
shears 169
shepherds purse 267
shoots, identification 1689
short plants
for shade 3003
for sunny sites 2929
shrubs 174203
combined with trees 712
fall planting 20
formal pruning 1523
planting 567
pruning 112
wall 1945
winter planting 20
silty soil 38
silver foliage 114, 1289, 1345,
1389, 1445
silver planting 13, 24
Sisyrinchium striatum Aunt May
299, 325
siting vegetables 2167
Skimmia
S. japonica Rubella 315
S, japonica Nymans 354
S. x confusa Kew Green 43,
291
slate 122, 1423
slow-release fertilizer 113, 132, 144,
146
slugs and snails 136, 225, 234, 268,
269, 321
snowdrop see Galanthus
sod, removing 45
soil types 3839, 228
Solanum crispum Glasnevin 40,
275, 354
Solomons seal 74
Sorbus 27, 106, 359
S. aria 152
S. aria Lutescens 307
S. cashmiriana 275
S. commixta 355
S. vilmorinii 307
spaces, pruning to create
1545
spearmint 390
specimen plants 16
spinach 2345
bolting 235
perpetual spinach 373
sowing 234
Tetona 373
Spiraea
S. japonica 355
S. japonica White Gold 78
S. nipponica Snowmound 355
spring planting 20, 223, 745,
1267
for containters 923
sprouting seeds 391
spur pruning 1723

squash 229
Crown Prince 376
Festival 376
Jack Be Little 256
Pilgrim Butternut 376
Sunburst 376
Turks Turban 376
Uchiki Kuri 256, 376
Stachys
S. b. Silver Carpet 1389
S. b. Big Ears (lambs ears) 299
Stachyurus Magpie 355
standard formation 155
statuary 16
stems 1323, 134, 311, 314, 328
steps 14
Stewartia monadelpha 43, 277
sticky sheets 268
stinging nettle 266
Stipa 99, 110, 111
S. calamagrostis 1312
S. gigantea 84, 136, 137, 140, 141,
285, 331
S. tenuissima 31, 34, 110, 132, 133,
138, 139, 299, 325
stone 105, 122, 125
stone containers 89
subtropical planting 16, 32, 35, 945
subtropical themes 1367
succulents 16, 114, 146, 325
sucker removal 166
summer planting 20, 245
sunny sites 36, 216
gravel gardens 667
medium-sized plants for 278285
short plants for 2929
tall plants for 2725
sweet corn 216, 2301
Butterscotch 387
compact planting 231
fertilization 231
Indian Summer 387
intercropping 2467
Lark 262, 387
sowing 230
Swift 260
sweet peppers 2301
Corno di Torro Rosso 386
growing near walls 216
Gypsy 258, 386
Marconi Rosso 386
sowing 230
sweet potato Beauregard 258
synthetic pots 89
Syringa (lilac)
S. meyeri Palabin 315
S. pubescens subsp. microphylla
Superba 315
S. vulgaris 355

T
tall plants
for shade 275
for sun 2725

Tamarix
T. parviflora 356
T. ramosissima Pink Cascade 356
Taxus (yew)
T. baccata 34, 120, 138, 139, 307,
356
T. b. Fastigiata Aureomarginata
315
T. b. Standishii 315
parterre 152, 153
shearing 169
tender plants 108, 115, 117
terra-cotta pots 102, 103, 1467
Tetrapanax 19
texture 99, 100, 108109, 114, 122,
125, 138, 139, 144
themed planting 169, 245
Thymus (thyme)
T. x citriodorus 82
T. doerfleri Doone Valley 82, 389
lemon 259
T. pulegioides Bertram 66
Silver Posie 389
T. vulgaris 142
Tiarella cordifolia 303
Tilia (linden)
pleaching 152
T. cordata Winter Orange 356
tiling 16
time-saving tips 1123
tools 1623, 1645
tomato blight 271
tomatoes 2301
containers 217
Early Bush Cherry 384
Ferline 385
fungal diseases 271
Gardeners Delight 260, 385
planting in growing bag 2423
Shirley 384
sowing 230
Summer Sweet 258, 385
Sungold 384
Super Marmande 385
Supersweet 385
Sweet Olive 384
Tigerella 385
Totem 382
Tumbler 252, 384
Tumbling Tom Red 250
watering 231
topiary 16, 34, 102, 103, 313
Toona sinensis 356
Trachelospermum 16
T. asiaticum 31, 275, 309
T. jasminoides 309, 356
Trachycarpus (palm) 16
T. wagnerianus 275
tree fern 16, 19, 276
trees 108, 174203, 304307
combined with shrubs 712
fall planting 20, 27
as focal point 14
planting 545
winter interest 20

trellis 37, 105, 108, 114, 118, 120


tropical planting see subtropical
planting
Tulipa (tulip) 22, 32, 745
T. Ballerina 74
orange 14
turnips 224
Purple Top Milan 366
Snowball 366

U
Uvularia grandiflora 43, 303

V
variegated planting 13, 767
ventilation in greenhouse 217
Verbena 84
V. bonariensis 34, 40, 84, 102, 106,
110, 111, 132, 140, 141, 285, 331
Veronica gentianoides Tissington
White 299
Viburnum 27, 358
V. x bodnantense Dawn 307, 357
V. x burkwoodii Anne Russell 315
V. davidii 291, 315
V. rhytidophyllum 153
V. tinus Eve Price 41, 291, 307, 357
vigorous plants 113
Vinca (periwinkle) 31
V. difformis 299
V. minor Illumination 94
vine eyes 60
Viola 96
Virginia creeper see Parthenocissus
visual tricks 10
Vitex agnus-castus var. latifolia (chaste
tree) 357
Vitis (vine) 102, 103
V. vinifera Purpurea 309, 357

W
walls 100, 116, 117, 120, 148, 149,
318, 322
borders by 37
brick 118, 119
climbers for 22
growing near 216
painted 100, 101, 105, 108, 109,
114, 118, 149
rendered 100, 101, 105, 118
shrubs for 106, 115, 117, 1945,
304, 307, 308, 309, 314
wand flower 280
water features 16, 99, 100, 102, 105,
106
water supply 216, 221
watering 112, 220, 221, 270
containers 115, 144, 146
water-retaining crystals 91
weed-suppressing membrane 49, 123
planting through 98, 99, 113, 142

Index SZ 399

weeding 113, 115


perennials 266
weedkillers 113
weeds
annuals/biennials 267
perennials 266
suppressing 110, 126
Weigela 359
W. Eve Rathke 285
W. florida 357
W. florida Foliis Purpureis 315
W. Praecox Variegata 176
W. Wine and Roses 176
whiteflies 229, 268
wildlife 106107, 117, 122, 140, 314,
325, 331
encouraging 33, 268
windy sites 37
winter color 1323

winter planting 20, 289,


867
for perfume 967
wildlife
windowboxes 2545
windowsills 217
wintersweet 279
wisteria 22, 2045
alternate buds 169
spur pruning 173
tiny-tree pruning 155
W. sinensis 156, 157, 357
witch hazel 28
wood edging 48
wooden containers 89
woodland planting 37
woodstone 122
yellow planting 13, 745
yew 19

Yucca
Y. filamentosa Bright Edge 136,
137, 325
Y. flaccida Ivory 325

Z
Zauschneria californica 299
Zen gardens 105, 125
zucchini 229, 238
Burpees Golden 260, 375
Defender 375
protection 223
Tromboncino 250, 375
Venus 375
Zucchini 375

Acknowledgments
The publisher would like to thank the
following for their kind permission to
reproduce their photographs:
(Key: a-above; b-below/bottom;
c-center; l-left; r-right; t-top)
10: Harpur Garden Library: Marcus
Harpur/ Design: Dr Mary Giblin, Essex
(t). Andrew Lawson: Designer:
Anthony Noel (b). 11: The Garden
Collection: Liz Eddison (b). John Glover:
Ladywood, Hampshire (t). 12: The
Garden Collection: Liz Eddison/Tatton
Park Flower Show 2002/Designer:
Andrew Walker. 13: Marianne Majerus
Photography: RHS Rosemoor (t), S & O
Mathews Photography: The
Lawrences Garden, Hunterville, NZ (c),
Leigh Clapp: (b). 14: DK Images: Sarah
Cuttle/RHS Chelsea Flower Show
2005/4Head Garden/Designer: Marney
Hall (tr), Mark Winwood/Hampton
Court Flower Show 2005/Designer:
Susan Slater (br). 16: Marianne Majerus
Photography/ Designer: Pat Wallace (t),
Designer: Ann Frith (b). 17: Marianne
Majerus Photography/ Designer:
George Carter (t), The Garden
Collection: Jonathan Buckley/Designer:
Helen Yemm (b). 18: Derek St
Romaine/ RHS Chelsea Flower Show
2000/Designer: Lindsay Knight (t), The
Garden Collection: Liz Eddison/
Hampton Court Flower Show 2005/
Designer: Daryl Gannon (b). 19: The
Garden Collection: Liz Eddison/

Whichford Pottery (l); Liz Eddison/


Hampton Court Flower Show 2002/
Designer Maureen Busby (r).
20: Andrew Lawson: (t) (c) (b). 21: The
Garden Collection: Jonathan Buckley/
Designer: Helen Yemm. 22: The
Garden Collection: Derek Harris. 23:
Leigh Clapp: St Michaels House (t).
Andrew Lawson: (b). 24: The Garden
Collection: Liz Eddison/Hampton Court
Flower Show 2001/Designer: Cherry
Burton (t). 25: Leigh Clapp: Green Lane
Farm. 26: Andrew Lawson. 27: The
Garden Collection: Jonathan Buckley/
Designer: Mark Brown (t); Jonathan
Buckley (b). 28: Marianne Majerus
Photography: Designer: Kathleen
Beddington (t). 29: The Garden
Collection: Liz Eddison (tl), Andrew
Lawson (r): Waterperry Gardens, Oxon
(bl). 30: John Glover: Ladywood, Hants
(t). 32: Derek St Romaine/ Mr & Mrs
Bates, Surrey (t). Nicola Stocken
Tomkins: Berrylands Road, Surrey (b).
33: Marianne Majerus Photography/
Designer: Julie Toll (t), Leigh Clapp (b).
34: Leigh Clapp: Copse Lodge (l).
Nicola Stocken Tomkins: Longer End
Cottage, Normandy, Surrey (c), Nicola
Browne/ Designer: Jinny Blom (r).
35: Leigh Clapp: Merriments Nursery
(l). Andrew Lawson: RHS Chelsea
Flower Show 1999/Selsdon & District
Horticultural Society (c). Nicola Stocken
Tomkins: Hampton Court Flower Show
2004/Designer: S Eberle (r). 37:
Marianne Majerus Photography:

Manor Farm, Keisby, Lincs. (br). 42:


crocus.co.uk (bl). 44: Andrew Lawson.
48: Forest Garden (br). 67: DK Images:
Mark Winwood/Capel Manor College/
Designer: Irma Ansell: The
Mediterranean Garden.
689: Thompson & Morgan. 71: DK
Images: Mark Winwood/Capel Manor
College/Designer: Elizabeth Ramsden:
Modern Front Garden. 73: DK Images:
Mark Winwood/Hampton Court
Flower Show 2005/Designer: Susan
Slater: Pushing the Edge of the
Square. 74: Marianne Majerus/
Designers: Nori and Sandra Pope,
Hadspen (bl). 75: Marianne Majerus
Photography/ Designers: Nori and
Sandra Pope, Hadspen. 77: DK Images:
Mark Winwood/Hampton Court
Flower Show 2005: Designed by
Guildford College: Journey of the
Senses. 79: DK Images: Mark
Winwood/Capel Manor College/
Designer: Sascha Dutton-Forshaw:
Victorian Front Garden. 801: DK
Images: Mark Winwood/Capel Manor
College/ Designer: Irma Ansell: The
Mediterranean Garden. 83: Modeste
Herwig. 84: Leigh Clapp/ Designers:
Acres Wild (bl). 85: Leigh Clapp/
Designers: Acres Wild. 86: S & O
Mathews Photography: RHS Rosemoor
(bl) (br). 87: S & O Mathews
Photography: RHS Rosemoor. 98:
Steven Wooster, Designers: Sarah
Brodie & Faith Pewhustel/'Where For
Art Thou?'/Chelsea Flower Show 2002.

99: The Garden Collection: Torie


Chugg, Designer: Jill Anderson/
Hampton Court 2005 (t), Marianne
Majerus Photography: Designer:
Lynne Marcus (b). 100: The Garden
Collection: Liz Eddison, Designer:
Bob Purnell (t), The Garden
Collection: Liz Eddison (br), DK
Images: Peter Anderson, Designer:
Kati Crome/Tufa Tea/Chelsea Flower
Show 2007 (bl). 101: The Garden
Collection: Marie OHara, Designer:
Marney Hall/ Chelsea Flower Show
2005. 102: Garden Picture Library:
Botanica (t), GAP Photos Ltd: Clive
Nichols, Designer: Stephen
Woodhams (b). 103: The Garden
Collection: Jonathan Buckley,
Designer: Anthony Goff (t), Garden
Picture Library: Ron Sutherland,
Designer: Anthony Paul (b). 104: DK
Images: Steven Wooster, Kelly's
Creek/Chelsea Flower Show 2000.
105: Clive Nichols: Designer: Liz
Robertson/Hampton Court 2003 (tl),
The Garden Collection: Jonathan
Buckley, Designer: Paul Kelly (br), DK
Images: Brian North, Designers:
Marcus Barnett & Philip Nixon/The
Savills Garden/Chelsea Flower Show
2007 (c). 106: DK Images: Peter
Anderson, Designer: Heidi Harvey &
Fern Alder/Full Frontal/Hampton
Court Palace Flower Show 2007 (t).
107: The Garden Collection:
Jonathan Buckley, Designer:
Christopher Lloyd/Great Dixter (l), DK

400 Acknowledgments

Acknowledgments
Images: Brian North, Designer: Mark
Browning/The Flemings & Trailfinders
Australian Garden/Chelsea Flower
Show 2007 (br). 108: DK Images:
Peter Anderson, Designer: Geoff
Whiten/The Pavestone Garden/
Chelsea Flower Show 2006 (b). 109:
The Garden Collection: Liz Eddison,
Designer: Reaseheath College (t), DK
Images: Peter Anderson, Designers:
Louise Cummins & Caroline De Lane
Lea/The Suber Garden/Chelsea
Flower Show 2007 (b). 110: The
Garden Collection: Nicola Stocken
Tomkins (b), DK Images: Peter
Anderson, Designer: Jinny Blom/
Laurent-Perrier Garden/Chelsea
Flower Show 2007 (t). 111: The
Garden Collection: Liz Eddison,
Design: Butler Landscapes (t). 112: DK
Images: Brian North, Designer:
Harpak Design/A City Haven/Chelsea
Flower Show 2007 (t). 114: Designer:
Chris Parsons/Hallam Garden Design
(t), DK Images: Brian North, Designer:
Teresa Davies, Steve Putnam &
Samantha Hawkins/Moving Spaces,
Moving On/Chelsea Flower Show
2007 (bc), Designer: Jinny Blom/
Laurent-Perrier Garden/Chelsea
Flower Show 2007 (br). 115: DK
Images: Steve Wooster, Designers: Xa
Tollemache & Jon Kellett/The Merrill
Lynch Garden, Chelsea Flower Show.
118: DK Images: Peter Anderson,
Designers: Chloe Salt, Roger Bullock
& Jeremy Salt/Reflective Height/
Chelsea Flower Show 2006 (br). 119:
DK Images: Peter Anderson,
Designer: Mike Harvey/The Unwind
Garden/Hampton Court Palace
Flower Show 2007. 120: DK Images:
Peter Anderson, Designer: Gabriella
Pape & Isabelle Van Groeningen/The
Daily Telegraph Garden/Chelsea
Flower Show 2007 (br). 121: DK
Images: Peter Anderson, Designer:
Chris Beardshaw/The Chris
Beardshaw Garden/Chelsea Flower
Show 2007 (t). 122: Stonemarket 123:
Stonemarket (bl) (br), DK Images:
Peter Anderson, Designers: James
Mason & Chloe Gazzard/The Path
Not Taken/Hampton Court Palace
Flower Show 2007 (bc). 124: The
Garden Collection: Liz Eddison,
Designer: Thomas Hoblyn. 125:
Stonemarket (bl), Garden Picture
Library: Mark Bolton (br), DK Images:
Peter Anderson, Designer: Ulf
Nordfjell/A Tribute to Linnaeus/
Chelsea Flower Show 2007 (tr). 127:
Marianne Majerus Photography.
1289: DK Images: Peter Anderson,
Designer: Linda Bush/ The Hasmead

Sand & Ice Garden/Chelsea Flower


Show 2007. 1301: Marianne Majerus
Photography: Designers: Brita von
Schoenaich & Tim Rees/Ryton Organic
Garden (t). 133: Clive Nichols:
Woodpeckers, Warwickshire. 137:
Garden Picture Library: Ron Evans.
1389: DK Images: Peter Anderson,
Designers: Laurie Chetwood & Patrick
Collins/Chetwoods Urban Oasis/
Chelsea Flower Show 2007. 140:
Alamy Images: CuboImages srl (cr).
1423: DK Images: Peter Anderson,
Designer: Scenic Blue/The Marshalls
Sustainability Garden/Chelsea Flower
Show 2007. 148: Alamy Images: The
Photolibrary Wales (bl). 149: Ronseal
(br), DK Images: Brian North,
Designers: Harry Levy & Geoff Carter/
The Water Garden/Tatton Park 2007
(tr). 150 Alamy Images: Ian Fraser,
Cothay Manor, Somerset. 153 DK
Images Steve Wooster, Designer: Tom
Stuart-Smith/ Homage to Le Ntre/
Chelsea Flower Show 2000 (t), Peter
Anderson, designer: Tom Stuart-Smith/
Chelsea Flower Show 2006. 155 DK
Images: Peter Anderson, designers:
Marcus Barnett and Philip Nixon/Savills
Garden, Chelsea Flower Show 2006.
165 www.henchman.co.uk; Tel: 01635
299847. 210 Sarah Cuttle (tr) (br);
Jacqui Dracup (bl). 216 Airedale: Sarah
Cuttle (l). DK Images: Peter Anderson
(r). 217 Airedale: David Murphy (l);
Amanda Jensen: Designer: Paul Stone,
Mayor of London's Office, The
Sunshine Garden, Hampton Court
2006 (r). 218 DK Images: Peter
Anderson. 219 Airedale: Sarah Cuttle
(tl) (bl) (br). DK Images: Peter Anderson
(tr). 220 Airedale: David Murphy. 221
Airedale: Amanda Jensen (t). 222 DK
Images: Peter Anderson. 223 DK
Images: Peter Anderson (tl) (b). 225
Airedale: Sarah Cuttle (tl). Thompson &
Morgan (fbr). 226 Airedale: Sarah
Cuttle. 227 Airedale: Sarah Cuttle (tr)
(fbr). Chase Organics Ltd (fbl). 229
Airedale: David Murphy (tl); Sarah
Cuttle (br) (fbr). DK Images: Peter
Anderson (tr). 230 Airedale: Sarah
Cuttle. 231 Airedale: Sarah Cuttle (tl)
(br). 232 Airedale: Sarah Cuttle. 233
Airedale: Sarah Cuttle (br). Chase
Organics Ltd (fbr). 234 Airedale: Sarah
Cuttle. 235 Airedale: Sarah Cuttle (fbl)
(bl). 236 Airedale: Sarah Cuttle. 240
Airedale: Sarah Cuttle. 250 Airedale:
Sarah Cuttle (cr). DK Images: Peter
Anderson (tr). Thompson & Morgan
(tl). 251 RHS The Garden: Tim Sandall.
252 Airedale: Sarah Cuttle (tl). Suttons
Seeds (cr). DT Brown (bl). 253 Airedale:
David Murphy. 254 Malcolm Dodds (tl).

255 Airedale: Sarah Cuttle (br). DK


Images: Peter Anderson (bl). Derek St
Romaine (tl). 257 Derek St Romaine:
RHS Garden Rosemoor. 2589
Airedale: Sarah Cuttle. 260 Airedale:
Sarah Cuttle (tl) (br). 261 Airedale:
Sarah Cuttle. 262 Airedale: Sarah
Cuttle (br). Thompson & Morgan (cl).
263 DK Images: Steve Wooster. 264
Airedale: Sarah Cuttle. 265 Airedale:
David Murphy (tl); Sarah Cuttle (ca). DK
Images: Peter Anderson (cb). 266 DK
Images: Deni Bown (c); Peter Anderson
(ca) (tr) (cr) (bc). Airedale: David
Murphy (cl). 267 Airedale: Sarah Cuttle
(bc) (br). DK Images: Deni Bown (tr) (c)
(bl). Malcolm Dodds (tl). 268 Airedale:
Sarah Cuttle (bl) (bc). DK Images: Peter
Anderson (br). 269 DK Images: Peter
Anderson (c) (cr) (bc). Photoshot/
NHPA: N A Callow (bl). 270 DK Images:
Peter Anderson (tr) (br). Airedale: David
Murphy (bl). 271 Airedale: David
Murphy (tl). DK Images: Peter
Anderson (cl) (bl). 362 Thompson &
Morgan (bl). 363 Airedale: Sarah Cuttle
(tc) (br). Thompson & Morgan (tl). DT
Brown (tr). 364 Thompson & Morgan
(tr). Fothergills (tl) (bl). 365 Airedale:
Sarah Cuttle (tr). Suttons Seeds (br).
Thompson & Morgan (bc). Fothergills
(bl). 366 Airedale: Sarah Cuttle (bc).
Suttons Seeds (tl) (tr). Fothergills (tc).
367 Airedale: Sarah Cuttle (bl). Chase
Organics Ltd (tl) (tc). Thompson &
Morgan (bc) (br). Fothergills (tr). 368
Airedale: Sarah Cuttle (tr). Thompson
& Morgan (tl) (bl). DT Brown (tc) (br).
Fothergills (bc). 369 Airedale: Sarah
Cuttle (tc). Suttons Seeds (tl).
Thompson & Morgan (tr) (br).
Fothergills (bl). 272: crocus.co.uk (bl),
273: crocus.co.uk (bc). 275: crocus.co.
uk (bc). 281: crocus.co.uk (tr). 284:
Garden World Images: (bl). 296:
Garden World Images: (bl) (br). 304:
Caroline Reed (tr). 309: Caroline Reed
(bc). 310: Caroline Reed (tr). 311: Jenny
Hendy (bl). 312: Caroline Reed (tl),
Jenny Hendy (br) 314: Caroline Reed
(bc). 323: Clive Nichols: (bc). 323: GAP
Photos Ltd: S & O (br). 326: Alamy
Images: Niall McDiarmid (br). 370
Suttons Seeds (br). DT Brown (bc). 371
Chase Organics Ltd (tl). Thompson &
Morgan (tc). DT Brown (tr). 372
Airedale: Sarah Cuttle (tl); David
Murphy (bl); Mike Newton (tr).
Fothergills (tc) (bc) (br). 373 Airedale:
Sarah Cuttle (tl) (tr) (bl). Thompson &
Morgan (bc). DT Brown (br). Fothergills
(tc). 374 (bl). DT Brown (tr) (bc). 375
Airedale: Sarah Cuttle (tr) (bc).
Marshalls Seeds (tl). Thompson &
Morgan (tc). 376 Marshalls Seeds (bl)

(br). Joy Michaud/Sea Spring Photos


(tc). W. Robinson & Son Ltd. (bc). DT
Brown (tl). Fothergills (tr). 377
Airedale: Sarah Cuttle (tr) (br). Joy
Michaud/Sea Spring Photos (tc). DT
Brown (tl) (bc). 378 Airedale: Sarah
Cuttle (tc). Thompson & Morgan (bl)
(bc) (br). Fothergills (tl). 379 Airedale:
Sarah Cuttle (tc). Chase Organics (tl).
Thompson & Morgan (br). DT Brown
(tr) (bl) (bc). 380 Airedale: Sarah
Cuttle (tc) (tr) (bl). Joy Michaud/Sea
Spring Photos (tl). 381 Airedale:
Sarah Cuttle (tc). Marshalls Seeds (tr).
DT Brown (bc). Fothergills (tl) (bl) (br).
382 Suttons Seeds (bc). Thompson &
Morgan (tr). Fothergills (tl). 383
Marshalls Seeds (bc) (br). Thompson
& Morgan (tl) (tr). 384 DT Brown (br).
385 Airedale: Sarah Cuttle (tr) (bc).
Chase Organics (bl). DT Brown (tl)
(tc). 386 Airedale: Sarah Cuttle (tl)
(bl). Thompson & Morgan (tr). DT
Brown (tc). Fothergills (bc). 387
Airedale: Sarah Cuttle (br).
Thompson & Morgan (bl). Fothergills
(tl) (tc) (bc). 388 Airedale: Sarah
Cuttle (tl) (tr). DT Brown (tc). 389 DT
Brown (tl). 390 Airedale: Sarah Cuttle
(tl) (bl) (bc). DT Brown (br). 391
Airedale: Sarah Cuttle (tc).

All other images Dorling


Kindersley
For further information see:
www.dkimages.com