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Jewish resistance in German-occupied Europe

Jewish resistance under the Nazi rule took various


forms of organized underground activities conducted
against German occupation regimes in Europe by Jews
during World War II. The term is particularly connected
with the Holocaust and includes a multitude of dierent social responses by those oppressed, as well as both
passive and armed resistance conducted by Jews themselves.

evil, to refuse to be reduced to the level of animals, to live through the torment, to outlive the
tormentors, these too were acts of resistance.
Merely to give a witness of these events in testimony was, in the end, a contribution to victory.
Simply to survive was a victory of the human
spirit.[3]

Due to military strength of Nazi Germany and its allies,


as well as the administrative system of ghettoization and
the hostility of various sections of the civilian population,
few Jews were able to eectively resist the Final Solution
militarily. Nevertheless, there are many cases of attempts
at resistance in one form or another including over a hundred armed Jewish uprisings.[1] Historiographically, the
study of Jewish resistance to German rule is considered
an important aspect of the study of the Holocaust.

This view is supported by Yehuda Bauer, who wrote that


resistance to the Nazis comprised not only physical opposition, but any activity that gave the Jewish people dignity
and humanity despite the humiliating and inhumane conditions. Bauer disputes the popular view that most Jews
went to their deaths passively. He argues that, given the
conditions in which the Jews of Eastern Europe had to
live under and endure, what is surprising is not how little
resistance there was, but rather how much resistance was
present.

2 Types of resistance

Concepts and denitions

The historian Julian Jackson argued that there were three 2.1
discrete forms of Jewish resistance in the course of his
study of the German occupation of France:

Ghettos
Poland

across

German-occupied

Further information: Ghetto uprising and Jewish ghettos


in German-occupied Poland

One can distinguish three categories of


Jewish resistance: rst, individual French
Jews in the general Resistance; secondly,
specically Jewish organizations in the general Resistance; thirdly, Resistance organizations (not necessarily comprising Jews alone)
with specically Jewish objectives.[2]

In 1940, the Warsaw ghetto was cut o from its access


to Polish underground newspapers, and the only newspaper allowed to be imported into the connes of the ghetto
was the General Government propaganda organ Gazeta
ydowska. As a result, from roughly May 1940 to October 1941, the Jews of the ghetto published their own unIn his book The Holocaust: The Jewish Tragedy, Martin derground newspapers, oering hopeful news about the
Gilbert denes Jewish resistance more widely:
war and prospects for the future. The most prominent
of these were published by the Jewish Socialist party and
the Zionist Labor Movement. These papers lamented the
In every ghetto, in every deportation train,
carnage of war, but for the most part did not encourage
in every labor camp, even in the death camps,
armed resistance.[4]
the will to resist was strong, and took many
forms. Fighting with the few weapons that
Between April and May 1943, Jewish men and women
would be found, individual acts of deance and
of the Warsaw Ghetto took up arms and rebelled against
protest, the courage of obtaining food and wathe Nazis after it became clear that the Germans were
ter under the threat of death, the superiority of
deporting remaining Ghetto inhabitants to the Treblinka
refusing to allow the Germans their nal wish
extermination camp. Warsaw Jews of the Jewish Comto gloat over panic and despair.
bat Organization and the Jewish Military Union fought
the Germans with a handful of small arms and Molotov
Even passivity was a form of resistance.
cocktails, as Polish resistance attacked from the outside
To die with dignity was a form of resistance.
in support. After erce ghting, vastly superior German
To resist the demoralizing, brutalizing force of
1

forces pacied the Warsaw Ghetto and either murdered


or deported all of the remaining inhabitants to the Nazi
killing centers.[5] The Germans claimed that they lost 18
dead and 85 wounded, though this gure has been disputed, with resistance leader Marek Edelman estimating
300 German casualties. Some 13,000 Jews were killed,
and 56,885 were deported to concentration camps.
There were many other major and minor ghetto uprisings,
however most were not successful. Some of the ghetto
uprisings include the Biaystok Ghetto Uprising and the
Czstochowa Ghetto Uprising.

2.2

In concentration camps

Smoke rising from Treblinka extermination camp during the prisoner uprising of August 1943

There were major resistance eorts in three of the extermination camps.


In August 1943, an uprising took place at the
Treblinka extermination camp. The participants obtained guns and grenades after two young men used
forged keys and snuck into the weapons store. The
weapons were then distributed around the camp in
garbage bins. However, during the distribution of
arms, a Nazi guard stopped a prisoner and found
contraband money on him. Fearing that the prisoner
would be tortured and give away the plan, the organizers decided to launch the revolt ahead of schedule
without completing the distribution of weapons, and
set o a single grenadethe agreed-upon signal for
the uprising. The prisoners then attacked the Nazi
guards with guns and grenades. Several German and
Ukrainian guards were killed, a fuel tank was set on
re, barracks and warehouses were burned, military
vehicles were disabled, and grenades were thrown
at the SS headquarters. The guards replied with
machine-gun re, and 1,500 inmates were killed
but 70 inmates escaped to freedom. The guards
chased those who had escaped on horseback and in
cars, but some of those who escaped were armed,

TYPES OF RESISTANCE

and returned the guards re. Gassing operations at


the camp were interrupted for a month.[6]
In October 1943, an uprising took place at Sobibr
extermination camp, led by Polish-Jewish prisoner Leon Feldhendler and Soviet-Jewish POW
Alexander Pechersky. The inmates covertly killed
11 German SS ocers, including the deputy commander, and a number of Ukrainian guards. Although the plan was to kill all of SS members and
walk out of the main gate of the camp, the guards
discovered the killings and opened re. The inmates
then had to then run for freedom under re, with
roughly 300 of the 600 inmates in the camp escaping alive. All but 5070 of the inmates were killed
in the surrounding mineelds or recaptured and executed by the Germans. However, the escape forced
the Nazis to close the camp, saving countless lives.[7]
On October 7, 1944, the Jewish Sonderkommandos
(inmates kept separate from the main camp and
put to work in the gas chambers and crematoria) at
Auschwitz staged an uprising. Female inmates had
smuggled in explosives from a weapons factory, and
Crematorium IV was partly destroyed by an explosion. At this stage they were joined by the Birkenau One Kommando, which also overpowered their
guards and broke out of the compound. The inmates
then attempted a mass escape, but were stopped by
heavy re. Three SS guards were killed in the uprising, including one who was pushed alive into an
oven. Almost all of the 250 escapees were killed.
There were also international plans for a general uprising in Auschwitz, coordinated with an Allied air
raid and a Polish resistance attack from the outside.

2.3 Partisan groups


Main article: Jewish partisans
There were a number of Jewish partisan groups operating in many countries, especially Poland. The most notable of the groups is the Bielski partisans, whom the
movie Deance portrays, and the Parczew partisans in the
forests near Lublin, Poland. Hundreds of Jews escaped
the ghettoes and joined the Partisan resistance groups.[1]

2.4 Assassination
On 4 February 1936, the leader of the NSDAP
(Nazi) party in Switzerland Wilhelm Gustlo was
assassinated by David Frankfurter, a Croatian Jew.
On 9 November 1938, Nazi diplomat Ernst vom
Rath was assassinated in Paris by a Jewish youth,
Herschel Grynszpan.

3.2

France

Jewish resistance in German- 3.2 France


occupied Europe by country
Despite amounting to only 1% of the French population,

3.1

Belgium

Main article: Belgian Resistance


Belgian resistance to the treatment of Jews crystallised
between AugustSeptember 1942, following the passing of legislation regarding wearing yellow badges and
the start of the deportations.[8] When deportations began,
Jewish partisans destroyed records of Jews compiled by
the AJB.[9] The rst organization specically devoted to
hiding Jews, the Comit de Dfense des Juifs (CDJ-JVD),
was formed in the summer of 1942.[8] The CDJ, a leftwing organization, may have saved up to 4,000 children
and 10,000 adults by nding them safe hiding places.[10]
It produced two Yiddish language underground newspapers, Unzer Wort (Our Word, with a Labour-Zionist
stance) and Unzer Kamf (Our Fight, with a Communist
one).[11] The CDJ was only one of dozens of organised
resistance groups that provided support to hidden Jews.
Other groups and individual resistance members were responsible for nding hiding places and providing food and
forged papers.[12] Many Jews in hiding went on to join organised resistance groups. Groups from left wing backgrounds, like the Front de l'Indpendance (FI-OF), were
particularly popular with Belgian Jews. The Communistinspired Partisans Arms (PA) had a particularly large
Jewish section in Brussels.[13]
The resistance was responsible for the assassination of
Robert Holzinger, the head of the deportation program,
in 1942.[14] Holzinger, an active collaborator, was an
Austrian Jew selected by the Germans for the role.[14] The
assassination led to a change in leadership of the AJB.
Five Jewish leaders, including the head of the AJB, were
arrested and interned in Breendonk, but were released
after public outcry.[9] A sixth was deported directly to
Auschwitz.[9]
The Belgian resistance was unusually well informed on
the fate of the deported Jews. In August 1942 (two
months after the start of the Belgian deportations), the
underground newspaper De Vrijschutter reported that
They [the deported Jews] are being killed in groups
by gas, and others are killed by salvos of machinegun
re.[15]
In early 1943, the Front de l'Indpendance sent Victor
Martin, an academic economist at the Catholic University
of Louvain, to gather information on the fate of deported
Belgian Jews using the cover of his research post at the
University of Cologne.[16] Martin visited Auschwitz and
witnessed the crematoria. Arrested by the Germans, he
escaped, and was able to report his ndings to the CDJ in
May 1943.[16]

Jews comprised about 15-20% of the French Resistance.


Some of the Jewish resistance members were HungarianJewish refugees.
French Jews set up their own armed resistance movement:
the Arme Juive (Jewish Army), a Zionist organization,
which at its height, numbered some 2,000 ghters. Operating throughout France, it smuggled hundreds of Jews
to Spain and Switzerland, launched attacks against occupying German forces, and targeted Nazi informants and
Gestapo agents. Armee Juive participated in the general
French uprising of August 1944, ghting in Paris, Lyon,
and Toulouse.[17]

3.3 Germany
Jewish resistance within Germany itself during the Nazi
era took a variety of forms, from sabotage and disruptions to providing intelligence to Allied forces, distributing anti-Nazi propaganda, as well as participating in attempts to assist Jewish emigration out of Nazi-controlled
territories. It has been argued that, for Jews during the
Holocaust, given the intent of the Nazi regime to exterminate Jews, survival itself constituted an act considered a
form of resistance.[18] Jewish participation in the German
resistance was largely conned to the underground activities of left-wing Zionist groups such as Werkleute,
Hashomer Hatzair and Habonim, and the German Social Democrats, Communists, and independent left-wing
groups such as the New Beginning. Much of the nonleft wing and non-Jewish opposition to Hitler in Germany
(i.e., conservative and religious forces), although often
opposed to the Nazi plans for extermination of German
and European Jewry, in many instances itself harbored
anti-Jewish sentiments.[19]
A celebrated case involved the arrest and execution of
Helmut Hirsch, a Jewish architectural student originally
from Stuttgart, in connection with a plot to bomb Nazi
Party headquarters in Nuremberg. Hirsch became involved in the Black Front, a breakaway faction from the
Nazi Party led by Otto Strasser. After being captured
by the Gestapo in December 1936, Hirsch confessed to
planning to murder Julius Streicher, a leading Nazi ocial and editor of the virulently anti-Semitic Der Strmer
newspaper, on behalf of Strasser and the Black Front.
Hirsch was sentenced to death on March 8, 1937, and
on June 4 was beheaded with an axe.
Perhaps the most signicant Jewish resistance group
within Germany for which records survive was the Berlinbased Baum Group (Baum-Gruppe), which was active
from 1937 to 1942. Largely young Jewish women and
men, the group disseminated anti-Nazi leaets, and organized semi-public demonstrations. Its most notable action was the bombing of an anti-Soviet exhibit organized

by Joseph Goebbels in Berlins Lustgarten. The action


resulted in mass arrests, executions, and reprisals against
German Jews. Because of the reprisals it provoked, the
bombing led to debate within opposition circles similar
to those that took place elsewhere where the Jewish resistance was activetaking action and risking murderous
reprisals vs. being non-confrontational with the hopes of
maximizing survival.[20]

3.4

Netherlands

In the Netherlands, the only pre-war group that immediately started resistance against the German occupation
was the communist party. During the rst two war years,
it was by far the biggest resistance organization, much
bigger than all other organizations put together. A major act of resistance was the organisation of the February
strike in 1941, in protest against anti-Jewish measures.
In this resistance, many Jews participated. About 1,000
Dutch Jews took part in resisting the Germans, and of
those, 500 perished in doing so. In 1988, a monument to
their memory was unveiled by the then mayor of Amsterdam, Ed van Thijn.[21]

JEWISH RESISTANCE IN ALLIED MILITARIES

Civil War. This organisation was formed in The Hague


but became mainly located in Rotterdam. It counted
about 200 (mainly Jewish) participants. They made several bomb attacks on German troop trains and arson attacks on cinemas, which were forbidden for Jews. Dormits was caught after stealing a handbag o a woman in
order to obtain an identication card for his Jewish girlfriend, who also participated in the resistance. Dormits
committed suicide in the police station by shooting himself through the head. From a cash ticket of a shop the
police found the hiding place of Dormits and discovered
bombs, arson material, illegal papers, reports about resistance actions and a list of participants. The Gestapo
was warned immediately and that day two hundred people
were arrested, followed by many more connected people
in Rotterdam, The Hague and Amsterdam. The Dutch
police participated in torturing the Jewish communists.
After a trial more than 20 were shot to death; most of
the others died in concentration camps or were gassed in
Auschwitz. Only a few survived. The war grave of Dormits has recently been destroyed by municipal authorities
in Rotterdam.

Among the rst Jewish resisters was the German fugi- 4 Jewish resistance in Allied militive Ernst Cahn, owner of an ice cream parlor. Together
taries
with his partner, Kohn, he had an ammonia gas cylinder
installed in the parlor to stave o attacks from the militant arm of the fascist NSB, the so-called Weerafdel- Main articles: Jewish Parachutists of Mandate Palestine,
ing"(WA). One day in February 1941 the German po- Jewish Brigade, and Special Interrogation Group
lice forced their entrance into the parlor, and were gassed. The British Army trained 37 Jewish volunteers from
Later, Cahn was caught and on March 3, 1941 he became
the rst civilian to be executed by a Nazi ring squad in
the Netherlands.
Benny Bluhm, a boxer, organized Jewish ghting parties
consisting of members of his boxing school to resist attacks. One of these brawls led to the death of a WAmember, H. Koot, and subsequently the Germans ordered
the rst Dutch razzia (police raid) of Jews as a reprisal.
That in turn led to the Februaristaking, the February
Strike. Bluhms group was the only Jewish group resisting the Germans in the Netherlands and the rst active
group of resistance ghters in the Netherlands. Bluhm
survived the war, and strove for a monument for the Jewish resisters that came about two years after his death in
1986.
Numerous Jews participated in resisting the Germans.
The Jewish director of the assembly center in the Hollandsche Schouwburg, a former theatre, Walter Sskind,
was instrumental in smuggling children out of his centre.
He was aided by his assistant Jacques van de Kar and the
director of the nearby crche, Mrs Pimentel.[22]
Within the underground communist party, a militant
group was formed: de Nederlandse Volksmilitie (NVM,
Dutch Peoples Militia). The leader was the Jewish Sally
(Samuel) Dormits, who had military experience from
guerrilla warfare in Brazil and participation in the Spanish

Soldiers of the British Jewish Brigade on parade in October 1944

Mandate Palestine to parachute into Europe in an attempt to organize resistance. The most famous member
of this group was Hannah Szenes.) She was parachuted
into Yugoslavia to assist in the rescue of Hungarian
Jews about to be deported to the German death camp
at Auschwitz.[23] Szenes was arrested at the Hungarian
border, then imprisoned and tortured, but refused to reveal details of her mission. She was eventually tried and
executed by ring squad.[23] She is regarded as a national
heroine in Israel.

5
The British government formed in July 1944 the Jewish
Brigade, which comprised more than 5,000 Jewish volunteers from Palestine, organized into three infantry regiments, an artillery regiment, and supporting units. They
were attached to the British Eight Army in Italy from
November 1944, taking part to the spring 1945 nal offensive on that front. After the end of the war in Europe
the Brigade was moved to Belgium and the Netherlands in
July 1945. As well as participating in combat operations
against German forces, the brigade assisted and protected
Holocaust survivors.[24][25]
The Special Interrogation Group was a British Army
commando unit comprising German-speaking Jewish
volunteers from Palestine. It carried out commando
and sabotage raids behind Axis lines during the Western
Desert Campaign, and gathered military intelligence
by stopping and questioning German transports while
dressed as German military police. They also assisted
other British forces. Following the disastrous failure of
Operation Agreement, a series of ground and amphibious operations carried out by British, Rhodesian and New
Zealand forces on German and Italian-held Tobruk in
September 1942, the survivors were transferred to the
Royal Pioneer Corps.

Notable Jewish resistance ghters

Pawe Frenkiel, a Polish Jewish youth leader in Warsaw and a senior commander of the Jewish Military
Union, killed in action defending the JMU headquarters
Yitzhak Arad, a former Soviet partisan
Herbert Baum, a Jewish member of the German
resistance against National Socialism, tortured to
death by the Gestapo
Bielski partisans, an organization of Jewish partisans who rescued Jews from extermination in
western Belarus
Frank Blaichman, a Holocaust survivor who was a
Polish-Jewish leader of Jewish resistance
Thomas Blatt, a survivor from the uprising and escape from the Sobibr extermination camp in October 1943
Masha Bruskina, a 17-year-old Jewish member of
the Minsk Resistance, executed by the Nazis
Eugenio Cal, an Italian partisan, executed by the
Nazis
Franco Cesana, an Italian Jew who joined a partisan
group, killed by the Nazis at age 13
Icchak Cukierman, one of the leaders of the Warsaw
Ghetto Uprising 1943 and ghter in the 1944
Warsaw Uprising
Szymon Datner, he helped smuggle several people
out of Biaystok Ghetto in 1943
Marek Edelman, a leader of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
Selma Engel-Wijnberg, the only known Dutch prisoner of Sobibr extermination camp who escaped
and survived
Leon Feldhendler, a Polish-Jewish resistance ghter
who organized the 1943 prisoner uprising at the
Sobibr extermination camp
Dov Freiberg, a participant in the Sobibr prisoners
revolt who joined Joseph Serchuks partisan unit

Belorussia, 1943. A Jewish partisan group of the brigade named


after Valery Chkalov.[26]

Munyo Gruber, a member of the Parczew partisans


who fought the Germans while attempting to save as
many Jewish lives as possible

Mordechaj Anielewicz, leader of the Jewish Combat


Organization during the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising,
killed in action in 1943

Abba Kovner, a member of the United Partisan Organization, one of the rst armed underground organizations in the Jewish ghettos under Nazi occupation

Dawid Apfelbaum, a commander of the Jewish Military Union during the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising,
killed in action during heavy ghting at the beginning of the uprising

Zivia Lubetkin, one of the leaders of the Jewish underground in Nazi-occupied Warsaw and the only
woman on the High Command of the resistance
group ydowska Organizacja Bojowa

NOTES AND REFERENCES

Dov Lopatyn, leader of one of the rst ghetto upris- 6.1 The Nokmim
ings of the war and member of a partisan unit, killed
Main articles: Nakam and Tilhas Tizig Gesheften
in action
Vladka Meed, a member of Jewish resistance in
In the aftermath of the war, Holocaust survivors led
Poland who smuggled dynamite into the Warsaw
by former members of Jewish resistance groups banded
Ghetto and also helped children escape out of the
together. Calling themselves Nokmim (Hebrew for
Ghetto
avengers), they tracked down and executed former
Parczew partisans, ghters in irregular military Nazis who took part in the Holocaust. They killed an
groups participating in the Jewish resistance move- unknown number of Nazis, and their eorts are believed
to have progressed into the 1950s. The Nazis were often
ment
kidnapped and killed by hanging or strangulation, oth Alexander Pechersky, one of the organizers, and the ers were killed by hit-and-run attacks, and a former highleader of the most successful uprising and mass- ranking Gestapo ocer died when kerosene was injected
escape of Jews from a Nazi extermination camp dur- into his bloodstream while he was in hospital awaiting an
ing World War II; which occurred at the Sobibor ex- operation. It is possible that some of the most successful
Nokmim were veterans of the Jewish Brigade, who had
termination camp in 1943
access to military intelligence, transport, and the right to
Frumka Potnicka, leader of the Sosnowiec and freely travel across Europe.
Bdzin Ghetto uprisings.[27]
Nokmim also travelled to places such as Latin America, Canada, and Spain to track down and kill Nazis who
Moe Pijade, one of the leaders of the uprising in
had settled there. In one instance, they are believed to
Montenegro against the Italian occupation forces in
have confronted Aleksander Laak, responsible for killing
Axis-occupied Yugoslavia
8,500 Jews at Jgala concentration camp, at his suburban
Haviva Reik, one of 32 or 33 Palestinian Jewish Winnipeg home, and after telling him that they intended
parachutists sent by the Jewish Agency and Britains to kill him, allowed him to commit suicide.
Special Operations Executive (SOE) on military In 1946, the Nokmim carried out a mass poisoning attack
missions in Nazi-occupied Europe; she was captured against former SS members imprisoned at Stalag 13, lacand executed
ing their bread rations with arsenic at the bakery which
supplied it. Approximately 1,200 prisoners fell ill, but no
Joseph Serchuk, commander of the Jewish partisan deaths were reported. The U.S. Army mustered its medunit in the Lublin area in Poland
ical resources to treat the poisoned prisoners. Nokmin
response ranged from viewing this mass assassination at Hannah Szenes, one of 37 Jews from Mandatory tempt as a failure to claiming the Allies covered up the
Palestine parachuted by the British Army into fact that there had been deaths.[28]
Yugoslavia, she was captured, tortured, and executed by the Nazis
Lelio Vittorio Valobra, leader of DELASEM, which
helped Jewish refugees to escape the Holocaust
Dawid Wdowiski, founder of the ZW group in the
Warsaw Ghetto who served as its political leader
Yitzhak Wittenberg, a Jewish resistance ghter in
Vilnius; after he was captured by the Gestapo, he
committed suicide in his jail cell
Shalom Yoran, a Jewish resistance ghter who
fought back the Germans and their collaborators
Simcha Zorin, a Jewish Soviet partisan commander
in Minsk of a group that consisted of 800 Jewish
ghters

7 See also
Anti-fascism
History of the Jews during World War II
Ilse Stanley
Inglourious Basterds
Deance (2008 lm)
Uprising (2001 lm)
Resistance during World War II

8 Notes and references


6

Aftermath

[1] Jewish Partisan Education Foundation, Accessed 22 December 2013.

[2] Jackson, Julian (2001). France: The Dark Years, 1940


1944 (1st ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 367.
ISBN 0-19-820706-9.
[3] Gilbert, Martin. The Holocaust: The Jewish Tragedy.
London: St Edmundsbury Press 1986.
[4] Leni Yahil. The Warsaw Ghetto Underground Press.
In Robert Moses Shapiro, ed., Why Didn't the Press Shout?
Yeshiva University Press, 2003. pp. 457-490
[5] (English) David Wdowiski (1963). And we are not saved.
New York: Philosophical Library. p. 222. ISBN 0-80222486-5. Note: Chariton and Lazar were never co-authors
of Wdowiskis memoir. Wdowiski is considered the
single author.
[6] Omer-Man, Michael. "This Week in History: Prisoners
revolt at Treblinka" Jerusalem Post, Aug. 5, 2011. Accessed 23 December 2013.
[7] Raschke, Richard. Escape from Sobibor. New York:
Avon, 1982.
[8] Gotovich, Jos (1998). Resistance Movements and the
Jewish Question. In Michman, Dan. Belgium and the
Holocaust: Jews, Belgians, Germans (2nd ed.). Jerusalem:
Yad Vashem. p. 274. ISBN 965-308-068-7.
[9] Yahil, Leni (1991). The Holocaust: The Fate of European
Jewry, 19321945. Studies in Jewish History (Reprint
(trans.) ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 394.
ISBN 0-19-504523-8.
[10] Williams, Althea; Ehrlich, Sarah (19 April 2013).
Escaping the train to Auschwitz. BBC News. Retrieved
22 April 2013.

[17] http://www1.yadvashem.org/yv/en/exhibitions/this_
month/august/12.asp
[18] Ruby Rohrlich, ed. Resisting the Holocaust. Oxford and
New York: Berg Publishers, 1998.
[19] Theodore S. Hamerow (1997), On the Road to the Wolfs
Lair: German Resistance to Hitler. Cambridge: Harvard
University Press. ISBN 0674636805.
[20] See, e.g., Herbert Lindenberger. Heroic Or Foolish? The
1942 Bombing of a Nazi Anti-Soviet Exhibit. Telos. 135
(Summer 2006):127154.
[21] http://www.4en5mei.nl/oorlogsmonumenten/zoeken/
monument-detail/_rp_main_elementId/1_11526
[22] Dr.
L. de Jong, Het Koninkrijk,
RIOD/Staatsuitgeverij 1975

Amsterdam,

[23] Hecht, Ben. Perdy, rst published by Julian Messner,


1961; this edition Milah Press, 1997, pp. 118-133. Hecht
cites Bar Adon, Dorothy and Pessach. The Seven who Fell.
Sefer Press, 1947, and The Return of Hanna Senesh in
Pioneer Woman, XXV, No. 5, May 1950.
[24] Beckman, Morris: The Jewish Brigade
[25] http://www.jpost.com/LocalIsrael/TelAvivAndCenter/
Article.aspx?id=170842
[26] Holocaust in Belorussia - Pages 427-428, JewishGen
[27] Aharon Brandes (1959) [1945]. The demise of the Jews
in Western Poland. In the Bunkers. A Memorial to the
Jewish Community of Bdzin (in Hebrew and Yiddish).
Translated by Lance Ackerfeld. pp. 364365 via Jewishgen.org.

[11] Various (1991). Prface. Partisans Arms Juifs, 38 Tmoignages. Brussels: Les Enfants des Partisans Juifs de
Belgique.

[28] http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/jul/26/second.
world.war

[12] Yahil, Leni (1991). The Holocaust: The Fate of European


Jewry, 19321945. Studies in Jewish History (Reprint
(trans.) ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 436.
ISBN 0-19-504523-8.

9 Further reading

[13] Gotovich, Jos (1998). Resistance Movements and the


Jewish Question. In Michman, Dan. Belgium and the
Holocaust: Jews, Belgians, Germans (2nd ed.). Jerusalem:
Yad Vashem. pp. 2812. ISBN 965-308-068-7.
[14] Yahil, Leni (1991). The Holocaust: The Fate of European
Jewry, 19321945. Studies in Jewish History (Reprint
(trans.) ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 393.
ISBN 0-19-504523-8.
[15] Schreiber, Marion (2003). The Twentieth Train: the True
Story of the Ambush of the Death Train to Auschwitz (1st
US ed.). New York: Grove Press. p. 72. ISBN 978-08021-1766-3.
[16] Schreiber, Marion (2003). The Twentieth Train: the True
Story of the Ambush of the Death Train to Auschwitz (1st
US ed.). New York: Grove Press. pp. 735. ISBN 9780-8021-1766-3.

Ginsberg, Benjamin (2013). How the Jews Defeated


Hitler: Exploding the Myth of Jewish Passivity in the
Face of Nazism. Rowman & Littleeld Publishers.
ISBN 1-4422-2238-7.

10 External links
Jewish Armed Resistance and Rebellions on the Yad
Vashem website
Jewish Resistance: A Working Bibliography. The
Miles Lerman Center for the Study of Jewish Resistance. Center for Advanced Holocaust Studies
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Washington, DC. PDF version available here
Jewish Resistance During the Holocaust from Holocaust Survivors and Remembrance Project

10
About the Holocaust
Jewish Partisan Educational Foundation
Interviews from the Underground: Eyewitness accounts of Russias Jewish resistance during World
War II documentary lm and website (www.
jewishpartisans.net)
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Armed Jewish Resistance: Partisans

EXTERNAL LINKS

11
11.1

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Text

Jewish resistance in German-occupied Europe Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jewish_resistance_in_German-occupied_


Europe?oldid=728812508 Contributors: Shii, Altenmann, Gidonb, Humus sapiens, Piotrus, Billposer, Ukexpat, Jayjg, Xezbeth, Bender235, ESkog, Giraedata, MPerel, Alansohn, SlimVirgin, Hohum, Lapsed Pacist, Mandarax, Kane5187, Crzrussian, Ian Pitchford, Nihiltres, Volunteer Marek, Bgwhite, YurikBot, Sceptre, Pseudomonas, Fnorp, Wzap, Auroranorth, That Guy, From That Show!,
SmackBot, Skeezix1000, Gjs238, ZZZZ, Hmains, Squiddy, Jprg1966, Papa November, Metallurgist, Kntrabssi, Christofor~enwiki, Jklin,
Drunken Pirate, Eliyak, Yohan euan o4, CaptainVindaloo, IronGargoyle, OnBeyondZebrax, Iridescent, Lucio Di Madaura, , CMG, Poeticbent, Davhorn, JamesAM, Epbr123, Deborahjay, Kathovo, AntiVandalBot, Askhaiz, Zeitlupe, Golgofrinchian, HanzoHattori, Hut
8.5, PhilKnight, Magioladitis, VoABot II, Slartibartfast1992, AHAPXICT, Bobby H. Heey, Tinmanic, MartinBot, Giordanobruno,
Mschel, Bus stop, J.delanoy, Yonidebot, Dbiel, Century0, Paris1127, Ipigott, Cometstyles, Wikipeterproject, Signalhead, Malik Shabazz,
Kevinkor2, Martha Forsyth, Oshwah, MackSalmon, Jackfork, Robvhoorn, Flyer22 Reborn, Steven Crossin, Cyfal, USHMMwestheim,
ClueBot, Boodlesthecat, Jacurek, Mild Bill Hiccup, Xax-5, Aie, Alexbot, Noneforall, Mtsmallwood, Editor2020, Arturolorioli, Felix
Folio Secundus, Addbot, Willking1979, MrOllie, Yobot, H123456789, Reenem, AnomieBOT, Ckruschke, ArthurBot, S h i v a (Visnu),
Jmundo, AlphaRed3, HighFlyingFish, FrescoBot, NSH002, Itsoveryo, Msasscts, Arbero, JMMuller, Callanecc, Genealogykid82, Stundra, Weedwhacker128, IRISZOOM, Sharkz8945, MShabazz, Wiking, EmausBot, Super48paul, Wikipelli, The Golden Circle, ZroBot,
Josve05a, Gz33, Tolly4bolly, Brigade Piron, ClueBot NG, Supavollcheckabunny, -sche, ScottSteiner, Widr, FaKuNaTion, Gob Lofa,
BG19bot, Goku935, MusikAnimal, Marcocapelle, Wikih101, Seidenothniel, Abcdukil, Boogazm, Mogism, Lugia2453, Faizan, Manul,
Irwpfaf, Ihorko2000, CAPTAIN RAJU, John Amery, Peter SamFan, SilverplateDelta, Tonkin Free School and Anonymous: 149

11.2

Images

File:1943_Belorussia_Jewish_resistance_group.jpg
Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e8/1943_
Belorussia_Jewish_resistance_group.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: http://www.jewishgen.org/yizkor/belarus/bel427.html
Original artist: Unknown<a href='//www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q4233718' title='wikidata:Q4233718'><img alt='wikidata:Q4233718'
src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/20px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png'
width='20'
height='11' srcset='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/30px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png 1.5x,
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/40px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png 2x' data-le-width='1050'
data-le-height='590' /></a>
File:Bundesarchiv_Bild_183-N0827-318,_KZ_Auschwitz,_Ankunft_ungarischer_Juden.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.
org/wikipedia/commons/f/f2/Bundesarchiv_Bild_183-N0827-318%2C_KZ_Auschwitz%2C_Ankunft_ungarischer_Juden.jpg License:
CC BY-SA 3.0 de Contributors: This image was provided to Wikimedia Commons by the German Federal Archive (Deutsches Bundesarchiv) as part of a cooperation project. The German Federal Archive guarantees an authentic representation only using the originals
(negative and/or positive), resp. the digitalization of the originals as provided by the Digital Image Archive. Original artist: English: Ernst
Hofmann or Bernhard Walte
File:Commons-logo.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/4/4a/Commons-logo.svg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
File:Ghetto_Vilinus.gif Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a8/Ghetto_Vilinus.gif License: CC-BY-SA-3.0
Contributors: :Covner3.gif Original artist: peut-tre un rsistant ou un sympathisant
File:Heinkel_He_111_during_the_Battle_of_Britain.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/82/Heinkel_
He_111_during_the_Battle_of_Britain.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: This is photograph MH6547 from the collections of the Imperial War Museums (collection no. 4700-05) Original artist: Unknown<a href='//www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q4233718'
title='wikidata:Q4233718'><img
alt='wikidata:Q4233718'
src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/
Wikidata-logo.svg/20px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png' width='20' height='11' srcset='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/
thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/30px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png
1.5x,
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/
Wikidata-logo.svg/40px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png 2x' data-le-width='1050' data-le-height='590' /></a>
File:Jewish_Brigade_October_1944.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ed/Jewish_Brigade_October_
1944.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/media_ph.php?ModuleId=10005275&MediaId=1021 Original artist: none
File:Star_of_David.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/49/Star_of_David.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Own work Original artist: Zscout370
File:Stroop_Report_-_Warsaw_Ghetto_Uprising_08.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0c/Stroop_
Report_-_Warsaw_Ghetto_Uprising_08.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: http://research.archives.gov/description/6003996
Original artist: Unknown<a href='//www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q4233718' title='wikidata:Q4233718'><img alt='wikidata:Q4233718'
src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/20px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png'
width='20'
height='11'
srcset='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/30px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png
1.5x, https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/40px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png 2x' data-lewidth='1050' data-le-height='590' /></a> (Franz Konrad confessed to taking some of the photographs, the rest was probably taken by
photographers from Propaganda Kompanie nr 689.[#cite_note-Stempowski-3 [3]][#cite_note-Zbikowski-4 [4]] )
File:Treblinka_uprising_(Zbecki_1943).jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e2/Treblinka_uprising_
%28Z%C4%85becki_1943%29.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: Kopwka, Edward; Rytel-Andrianik, Pawe (2011), Treblinka
II Obz zagady [Monograph, chapt. 3: Treblinka II Death Camp] (PDF le, direct download 20.2 MB). Original artist:
Unknown<a href='//www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q4233718' title='wikidata:Q4233718'><img alt='wikidata:Q4233718' src='https://upload.
wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/20px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png' width='20' height='11' srcset='https://
upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/30px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png 1.5x, https://upload.wikimedia.
org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/40px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png 2x' data-le-width='1050' data-le-height='590'
/></a>

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11.3

Content license

Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0

TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES