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Chapter 4 Rocks and Minerals

Chapter 4 focuses on Rocks and Minerals, looking at types of rocks.


Lessons included in this chapter:
#10 Rocks
#11 Minerals
#12 Igneous Rocks
#13 Sedimentary Rocks
#14 Metamorphic Rocks
Resources for Teachers can be found under the Chapter #4 Copymaster.
Select from the options on the right to proceed.

Rocks Lesson #10


The Earth was formed about 4.6 billion years ago. The planet was so hot that the
entire Earth was molten or liquid. As the Earth cooled, the lightest materials floated
to the top and the heaviest materials sank to the center. The outer part of the Earth,
the crust, consists of the lightest rock.

The lightest rocks form the continents, which are made mostly of the
rock granite. Most of the granite on the continents has, over millions of years, been
broken down, transported, and deposited into sedimentary rock. These layers of
sedimentary rock vary from 8-9 miles thick to nothing in some areas like the
Canadian Shield of North America. The Canadian Shield has huge outcroppings of
granite right on the surface. Under the thick layers of sedimentary rock lies the
denser granite.

The granitic continents ride on a much denser rock called basalt. These basalts
form the bottom of our continents and the bottoms of our great oceans. This layer
of rock extends down to 40 miles from the surface of the earth.

The crust is very thin in comparison to the other layers of the earth. The crust is
only 3 miles thick under the oceans and about 40 miles thick under the highest
mountain chains. The layer of the earth under the crust is called the mantle. It is
over 1800 miles thick!! The crust and the upper level of the mantle form a layer of
the earth that moves very slowly (1-4 inches per year). This layer that moves and
causes earthquakes and volcanoes is called the Lithosphere.

Rocks are made of two or more different minerals that have been:
1. cemented together, or
2. squeezed and heated together, or
3. melted and cooled together.

Rocks make up the majority of the Earth's crust. One of the most common rock is
granite. The four minerals that make up granite are feldspar, quartz, mica, and
hornblende. Granite was formed when magma cooled slowly forming crystals of
the four minerals that make up the rock granite.

Look at the photo above of granite. Notice the different mineral crystals that make
up the rock, granite.

Most of the Earth's surface rocks are covered by soil or clay. Soil contains very
small crushed pieces of rock and organic (plant and animal remains) material.
Plants such as grass and trees grow in this region of the crust.

The photo above shows a recent eruption of ash that has covered and burned an
area of dense vegetation in Hawaii. The lava has cooled and is now a volcanic rock

called basalt. The weathering process will break the basalt down into small, finer
pieces of rock called soil. This process can take a few years or thousands of years
to produce soil fine enough for plants to grow well in. The soil will become fertile
when bacteria decomposes plant and animal material adding nutrients for living
plants.
Rocks are produced in a variety of ways and have been cycled in some area many
times. This cycling of the rocks is called the rock cycle.

The rock cycle shows how the earth's rocks are changed again and again. The rocks
can be changed at times to another type of rock. The rock cycle can begin
anywhere in the cycle. Lets start with igneous rocks. Igneous rocks start as magma.
The magma (molten rock under the surface) and lava (molten rock on the surface)
hardens into igneous rock. The igneous rock then breaks apart over time through
the process of weathering. These bits of broken rock are washed away by rains and
deposited in a river. These pieces of igneous rocks are cemented together with
other bits of rock and form a sedimentary rock called conglomerate. Over time
sedimentary rocks can be buried by earthquakes or other geologic processes. Being
buried deep under the surface in areas of high temperatures and pressures or
coming in contact with magma can cause these sedimentary rocks to change to
metamorphic rocks.

Diagram 1 shows layers of rocks around and under a volcano. The white blocks are
a sedimentary rock called limestone. Limestone forms on the bottom of the ocean
over many, many years. The fish and shelled sea animals decompose and their
bones and shells break down into a chemical called calcium carbonate (CaCO3).
This is the cementing agent that binds the sediments that fall to the sea floor into
the rock called limestone. Magma has pushed its way to the surface and is now
coming into contact with the surrounding rock layers.
Diagram 2 shows the limestone being heated by the magma and changing to the
metamorphic rock called marble (Yellow). Marble is a beautiful rock that is used
by humans as building material and for decorative uses as in sink tops or
monuments. Artists have sculpted marble into some of the greatest works of art in
the world.

The three main rock classifications are Igneous, Sedimentary, and Metamorphic.
Rocks are classified into these groups by the way they were formed.
Rocks that formed from magma are called igneous rocks. Igneous comes from the
Latin word ignis which means "fire". Rocks that are formed from heat and pressure
are called metamorphic rocks. Rocks that are formed from the cementing together
of small pieces of rocks or shells are called sedimentary rocks. We will discuss
these three types of rocks more in depth later in this chapter.

This map of the United States and parts of Mexico and Canada shows what type of
rock makes up the surface of these regions. The majority of the surface rocks on
the North American continent are sedimentary. The mountainous regions of the
west and southwest are made of igneous rocks. The Appalachian Mountain region
of the eastern U.S. and most of eastern Canada are made of metamorphic rocks.

Granite is an igneous rock that is composed of four minerals. These minerals are
quartz, feldspar, mica, and usually hornblende. Granite forms as magma cools far
under the earth's surface. Because it hardens deep underground it cools very
slowly. This allows crystals of the four minerals to grow large enough to be easily
seen by the naked eye. Look at the photo of granite above, notice the different
crystals in the rock.
Granite is an excellent material for building bridges and buildings because it can
withstand thousands of pounds of pressure. It is also used for monuments because
it weathers slowly. Engravings in the granite can be read for hundreds of years,
making the rock more valuable.
Granite is quarried in many places in the world including the United States. The
state of New Hampshire has the nickname "Granite State" because of the amount
of granite in the mountains of that beautiful state. The Canadian Shield of North
America contains huge outcroppings (surface rocks) of granite.

Milky quartz is a common mineral that is found in many different types of rocks.
The chemical formula is Silicon oxide (SiO2). One type of quartz is easily
identified by its hexagonal crystals, but quartz can also be found in a large mass.
Quartz can be broken or weathered into the tiny pieces we know as sand. Quartz is
a very hard mineral and in fact is the hardest of the common minerals. Quartz is
number seven on the Mohs hardness scale. Quartz is also chemically stable, which
means that it weathers very slowly.

Quartz can be colored yellow, milky white, rose, smoky (brown or black), and the
best known of the colored crystals amethyst, which is purple. Impurities in the rock
at the time of formation causes the quartz crystal to have these different colors.
Quartz is used by humans in producing optical instruments and electical devices. It
is also used to make sandpaper and grinding tools.

Feldspar is the most abundant mineral in rocks that are located at or near the earth's
surface. Feldspar can have a glassy white, blue, green, or red crystals. All feldspars
containsilica and aluminum.
When feldspars are exposed to the atmosphere they break down or weather easily.
When they are broken down, feldspar forms other minerals, many of which are
clay minerals. Feldspars also contain potassium which is a major nutrient for plant
growth.
The clays formed by weathered feldspar are used by pottery manufacturing plants.
Kaolinite is the highest quality of the feldspar clays used by potters.
Feldspar is number 6 on the Mohs hardness scale.

Hornblende is a mineral that contains magnesium, iron, silica and aluminum.


Hornblende is black, brown and green in color. It occurs in crystals of many
igneous rocks.

Mica is a mineral that can be split into very thin sheets. These sheets can be so thin
that 1000 can be layered into mica 1 inch high. Mica can be clear, black, green,
red, yellow, and brown. Clear mica is called Muscovite because it is found near
Moscow, Russia and was used as window glass in the Muscovite's homes.

Muscovite contains water which helps to make it clear. Biotite mica is dark green
to black in color because it contains iron, magnesium.
Mica is mined in Brazil, India, many parts of Africa, Canada, and the United
States. It is used in the manufacturing of electronic and electrical devices.

Write the answers to the following questions in complete sentences on a piece of


paper.

In your own words write a definition for rock.


What is soil composed of?
Describe in your own words how the rock cycle works.
Name the four minerals that granite is made from and a human use for each of the
four minerals.
Name the three classifications for rocks.

Minerals Lesson #11


Amineralisasolidmaterial,madeofonesubstance,thatoccursnaturallyon
Earth.Mostofthecommonmineralsaremadeofcrystals.ACrystalisasolid
formedbyarepeating,threedimensionalpatternofatoms,ions,ormoleculesand
havingfixeddistancesbetweenthedifferentparts.Mineralsthatdonotgrowin
theseregularorcrystallinepatternsarecalledAmorphoussolids.


Somemineralscanbebothcrystallineandamorphous.Thetwophotosaboveshow
acrystallinequartzspecimenandanamorphousquartzspecimen.

QuartzisamineralmadefromonesubstanceSiO2(SiliconOxide)thathasa
definitechemicalcomposition.ThequartzthatyoufindinAsiahasthe
samebasicchemicalmakeupasquartzfoundinMinnesota.

Thereare92naturallyoccurringelementsonearthbutonlyeightelementsmake
over98%ofthemineralsontheEarth'scrust.Theyare,indecreasingquantity,1
oxygen,2silicon,3aluminum,4iron,5calcium,6sodium,7potassium,8
magnesium.Thegraphaboveshowsyoutheamountsoftheseelementsinthe
Earth'scrust.

Thereareover2000mineralsonEarth,butonly100arecommonlyfound.30
mineralsmakeupthemajorityoftherocksonEarth.Youwillbestudyingthese
mineralsinthisseriesoflessons.Rocks,asyoulearnedinthelastlesson,aremade
oftwoormoreoftheseminerals.

Thereisagreatdifferenceinthewaydifferentmineralslook.Someminerals
sparkleinthelightwhileothersaredullandboring!!Somemineralsaresohard
thattheycanscratchsteelwhileothermineralsaresosoftthattheyfeelpowdery
andcanbescratchedeasilybyafingernail.Therearemanywaysthatscientists
classifyorgroupminerals,inthislessonwearegoingtostudyfiveproperties.A
propertyisacharacteristicofamineral.Propertieshelpscientiststobetter
understandhowthemineralwasformedandalsotohelpidentifyamineral.The
fivepropertiesthatwearegoingtostudy
areluster,hardness,cleavageandfracture,colorandstreak,andmagnetism.

Lusterisapropertyofamineralthattellshowthemineralreflectslight.Luster
givesyouanindicationofhow"Shiny"amineralis.Thetwomainwaysthat
geologistscategorizeamineral'slusterisMetallicandNonmetallic.Thelusterof
amineralmaydifferfromsampletosample.Metallicmineralsshinelikemetal,
whilenonmetallicmineralsvarygreatlyintheirappearance.Therearemany
differentdescriptionsofnonmetallicluster,wearegoingtodiscussfour.Theyare
pearly,earthy,vitreous(glassy),andgreasy.Pearlylusterisiridescent,glowslike
apearl.Greasylusterlookslikethemineraliscoveredwithgrease,themineral
definitelyshines.Mineralswithanearthylusterhaveadulllookwithnoshine.
Mineralswithanearthylusterlookasthoughtheyarecoveredwithdirtordust.
Thephotosaboveshowsexamplesofthesefourlusters.Mineralswithavitreous
luster(glassy)looklikesmallpiecesofabrokenglassbottle

Coloristheeasiestofthepropertiestosee,butitisnotalwaysthebestwayto
identifyamineral.Manymineralshavemorethanonecolorbecauseofimpurities
thatwerepresentduringtheformationofthemineral.Quartzisanexampleofa
mineralwithmanydifferentcolors.Quartzcanbeclear,white,blue,brown,and
almostblack.Amethystisaquartzcrystalwithapurplecolor.Theimpuritythat
makesamethystpurpleismanganese.
Abetterdeterminantofthetruecolorofamineralisitsstreak.Streakisatestused
byageologisttoseethecolorofthemineralunderthetoplayerorcoatingonthe
mineral.Themineralisrubbedona"streakplate",whichisapieceofporcelain.

Whenthemineralisrubbedacrossthestreakplatesomeofthemineralisbroken
offandgroundintoapowder.Thisallowsthegeologisttoseeundertheouterlayer
whichcouldhaveadifferentcolorduetothemineralbeingexposedtothe
atmosphere.Whenmineralsareexposedtotheatmosphere,gasseslikeoxygencan
chemicallycombinewiththemineraltochangeitsoutercolor.
Thephotoaboveisshowingaspecimenofironpyritealongwithastreakplate
showingthepyrite'sstreak.

In1822aGermanscientistbythenameofFrederickMohssetupascaleto
determinetheapproximatehardnessofminerals.(SEECHARTABOVE!!!)He
arrangedthemineralsinhisscalefromsoftest(Talc)tohardest(Diamond).The
mineralsgetincreasinglyharderasyoureaddownthescale,buttheydonot
increaseinhardnessataconstantrate.Example:Calciteisnottwiceashardastalc
andadiamondisnot10timesharderthantalc.Infactadiamondisover40times
harderthantalc.Thelinegraphaboveshowsyouthisrelationship.

Thispropertylikecolorisarbitrarybecausethehardnessofamineralvaries
slightlyfromonespecimentothenext.Wecandeterminetheapproximate
hardnessofamineralbyrunningagroupoftests.Scratchthemineralinquestion

withafingernail,penny,ironnail,orglassslide.Ifthemineralshowsascratch
markfromoneofthetestingmaterialsthemineralissaidtobelesshardthanthe
mineralthatscratchedit.Example:Apieceofpinkfeldsparwillnotbescratched
byafingernail,penny,oranironnail,butwillbescratchedbyaglassslide.The
feldsparissaidtobeharderthanthefirstthreetestingmaterialsbutnotashardas
theglassslide.

Youcanusethefollowingmaterialstorunyourownmineralhardnesstests.1)bar
soap2)fingernail3)penny4)easytoscratchknifeblade5)hardtoscratchaknife
blade6)willscratchglassslide7)quartzcrystal.

Somemineralshaveatendencytosplitorcrackalongparallelorflatplanes.This
propertyiseasilyseeninsomemineralsandyoucantestthemineralbybreakingit
withahammerorsplittingoffsheetswithapenknife.Theseplanesalongwhich
themineralbreaksarecalledcleavageplanes.Ifthemineralsplitseasilyalong
theseplanesthemineralisthensaidtohaveperfectcleavage.Micaisagood
exampleofperfectcleavage.Feldsparisanexampleofamineralwithcleavagein
morethanonedirection.Quartzisamineralthathasnocleavageatall.Quartz
shatterslikesglasswhenstruckwithahammer.Thebiotitemicaonthefarleft
splitsintosheetsthatareperfectlyparallel.Theyformbecauseofweakandstrong

bondsbetweenthemicalayers.Thefeldsparbreaksintotwoplanesatconsistent
angles.

Fractureisrelatedtocleavage.Fractureoccurswhenamineralbreaksatrandom
linesinsteadofatconsistentcleavageplanes.Manymineralsthathavenocleavage
orpoorcleavagefractureeasily.Theobsidianonthefarrightisagoodexampleof
arockthathasconchodial(glasslike)fracture.Quartzisamineralthatalsohas
conchodialfracture.

Onlytwomineralsoneartharemagnetic.Theybothhavehighquantitiesof
iron.Magnetiteisoneofthemagneticmineralsandpyrrhotiteistheother.
Magnetitewasusedbyancientsailorsforcompasses.Theywouldchipoffneedles
ofmagnetiteandfloatthemonwaterandwatchtheneedlepointtothenorth.
Thephotoaboveshowssmallpiecesofmetalfillingsmagneticallyattachedto
magnetite!Therockisanaturalmagnet!


Calciteispurecalciumcarbonate(CaCO3).Itisfoundinlimestoneandmarble.It
isthecementingagentthatbindssedimentstogetherintosedimentaryrocks.
Marbleismetamorphosed(changedbyheatandpressure)limestone.Thecrystals
formedfrompurecalciteareintheformofaperfectrhomboid.Arhomboidisa
sixsidedsolidobjectinwhichtheoppositesidesareparallel.Ithasperfect
cleavageinthreedirections.Ifyouhitcalcitewithahammeritwillbreakinto
smallerbutperfectlyshapedrhomboids.CalciteisnumbertwoonMohshardness
scale.Calciteisthematerialthatformsstalactitesandstalagmitesincaves.

Calciteisusedasafertilizer,cement,chalk,buildingstone,andforthe
manufactureofopticalinstruments.

Talcisamineralthathasperfectcleavageandagreasyorsoapyfeel.Itisgiven
thedistinctionofbeingnumber1onMohshardnessscale.Talcisalsocalled
soapstonewhichisusedbyartistsforsculptures.Talccanbegroundupinto
talcumpowder.Groundtalcisalsousedtomakecrayons,paint,paper,andsoap.
TalcisquarriedinmanyNortheasternstatesoftheUnitedStates.

Hematiteisthemostimportantsourceofironoreintheworld.Theproductionof
ironhasbeenimportanttonationsoftheworldforover2500years.Todaythe
additionofothermineralstoironhasleadtotheproductionofsteelwhichisvital
totheeconomyofthemajorcountriesonEarth.Hematitehasaredorblackcolor
butthestreakisalwaysred.Theironinthehematiteturnsredwhenitcomesin
contactwithwaterandoxygen.Inotherwordsthisrockisrusted!!

Hematitehasametallicorearthyluster.Thehardnessofhematiteisabout5on
Mohshardnessscale.Ithasnocleavageandbreakswithanunevenfracture.The
reddishlandscapeofMarsisduetotheoxidizedirononitssurface.Thistellsus
thatwaterandoxygenmusthavebeenpresentonMarsatonetime.

HematiteisminedintheLakeSuperiorandAppalachianmountainregionsofthe
UnitedStates.Smalldepositsarefoundinmanystatesoftheunion.Canadaand
Russiaareleadingcountriesintheminingofironore.

Magnetiteisamineralthathasaveryhighironcontent.Magnetitehasablackor
brownishredcolorandablackstreak.Ithasahardnessofabout6ontheMohs
hardnessscale.Itisoneoftwomineralsintheworldthatisnaturallymagnetic.
Magnetite,alsoknownaslodestone,isfoundthroughouttheUnitedStates.

Magnetiteisanimportantsourceofironoreandoccursinmanyigneousrocks.

ThereisacityinRussiabythenameofMagnitogorskthatreceiveditsname
becauseoftheunusuallyhighquantitiesandqualityofmagnetitefoundinthe
mountainssurroundingthecity.Magnitogorskisaleadingironmanufacturing
centerinRussiatoday.


Galenaisanimportantsourceoflead.Galena'schemicalsymbolisPbS,whichis
leadandsulfur.Galenamayalsocontainsilver.TheUnitedStatesistheleading
producerofleadintheworld.Leadwasusedinpencilsandpaintuntilitwasfound
tobepoisonoustohumans.Todaypencil"lead"ismadeofanothermineralcalled
graphite.Leadisusedforfishingweights.

Galenaisanironsulfideandthemainsourceoflead.Galenausuallyoccursin
cubiccrystals.Ifyouhitaspecimenofgalenawithahammeritwillshatterinto
smallperfectcubiccrystals.Ithasametalliclusterandablacktodarkgraycolor
andstreak.Galenahasahardnessofabout2.5onMohshardnessscalewhichis
aboutashardasyourfingernail.
GalenaisminedinMissouri,Idaho,Utah,Oklahoma,Colorado,BritishColumbia
ofCanada,andMexico.

Writetheanswerstothefollowingquestionsincompletesentencesonapieceof
paper.


1.
Whatisamineral?
2.
Whatarephysicalpropertiesofminerals?
3.
Whateightelementsmakeupover98%oftheEarth'scrust?
4.
Writeapararaphdescribingthepropertiesandhumanusesforoneoftheminerals
thatyoustudiedinthislesson.

Igneous Rocks Lesson #12


Whenmostpeoplethinkaboutigneousrockstheyenvision
avolcanoeruptingpumiceandlava.ThetermigneouscomestousfromtheLatin
word"Ignis"whichmeansfire.Igneousrocksareproducedthiswaybutmost
igneousrocksareproduceddeepundergroundbythecoolingandhardening
ofmagma.Magmaismolten(melted)rockunderthesurfaceoftheEarth.Itis
producedintheupperreachesofthemantleorinthelowestareasofthecrust
usuallyatadepthof50to200kilometers.

Thediagramaboveshowsyouwheremagmaisproducedatasubductionzone.
Magmaislessdensethanthesurroundingrockwhichcausesittorise.When
magmareachesthesurfaceitisthencalledlavaandtheeruptionsoflava
andashproducevolcanoes.ThelavathatreachestheEarth'ssurfacewillharden
andbecomeigneousrock.Whenthemagmadoesnotreachthesurfaceitproduces
avarietyofgeologicstructures.WhenlavareachesthesurfaceoftheEarththrough
volcanoesorthroughgreatfissurestherocksthatareformedfromthelavacooling
andhardeningarecalledextrusiveigneousrocks.Someofthemorecommon
typesofextrusiveigneousrocksarelavarocks,cinders,pumice,obsidian,and
volcanicashanddust.

ThisisthevolcanoParicutinthatislocatedinMexico.Itiseruptingcindersand
pumicewhichareexamplesofextrusiveigneousrocks.

Millionsandevenbillionsofyearsagomoltenrockwascoolingandthus
hardeningintoigneousrocksdeepunderthesurfaceoftheEarth.Theserocksare
nowvisiblebecausemountainbuildinghasthrustthemupwardanderosionhas
removedthesofterrocksexposingthemuchharderigneousrocks.Theseare
calledintrusiveigneousrocksbecausethemagmahasintrudedintopreexiting
rocklayers.Typesofintrusiveigneousrocksaregraniteandbasalt.
Thediagramaboveshowsyoualargeintrusiveigneousbodycalledabatholith.
Abatholithisthelargestoftheintrusivebodies.Theyarelargerthan100square
kilometersandusuallyformgranitecores.

Asyoucanseeinthediagramaboveabatholithisaverylargeintrusiveigneous
body.Therearetwotypesofintrusivebodiesthatwearegoingtodiscuss
1)Discordantand2)Concordant.Adiscordantigneousrockbodycutsacrossthe
preexitingrockbed.Batholithsanddikesareexamplesofdiscordantrockbodies.
Adikeisaverticalornearverticalintrusiveigneousrockbodythatcutsacross
rockbeds.Theyfrequentlyformfromexplosiveeruptionsthatcrackthearea
aroundavolcanowiththemagmafillingthecracksformingadike.
Aconcordantigneousrockbodyrunsparalleltothepreexisting
bedrock.Laccolithsandsillsareexamplesofconcordantigneousrockbodies.
Alaccolithisadomeshapedintrusivebodythathasintrudedbetweenlayersof
sedimentaryrock.Therisingmagmaforcestheoverlyinglayerstoriseupinto
adome.Asillissimilartoadikewiththeexceptionthatsillsrunparalleltothe
existingrockbedinsteadofcuttingthroughit.


Thecompositionofigneousrocksfallsintofourmaincategories.Theyare
determinedbytheamountofsilicathattherockscontain.Thefourcategoriesare
acidic,intermediate,basic,andultramafic.Acidicrockshaveahighsilicacontent
(65%ormore)alongwitharelativelyhighamountofsodiumandpotassium.
Theserocksarecomposedofthemineralsquartzandfeldspar.Rhyoliteandgranite
arethetwomostcommontypesofacidicrock.
Intermediaterockscontainbetween53%and65%silica.Theyalsocontain
potassiumandplagioclasefeldsparwithasmallamountofquartz.Diorite
andAndesitearethetwomostcommontypesofintermediaterock.

Basicrocksarecomposedoflessthan52%silicaandalargeamountofplagioclase
feldsparandveryrarelyquartz.Thetwomostcommontypesofbasicrocksare
basaltsandgabbros.
Ultrabasicrocksarecomposedoflessthan45%silicaandcontainnoquartzor
feldspar.Theyarecomposedmainlyofthemineralsolivineandpyroxene.The
mostcommonultrabasicrockisperiodite.Perioditeisadarkgreen,coarsegrained
igneousrockthatmanyscientistsbelieveisthemainrockofthemantle.

Basaltsaredarkcolored,finegrainedextrusiverock.Themineralgrainsareso
finethattheyareimpossibletodistinguishwiththenakedeyeorevena
magnifyingglass.Theyarethemostwidespreadofalltheigneousrocks.Most
basaltsarevolcanicinoriginandwereformedbytherapidcoolingandhardening
ofthelavaflows.SomebasaltsareintrusivehavingcooledinsidetheEarth's
interior.

Thisisaverticalcolumnarbasaltformation.Whenbasalticlavacoolsitoften
formshexagonal(sixsided)columns.Somefamousexamplesofcolumnarbasalt
formationsaretheColumbiaPlateauoverlookingtheColumbiaRivernear
Portland,theGiant'sCausewayinNorthernIreland,andtheDevilsPostpile
NationalMonumentinCalifornia(Above).

Pumiceisaverylightcolored,frothyvolcanicrock.Pumiceisformedfromlava
thatisfullofgas.Thelavaisejectedandshotthroughtheairduringaneruption.

Asthelavahurtlesthroughtheairitcoolsandthegasesescapeleavingtherock
fullofholes.
Pumiceissolightthatitactuallyfloatsonwater.Hugepumiceblockshavebeen
seenfloatingontheoceanafterlargeeruptions.Somelavablocksarelargeenough
tocarrysmallanimals.
Pumiceisgroundupandusedtodayinsoaps,abrasivecleansers,andalsoin
polishes.

Rhyoliteisverycloselyrelatedtogranite.Thedifferenceisrhyolitehasmuchfiner
crystals.Thesecrystalsaresosmallthattheycannotbeseenbythenakedeye.
Rhyoliteisanextrusiveigneousrockhavingcooledmuchmorerapidlythan
granitegivingitaglassyappearance.Themineralsthatmakeuprhyoliteare
quartz,feldspar,mica,andhornblende.

Gabbrosaredarkcolored,coarsegrainedintrusiveigneousrocks.Theyarevery
similartobasaltsintheirmineralcomposition.Theyarecomposedmostlyofthe
mineralplagioclasefeldsparwithsmalleramountsofpyroxeneandolivine.

Obsidianisaveryshinynaturalvolcanicglass.Whenobsidianbreaksit
fractureswithadistinctconchoidalfracture.Noticeinthephototothelefthowit

fractures.Obsidianisproducedwhenlavacoolsveryquickly.Thelavacoolsso
quicklythatnocrystalscanform.
Whenpeoplemakeglasstheymeltsilicarockslikesandandquartzthencoolit
rapidlybyplacingitinwater.Obsidianisproducedinnatureinasimilarway.
Obsidianisusuallyblackoraverydarkgreen,butitcanalsobefoundinanalmost
clearform.

Ancientpeoplethroughouttheworldhaveusedobsidianforarrowheads,knives,
spearheads,andcuttingtoolsofallkinds.Todayobsidianisusedasascalpelby
doctorsinverysensitiveeyeoperations.

Writetheanswerstothefollowingquestionsincompletesentencesonapieceof
paper.

1.
Inyourownwordswriteadefinitionformagmaandlava.

2.
Whatisthedifferencebetweenintrusiveandextrusiveigneousrocks?
3.
Whatarethemostcommonextrusiveandintrusiveigneousrocks?
4.
Whatisthedifferencebetweengraniteandrhyoliteandhowaretheysimilar?

Sedimentary Rocks Lesson #13


The land around you, no matter where you live, is made of rock. If you live in a
place that has good rich soil, the soil itself is finely broken down or weathered
rock.
People that live in a desert region can easily find rocks on the surface. These rocks
lay on a surface of clay that is also a product of weathering rock. Weathering is the
process of breaking down rocks and minerals into smaller pieces by water, wind,
and ice.
Sedimentary rocks are formed from the breaking apart of other rocks (igneous,
metamorphic, or sedimentary rocks) and the cementation, compaction and
recrystallization of these broken pieces of rock.

The photo above shows layers of lava and ash in Hawaii that will, over time, and
with the help of bacteria, break down into fertile soil.

Sedimentary rocks are formed from broken pieces of rocks. These broken pieces of
rock are called sediments. The word "Sedimentary" comes from the root word
"Sediment".
Sedimentary rocks are usually formed in water. Streams and rivers carry sediments
in their current. When the current slows around a bend or the river empties into a
lake, or ocean, or another river the sediments fall out because of gravity. The larger
sediments fall out first and the lightest sediments fall out last.

The diagram above shows layers of sediment that were laid down in a lake. In the
spring the lake receives an influx of water from the mountain snow melt. This
snow melt carries with it a large amount of sediment that becomes suspended in the
lake water. As the sediment settles out during the summer and especially in the
winter, if the lake becomes frozen over, the sediments come to rest on the bottom.
The heaviest and largest particles settle out first and the lightest sediments such as
silts and clays settle out last. The number 1 shows sediment that would have been
laid down during 1994, number 2 in 1995, and number 3 would have been laid
down in 1996. The gray area above the 3 would be the latest layer being laid down
at the present time. This laying down of rock-forming material by a natural agent
is called deposition. Natural agents of deposition are water, ice, gravity, and wind.
Sediment is deposited in flat, horizontal layers with the oldest layers on the bottom
and the younger layers laying on and over the older layers. Geologists use this
knowledge to read layers of sedimentary rock like the pages in a book. They can
date layers by the fossils that are found in them. If a layer has a fossil in it that is
known to be 50 million years old the layer itself must be at least 50 million years
old and the layers below it have to be older than 50 million years.

The size of sediment is defined by the size of the particles that make up the
sediment. The largest sediment size is called a boulder. Boulders have a diameter
that is larger than 256 millimeters (about 10 inches). Cobbles are the next largest
sediment, they are 64 - 256 mm in diameter (about 3-10 inches). Pebbles are next
in size and are 4-64 mm in diameter (about 1/6-3 inches). The next sizes of
sediments are very small, granules are 2-4 mm, sand 1/16-2mm, silt 1/256-1/16
mm, and the smallest sediment size is clay which is less than 1/256 of a millimeter
in diameter.
Sedimentary rocks are formed in three ways from these different sized sediments.

A sedimentary rock is a layered rock that is formed from the compaction,


cementation, and the recrystallization of sediments.
Compaction is the squeezing together of layers of sediment due to the great weight
of overlying layers of rock. This squeezing of the layer results in reducing the
thickness of the original layer. When the layers are reduced in thickness the pore
spaces around the sediments are also reduced, which leads to a tighter packing of
the layers.
Cementation is the changing of sediment into rock by filling spaces around the
sediments with chemical precipitates of minerals. binding the sediments, and
forming solid rock.Calcite and silica are common minerals that cement the
sediments together.
Recrystallization is the third way that sedimentary rocks are
formed. Recrystallization is the formation of new mineral grains that are larger

than the original grains. As the sediments recrystallize they arrange themselves in
a series of interlocking crystals that connect the other grains together into a solid
rock.

The photo above shows layers of sedimentary rocks that were deposited in flat
horizontal layers. These layers were then uplifted and bent by mountain building.

Sedimentary rocks form a thin layer of rock over 75 per cent of the Earth's surface.
They are the site of very important resources such as ground water, coal, oil, and
soil. Shale, sandstone, and limestone are the most common types of sedimentary
rocks. They are formed by the most common mineral that is found on or near the
surface of the Earth. The mineral that forms these sedimentary rocks is feldspar.

Running water, such as the mountain stream above, sorts and transports more
sediment than any other agent of deposition.

Clastic sedimentary rocks are made of pieces of rock or mineral grains that have
been broken from preexisting rock. These particles and grains have become solid
rock by the processes of compaction or cementation of sediments. Some clastic
rocks are conglomerate, shale, breccia, gray and red sandstone, siltstone, and
graywacke.

Non-clastic sedimentary rocks form from the precipitation (Precipitation is the


separating of a solid from a solution) of minerals from ocean water or from the
breakdown of the shells and bones of sea creatures. Sea animals such as coral
produce calcium carbonate solutions that harden to form rock. As the chemicals,
that comes from the mineral or biological precipitation, mix with sediments on the
floor of the ocean or lake they crystallize and grow in the spaces around the
sediment. When these crystals grow large enough to fill the spaces they harden and
form a solid rock.
Some non-clastic rocks are limestone, chert, dolostone, gypsum, halite (rock salt),
diatomite, and chalk.

Organic sedimentary rocks form from the build up and decay of plant and animal
material. This usually forms in swamp regions in which there is an abundant
supply of growing vegetation and low amounts of oxygen. The vegetation builds so
quickly that new layers of vegetation bury the dead and decaying material very
quickly. The bacteria that decay the vegetation need oxygen to survive. Because
these decaying layers are buried so fast the bacteria use up what oxygen there is
available and can not finish the decomposition of the vegetation. The overlaying
layers become so heavy that they squeeze out the water and other compounds that
aid in decay.
This compressed vegetation forms coal. The longer and deeper that coal is buried
makes it of higher quality. Peat is the first stage of coal formation. Lignite is the
next grade of coal followed by bituminous and the highest grade, anthracite.
Anthracite is actually a metamorphic rock. It forms during mountain building when
compaction and friction are extremely high. This form of coal burns very hot and
almost smokeless. It is used in the production of high grade steel.

Shale is one of the most common sedimentary rocks. It is composed of silt or clay
that has been compacted or squeezed together to form a solid rock. Shale is usually
found in thin layers. The silt or clay that composes shale is made of very small
pieces of weathered rock. The pieces are from 1/16 to 1/256 of a millimeter in

diameter. The color of a sample of shale is that of the clay or silt that it was formed
from.

Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock that forms from the cementing together of
sand sized grains forming a solid rock. Quartz is the most abundant mineral that
forms sandstone. Calcium carbonate, silica, or iron has been added to the water
that is in contact with the sand grains. These minerals grow crystals in the spaces
around the sand grains. As the crystals fill the gaps the individual sand grains are
now transformed into a solid rock.

Limestone is the most abundant of the non-clastic sedimentary rocks. Limestone is


produced from the mineral calcite (calcium carbonate) and sediment. The main
source of limestone is the limy ooze formed in the ocean. The calcium carbonate
can be precipitated from ocean water or it can be formed from sea creatures that
secrete lime such as algae and coral.
Chalk is another type of limestone that is made up of very small single-celled
organisms. Chalk is usually white or gray in color.
Limestone can easily be dissolved by acids. If you drop vinegar on limestone it
will fizz. Put a limestone rock into a plastic jar and cover it with vinegar. Cover the
jar and watch the bubbling of the calcium carbonate and also the disintegration of
the rock over a few days.

Limestone caves are an interesting geological feature. They form because the
limestone deposits located under the ground are chemically dissolved by moving
ground water. The ground water contains minerals that make the water slightly
acidic. When an acid comes into contact with a rock that is composed of calcium
carbonate a chemical reaction takes place. The acid "eats" the limestone. The
calcium carbonate then goes into the ground water which moves down farther into
the cave. The water will find its way into small crack and crevasses. The dripping
water will create formations called stalactites and stalagmites.
Stalactites (they grow from the ceiling)and stalagmites (they grow from the floor)
are not technically limestone. They form in caves because as the limestone is
dissolved calcium carbonate is put into solution in the ground water. This solution
drips through crack and slowly forms stalactites and stalagmites.

The photo above shows both stalactites and stalagmites growing together in Jewel
Cave National Park in South Dakota.

Conglomerate is a clastic sedimentary rock that forms the cementing of rounded


cobble and pebble sized rock fragments. Conglomerate is formed by river

movement or ocean wave action. The cementing agents that fill the spaces to form
the solid rock conglomerate are silica, calcite, or iron oxides.
Notice in the photo above the rounded rock particles in the conglomerate. These
rounded particles make conglomerate different from the next rock you are about to
study, breccia.

Breccia is formed in a very similar fashion to conglomerate. The difference


between the two rocks is that breccia's rock fragments are very sharp and angular.
These rock fragments have not been transported by water, wind, or glaciers long
enough to be rounded and smoothed like in the conglomerate. The cementing
agents silica, calcite (CaCO3), and iron oxides are the same as in conglomerate.

Write the answers to the following questions in complete sentences on a piece of


paper.

1.

In your own words describe the process of weathering.


2.
What is deposition?
3.
What are the three ways that a sedimentary rock forms?
4.
How does a limestone cave form?

Metamorphic Rocks Lesson #14


RocksareformedonEarthasigneous,sedimentary,ormetamorphicrocks.
Igneousrocksformwhenrocksareheatedtothemeltingpointwhich
formsmagma.Sedimentaryrocksareformedfromthecementingtogetherof
sediments,orfromthecompaction(squeezingtogether)ofsediments,orfromthe
recrystallizationofnewmineralgrainswhicharelargerthantheoriginal
crystals.Metamorphicrocksformfromheatandpressurechangingtheoriginal
orparentrockintoacompletelynewrock.Theparentrockcanbeeither
sedimentary,igneous,orevenanothermetamorphicrock.The
word"metamorphic"comesfromGreekandmeans"ToChangeForm".

ThediagramaboveshowsyouhowtherocksonEarthhavebeenchanged
continuallyovertimefromonerocktypetoanother.Thischangingofrocktypesis
calledthe"RockCycle".

Solidrockcanbechangedintoanewrockbystressesthatcauseanincreasein
heatandpressure.Thereare3mainagentsthatcausemetamorphism.Factorsthat
causeanincreaseinTemperature,Pressure,andChemicalchangesarethethree
agentsthatwearegoingtostudy.
Temperatureincreasescanbecausedbylayersofsedimentsbeingburieddeeper
anddeeperunderthesurfaceoftheEarth.Aswedescendintotheearththe
temperatureincreasesabout25degreesCelsiusforeverykilometerthatwe
descend.Thedeeperthelayersareburiedthehotterthetemperaturesbecome.The
greatweightoftheselayersalsocausesanincreaseinpressure,whichinturn,
causesanincreaseintemperature.

Thedescendingofrocklayersatsubductionzonescausesmetamorphismintwo
ways;theshearingeffectoftheplatesslidingpasteachothercausestherocks
comingincontactwiththedescendingrockstochange.Someofthedescending
rockwillmeltbecauseofthisfriction.Whenrockmeltsitisthenconsidered
igneousnotmetamorphic,buttherocknexttothemeltedrockcanbechangedby
theheatandbecomeametamorphicrock.Thediagramaboveshowsyouwhere
metamorphicrock(YELLOWZONE)canbeproducedatasubductionzone.
Thereare3factorsthatcauseanincreaseinpressurewhichalsocauses
theformationofmetamorphicrocks.Thesefactorsare;
1.
Thehugeweightofoverlyinglayersofsediments.
2.
Stressescausedbyplatescollidingintheprocessofmountainbuilding.
3.
Stressescausedbyplatesslidingpasteachother,suchastheshearingstressesat
theSanAndreasfaultzoneinCalifornia.
Factorsthatcausechemicalchangesinrocksalsocontributetotheformationof
metamorphicrocks.Veryhotfluidsandvaporscan,becauseofextremepressures,
filltheporesofexistingrocks.Thesefluidsandvaporscancausechemical

reactionstotakeplace,thatovertime,canchangethechemicalmakeupofthe
parentrock.
Metamorphismcanbeinstantaneousasintheshearingofrocksatplateboundaries
orcantakemillionsofyearsasintheslowcoolingofmagmaburieddeepunder
thesurfaceoftheEarth.

Therearethreewaysthatmetamorphicrockscanform.Thethreetypesof
metamorphismareContact,Regional,andDynamicmetamorphism.
ContactMetamorphismoccurswhenmagmacomesincontactwithanalready
existingbodyofrock.Whenthishappenstheexistingrockstemperaturerisesand
alsobecomesinfiltratedwithfluidfromthemagma.Theareaaffectedbythe
contactofmagmaisusuallysmall,from1to10kilometers.Contact
metamorphismproducesnonfoliated(rockswithoutanycleavage)rockssuchas
marble,quartzite,andhornfels.

Inthediagramabovemagmahaspusheditswayintolayersoflimestone,quartz
sandstoneandshale.Theheatgeneratedbythemagmachamberhaschangedthese
sedimentaryrocksintothemetamorphicrocksmarble,quartzite,anhornfels.
RegionalMetamorphismoccursoveramuchlargerarea.Thismetamorphism
producesrockssuchasgneissandschist.Regionalmetamorphismiscausedby

largegeologicprocessessuchasmountainbuilding.Theserockswhenexposedto
thesurfaceshowtheunbelievablepressurethatcausetherockstobebentand
brokenbythemountainbuildingprocess.Regionalmetamorphismusually
producesfoliatedrockssuchasgneissandschist.
DynamicMetamorphismalsooccursbecauseofmountainbuilding.Thesehuge
forcesofheatandpressurecausetherockstobebent,folded,crushed,flattened,
andsheared.

Metamorphicrocksarealmostalwaysharderthansedimentaryrocks.Theyare
generallyashardandsometimesharderthanigneousrocks.Theyformtherootsof
manymountainchainsandareexposedtothesurfaceafterthesofterouterlayers
ofrocksareerodedaway.Manymetamorphicrocksarefoundinmountainous
regionstodayandareagoodindicatorthatancientmountainswerepresentinareas
thatarenowlowhillorevenflatplains.Metamorphicrocksaredividedintotwo
categoriesFoliatesandNonfoliates.

Foliatesarecomposedoflargeamountsofmicasandchlorites.Theseminerals
haveverydistinctcleavage.Foliatedmetamorphicrockswillsplitalongcleavage
linesthatareparalleltothemineralsthatmakeuptherock.Slate,asanexample,

willsplitintothinsheets.FoliatecomesfromtheLatinwordthatmeanssheets,as
inthesheetsofpaperinabook.

Siltandclaycanbecomedepositedandcompressedintothesedimentaryrock
shale.Thelayersofshalecanbecomeburieddeeperanddeeperbytheprocessof
deposition.Depositionisthelayingdownofrockformingmaterialbyanynatural
agent(wind,water,glaciers)overtime.Becausetheselayersareburied,
temperaturesandpressuresbecomegreaterandgreateruntiltheshaleischanged
intoslate.Slateisafinegrainedmetamorphicrockwithperfectcleavagethat
allowsittosplitintothinsheets.Slateusuallyhasalighttodarkbrownstreak.
Slateisproducedbylowgrademetamorphism,whichiscausedbyrelativelylow
temperaturesandpressures.

Slatehasbeenusedbymaninavarietyofwaysovertheyears.Oneuseforslate
wasinthemakingofheadstonesorgravemarkers.Slateisnotveryhardandcan
becarvedeasily.Theproblemwithslatethoughisitsperfectcleavage.Theslate
headstoneswouldcrackandsplitalongthesecleavageplanesaswaterwouldseep
intothecracksandfreezewhichwouldleadtoexpansion.Thisfreezethaw,
freezethawovertimewouldsplittheheadstone.Todayheadstonesaremadeofa
varietyofrocks,withgraniteandmarblebeingtwoofthemostwidelyusedrocks.
Slatewasalsousedforchalkboards.Theblackcolorwasgoodasabackground
andtherockcleanedeasilywithwater.Todayitisnotveryadvantageoustouse
thisrockbecauseofitsweightandthesplittingandcrackingovertime.

Schistisamediumgrademetamorphicrock.Thismeansthatithasbeensubjected
tomoreheatandpressurethanslate,whichisalowgrademetamorphicrock.As
youcanseeinthephotoaboveschistisamorecoarsegrainedrock.Theindividual
grainsofmineralscanbeseenbythenakedeye.Manyoftheoriginalminerals
havebeenalteredintoflakes.Becauseithasbeensqueezedharderthanslateitis
oftenfoundfoldedandcrumpled.Schistsareusuallynamedbythemainminerals
thattheyareformedfrom.Bitotitemicaschist,hornblendeschist,garnetmica
schist,andtalcschistaresomeexamplesofthis.

Gneissisahighgrademetamorphicrock.Thismeansthatgneisshasbeen
subjectedtomoreheatandpressurethanschist.Gneissiscoarserthanschistand

hasdistinctbanding.Thisbandinghasalternatinglayersthatarecomposedof
differentminerals.Themineralsthatcomposegneissarethesameasgranite.
Feldsparisthemostimportantmineralthatmakesupgneissalongwithmicaand
quartz.Gneisscanbeformedfromasedimentaryrocksuchassandstoneorshale,
oritcanbeformedfromthemetamorphismoftheigneouserockgrantite.Gneiss
canbeusedbymanaspavingandbuildingstone.

NonFoliatesaremetamorphicrocksthathavenocleavageatall.Quartziteand
marblearetwoexamplesofnonfoliatesthatwearegoingtostudy.

Quartziteiscomposedofsandstonethathasbeenmetamorphosed.Quartziteis
muchharderthantheparentrocksandstone.Itformsfromsandstonethathascome
intocontactwithdeeplyburiedmagmas.Quartzitelookssimilartoitsparentrock.
Thebestwaytotellquartzitefromsandstoneistobreaktherocks.Sandstonewill
shatterintomanyindividualgrainsofsandwhilequartzitewillbreakacrossthe
grains.

Marbleismetamorphosedlimestoneordolomite.Bothlimestoneanddolomite
havealargeconcentrationofcalciumcarbonate(CaCO3).Marblehasmany
differentsizesofcrystals.Marblehasmanycolorvariancesduetotheimpurities
presentatformation.Someofthedifferentcolorsofmarblearewhite,red,black,
mottledandbanded,gray,pink,andgreen.
Marbleismuchharderthanitsparentrock.Thisallowsittotakeapolishwhich
makesitagoodmaterialforuseasabuildingmaterial,makingsinktops,bathtubs,
andacarvingstoneforartists.Today,headstonesaremadefrommarbleand
granitebecausebothoftheserocksweatherveryslowlyandcarvewellwithsharp
edges.
MarbleisquarriedinVermont,Tennessee,Missouri,Georgia,andAlabama.

Writetheanswerstothefollowingquestionsincompletesentencesonapieceof
paper.
1.
Writeadefinitioninyourownwordsofwhatametamorphicrockis.
2.
Whatarethethreeagentsofmetamorphism?
3.

Whatarethethreetypesofmetamorphism?
4.
Inyourownwordswriteadefinitionoftherockcycle.

Rocks and Minerals Slide Show


Mineral Show 1
Mineralinformationispresentedhere;Picturesofmineralsarefoundatthe
bottomofthepage.

Augiteisagreenishblackmineralthatisfoundinmanyigneousrocks.
Itisfoundinmanybasicandultrabasicigneousrockssuchasgabbro
andbasalt.Augitehasahardnessof56.5withavitreouslusteranda
prismaticcleavage.
Mineralinformationispresentedhere;Picturesofmineralsarefoundatthe
bottomofthepage

Magnetiteisamineralthathasaveryhighironcontent.Magnetitehasa
blackorbrownishredcolorandablackstreak.Ithasahardnessof
about6ontheMohshardnessscale.Itisoneoftwomineralsinthe
worldthatisnaturallymagnetic.Magnetite,alsoknownaslodestone,is
foundthroughouttheUnitedStates.Magnetiteisanimportantsourceof
ironoreandoccursinmanyigneousrocks.

Milkyquartzisacommonmineralthatisfoundinmanydifferenttypes
ofrocks.Thechemicalformulaissiliconoxide(SiO2).Onetypeof
quartziseasilyidentifiedbyitshexagonalcrystals,butquartzcanalso

befoundinalargemass.Quartzcanbebrokenorweatheredintothe
tinypiecesweknowassand.Quartzisaveryhardmineralandinfactis
thehardestofthecommonminerals.Quartzisnumbersevenonthe
Mohshardnessscale.Quartzisalsochemicallystable,whichmeansthat
itweathersveryslowly.
Quartzcanbecoloredyellow,milkywhite,rose,smoky(brownor
black),andthebestknownofthecoloredcrystalsamethyst,whichis
purple.Impuritiesintherockatthetimeofformationcausesthequartz
crystaltohavethesedifferentcolors.
Quartzisusedbyhumansinproducingopticalinstrumentsandelectical
devices.Itisalsousedtomakesandpaperandgrindingtools.

Galenaisanimportantsourceoflead.Galena'schemicalsymbolisPbS,
whichisleadandsulfur.Galenamayalsocontainsilver.TheUnited
Statesistheleadingproducerofleadintheworld.Leadwasusedin
pencilsandpaintuntilitwasfoundtobepoisonoustohumans.Today
pencil"lead"ismadeofanothermineralcalledgraphite.Leadisusedfor
fishingweights.
Galenaisanleadsulfideandthemainsourceoflead.Galenausually
occursincubiccrystals.Ifyouhitaspecimenofgalenawithahammer
itwillshatterintosmallperfectcubiccrystals.Ithasametallicluster
andablacktodarkgraycolorandstreak.Galenahasahardnessofabout
2.5onMohshardnessscalewhichisaboutashardasyourfingernail.
GalenaisminedinMissouri,Idaho,Utah,Oklahoma,Colorado,British
ColumbiaofCanada,andMexico.

Pyriteisalsoknownasironsulfide.Itisoneofthemostcommon
mineralsontheEarth'ssurface.Manypeoplecallpyrite"FoolsGold"
becausethecrystalresemblegoldincolor.Pyriteismuchharderthan
goldanditloosesitsglitterquicklywhenexposedtotheair.Infact
whenitisrubbedonastreakplatethestreakwillbegreentodarkgray.
Pyritehasahardnessof6.5ontheMohshardnessscale.Itscleavageis
cubicornotdistinct.

Micaisamineralthatcanbesplitintoverythinsheets.Thesesheetscan
besothinthat1000canbelayeredintomica1inchhigh.Micacanbe
clear,black,green,red,yellow,andbrown.Clearmicaiscalled
MuscovitebecauseitisfoundnearMoscow,Russiaandwasusedas
windowglassintheMuscovite'shomes.Muscovitecontainswater
whichhelpstomakeitclear.Biotitemicaisdarkgreentoblackincolor
becauseitcontainsironandmagnesium.
MicaisminedinBrazil,India,manypartsofAfrica,Canada,andthe
UnitedStates.Itisusedinthemanufacturingofelectronicandelectrical
devices.

Hornblendeisamineralthatcontainsmagnesium,iron,silicaand
aluminum.Hornblendeisblack,brownandgreenincolor.Itoccursin
crystalsofmanyigneousrocks.

Feldsparisthemostabundantmineralinrocksthatarelocatedator
neartheearth'ssurface.Feldsparcanhaveglassywhite,blue,green,or
redcrystals.Allfeldsparscontainsilicaandaluminum.
Whenfeldsparsareexposedtotheatmospheretheybreakdownor
weathereasily.Whentheyarebrokendown,feldsparformsother
minerals,manyofwhichareclayminerals.Feldsparsalsocontain
potassiumwhichisamajornutrientforplantgrowth.
Theclaysformedbyweatheredfeldsparareusedbypottery
manufacturingplants.Kaoliniteisthehighestqualityofthefeldspar
claysusedbypotters.
Feldsparisnumber6ontheMohshardnessscale.
OrthoclasehasachemicalmakeupofKAlSi3O8.Orthoclaseisusually
pinkbutcanbewhite,grey,green,andpink.
Plagioclaseisaformoffeldsparthathasachemicalmakeupof
NaAlSi3O8.Plagioclaseisusuallywhitebutcanalsobegreyand
greenishwhite.ThismineralwasabundantintheMoonrocksamples.

Pyroxeneisoneofthethreemainmineralsthatmakesupbasalt.The
mostcommonpyroxenesaremagnesium,calcium,andironsilicates.A
commonpyroxeneisaugitewhichisveryabundantinmanyigneous
rockssuchasbasaltandgabbro.

Calciteispurecalciumcarbonate(CaCO3).Itisfoundinlimestoneand
marble.Itisthecementingagentthatbindssedimentstogetherinto

sedimentaryrocks.Marbleismetamorphosed(changedbyheatand
pressure)limestone.Thecrystalsformedfrompurecalciteareinthe
formofaperfectrhomboid.Arhomboidisasixsidedsolidobjectin
whichtheoppositesidesareparallel.Ithasperfectcleavageinthree
directions.Ifyouhitcalcitewithahammeritwillbreakintosmallerbut
perfectlyshapedrhomboids.CalciteisnumbertwoonMohshardness
scale.Calciteisthematerialthatformsstalactitesandstalagmitesin
caves.
Calciteisusedasafertilizer,cement,chalk,buildingstone,andforthe
manufactureofopticalinstruments.

Mineral Show 2
Mineralinformationispresentedhere;Picturesofmineralsarefoundatthe
bottomofthepage.

Talcisamineralthathasperfectcleavageandagreasyorsoapyfeel.It
isgiventhedistinctionofbeingnumber1onMohshardnessscale.Talc
isalsocalledsoapstonewhichisusedbyartistsforsculptures.Talccan
begroundupintotalcumpowder.Groundtalcisalsousedtomake
crayons,paint,paper,andsoap.TalcisquarriedinmanyNortheastern
statesoftheUnitedStates.

Dolomiteisbothamineralandarock.Dolomiteisacalcium
magnesiumcarbonate.Itisverysimilartocalciteandlimestoneinits
chemicalmakeup.Dolomiteiswhiteorlightpinkincolor.Ithasa
hardnessof3.54andonlywillreacttoacidwhenitisheatedorin
powderedform.Dolomiteisusedasabuildingstoneandasasourceof
magnesium.

Graphiteanddiamondarebothpurecarbon.Thedifferenceisthe
amountofheatandpressurethathasbeenputontothetwominerals.
DiamondisthehardestnaturalelementonEarthwithahardnessof10
whichisthemaximumontheMohshardnessscale.Graphiteisavery
softmineralwithahardnessbetween1and2.Graphitehasa
blackstreakandwasprobablyformedbythemetamorphismofplant
remainsorbythecrystallizationofancientmagmas.
Todaygraphiteisusedfor"lead"inpencils.Leadispoisonousto
humansandhasnotbeenusedformanyyearsinpencils.Graphiteis
alsousedinthepaintindustry.

Hematiteisthemostimportantsourceofironoreintheworld.The
productionofironhasbeenimportanttonationsoftheworldforover
2500years.Todaytheadditionofothermineralstoironhasleadtothe
productionofsteelwhichisvitaltotheeconomyofthemajorcountries
onEarth.Hematitehasaredorblackcolorbutthestreakisalwaysred.
Theironinthehematiteturnsredwhenitcomesincontactwithwater
andoxygen.Inotherwordsthisrockisrusted!!
Hematitehasametallicorearthyluster.Thehardnessofhematiteis
about5onMohshardnessscale.Ithasnocleavageandbreakswithan
unevenfracture.ThereddishlandscapeofMarsisduetotheoxidized

irononitssurface.Thistellsusthatwaterandoxygenmusthavebeen
presentonMarsatonetime.
HematiteisminedintheLakeSuperiorandAppalachianmountain
regionsoftheUnitedStates.Smalldepositsarefoundinmanystatesof
theunion.CanadaandRussiaareleadingcountriesintheminingofiron
ore.

Kaoliniteisaclaymineralwhichisformedbytheweatheringof
feldspar.ItisoneofthemostcommonmineralsonEarth.Kaolinitecan
befoundinallpartsoftheEarth.Itisverysoftwithahardnessof22.5.
Ithasacolorofwhite,pinkorgreyandastreakofwhite.Thechemical
makeupisAl2Si2O5(OH)4.
Kaoliniteisusedintheceramicsindustryfortheproductionofclay
products.

Pyriteisalsoknownasironsulfide.Itisoneofthemostcommon
mineralsontheEarth'ssurface.Manypeoplecallpyrite"FoolsGold"
becausethecrystalresemblegoldincolor.Pyriteismuchharderthan
goldanditloosesitsglitterquicklywhenexposedtotheair.Infact
whenitisrubbedonastreakplatethestreakwillbegreentodarkgray.
Pyritehasahardnessof6.5ontheMohshardnessscale.Itscleavageis
cubicornotdistinct.

Quartzisacommonmineralthatisfoundinmanydifferenttypesof
rocks.ThechemicalformulaisSiliconoxide(SiO2).Onetypeofquartz
iseasilyidentifiedbyitshexagonalcrystals,butquartzcanalsobefound
inalargemass.Quartzcanbebrokenorweatheredintothetinypieces

weknowassand.Quartzisaveryhardmineralandinfactisthehardest
ofthecommonminerals.QuartzisnumbersevenontheMohshardness
scale.Quartzisalsochemicallystable,whichmeansthatitweathers
veryslowly.
Quartzcanbecoloredyellow,milkywhite,rose,smoky(brownor
black),andthebestknownofthecoloredcrystalsamethyst,whichis
purple.Impuritiesintherockatthetimeofformationcausesthequartz
crystaltohavethesedifferentcolors.
Quartzisusedbyhumansinproducingopticalinstrumentsandelectical
devices.Itisalsousedtomakesandpaperandgrindingtools.

Igneous Rocks
Mineralinformationispresentedhere;Picturesofmineralsarefoundatthe
bottomofthepage.

Basaltsaredarkcolored,finegrainedextrusiverock.Themineralgrains
aresofinethattheyareimpossibletodistinguishwiththenakedeyeor
evenamagnifyingglass.Theyarethemostwidespreadofallthe
igneousrocks.Mostbasaltsarevolcanicinoriginandwereformedby

therapidcoolingandhardeningofthelavaflows.Somebasaltsare
intrusivehavingcooledinsidetheEarth'sinterior.

Graniteisanigneousrockthatiscomposedoffourminerals.These
mineralsarequartz,feldspar,mica,andusuallyhornblende.Granite
formsasmagmacoolsfarundertheearth'ssurface.Becauseithardens
deepundergrounditcoolsveryslowly.Thisallowscrystalsofthefour
mineralstogrowlargeenoughtobeeasilyseenbythenakedeye.Look
atthephotoofgraniteabove,noticethedifferentcrystalsintherock.
Graniteisanexcellentmaterialforbuildingbridgesandbuildings
becauseitcanwithstandthousandsofpoundsofpressure.Itisalsoused
formonumentsbecauseitweathersslowly.Engravingsinthegranitecan
bereadforhundredsofyears,makingtherockmorevaluable.
GraniteisquarriedinmanyplacesintheworldincludingtheUnited
States.TheStateofNewHampshirehasthenickname"GraniteState"
becauseoftheamountofgraniteinthemountainsofthatbeautifulstate.
TheCanadianShieldofNorthAmericacontainshugeoutcroppings
(surfacerocks)ofgranite.

Daciteisanextrusiveigneousrock.Theprinciplemineralsthatmakeup
daciteareplagioclase,quartz,pyroxene,orhornblende.

Obsidianisaveryshinynaturalvolcanicglass.Whenobsidianbreaks
itfractureswithadistinctconchoidalfracture.Noticeinthephototothe

lefthowitfractures.Obsidianisproducedwhenlavacoolsveryquickly.
Thelavacoolssoquicklythatnocrystalscanform.
Whenpeoplemakeglasstheymeltsilicarockslikesandandquartzthen
coolitrapidlybyplacingitinwater.Obsidianisproducedinnatureina
similarway.
Obsidianisusuallyblackoraverydarkgreen,butitcanalsobefound
inanalmostclearform.
Ancientpeoplethroughouttheworldhaveusedobsidianforarrowheads,
knives,spearheads,andcuttingtoolsofallkinds.Todayobsidianisused
asascalpelbydoctorsinverysensitiveeyeoperations.

Gabbroisadarkcolored,coarsegrainedintrusiveigneousrock.Gabbro
isverysimilartobasaltinitsmineralmakeup.Itiscomposedmostlyof
themineralplagioclasefeldsparwithsmalleramountsofpyroxeneand
olivine.

Rhyoliteisverycloselyrelatedtogranite.Thedifferenceisrhyolitehas
muchfinercrystals.Thesecrystalsaresosmallthattheycannotbeseen
bythenakedeye.Rhyoliteisanextrusiveigneousrockhavingcooled
muchmorerapidlythangranite,givingitaglassyappearance.The
mineralsthatmakeuprhyolitearequartz,feldspar,mica,and
hornblende.

Pumiceisaverylightcolored,frothyvolcanicrock.Pumiceisformed
fromlavathatisfullofgas.Thelavaisejectedandshotthroughtheair

duringaneruption.Asthelavahurtlesthroughtheairitcoolsandthe
gasesescapeleavingtherockfullofholes.
Pumiceissolightthatitactuallyfloatsonwater.Hugepumiceblocks
havebeenseenfloatingontheoceanafterlargeeruptions.Somelava
blocksarelargeenoughtocarrysmallanimals.
Pumiceisgroundupandusedtodayinsoaps,abrasivecleansers,and
alsoinpolishes.

Sedimentary Rocks
Mineralinformationispresentedhere;Picturesofmineralsarefoundatthe
bottomofthepage.

Conglomerateisaclasticsedimentaryrockthatformsfromthe
cementingofroundedcobbleandpebblesizedrockfragments.
Conglomerateisformedbyrivermovementoroceanwaveaction.The
cementingagentsthatfillthespacestoformthesolidrockconglomerate
aresilica,calcite,orironoxides.
Noticeinthephotoabovetheroundedrockparticlesinthe
conglomerate.Theseroundedparticlesmakeconglomeratedifferent
frombreccia.


Brecciaisformedinaverysimilarfashiontoconglomerate.The
differencebetweenthetworocksisthatbreccia'srockfragmentsare
verysharpandangular.Theserockfragmentshavenotbeentransported
bywater,wind,orglacierslongenoughtoberoundedandsmoothedlike
intheconglomerate.Thecementingagentssilica,calcite(CaCO3),and
ironoxidesarethesameasinconglomerate.

Chertisaveryhardsedimentaryrockthatisusuallyfoundinnodulesin
limestone.Chertislightgraytodarkgrayincolor.Itprobablyformed
fromtheremainsofancientseaspongesorotheroceananimalsthat
havebeenfossilized.Silicahasreplacedthetissueformingthe
sedimentaryrock.Flintisaverydarkformofchert.Itbreaks
likeobsidianwithconchoidalfracturesmakingitwidelyusedbyancient
peopletomakearrowheads,spearheads,andknives.

Haliteiscommontablesalt.Itformswherebrakish(salty)lakesorsea
bedsdryup.Thisevaporationofthewatercausesthesalttoprecipitate
formingthesaltcrystals.Halitefrequentlyoccursincrystalform.Itis
usuallycolorlessbutcanbereddishbrownbecauseofironoxidesinthe
waterthatitformsin.Halitehasperfectcleavageandahardnessof2.5
ontheMohshardnessscale.

Limestoneisthemostabundantofthenonclasticsedimentaryrocks.
Limestoneisproducedfromthemineralcalcite(calciumcarbonate)and
sediment.Themainsourceoflimestoneisthelimyoozeformedinthe
ocean.Thecalciumcarbonatecanbeprecipitatedfromoceanwaterorit
canbeformedfromseacreaturesthatsecretelimesuchasalgaeand
coral.
Chalkisanothertypeoflimestonethatismadeupofverysmallsingle
celledorganisms.Chalkisusuallywhiteorgrayincolor.
Limestonecaneasilybedissolvedbyacids.Ifyoudropvinegaron
limestoneitwillfizz.Putalimestonerockintoaplasticjarandcoverit
withvinegar.Coverthejarandwatchthebubblingofthecalcium
carbonateandalsothedisintegrationoftherockoverafewdays.

Sandstoneisaclasticsedimentaryrockthatformsfromthecementing
togetherofsandsizedgrainsformingasolidrock.Quartzisthemost
abundantmineralthatformssandstone.Calciumcarbonate,silica,or
ironhasbeenaddedtothewaterthatisincontactwiththesandgrains.
Thesemineralsgrowcrystalsinthespacesaroundthesandgrains.As
thecrystalsfillthegapstheindividualsandgrainsarenowtransformed
intoasolidrock.

Metamorphic Rocks
Mineralinformationispresentedhere;Picturesofmineralsarefoundatthe
bottomofthepage.

Marbleismetamorphosedlimestoneordolomite.Bothlimestoneand
dolomitehavealargeconcentrationofcalciumcarbonate(CaCO3).
Marblehasmanydifferentsizesofcrystals.Marblehasmanycolor
variancesduetotheimpuritiespresentatformation.Someofthe
differentcolorsofmarblearewhite,red,black,mottledandbanded,
gray,pink,andgreen.
Marbleismuchharderthanitsparentrock.Thisallowsittotakea
polishwhichmakesitagoodmaterialforuseasabuildingmaterial,
makingsinktops,bathtubs,andacarvingstoneforartists.Today,
headstonesaremadefrommarbleandgranitebecausebothofthese
rocksweatherveryslowlyandcarvewellwithsharpedges.
MarbleisquarriedinVermont,Tennessee,Missouri,Georgia,and
Alabama.

Slateisafinegrainedmetamorphicrockwithperfectcleavagethat
allowsittosplitintothinsheets.Slateusuallyhasalighttodark
brownstreak.Slateisproducedbylowgrademetamorphism,whichis
causedbyrelativelylowtemperaturesandpressures.
Slatehasbeenusedbymaninavarietyofwaysovertheyears.Oneuse
forslatewasinthemakingofheadstonesorgravemarkers.Slateisnot
veryhardandcanbeengravedeasily.Theproblemwithslatethoughis
itsperfectcleavage.Theslateheadstoneswouldcrackandsplitalong
thesecleavageplanes.Thisisnotadesirableattributeforaheadstone.

Slatewasalsousedforchalkboards.Theblackcolorwasgoodasa
backgroundandtherockcleanedeasilywithwater.Todayitisnotvery
advantageoustousethisrockbecauseofitsweightandthesplittingand
crackingovertime.

Schistisamediumgrademetamorphicrock.Thismeansthatithasbeen
subjectedtomoreheatandpressurethanslate,whichisalowgrade
metamorphicrock.Asyoucanseeinthephotoaboveschistisamore
coarsegrainedrock.Theindividualgrainsofmineralscanbeseenbythe
nakedeye.Manyoftheoriginalmineralshavebeenalteredintoflakes.
Becauseithasbeensqueezedharderthanslateitisoftenfoundfolded
andcrumpled.Schistsareusuallynamedbythemainmineralfrom
whichtheyareformed.Bitotitemicaschist,hornblendeschist,garnet
micaschist,andtalcschistaresomeexamplesofthis.

Gneissisahighgrademetamorphicrock.Thismeansthatgneisshas
beensubjectedtomoreheatandpressurethanschist.Gneissiscoarser
thanschistandhasdistinctbanding.Thisbandinghasalternatinglayers
thatarecomposedofdifferentminerals.Themineralsthatcompose
gneissarethesameasgranite.Feldsparisthemostimportantmineral
thatmakesupgneissalongwithmicaandquartz.Gneisscanbeformed
fromasedimentaryrocksuchassandstoneorshale,oritcanbeformed
fromthemetamorphismoftheigneouserockgrantite.Gneisscanbe
usedbymanaspavingandbuildingstone.

Quartziteiscomposedofsandstonethathasbeenmetamorphosed.
Quartziteismuchharderthantheparentrock,sandstone.Itformsfrom

sandstonethathascomeintocontactwithdeeplyburiedmagmas.
Quartzitelookssimilartoitsparentrock.Thebestwaytotellquartzite
fromsandstoneistobreaktherocks.Sandstonewillshatterintomany
individualgrainsofsandwhilequartzitewillbreakacrossthegrains.

Organicsedimentaryrocksformfromthebuildupanddecayofplant
andanimalmaterial.Thisusuallyformsinswampregionsinwhichthere
isanabundantsupplyofgrowingvegetationandlowamountsof
oxygen.Thevegetationbuildssoquicklythatnewlayersofvegetation
burythedeadanddecayingmaterialveryquickly.Thebacteriathat
decaythevegetationneedoxygentosurvive.Becausethesedecaying
layersareburiedsofastthebacteriauseupwhatoxygenthereis
availableandcannotfinishthedecompositionofthevegetation.The
overlayinglayersbecomesoheavythattheysqueezeoutthewaterand
othercompoundsthataidindecay.
Thiscompressedvegetationformscoal.Thelongeranddeeperthatcoal
isburiedmakesitofhigherquality.Peatisthefirststageofcoal
formation.Ligniteisthenextgradeofcoalfollowedbybituminousand
thehighestgrade,anthracite.
Anthraciteisactuallyametamorphicrock.Itformsduringmountain
buildingwhencompactionandfrictionareextremelyhigh.Thisformof
coalburnsveryhotandalmostsmokeless.Itisusedintheproductionof
highgradesteel.

Chapter 4 Copymaster: Test, Reviews,


Answer Keys, Chapter Schedule
Chapter #4 Copymaster includes tests and answers for students and teachers on
material covered in Chapter 4.
Select options on the right hand side to proceed.

Chapter 4 Lesson Plan


RocksandMinerals

Inthechapter"RocksandMinerals"thestudentswillhavethe
opportunitytoworkwith30mineralsandrocksinahandsondata
collectioncenter.Thenthestudentswillstudytheconceptsand
processesassociatedwiththosesamemineralsandrocksatthecomputer
center.Youwillneedtolocatethefollowingmaterialstoallowyour
studentstocompletethelessons.
Materials:
A"RocksandMinerals"labkitwhichincludesthefollowingitems;

Plasticboxestoholdthelabmaterialsandtherockandmineral
specimen.Thenumberofboxeswillbedeterminedbythenumberof
groupsthatyourclasshas.Iwouldsuggestnomorethanfourstudents
pergroup.


30rocksandmineralsspecimen
1.
Lesson1granite,biotitemica,whitefeldspar,hornblende,milkyquartz
2.
Lesson2talc,galena,hematite,magnetite,calcite
3.
Lesson3pumice,obsidian,basalt,gabbro,rhyolite
4.
Lesson4conglomerate,limestone,shale,breccia,andgraysandstone
5.
Lesson5slate,marble,schist,gneiss,quartziteLesson6anthracitecoal,
redsandstone,kaolinite,rosequartz,halite

Labmaterials
glassslides,pennies,ironnails,eyedroppersandbottles,
vinegar,streakplates,magnets,andmagnifyinglenses.
Youwillneedoneeachoftheabovetestingmaterialsforeach
group.

Datacollectionsheets

Eachstudentshouldreceivedatacollectionsheetswhichwillcover
all30rocksandmineralsspecimen.Thestudentswillperform11
testsandcollectthedatafromthedifferenttestsoneachrockor
mineralsample.
ColorThestudentswilllookatthesampleandwritedownthe
colorthattheyseeinthesample.
StreakThestudentswillscratchthespecimenacrossthestreak
platetodeterminethecolorofthestreak.
LusterThestudentswilldetermineifthemineralhasametallicor
nonmetallicluster.Ifthelusterisnonmetallicthestudentwill
determineifthesampleisearthy,pearly,vitreous,orgreasy.
AcidTestThestudentswilluseaneyedroppertoputadropof
vinegarontothesampleandwatchwiththehandlenstoseeifany
"FIZZING"occurs.Ifachemicalreactionoccurswiththedilute
acidthenthestudentsareabletodetermineifanycalcium
carbonateispresent.
MagnetismThestudentswilltouchthespecimenwithamagnet
todetermineifthespecimenismagnetic.
HardnessTestsThetestsareusedtodeterminetherelative
hardnessofarockormineral.Todeterminethehardnessthe
studentswillscratchthetestingmaterial(ie:glassslide,pennyetc.)
withtherocksampletodeterminewhichisharder.Whenthe
studentsaretestingthehardnesstheycanstopwhentheirsampleis
foundtobesofterthanthetestingmaterial.
FingernailThestudentswillscratchtherockspecimenwiththeir
thumbnailtodetermineifthesampleisharderorsofterthantheir
nail.Ifthemineralscratchestheirnailthenthesampleisharder

thanthenail.ThestudentscanXthecolumnunderthefingernail
andproceedtothenexttest.Hardness=2.5onMohshardness
scale.
PennyThestudentswillscratchacopperpennytodetermineif
thespecimenisharderorsofterthanthepenny.Hardness=3on
Mohshardnessscale.
IronNailThestudentswillcontinuetotestthesampleshardness
withtheironnail.Hardness=4.5onMohshardnessscale.
GlassSlideTheglassslideisthelasthardnesstest.Ifthesample
isharderthantheglassslideexplaintothestudentsthatthesample
isabove6onthehardnessscaleandtherearenotmanycommon
mineralsthatarethathard.Quartzisthehardestofthecommon
mineralsat7onthehardnessscale.
Layers/Bands/CrystalsThestudentswillexaminetherock
specimenforsedimentarylayers,metamorphicbands,and
crystalformation.Explaintothestudentsthatthereisadifference
betweenbandsandlayers.Havethestudentsrecordwhattheysee
ontheirdatacollectionchart.

Thefirstlesson"Rocks"workswiththefollowingspecimenofrocks
andminerals;Granite,biotitemica,quartz,feldspar,andhornblende.At
thecomputercenterthestudentswillstudytheconceptsandprocesses
thatformrocks.

Inthesecondlesson"Minerals"thestudentswillworkwiththe
followingminerals;Galena,magnetite,hematite,talc,andcalcite.The

studentswillbeexposedtotheprocessesandconceptsassociatedwith
theformationofminerals.

Thethirdlessondealswithigneousrocks.Thestudentswillbecome
awareoftheprocessesthatcausetheformationofigneousrocks.The
studentswillworkhandsonwiththefollowingrocks;pumice,obsidian,
gabbro,basalt,andrhyolite.

Thefourthlessoninvolvesthestudentslearningabouttheprocessesthat
formsedimentaryrocks.Theywillworkhandsonwiththefollowing
rocks;conglomerate,breccia,limestone,graysandstone,andshale.

Thefifthlessoninthisseriesinvolvesteachingabouttheconceptsand
processesinvolvedintheformationofmetamorphicrocks.The
studentswillworkhandsonwiththefollowingrocksamples;slate,
schist,gneiss,whitemarble,quartzite.

Thesixthlessoninthisseriesinvolvesteachingabouttheprocessesof
coalandfossilformation.Thestudentswillbeworkinghandsonwith
thefollowingsamplesofrocksandminerals;Anthracitecoal,halite,
pyrite,kaolinite,dolomite,andgraphite.

Chapter 4 Lesson Chart

Chapter 4 Student Vocabulary


RocksandMinerals
Lesson10Rocks
Name_________________
1.TheageoftheEarth


2.Howthelayerscooled

3.Rocks

(a)
(b)
(c)

4.Minerals

5.Soil


6.RockCycle

Chapter 4 Teacher Vocabulary


RocksandMinerals
Lesson10Rocks
Name_________________
1.TheageoftheEarth

TheEarthisabout4.6billionyearsold.


2.Howthelayerscooled
AstheEarthcooledtheheaviestanddensestmaterialssanktothe
center,andthelightestmaterialsrosetothetop.Theheaviest
materialsarethemetalsironandnickel,whichmakesuptheinner
andoutercores.Thelightestmaterialsarerockandmakeupthecrust
anduppermostregionofthemantle.

3.Rocks
Rocksarecomposedoftwoormoreminerals.Thesemineralshave
been1)cementedtogether2)squeezedandheatedtogether,or3)
meltedandcooledtogetherRocksmakeupthevastmajorityofthe
Earth'scrust.Thetwomostcommonrocksonthecrustaregranite
andbasalts.
4.Minerals
Amineralisasolidthatiscomposedofonesubstancethatoccurs
naturallyonEarth.

5.Soil
Soiliscomposedofverysmall,weatheredfragmentsofrockalong
withorganic(decomposedordecomposingplantandanimalmaterial)
material.

6.RockCycle
Therockcycleistheprocessinwhichigneous,sedimentary,and
metamorphicrocksarechangedovertime.Igneousrocksareformed
byvolcanicactivity.Metamorphicrocksareigneous,sedimentary,or
othermetamorphicrocksthathavebeenchangedbyheat,pressure,
chemicalmeans,oracombinationofallorsomeoftheabove.
Sedimentaryrocksareformedfromtheweatheringofalloftherock
typesandthecementing,compressing,orrecrystallizationofthe
sediments.

Chapter 4 Review
SCIENCEREVIEW
CHAPTER4

Name
_____________________

Writeadefinitionforthefollowingterms.
1.Rock

2.Mineral

3.Weathering

4.Igneousrocks

5.Sedimentaryrocks

6.Metamorphicrocks

7.Drawadiagramanddescribetherockcycle

8.Namethemostcommonrockfoundonthesurfaceofthe
Earth.

912.Namethefourmineralsthatmakeupgranite.

13.Describewhattheterm,propertyofamineralmeans.

1421.Matchthefollowingigneoustermswithitscorresponding
definition.
14._____Silla.Anintrusiveigneousbodythatrunsthroughanexisting
layerofrock.
15._____Dikeb.Averylargeintrusiveigneousbodythatislargerthan
100squaremiles.
16._____Batholithc.Atypeofigneousrockthatis
formedunderthesurfaceoftheEarth.

17._____Laccolithd.MoltenrockunderthesurfaceoftheEarth.
18._____Intrusivee.MoltenrockonthesurfaceoftheEarth.
19._____Extrusivef.Atypeofigneousrockthatisformedonthe
surfaceoftheEarth.
20._____Magmag.Asmallintrusiveigneousbody.
21.______Lavah.Anintrusiveigneousbodythatrunsparallelwith
existingrocklayers.

22Matchthefollowingtermswithitscorrespondingdefinition.

22._____Metallica.Atesttodeterminethetruecolorofamineral.
23._____Nonmetallicb.Apropertythatdescribeshowamineral
breaksintoflatplanes.
24._____Streakc.Amineralthatconductselectricity.
25._____Hardnessd.Apropertyofamineralthatismeasuredbythe
Mohsscale.
26._____Cleavagee.Apropertyofamineralthatmeasureshowit
reflectslight.
27._____Lusterf.Amineralthatdoesnotconductelectricity.

2842Writethecorrectterm

rockormineralaftereachwordbelow.

Pumice___________
Talc______________
Gabbro___________
Granite____________
Magnetite__________
Hornblende_________
Hematite___________
Mica______________
Obsidian___________
Quartz____________
Galena____________
Feldspar___________
Basalt_____________
Calcite_____________
Rhyolite___________

Chapter 4 Test
SCIENCETEST

CHAPTER4

Name
_____________________

1.Whatisthenameofthemostcommonrockonthesurfaceofthe
Earth?

2.Inyourownwordsgiveadefinitionoftheterm,ROCK.

3.Whatarethefourmineralsthatareusuallyfoundingranite?

4.Whatisweathering?


5.Whatarethethreetypesofrocks?

6.Drawadiagramandexplainwhathappensintherockcycle.

Chapter 4 Review Answer Key


SCIENCEREVIEW
CHAPTER4
Name
_____________________

Writeadefinitionforthefollowingterms.
1.Rock
Rocksaremadeoftwoormoredifferentmineralsthathavebeen1)cemented
together,or2)squeezedandheatedtogether,or3)meltedandcooled
together.RocksmakeupthemajorityoftheEarth'scrust.Oneofthemost
commonrockisgranite.

2.MineralAmineralisasolidmaterial,madeofonesubstance,thatoccurs
naturallyonEarth.
Mostofthecommonmineralsaremadeofcrystals.ACrystalisasolid
formedbyarepeating,threedimensionalpatternofatoms,ions,ormolecules
andhavingfixeddistancesbetweenthedifferentparts.

3.Weathering
Thebreakdownofrockbywind,water,oriceintosmallerpieces.

4.IgneousrocksIgneousrocksstartasmagma.Themagma(moltenrockunder
thesurface)andlava(moltenrockonthesurface)hardensintoigneousrock.

5.Sedimentaryrocks Sedimentary rocks are formed from the breaking apart of


other rocks (igneous, metamorphic, or sedimentary rocks) and the cementation,
compaction and recrystallization of these broken pieces of rock.

6.MetamorphicrocksMetamorphicrocksformfromheatandpressure
changingtheoriginalorparentrockintoacompletelynewrock.Theparent
rockcanbeeithersedimentary,igneous,orevenanothermetamorphicrock.

7.Drawadiagramanddescribetherockcycle

8.NamethemostcommonrockfoundonthesurfaceoftheEarth.
Oneofthemostcommonrockisgranite.
912.Namethefourmineralsthatmakeupgranite.
Thefourmineralsthatmakeupgranitearefeldspar,quartz,mica,and
hornblende.
13.Describewhatapropertyofamineralis.
Amineralisasolidmaterial,madeofonesubstance,thatoccursnaturallyon
Earth.

1421.Matchthefollowingigneoustermswithitscorrespondingdefinition.
14.__H__Silla.Anintrusiveigneousbodythatrunsthroughanexistinglayerof
rock.
15.__A__Dikeb.Averylargeintrusiveigneousbodythatislargerthan100
squaremiles.

16.__B__Batholithc.Anigneousrockthatisformedunderthesurfaceofthe
Earth.
17.__G__Laccolithd.MoltenrockunderthesurfaceoftheEarth.
18.__C__Intrusivee.MoltenrockonthesurfaceoftheEarth.
19.__F__ExtrusiveF.AnigneousrockthatisformedonthesurfaceoftheEarth.
20.__D__Magmag.Asmallintrusiveigneousbody.
21.__E__Lavah.Anintrusiveigneousbodythatrunsparallelwithexistingrock
layers.

2228.Matchthefollowingtermswithitscorrespondingdefinition.
22._C__Metallica.Atesttodeterminethetruecolorofamineral.
23._F__Nonmetallicb.Apropertythatdescribeshowamineralbreaksintoflat
planes.
24.__A__Streakc.Amineralthatconductselectricity.
25.__D__Hardnessd.ApropertyofamineralthatismeasuredbytheMohs
scale.
26.__B__Cleavagee.Apropertyofamineralthatmeasureshowitreflectslight.
27.__E__Lusterf.Amineralthatdoesnotconductelectricity.

2842Writethecorrecttermrockormineralaftereachwordbelow.
Pumicerock

Talc___mineral___
Gabbro___rock________
Granite__Rock___
Magnetite__mineral________
Hornblende_mineral___
Hematite___mineral________
Mica______mineral___
Obsidian___Rock_____
Quartz____mineral___
Galena___mineral_________
Feldspar___mineral______
Basalt____Rock_____
Calcite____mineral_____
Rhyolite___Rock________

Chapter 4 Test Answer Key


SCIENCETEST
CHAPTER4
Name
_____AnswerKey___

1.WhatisthenameofthemostcommonrockonthesurfaceoftheEarth?

Granite

2.Inyourownwordsgiveadefinitionoftheterm,ROCK.
Rocksaremadeoftwoormoredifferentmineralsthathavebeen1)cementedtogether,or2)squeezed
andheatedtogether,or3)meltedandcooledtogether.RocksmakeupthemajorityoftheEarth'scrust.
Oneofthemostcommonrockisgranite.
3.Whatarethefourmineralsthatarefoundinmostgranite
rocks?
Feldspar,mica,quartz,andhornblende

4.Whatisweathering?
Thebreakdownofrockbywind,water,oriceintosmallerpieces.

5.Whatarethethreetypesofrocks?
Sedimentary,Igneous,andMetamorphic.

6.Drawadiagramandexplainwhathappensintherock
cycle.

7.Inyourownwordsdescribewhatamineralis.
Amineralisasolidmaterial,madeofonesubstance,thatoccursnaturallyonEarth.
Mostofthecommonmineralsaremadeofcrystals.ACrystalisasolidformedbyarepeating,three
dimensionalpatternofatoms,ions,ormoleculesandhavingfixeddistancesbetweenthedifferentparts.

8.Whatisthenameofthemineralthatismagnetic?
Magnetite

9.Whatdoesthetermpropertyofamineralmean?
Apropertyisacharacteristicofamineral.Propertieshelpscientiststobetterunderstandhowthemineral
wasformedandalsotohelpidentifyamineral.

1022Matchthefollowingtermswiththecorrespondingletter.

10.__F__Lustera.Alargeintrusiveigneousbody
largerthan100squarekm
11._A__Batholithb.Anintrusiveigneousbodythat
runsparalleltolayersofrock.

12._D__Nonmetallicc.Apropertyofmineralsthatis
measuredwiththeMohsScale

13._E__Diked.Amineralthatwillnot
conductelectricity.

14._G__cleavagee.Anintrusiveigneousbody
thatrunsthroughlayersofrock.

15._B__Sillf.Apropertyofmineralsthat
indicatesthe"shininess"ofamineral
16._C__Hardnessg.Apropertyofamineralthat
describeshowamineralsintoflatplanes.
17._A__Intrusivea.AnigneousrockthatisformedunderthesurfaceoftheEarth.

18._F__Metallicb.AnigneousrockthatisformedonthesurfaceoftheEarth.

19._E__Streakc.MoltenrockthathasnotreachedthesurfaceoftheEarth.

20._D__Lavad.Moltenrockthathasreached
thesurfaceoftheEarth.

21._B__Extrusivee.Atesttodeterminethetrue
colorofamineral.

22._C__Magmaf.amineralthatconductselectricity

2330Writethecorrecttermrockormineralaftereachwordbelow.

Pumice____Rock_______

Gabbro____Rock_______

Magnetite__Mineral________

Hematite___Mineral________

Obsidian____Rock_______


Galena_____Mineral_______

Basalt_____Rock________

Rhyolite__Rock__