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WCDMA RNO Special Guide Inter-RAT Roaming and Handover

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Document code

Product name

WCDMA RNP

Target readers

Product version

2.0

Document version

1.0

Edited by

WCDMA RNP

WCDMA RNO Special Guide


Inter-RAT Roaming and Handover
(For internal use only)

Drafted by:

WCDMA RNP

Date:

Reviewed by:

Date:

Reviewed by:

Date:

Approved by:

Date:

March 3, 2005

Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.


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Revision Records
Date

Revised version

Description

Author

March 3, 2005

1.00

First draft completed

Jiao Anqiang

2005-03-16

2.00

Change the version, no content updated.

Qinyan

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Contents
Chapter 1 Overview of Inter-RAT Roaming and Handover ........................................................... 7
Chapter 2 Inter-RAT Roaming .......................................................................................................... 7
2.1 Definition of Roaming ............................................................................................................ 7
2.2 PLMN Selection and Reselection .......................................................................................... 8
2.2.1 PLMN Selection and Reselection Flow ....................................................................... 8
2.2.2 PLMN Selection/Reselection Effect in the Inter-RAT Roaming ................................ 12
2.3 Cell Reselection ................................................................................................................... 13
2.3.1 3G to 2G Cell Reselection Process .......................................................................... 13
2.3.2 2G to 3G Cell Reselection Procedure....................................................................... 17
Chapter 3 Inter-RAT Handover in CS Domain .............................................................................. 18
3.1 WCDMA-GSM Handover..................................................................................................... 18
3.2 GSMWCDMA Handover .................................................................................................... 20
Chapter 4 Inter-RAT Handover in PS Domain .............................................................................. 24
4.1 WCDMA GPRS Handover ................................................................................................. 24
4.2 GPRS WCDMA Handover ................................................................................................. 27
Chapter 5 Common Radio Parameters and Data Configuration ................................................ 29
5.1 3G -2G Cell Reselection Parameters .................................................................................. 29
5.2 2G - 3G Cell Reselection Parameters ................................................................................. 31
5.3 3G -2G Handover Parameters ............................................................................................ 32
5.3.1 Handover Decision Process ..................................................................................... 32
5.3.2 Handover Parameters ............................................................................................... 33
5.4 Upgrade Required for GSM-WCDMA Cell Reselection ...................................................... 34
5.5 Data Configuration for Supporting Roaming and Handover between WCDMA and
GSM/GPRS ............................................................................................................................... 38
5.5.1 2G MSC Data Configuration ..................................................................................... 38
5.5.2 Data Configuration Added by BSC ........................................................................... 38
5.5.3 Data Configuration Added by 3G MSC ..................................................................... 39
5.5.4 Data Configuration Added by RNC ........................................................................... 39
Chapter 6 Inter-RAT Roaming and Handover Strategies ............................................................ 40
6.1 Common Inter-RAT Handover Strategies ........................................................................... 40
6.1.1 Coverage Based Handover ...................................................................................... 40
6.1.2 Load Based Handover .............................................................................................. 40
6.1.3 Service Based Handover .......................................................................................... 41
6.1.4 Huawei Inter-RAT Roaming and Handover Strategies ............................................. 41
6.2 Inter-RAT Roaming and Handover Application Strategies .................................................. 43
6.2.1 Difficult Reselection and Handover to a 2G Network ............................................... 43
6.2.2 Easy Reselection and Handover to a 2G Network ................................................... 43
Chapter 7 FAQs ............................................................................................................................... 44
7.1 Inter-RAT Ping-pong Reselection ........................................................................................ 44
7.1.1 Phenomenon Description ......................................................................................... 44
7.1.2 Problem Analysis ...................................................................................................... 44
7.1.3 Solutions ................................................................................................................... 45
7.2 Inter-RAT Ping-pong Handover of PS ................................................................................. 45
7.2.1 Phenomenon Description ......................................................................................... 45
7.2.2 Problem Analysis ...................................................................................................... 45
7.2.3 Solutions ................................................................................................................... 46
7.3 Failure in handover from 3G to 2G Network ....................................................................... 47
7.3.1 Phenomenon Description ......................................................................................... 47
7.3.2 Problems Analysis .................................................................................................... 47
7.3.3 Solution ..................................................................................................................... 48
Chapter 8 Appendix 1: 2G Measurement by UE .......................................................................... 49
8.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 49
8.2 Measurement on a GSM System in the CELL DCH State .................................................. 50
8.2.1 Measurement of RSSI in GSM Cell Carrier .............................................................. 51
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8.2.2 Confirmation and Reconfirmation of BSIC in GSM Cell Carrier ............................... 52


8.2.3 Selection of CMSS .................................................................................................... 55
8.3 Measurement on a GSM System by UE in the CELL FACH State ..................................... 55
8.4 Measurement on a GSM System by UE the in IDLE/CELL PCH/URA PCH State ............. 58
Chapter 9 Appendix 2: Compression Mode and Parameters Configuration ............................ 59
Chapter 10 Appendix 3: Compression Mode Start/Stop ............................................................. 66
10.1 Event 2d: The estimated quality of the currently used frequency is below a certain threshold
................................................................................................................................................... 66
10.2 Event 2 f: The estimated quality of the currently used frequency is above a certain threshold
................................................................................................................................................... 67

List of Tables
Table 1 CN common GSM-MAP NAS system information ................................................................. 9
Table 2 PS domain system information ............................................................................................ 10
Table 3 EFLOCI content ................................................................................................................... 10
Table 4 EFPSLOCI content............................................................................................................... 10
Table 5 Timing for cell reselection by UE ......................................................................................... 14
Table 6 Parameters in WCDMA S rule ............................................................................................. 15
Table 7 Parameters in WCDMA R rule ............................................................................................. 15
Table 8 3G2G cell reselection parameters ..................................................................................... 29
Table 9 2G3G cell reselection parameter ....................................................................................... 31
Table 10 3G2G handover parameters ............................................................................................ 33
Table 11 New added table: Description of 3G neighbor cells ........................................................... 34
Table 12 Modified table: system information data (added field) ....................................................... 35
Table 13 Filling method of fields in SI2quater ................................................................................... 35
Table 14 Filling method of fields modified in SI3 .............................................................................. 37
Table 15 Number of GSM carrier RSSI ............................................................................................ 51
Table 16 Combination of TGL1, TGL2, and TGD in GSM ................................................................ 51
Table 17 Combination of TGL1, TGL2, and TGD in UTRAN ............................................................ 52
Table 18 Gap length and maximum time difference ......................................................................... 53
Table 19 Nidentify_abort values of sample sequence in compression mode .......................................... 53
Table 20 Values of Nre-confirm_abort and Tre-confirm_abort in patterns .......................................................... 54
Table 21 Relationship between length of measurement occasion and number of GSM carrier RSSI
samples ............................................................................................................................................. 57
Table 22 Relationship between measurement occasion length and max. time difference ............... 57
Table 23 Parameter and meanings. .................................................................................................. 61

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List of Figures
Figure 1 Roaming in core network ...................................................................................................... 8
Figure 2 UE flow in the idle mode ....................................................................................................... 9
Figure 3 PLMN auto selection/reselection ........................................................................................ 12
Figure 4 WCDMAGSM handover signaling flow ............................................................................. 19
Figure 5 WCDMAGSM handover signal tracing ............................................................................. 19
Figure 6 GSMWCDMA handover flow ............................................................................................ 21
Figure 7 GSMWCDMA handover signaling tracing ........................................................................ 21
Figure 8 WCDMAGPRS handover flow (1) ..................................................................................... 24
Figure 9 WCDMAGPRS handover flow (2) ..................................................................................... 25
Figure 10 WCDMAGPRS handover signaling tracing .................................................................... 25
Figure 11 GPRSWCDMA handover (1) .......................................................................................... 27
Figure 12 GPRSWCDMA handover (2) .......................................................................................... 27
Figure 13 Indoor 3G RSCP distribution ............................................................................................ 48
Figure 14 Frames in compression mode .......................................................................................... 59
Figure 15 CMSS parameters ............................................................................................................ 60

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WCDMA RNO Inter-RAT Roaming and Handover Guide


Key words: Inter-RAT, roaming, handover
Abstract: This document describes the roaming and handover between WCDMA and GSM, including the
detailed process, radio parameters configuration, and strategy, and lists the present problems
and solutions.
Acronyms and abbreviations
Acronyms

Full spelling

BSIC

Base Station Identify Code

CFN

Connection Frame Number

CPICH

Common Pilot Channel

FDD

Frequency Division Duplex

GPRS

General Packet Radio Service

GSM

Global System for Mobile Communications

RNC

Radio Network Controller

RSSI

Received Signal Strength Indicator

SB

Synchronization Burst

SFN

System Frame Number

TGCFN

Transmission Gap Connection Frame Number

TGL

Transmission Gap Length

TGPL

Transmission Gap Pattern Length

UE

User Equipment

UTRAN

Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network

WCDMA

Wideband Code Division Multiple Access

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Chapter 1 Overview of Inter-RAT Roaming and


Handover
The existing GSM/GPRS network coverage is complete. At the early stage, when WCDMA
is commercially available, out of the consideration of costs, the operators do not construct a
3G network at a large scale. Therefore, the WCDMA network coexists with GSM/GPRS
network for a period.
To guarantee the investment of operators on GSM/GPRS devices, WCDMA network must be
compatible with the GSM/GPRS network. Therefore, the roaming and handover between
GSM/GPRS and WCDMA must be implemented. Inter-RAT roaming and handover aim to
provide uninterrupted and better Quality of Service (QoS) for the communication between
the users at the borders of different systems. Especially at the early stage of 3G network
construction, when 3G network cannot implement seamless coverage, 2G network helps
ensure no call drop and smooth transition to 3G network.

Chapter 2

Inter-RAT Roaming

2.1 Definition of Roaming


Roaming is always closely related to HLR. If the original access network of a mobile user
is HLR, the user camps on the home location. If a mobile user moves from the HLR and
accesses another radio area of a different MSC/VLR, roaming is performed. The serving
area is the roaming area. Because the serving network changes, the subscription information
of user transits from the original VLR to the new VLR. In this way, the user can enjoy the
services specified in the subscription information at the roaming network. Figure 1 shows the
original access area and roaming area are MSC/VLR of HLR and roaming area.
The mobile user may also move from the roaming area and access a radio area of another
MSC/VLR except HLR and the roaming area. In this case, the same process shown in 1.1.1.1
1.1)a.Figure 1 is present. And then the roaming is performed. Namely, the original access
area and roaming area in 1.1.1.1 1.1)a.Figure 1 become the MSC/VLR of new roaming area
after the user moves from HLR and the MSC/VLR of latest access area respectively.
The roaming between WCDMA and GSM is completed by HPLMN reselection and cell
reselection. Routing area or location area updates.

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Original access area

HLR

Internal Open

New roaming area


Update

UE location update request

location area
Delete user data

Insert user data

Updated locationUE location update acceptance


Area responds

Figure 1 Roaming in core network

2.2 PLMN Selection and Reselection


2.2.1 PLMN Selection and Reselection Flow
When UE is powered on or is roaming, UE first must search a network and acquire the
service from the network.
In the idle mode, the behaviors of UE contain PLMN selection and reselection, cell selection
and reselection, and location registration. Figure 2 shows their relationship.

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User selection
of PLMN

Internal Open
Automatic/
Manual selection

PLMN Selection
and Reselection

Indication
to user

Location
Registration
response

PLMNs
available

PLMN
selected
NAS Control

Cell Selection
and Reselection
Radio measurements

Registration
Area
changes
CM requests

Location
Registration
Figure 2 UE flow in the idle mode

After UE is powered on, UE performs the following:


1)

Select a Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN).

2)

Select a cell of the PLMN.

3)

Obtain the information of neighbor cells through the broadcast of system messages.

4)

Camp on a cell with the best signal from all the cells.

5)

Initiate a location registration procedure.

6)

Successfully camp on the cell, if succeeded.

The functions of cell resident are:

Enable UE to receive the system information broadcast through the PLMN.

Initiate a random access procedure in the cell.

Receive the network paging.

Receive the cell broadcast services.

After UE camps on the cell and location registration succeeds, the signal strengths of existing
cell and neighbor cell change with the UE moving. UE needs to select the most proper cell,
meanly a cell reselection procedure. The cell reselection must confirm to a rule. The rule is
detailed later.
When reselecting another cell, UE finds that the cell belongs to another location area (LA) or
routing area (RA), and initiates a location update flow to enable the network to obtain the
latest location information of UE. SIB1 includes CN common GSM-MAP NAS system
information and PS domain system information. UE judges whether LA or RA changes based
on the LAC and RAC information in theSIB1.
Table 1 CN common GSM-MAP NAS system information
8
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LAC

Internal Open
octet 1
octet 2

Table 2 PS domain system information


8

RAC

octet 1

Spare

NMO

octet 2

If the location registration or update fails (for example, the network rejects UE), or UE leaves
the coverage areas of the PLMN, UE reselects a usable PLMN.
PLMN selection/reselection aims to select a usable PLMN. To select a usable PLMN, UE
keeps a PLMN list. The PLMNs are arranged in the list based on the priority, and UE
searches a PLMN with the highest priority. UE can select/reselects automatically and
manually the PLMN. The auto selection/reselection of PLMN means that UE selects
automatically a PLMN based on the priority. The manual selection/reselection of PLMN
means that the system provides all the PLMNs for a user and the user selects a PLMN.
In the RLMN list, registered PLMN (RPLMN) has the highest priority. RPLMN is the
successfully registered PLMN last time. UMTS Subscriber identity module (USIM) contains
EFLOCI and EFPSLOCI, and the two files record the RPLMN information.
Table 3 EFLOCI content
Bytes

Description

M/O

Length

1 to 4

TUEI

4 bytes

5 to 9

LAI

5 bytes

10

RFU

1 byte

11

Location update state

1 byte

Table 4 EFPSLOCI content


Bytes

Description

M/O

Length

1 to 4

P-TUEI

4 bytes

5 to 7

P-TUEI signature value

3 bytes

8 to13

RAI

6 bytes

14

Routing Area update state

1 byte

In the two files, LAI (= MCC + MNC + LAC) and RAI (=LAI+RAC) contain Mobile
Country Code (MCC) and Mobile Network Code (MNC), that is, RPLMN.
Whatever UE selects a PLMN automatically or manually, after UE is powered on, UE first
attempts to select a RPLMN. If succeeded, the succeeding operations are not present. If failed,
UE generates a PLMN list (the PLMNs are arranged based on the priority) as follows:
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1)

HPLMN

2)

PLMN in the User Controlled PLMN Selector with Access Technology of USIM file

3)

PLMN in the Operator Controlled PLMN Selector with Access Technology of USIM
file

4)

PLMN (arranged randomly) with better signal quality

5)

Other PLMNs (arranged based on the signal quality from good to bad)

In the USIM, the file EFIMSI records IMSI (MCC+MNC+MSIN), and UE obtains the
HPLMN.
2) and 3) are EFPLMNwAcT and EFOPLMNwACT in the USIM.

4) and 5) are searched

by UE based on the frequency.


UE searches the PLMN one by one based on the PLMN list, and attempts a location
registration.
Although UMTS evolves from GSM, their access technologies are UTRAN and GERAN
respectively. Therefore, specify the preferential access technology for each PLMN. The
priority of access technologies are specified in the file ...with Access Technology. If the
priority is not specified, select GERAN.
In the following two cases, reselect a PLMN:
Reselect the PLMN required by a user:

Under any conditions, a user can manually initiate a PLMN reselection.

Reselection when a user registers VPLMN: After a user registers in a VPLMN due to
the handover/roaming, UE can judge that VPLMN and HPLMN have the same MCC
but a different MNC. At that time, UE tries to return to HPLMN. The solution is that UE
finds HPLMN periodically. The period is specified by USIM defined in the file
EFHPLMN. It ranges from six minutes to eight hours. The operators can disable this
function by setting 0 to this period in the file EFHPLMN .

Error! Reference source not found. describes the procedure of PLMN selection or
reselection.

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Switch Off

Switch on, no SIM

Null

Switch on with SIM

Yes

Select
registered
PLMN

C
Registration
success

SIM inserted
Is
there a
RPLMN
?
No

Trying
RPLMN

SIM removed
or invalid SIM
No SIM

User reselection

Registration
failure

Indicate
selected
PLMN

Select first *
PLMN in list

Select next *
PLMN in list

LU response
"Roaming
not allowed"
E

On PLMN

Trying
PLMN

On VPLMN of
home country Loss of radio
and timeout coverage of
selected PLMN **
occurs
D

Yes
A

Any
allowable
PLMNs
available
?

Registration
successful

Registration
failure, no moreB
in list

C
User
re-selection

Move last
selected PLMN
temporarily into
(d) on list

Any
PLMNs
No
available
& Allowable
?

No

Select RPLMN Initiate HPLMN


or HPLMN if
search
none

Yes

Wait for
PLMNs
to appear

Select first
available and
allowable PLMN
in list

HPLMN
search in
progress

HPLMN
found

HPLMN
not found

PLMN available
and allowable,
which is not
RPLMN

Registered
PLMN available
and allowable
E

Registration
failure, more in list

Select
HPLMN

F
* "List" consists of points i) to v) except in case
of a user re-selection in which case list
consists of points i) to vi)

** Includes effective loss of coverage due to LAs being forbidden


in all potentially suitable cells

Figure 3 PLMN auto selection/reselection

2.2.2 PLMN Selection/Reselection Effect in the Inter-RAT Roaming


The PLMN selection/reselection can realize the Inter-RAT roaming without upgrading GSM
network and WCDMA network.

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Internal Open

A user can return to a WCDMA network from a GSM network through the PLMN reselection.
To ensure a smooth transition from a GSM network to WCDMA network within WCDMA
network coverage areas for a WCDMA user, the WCDMA network and GSM network have a
different PLMN, and the WCDMA network is set as a HPLMN in the USIM. The operators
determine the PLMN selection time.
The strategy for reselection and handover between 3G and 2G network in the project of S
commercial office is like this. When meet Inter-RAT measurement initiation conditions and
the signal in 2G network is better than in 3G network, UE reselects from 3G to 2G network
by system information configuration parameters. UE returns to 3G network from 2G network
by periodical reselection of HPLMN. The detailed strategy is as following.
The handover between 2G and 3G includes following situations:
1) In idle state, UE hands off from 3G network to 2G network in two ways.

If the UE drops from 3G network, it reselects 3G network or 2G network in several


minutes. During the dropping, the UE only use limited emergency services, without
normal services.

If the UE reselects a 2G network from a 3G network, it returns to 3G network by


periodical reselection of HPLMN.

2) When the UE enjoys services, it hands off to 2G network in two ways.

The UE hands off to 2G network. It stops services then. It camps on 2G network.

The UE keeps using services in 3G, without handover to 2G. It stops services in 3G
network. and then returns to idle state. In this state, the UE returns to 2G network.

3) When the UE camps on 2G, it returns to 3G by periodical reselection of HPLMN in idle

state. If the 3G cell to be camped on satisfies the residing conditions, it returns to 3G


network six minutes later. In USIM card the period for HPLMN reselection is six minutes.

2.3 Cell Reselection


In the idle state, Inter-RAT selection can be realized through cell selection and reselection
functions. In this function when selection from GSM to WCDMA, GSM system must be
upgraded. In additional, the two systems have different criteria for signal quality. Therefore,
special attention must be paid to the parameters related to cell selection and reselection.
Otherwise, improper cell selection or ping-pong selection may occur.

2.3.1 3G to 2G Cell Reselection Process


When a UE is powered on, it first selects a PLMN. Then it selects the first cell in the PLMN.
After the UE enters the Camped Normally state, it measures.
I. Inter-RAT Measurement
In the serving cell, the UE measures CPICH Ec/Io and CPICH RSCP at least once in each
DTX period (as the following table).
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If in the serving cell Squal>SsearchRAT, the UE need not measure the Inter-RAT cells.
Otherwise, the UE starts to measure. In this equation,

Squal = CPICH_EcNo measure Qqualmin

CPICH_EcNo is the measured value of pilot in the serving cell.

SsearchRAT and Qqualmin are parameters in system information.

After the UE starts to measure the inter-RAT signal, according to the measurement controlled
information in the system information of the serving cell, it measures the signal strength of
the GSM BCCH carrier of each GSM neighboring cell at least in every TmeasureGSM. It
will confirm the BSICs of four strongest GSM BCCHs at least every 30 seconds, and sorts
the confirmed BSICs in order according to reselection criterio (R criterion). If the UE detects
a BSIC not defined in the SI, it does not consider this GSM BCCH when cell reselection. If
the UE fails to decode the BSIC in a GSM BCCH carrier, it does not consider the GSM
BCCH carrier yet.
If Treselection value is not 0 and the signal of a GSM cell is better than that of the serving
cell, the UE evaluates the GSM cell in Treselection period. If the GSM cell remains optimal
during the period, the UE reselects this cell.
The UE measures GSM cells in a time related to DRX period. The relationship is showed in
Table 5. UE must confirm the BSIC of the cell before reselection in Treselection.
Table 5 Timing for cell reselection by UE
DRX cycle
length [s]

Nserv
[number of
DRX cycles]

TmeasureFDD [s]
(number of
DRX cycles)

TevaluateFDD [s]
(number of
DRX cycles)

TmeasureTDD [s]
(number of
DRX cycles)

TevaluateTDD [s]
(number of
DRX cycles)

TmeasureGSM [s]
(number of
DRX cycles)

0.08

0.64 (8 DRX
cycles)

2.56 (32 DRX


cycles)

0.64 (8 DRX
cycles)

2.56 (32 DRX


cycles)

2.56 (32 DRX


cycles)

0.16

0.64 (4)

2.56 (16)

0.64 (4)

2.56 (16)

2.56 (16)

0.32

1.28 (4)

5.12 (16)

1.28 (4)

5.12 (16)

5.12 (16)

0.64

1.28 (2)

5.12 (8)

1.28 (2)

5.12 (8)

5.12 (8)

1.28

1.28 (1)

6.4 (5)

1.28 (1)

6.4 (5)

6.4 (5)

2.56

2.56 (1)

7.68 (3)

2.56 (1)

7.68 (3)

7.68 (3)

5.12

5.12 (1)

10.24 (2)

5.12 (1)

10.24 (2)

10.24 (2)

II. Evaluation Rules in Reselection


As mentioned above, UE evaluates in Treselection. Then what is the evaluation rule?
1)

UE selects cells that accord with an S rule.

S rule is a basic requirement in cell reselection. It is also used in cell selection. UE selects the
cells only satisfy the S rule.

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for FDD cells:

Srxlev > 0 AND Squal > 0

for TDD cells:

Srxlev > 0

for GSM cells:

Srxlev > 0

Internal Open

Wherein,

Squal = Qqualmeas Qqualmin


Srxlev = Qrxlevmeas - Qrxlevmin - Pcompensation

Table 6 Parameters in WCDMA S rule


Cell Selection quality value (dB)
Squal

Applicable only for FDD cells.


Cell Selection RX level value (dB)

Srxlev

Measured cell quality value. The quality of the received signal expressed in
CPICH Ec/N0 (dB) for FDD cells.

Qqualmeas

Applicable only for FDD cells.


Measured cell RX level value. This is received signal, CPICH RSCP for FDD
cells (dBm), P-CCPCH RSCP for TDD cells (dBm) and the averaged
received signal level as specified in [10] for GSM cells (dBm).

Qrxlevmeas

Qqualmin

Minimum required quality level in the cell (dB). Applicable only for FDD
cells.

Qrxlevmin

Minimum required RX level in the cell (dBm)


max(UE_TXPWR_MAX_RACH P_MAX, 0) (dB)

Pcompensation
UE_TXPWR_MAX_R
ACH
P_MAX

Maximum TX power level an UE may use when accessing the cell on RACH
(read in system information) (dBm)
Maximum RF output power of the UE (dBm)

In all cells that accord with S rule, UE adopts the R rule as following to list cells in order.

Rs = Qmeas,s + Qhysts
Rn = Qmeas,n - Qoffsets,n
Table 7 Parameters in WCDMA R rule

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SN

S means servicing cell.

Internal Open

N means neighboring cell.

Qoffset1s,n

This specifies the offset between the two cells. It is used for TDD and GSM
cells and for FDD cells in case the quality measure for cell selection and
re-selection is set to CPICH RSCP.

Qoffset2s,n

This specifies the offset between the two cells. It is used for FDD cells in case
the quality measure for cell selection and re-selection is set to CPICH Ec/No.

Qhyst1s

This specifies the hysteresis value (Qhyst). It is used for TDD and GSM cells
and for FDD cells in case the quality measure for cell selection and re-selection
is set to CPICH RSCP.

Qhyst2s

This specifies the hysteresis value (Qhyst). It is used for FDD cells if the
quality measure for cell selection and re-selection is set to CPICH Ec/No.

Qmeas

Treselections

Quality value. The quality value of the received signal derived from the
averaged CPICH Ec/No or CPICH RSCP for FDD cells, from the averaged
P-CCPCH RSCP for TDD cells and from the averaged received signal level for
GSM cells. The averaging of these measurement quantities are performed as
specified in [10] and [11]. For FDD cells, the measurement that is used to
derive the quality value is set by the
Cell_selection_and_reselection_quality_measure information element.

Time-to-trigger for cell reselection, (s)

UE lists cells in order according to the R rule above. In FDD and GSM cells, UE uses CPICH
RSCP and GSM BCCH RSSI respectively to obtain Qmean, s and Qmean, n, and then calculates R
value. UE uses the offset parameter Qoffset1s,

to calculate Rn and uses the hysteresis

parameter Qhyst1s to calculate Rs.


With calculation to the R value above:
1)

If the R value of a GSM neighboring cell is larger than that in the serving cell, and UE
satisfies confirmation and requirement on Treselection, UE reselects the GSM cell.

2)

If the R value in an FDD cell is the largest,

And quality measurement target is CPICH RSCP in selection and reselection of cell, UE
reselects the FDD cell.

And quality measurement target is CPICH Ec/No, the UE needs to list all FDD cells in
order the second time according to the R rule and selects the best FDD cell. Qmeas,n
and Qmeas,s can be got from CPICH Ec/No and then FDD cells R values can be
calculated where Qoffest2s, n is instead of Qoffsets, n to calculate Rn and Qhyst2s is

instead of Qhysts to calculate Rs.


If UE selects a new cell, it needs to satisfy the following conditions:

The new cell is better than the serving cell in Treselection.

UE has camped on the serving cell for over one second.

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2.3.2 2G to 3G Cell Reselection Procedure


I. Inter-RAT measurement
For UE in Multi_RAT, 3G cell reselection list includes other access technology cells and
frequency. If RLA_C in the serving cell is compared with Qsearch_I threshold, the parameter
Qsearch_I (Qsearch_I means the idle state of CS domain, Qsearch_C_Initial means building
the connection phase of CS domain and Qsearch_P means GPRS domain.) controls whether
to start Inter-RAT measurements.
If 3G cell reselection list includes only one UTRAN frequency, UE can identify within 30s
and reselects a new UTRAN cell. When a different UTRAN frequency appears in the list, 30s
adds to the allowable time. If the same frequency appears in the list, no extra time adds to the
allowable time.
An UE in a Multi_RAT can monitor 64 UTRAN cells. Depending on capacity of UE, the
cells are divided as follows:

FDD cells include at most three FDD frequencies. Each frequency can be used in 32
cells at most.

TDD cells include at most three TDD frequencies. Each frequency can be used in 32
cells at most.

II. Algorithm for Reselection from GSM to UTRAN


If 3G cell reselection list in GSM cell system information includes UTRAN frequency, UE
needs to update RLA_C (average received level) in the serving cell and at least six strongest
non-serving GSM cells at least every other 5s.
If in 5s, RSCP measured in UTRAN cell by UE is XXX_Qoffset larger than RLA_C in the
serving cell and non-serving GSM cells, and Cpich_EcNo in the UTRAN cell (in FDD type)
is not less than FDD_Qmin, the UE reselects the UTRAN cell. XXX_Qoffest increases 5 dB
15 seconds before the UE reselects cell.
Note: FDD_Qmin and XXX_Qoffset are from BCCH broadcast in the serving cell. XXX
means different radio technique and mode.
UE can not reselect UTRAN cell until 5 seconds after the UE reselects a proper GSM cell. If
more than one UTRAN cell satisfies criterions above, UE selects the cell with the strongest
RSCP.

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Chapter 3 Inter-RAT Handover in CS Domain


3.1 WCDMA-GSM Handover
In the case of WCDMAGSM handover, if UE only performs CS services, the operators
perform WCDMAGSM CS domain handover.
The typical handover procedure is as follows, measurement control>measurement
report>handover decision>handover implementation.
1)

At the measurement control stage, the network sends a measurement control message to
notify UE of measured parameters.

2)

At the measurement report stage, UE sends the network a measurement report message.

3)

At the handover decision stage, the network judges the handover based on the
measurement report.

4)

At the handover implementation stage, UE and the network perform signaling process
and make response.

During a WCDMAGSM handover, when a user is located at the edge of WCDMA network
and the Inter-RAT handover is required, WCDMA RNC notifies dual-mode UE of Inter-RAT
measurement. UE measures other system and reports the measurement result, and RNC
judges whether to perform an Inter-RAT handover signaling flow based on the result.
WCDMA adopts the access method CDMA , so the UEs being connected work at a specified
frequency. To continue a call in the case of measurement on other system, WCDMA system
and dual-mode UEs must enable the compression mode (if the UE has only one transceiver, it
must enable compression mode. If the UE have two transceivers, it can test GSM cells
without enabling compression mode).

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UE

NodeB

RNC

3G MSC

Internal Open
2G MSC

BSS

Measurement Report(2D)
RL Recfg Prep
RL Recfg Ready
Physical Channel Reconfiguration
RL Recfg Commit
Physical Channel Reconfiguration cmp
Measurement Control(InterRAT)
Measurement Report(GSM)
Relocation Required
Prepare Handover
Handover Request
Handover Request ACK
Prepare Handover RSP
Relocation Command
Handover From UTRAN CMD
Handover Complete
IU release command
IU release complete
RRC Con Release Req
RRC Con Release Cmp
RL Del Req
RL Del Rsp

Figure 4 WCDMAGSM handover signaling flow

WCDMAGSM handover signal tracing

The flow at UTRAN side is as follows:


1.

When a UE moves outside at the edge of a cell in the WCDMA system, and 2D event report
conditions of RNC configuration are satisfied, the UE reports a measurement report, 2D event
occurrence. In this case, the signal quality of WCDMA frequency is worse, and other frequencies
or the signal sources of other systems are required.

2.

RNC enables the compression mode to measure other frequency or system. It delivers a RL
RECONFIG PREPARE message to NodeB to prepare the compression mode. This message
includes compression mode sample sequence (CMSS) and related parameters. They are TGSN,

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TGL, TGD, TGPL, compression method, downlink compression frame type, and power control
parameters in the compression mode.
3.

NodeB returns a RL RECONFIG READ message to RNC after the resources are ready.

4.

RNC delivers again a PHYSICAL CHANNEL RECONFIG message to a UE to prepare the


compression mode. This message includes activation time, CMSS and related parameters. They
are TGCFN, TGMP, TGSN, TGL, TGD, TGPL, RPP, ITP, compression method, downlink
compression frame type, and power control parameters in the compression mode.

5.

After confirming that UE received the PHYSICAL CHANNEL RECONFIG message, RNC
delivers a RL RECONFIG COMMIT message to NodeB and tells the time to start
compression mode.

6.

After the data configuration, the UE returns a PHYSICAL CHANNEL RECONFIG


COMPLETE message to RNC. At that time, compression mode starts.

7.

RNC immediately delivers the measurement control and UE performs inter-RAT measurement.
The measurement control message includes related parameters such as GSM cell list, cell
frequency information, and measurement filter coefficient.

8.

UE reports RSSI measurement value of each GSM cell.

9.

UE reports BSIC Ack. of each GSM cell.

10. If the handover conditions are satisfied, RNC sends a transition request to CN. The request
includes transition type (Inter-RAT handover requires UE), transition cause (often relocation
desirable for radio reasons), source PLMN, source SAI and destination CGI (including
destination PLMN, and LAC).
11. After assigning the related resources at the GSM side, CN delivers a RELOCATION
COMMAND message to RNC, which includes layer 3 information, cell, and GSM allocation
related resources.
12. RNC delivers a HANDOVER FROM UTRAN COMMAND message to UE. This message
includes RAB ID, activation time, GSM frequency, and GSM message in the BIT form.
13. Because UE disables the transmission when performing GSM configuration, no signal is in the
downlink and NodeB reports a SIR ERROR message. This message is optional in the flow.
14. After UE accesses GSM, CN again delivers an IU RELEASE COMMAND message to notify
RNC of releasing the resources of UE in the WCDMA.
15. RNC immediately returns an IU RELEASE COMPLETE message to CN. The radio resources
of NodeB are released in the following two messages. The air interface does not send a RNC
connection release message, because the UE is not present in the WCDMA system.

3.2 GSMWCDMA Handover


In the case of GSMWCDMA handover, when GSM cell has WCDMA neighbor cells,
the measurement control message is delivered through the system message. The dual-mode
UE performs inter-RAT measurement and reports the measurement result. BSC judges
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whether to start inter-RAT handover signaling flow based on the result. GSM adopts TDMA,
so the inter-RAT measurement is performed in idle timeslot, and the GSM system has no
problems of supporting compression mode.
UE

NodeB

RNC

3G MSC

2G MSC

BSS
Handover Request

Prepare Handover
Relocation Requeset
RL setup requeset
RL setup response
Relocation Requeset
ACK

Prepare Handover RSP


Handover Command

Inter System to UTRAN Ho cmd (Handover to UTRAN Command)


RL Restore Indicaton
Handover Complete
Relocation Complete
UTRAN Capacity Info

Send end signal


requeset

UE Capacity Info Enquiry

Clear command
Clear complete

UTRAN Capacity Info Confirm

Send end signal


response

UE Capacity Info
UE Capacity Info Confirm

Figure 5 GSMWCDMA handover flow

Figure 6 GSMWCDMA handover signaling tracing

The flow at UTRAN side is as follows:


1.

According to handover algorithm and measurement information, the source BSS in the GSM
system judges that the UE hands over to UTRAN cell. After the BSS sends a handover request to
CN, MSC sends a RANAP_RELOCATION_REQUEST message to RNC. This message
carries IMSI of UE, CN domain ID, target cell ID, encryption information, integrity protection

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information, IU signaling connection ID, handover cause, RAB configuration information, and
user plane related information.
2.

The RNC allocates radio resources for this transition, and configures the NodeB by executing
command RL SETUP. The NodeB transmits and receives radio signals.

3.

After establishing the RL successfully, the NodeB returns a RL SETUP RESPONSE message.

4.

The RNC allocates radio resources and other parameter packets for UE. They are U-RNTI, RAB
information, transmission layer information and physical layer information. The parameters are
configured for UE through the following three modes:
a. Complete configuration: define the parameters at each layer
b. Pre-configuration (pre-definition): several parameter templates are broadcast through
the SI16 and the template sequence and necessary parameters are configured for the UE. The
UE monitors the SI of UTRAN and obtains the parameter configuration based on the
template sequence.
c. Pre-configuration (by default): the 25.331 specifies 10 types of default parameters,
and sets an ID for each type of default parameter. The RNC configures default configuration
ID and other necessary information for the UE.
RNC forwards the information in a RELOCATION REQUEST ACKNOWLEGE
message (in the RNC Container cell) of IU interface to BSS by the CN, and then to the UE.
According to RNC-configured default parameter ID, the UE obtains related access
parameters from the pre-configuration (by default) in the SI. It synchronizes directly with
the NodeB in the downlink and the uplink radio transmission is performed after the
synchronization.

5.

After detecting the uplink synchronization, the NodeB sends a RL RESTORE IND message to
RNC.

6.

After receiving a RL RESTORE IND message from the NodeB, the RNC sends a
RELOCATION DETECT message to CN, and notifies UE of 2G3G handover. This message
includes no other contents.

7.

The UE sends a HANDOVER TO UTRAN COMPLETE message to RNC, and it indicates


that terminal handover completes. This messasge also contains CN domain encryption sequence
and activation time.

8.

The RNC sends a UTRAN MOBILITY INFORMATION message to UE after receiving the
HANDOVER TO UTRAN COMPLETE message, and sends the values of timer, CN domain
related information, and UE ID to the UE.

9.

After receiving a HANDOVER TO UTRAN COMPLETE form the UE, the RNC returns a
RELOCATION COMPLETE message to CN while sending a UTRAN MOBILITY
INFORMATIO to the UE. This message includes no contents. After the RNC receives an ACK
of SI17 from UE, 2G3G handover flow completes.

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The messages later are a measurement and control process for UE and NodeB and a
process of capability query.

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Chapter 4 Inter-RAT Handover in PS Domain


4.1 WCDMA GPRS Handover
WCDMA>GPRS handover is used in WCDMA PS services handover to a GPRS
system. The RNC side automatically orders the UE through the signaling to perform cell
reselection of other system to trigger the inter-RAT handover. If the slow PS services have
small traffic and UE may be in CELL PCH and URA PCH state, UE initiates automatically a
cell reselection based on the parameters in the system information to perform an inter-RAT
handover. The inter-RAT handover flow initiated by RNC is as follows:
MSC/VLR(3G)

MSC/VLR
(2G)

GGSN

HLR

SGSN(3G)

SGSN(2G)

SourceRNC

BSC
NodeB
BTS
Cell change order from UTRAN

UE

Chl Req
Chl Rqd
Imm Ass

RA update Req
SGSN Cntxt
Req
SGSN Cntxt Req
SGSN Cntxt Rsp
SGSN Cntxt Rsp
Send Authentication Info
Send Authentication ACK
Authentication and Ciphering Request
SGSN Cntxt
ACK
SRNS Data Forward
Command
forward packets
forward
packecks
Update PDP cntxt Req

Authentication and Ciphering Response

Update PDP cntxt Rsp


Update GPRS Location

Figure 7 WCDMAGPRS handover flow (1)

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MSC/VLR(3
G)

MSC/VLR(2
G)

GGSN

HLR

SGSN(3G)

SGSN(2G)

SourceRNC

BSC

Internal Open

NodeB

BTS

UE

Cancel Loc
Iu Rel Cmd
Iu Rel Complete
RL Rel Req
Cancel Loc
ACK
RL Rel Rsp
Insert Subscriber Data
Insert Subscriber Data ACK
Rel Req
Update GPRS Location ACK
Location Update Req
Rel Conf
Update Location

Cancel Location
Cancel Location ACK
Insert Subscriber Data
Ins Subscriber Data ACK

Update Location ACK


Update Location Accept

RA Update Accept
RA Update Accept Complete
TMSI Reallocation Complete
BSS Packet Flow Context
Procedure

Figure 8 WCDMAGPRS handover flow (2)

Figure 9 WCDMAGPRS handover signaling tracing

The flow at UTRAN side is as follows:


1.

The UE reports 2D measurement and serving cell quality is worse.

2.

RNC sends a RL RECONFIG PREPARE message to NodeB, and NodeB starts the
compression mode. This message includes CMSS and related parameters. They are TGSN, TGL,
TGD, TGPL, compression method, downlink compression frame type, and power control
parameters in the compression mode.

3.

After the resources are prepared, NodeB returns a RL RECONFIG READY message to RNC.

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4.

Internal Open

RNC delivers again a PHYSICAL CHANNEL RECONFIG message to the UE to prepare the
compression mode. This message includes activation time, compression mode sequence and
related parameters. They are TGCFN, TGMP, TGSN, TGL, TGD, TGPL, RPP, ITP, compression
methods, downlink compression frame type, and power control parameters in compression
mode.

5.

After the UE receives a PHYSICAL CHANNEL RECONFIG message, the RNC delivers a
RL RECONFIG COMMIT message to the NodeB, and notifies NodeB of start time of
compression mode.

6.

After the UE completes the related configuration based on new data configuration, it returns a
PHYSICAL CHANNEL RECONFIG COMPLETE message to the RNC. The compression
mode starts.

7.

The RNC immediately delivers the measurement and control to notify the UE of measurement
on other system. It carries GSM cell list, frequency information of each cell, and measurement
filter coefficients.

8.

The UE reports RSSI measurement value of each GSM cell based on the measurement report.

9.

The UE reports BSIC verification of each GSM cell based on the measurement report.

10. If the handover conditions are satisfied, the RNC initiates a transition flow. It sends a CELL
CHANGE ORDER FROM UTRAN message to the UE, and notifies the UT side to initiate a
cell reselection process and hands over to a GPRS system. This message includes destination cell
BSIC, BAND IND (900 M network or 1800 M network), BCCH ARFCN, and NC mode.
11. The UE requires cell reselection to GPRS cell and disables WCDMA transmission. The SIR
ERROR report from NodeB is not a mandatory message in the flow.
12. The UE requires cell reselection to GPRS cell, and disables WCDMA transmission. The RL
FAILURE from NodeB is not a mandatory message in the flow.
13. After the UE accesses the cell of other system, if the restore of PDP content is not required, the
RNC can receive directly an IU RELEASE COMMAND message of IU interface. If the
restore is required, the RNC obtains the SRNS CONTEXT information from the RNC, and the
source RNC receives a SRNS CONTEXT REQUEST of IU interface. This message includes
RAB ID.
14. The RNC returns a SRNS CONTEXT RESPONSE message to CN and notifies the
uplink/downlink SN of GTP and PDCP in the RAB ID.
15. The CN sends a SRNS DATA FORWARD COMMAND message to RNC and notifies the user
plane of data transmission. In this message, the CN notifies RNC of destination transmission
layer address and tunnel ID of each RAB data forwarding.
16. After the data transmission, the CN delivers an IU RELEASE COMMAND message to notify
RNC of releasing the UE.

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17. The RNC immediately returns an IU RELEASE COMPLETE message to CN. The radio
resources of NodeB are released in the following two messages. The air interface does not send a
RNC connection release message, because the UE is not present in the WCDMA system.

4.2 GPRS WCDMA Handover


MSC/VLR(3G)

MSC/VLR(2
G)

GGSN

HLR

SGSN(3G)

SGSN(2G)

SourceRNC

Init UE(RA update Req)

Send Authen Info


Send Authent ACK

BSC

NodeB

BTS

UE

RR-Cell Change Order


RRC Connect Setup Req
RL Setup Req
RL Setup Rsp
AAL2 Setup Req
AAL2 Setup Rsp
DL Sync
UL Sync
RRC Conn Setup
RRC Conn Setup Cmp
Initial DT

SGSN Cntxt Req


SGSN Cntxt Rsp
Authentication and Ciphering Request
Authentication and Ciphering Response
SGSN Cntxt ACK
forward packets

Update PDP cntxt Req


Update PDP cntxt Rsp

Update GPRS Loc


Cancel Location
Cancel Loc ACK

Figure 10 GPRSWCDMA handover (1)


MSC/VLR(3G)

MSC/VLR(2
G)

GGSN

HLR

SGSN(3G)

SGSN(2G)

SourceRNC

BSC

NodeB

BTS

UE

Ins Subscriber Dat


Ins Subscrib Dat ACK
Update GPRS Loc ACK
Location Update Req
Update Location
Cancel Location
Cancel Location ACK
Insert Subscriber Data
Ins Subscriber Data ACK
Update Location ACK
Update Location Accept

RA Update Accept
RA Update Accept Complete
Service Req

TMSI Reallocation Complete


RAB Ass Req

RL Recfg Prep
RL Recfg Ready
AAL2 Setup Req
AAL2 Setup Rsp

DL Sync
UL Sync
RB Setup
RL Recfg Commit
RB Setup Complete
RAB Ass Rsp

Figure 11 GPRSWCDMA handover (2)

The flow at UTRAN side is as follows:

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1.

Internal Open

The UE selects the cell of UTRAN after the reselection, and initiates a RRC connection setup
flow in the UTRAN cell. The setup cause is INTERRAT CELLRESELECTION

2.

After the RRC connection setup, the UE initiates automatically an INIT DT flow to establish the
SCCP connection of IU interface and signaling connection of CN NAS layer. UE NAS layer
exchanges the messages with CN NAS layer during the DT.

3.

The CN sends a RAB ASSIGNMENT REQUEST message through IU interface to notify RNC
of allocating related resources. This message carries RAB ID, QoS parameter, GPT-U
uplink/downlink SN, and PDCP SN.

4.

RNC allocates related resources and notifies NodeB by executing command RL SETUP.

5.

The RNC sends a RB SETUP REQUEST message to the UE. This message carries PDCP
downlink SN.

6.

The UE returns a RB SETUP COMPLETE message to RNC. This message carries UE side
downlink PDCP SN. The RNC configures PDCP uplink SN sent by CN and PDCP downlink SN
returned by UE for the PDCP example corresponding to the specified RAN.

7.

The RNC returns a RAB ASSIGNMENT RESPONSE message to CN.

8.

During the service flow restore, RNC PDCP example discards the datagram with small downlink
PDCP SN of downlink PDCP SN from the CN corresponding to the UE. The UE must discard
the datagram whose uplink PDCP SN is smaller than uplink PDCP SN configured by
UTRAN/CN.

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Chapter 5 Common
Configuration

Radio

Parameters

Internal Open

and

Data

5.1 3G -2G Cell Reselection Parameters


The network planning and optimization engineers use the parameters in the following table. The RNC
version is subject to C03B130.
Table 8 3G2G cell reselection parameters

MML command of Functi


modification
and on
range
query

Name

Meaning

Default parameter
configuration

Qhyst1s

It is hysteresis of cell
selection/reselection R
criteria serving cell CPICH
RSCP measurement value.

Qhyst1s is defaulted to 2
(4dB)

Setting by executing
Cell
command ADD
CELLSELRESEL, query
by executing command
LST CELLSELRESEL,
and modification by
executing command
MOD CELLSELRESEL

Qhyst2s is defaulted to 1
(2dB), and Qhyst2s is
optional. If there is no
configuration, it is the
value of measurement
hysteresis

Setting by executing
Cell
command ADD
CELLSELRESEL, query
by executing command
LST CELLSELRESEL,
and modification by
executing command
MOD CELLSELRESEL

Value range: 020


Physical range: 040db, with
the step of 2
Qhyst2s

It is hysteresis of cell
selection/reselection R
criteria serving cell CPICH
Ec/No measurement value.
This parameter is optional. If
there is no configuration, it is
the value of measurement
hysteresis 1 parameter.
Value range: 020
Physical range: 040dB,
with the step of 2

QOffset1Sn

It is the offset value of cell


selection/reselection R
criteria neighbor cell CPICH
RSCP measurement value.

Value range: -5050


Physical range: -5050dB

For intra-frequency cell


reselection, setting by
executing command
ADD
INTRAFREQCELL,
query by executing
command LST
INTRAFREQCELL,
and modification by
executing command
MOD
INTRAFREQCELL.

Cell

For inter-frequency cell


reselection, setting by
executing command
ADD
INTERFREQCELL,
query by executing
command LST
INTERFREQCELL,
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and modification by
executing command
MOD
INTERFREQCELL.
For Inter-RAT cell
reselection, setting by
executing command
ADD
INTERRATNCELL,
query by executing
command LST
INTERRATNCELL,
and modification by
executing command
MOD
INTERRATNCELL

QOffset2Sn

It is the offset value of cell


selection/reselection R
criteria neighbor cell CPICH
Ec/No measurement value.

Same as above

Cell

-18

Setting by executing
command ADD
CELLSELRESEL,
query by executing
command LST
CELLSELRESEL, and
modification by
executing command
MOD
CELLSELRESEL

Cell

Value range: -5050


Physical range: -5050dB
Qqualmin

Cell selection/reselection
minimum quality standard. It
is S criteria parameter of cell
selection in the idle mode,
and indicates the required
minimum quality standard
Ec/Io during the cell
selection, and it is subject to
FDD.
Value range: -24 0
Physical range: -24dB0dB

Qrxlevmin

Minimum access level

-58, that is, -115dBm

Ssearch,RAT

During the cell reselection


evaluation, it is the standard
whether to start
measurement on other
system. During the cell
reselection evaluation, if
serving cell quality <=
Ssearch, RAT, the UE starts
the measurement on other
system. For the FDD cell,
Squal indicates the serving
cell quality, and
Squal=Qqualmeas-Qqualmin
.

Ssearch, RAT is defaulted


to 2 (that is, 4dB)

Value range:
Integer(-32..20), with the
step of 2, and unit of dB
Treselections

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If the signal quality of other


cells (UE-measured CPICH
Ec/No) is in the quality of
current resident cell within
the time specified by the
parameter, the UE updates
the resident cell. This
parameter avoids inter-cell

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ping-pong reselection of the


UE.
Note: 0 is a default
corresponds to the default
value in the protocol, but
does not mean 0s.
value range: 031
physical unit: s
Qrxlevmin_GSM

GSM cell reselection


minimum access level

-50, that is, -99dBm

Setting by executing
command ADD
INTERRATNCELL,
query by executing
command LST
INTERRATNCEL, and
modification by
executing command
MOD
INTERRATNCEL

Cell

For the meanings and adjustment effect of parameters, see Guide to WCDMA RNP System Parameter
Setting.

5.2 2G - 3G Cell Reselection Parameters


Table 9 2G3G cell reselection parameter

PRAMETER
NAME

PARAMETER DESCRIPTION

PARAMETER
RANGE

CONFIGURAT
ION

Qsearch_I

Search for 3G cells if signal level is below


(0-7) or above (8-15) threshold
0 = - 98 dBm, 1 = - 94 dBm, ,
6 = - 74 dBm, 7 = (always)
8 = - 78 dBm, 9 = - 74 dBm, ,
14 = - 54 dBm, 15 = (never).
Default value = (never).

0-15

XXX_Qoffset

Applies an offset to RLA_C for cell


re-selection to access technology/mode
XXX (one or more)
0 = - (always select a cell if acceptable),
1 = -28 dB, 2 = -24 dB, , 15 = 28 dB.
Default value = 0 dB.

0-15

FDD_Qmin(old)

A minimum threshold for Ec/No for


UTRAN FDD cell re-selection,
0 = -20 dB, 1 = -19 dB, ..., 7 = -13 dB.
Default value = -20 dB.

0-7

0-7

A minimum threshold for Ec/No for


UTRAN FDD cell re-selection,
FDD_Qmin (update
using the GP-032221)

0= -20dB, 1= -6dB, 2= -18dB, 3= -8dB, 4=


-16dB, 5= -10dB, 6= -14dB, 7= -12dB.
Default value= -12dB

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In addition, three time parameters are fixed in UE and determine the frequency of reselection from 2G
to 3G.
1.

The cell reselection to 3G only when 3G cell RSCP in the FDD is higher the RLA_C+
XXX_Qoffset of 2G serving cell and other non-serving cells, and the timer for Ec/No exceeding
FDD_Qmin keeps 5 seconds continuously.

2.

In case of a cell reselection occurring within the previous 15 seconds, XXX_Qoffset is increased
by 5 dB

3.

Cell reselection to UTRAN shall not occur within 5 seconds after the UE has reselected a GSM
cell from an UTRAN cell if a suitable GSM cell can be found.

5.3 3G -2G Handover Parameters


5.3.1 Handover Decision Process
Periodical report criterion is used in the Inter-RAT handover decision.
According to the 25.331 protocol, 2D event indicates that the quality of active set is less than a
threshold. In the current handover algorithms (including inter-frequency handover algorithm), 2D event
report is the criterion for starting compression mode and measurement on inter-frequency/inter-RAT. The
quality of UE active set is worse in the case of measurement on other system, only the quality of other
system is measured. If the quality of UE active set is better, that is, UTRAN receives 2F event report,
compression mode disables and measurement on other system stops. For decision mode of 2D/2F event,
see the protocol 3GPP TS 25.331.
Periodical report Inter-RAT handover decision algorithm is as follows:
The network receives a periodical report after layer 3 filter and compares the measurement result on
other system with preset threshold.
if
Mother_RAT + CIO >= Tother_RAT + H/2

(1)

Start delay Trigger-Timer.


In the formula (1),
Mother_RAT indicates measurement result on other system.
Cell Individual Offset (CIO) indicates the offset for the cells of other system.
Tother_RAT indicates quality threshold of other system.
H indicates the hysteresis, and the hysteresis setting can reduce misoperation due to
signal jilter.
After the delay Trigger-Timer starts, before the timer expires, and if
Mother_RAT + CIO < Tother_RAT - H/2

(2)

the delay Trigger-Timer stops, and the network waits for receiving the measurement report of other system.
Otherwise, if the delay Trigger-Timer expires, the Inter-RAT handover decision is performed.

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5.3.2 Handover Parameters


The network planning and optimization engineers use the parameters in the following table during the
cell reselection. The RNC version is subject to C03B130.
Table 10 3G2G handover parameters

Name

Meaning

Default parameter
configuration

MML command of
query and
modification

Functi
on
range

FilterCoef

Layer 3 filter
coefficient of
measurement on
other system

D3

RNC/
Cell

GsmRSSICSThd,
GsmRSSIPSThd, and
GsmRSSISIGThd

Other system
handover decision
threshold

21, that is, -90dBm

HystThd

Other system
handover hysteresis

4, that is, 2dB

For RNC oriented other


system handover
algorithm parameter:
setting by executing
command SET
INTERRATHO, and
query by executing
command LST
INTERRATHO.

TimeToTrigForVerify

Time to trigger for


other system verify
delay

0, that is, 0s

TimeToTrigForNonVerify

Time to trigger for


other system
non-verify delay

65535, that is, handover to


non-verify GSM cell is not
allowed

PenaltyTimeForSysHo

Penalty time for


other system
handover

30, that is, 30s

InterRatCSThdFor2DRSCP,
InterRatPSThdFor2DRSCP,
InterRatSigThdFor2DRSCP,
InterRatCSThdFor2FRSCP,
InterRatPSThdFor2FRSCP, and
InterRatSigThdFor2FRSCP

RSCP is other
system
measurement
start/stop threshold
of measurement
value (CS, PS, and
single signaling)

InterRatCSThdFor2DRSCPI
nterRatPSThdFor2DRSCP is
defaulted to
-95,InterRatCSThdFor2FRS
CPInterRatPSThdFor2FRSC
P is defaulted to
-90,InterRatSigThdFor2DRS
CP
InterRatSigThdFor2FRSCP
is defaulted to -115

InterRATCSThdFOR2DEcNo,
Ec/No is other
InterRATPSThdFOR2DEcNo,
system
InterRATSigThdFOR2DEcNo,
measurement
InterRATCSThdFor2FEcNo,
start/stop threshold
InterRATPSThdFOR2FEcNo, and of measurement
InterRATSigThdFOR2FEcNo
value (CS, PS and
single signaling)
HYSTTHD

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This parameter and


other system
quality threshold
determine whether
to trigger
Inter-RAT
handover decision.
This value
decreases in the
areas with small
shadow fading and

-24, that is, -24dBm

All rights reserved

For cell oriented other


system handover
algorithm parameter,
adding by executing
command ADD
CELLINTERRATHO,
query by executing
command LST
CELLINTERRATHO,
and modification by
executing command
MOD
CELLINTERRATHO
For RNC oriented other
system handover
algorithm parameter,

RNC/
Cell

Setting by executing
command SET
INTERFREQHO, and
query by executing
command LST
INTERFREQHO.
For cell oriented other
system handover
algorithm parameter,
Adding by executing
command ADD
CELLINTERFREQHO
, query by executing
command LST
CELLINTERFREQHO
, and modification by
executing command
MOD
CELLINTERFREQHO

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the value increases


in the areas with
large shadow
fading.
CellIndividalOffset

Other system
handover cell
individual offset.
Original
measurement value
of this cell + this
offset= the
measurement
value. The
measurement value
is used for the
handover decision
of UE

Setting by executing
command ADD
INTERRATNCELL,
query by executing
command LST
INTERRATNCELL,
and modification by
executing command
MOD
INTERRATNCELL

Cell

Note:
1.

This table sets compression mode start/stop threshold, and Inter-RAT handover threshold based on signaling, CS,
and PS respectively.

2.

The new protocol CR specifies that the UE does not report GSM measurement not verified.

5.4 Upgrade Required for GSM-WCDMA Cell Reselection


GSM must support related data configuration and system information to support
inter-RAT cell selection/reselection.
GSM needs to add WCDMA neighboring cell configuration and related cell reselection
data.
Table 11 New added table: Description of 3G neighbor cells

Field

Display name

Data type

Field
length

Value range

Cell ID

Cell ID

unsigned
integer

2 bytes

0511

Cell ID

Cell ID

character
group

128 bytes

None

Downlink
channel No.

Downlink
channel No.

unsigned
integer

2 bytes

016383

Scramble

Scramble

unsigned
integer

2 bytes

0511

Diversity
identification

Diversity
identification

Unsigned
character

1 byte

01

Mobile
country code

Mobile
country code

unsigned
integer

2 bytes

000999

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MSISDN

MSISDN

unsigned
character

1 byte

0099

Location area
ID

Location area
ID

unsigned
integer

2 bytes

065535

RNC ID

RNC ID

unsigned
integer

2 bytes

04095

CELL ID

CELL ID

unsigned
integer

2 bytes

065535

Handover
target cell
receiving
level
threshold

Handover
target cell
receiving
level
threshold

unsigned
character

1 byte

063

Table 12 Modified table: system information data (added field)

Name

Data type

Field
length

Value
range

Search 3G cell threshold in idle


mode

unsigned
character

1 byte

015

3G cell reselection level offset

unsigned
character

1 byte

015

3G cell reselection level


threshold

unsigned
character

1 byte

07

Search 3G cell threshold in


dedicated mode

unsigned
character

1 byte

015

GSM must add or modify system information to notify UE of the cell reselection of
WCDMA neighbor cells.
1. Modify SI2ter
SI2 and SI2bis support neighbor GSM cell list of resident cell. If the handover between
GSM and UTRAN is supported, the UTRAN neighbor cell of resident cell must notify the
UE. Compared with the definition of SI2ter in GSM 04.08 protocol, frequency number
information and cell reselection parameter of neighbor 3G cell are added to that in the 3GPP
04.18 protocol, so the filling method of fields in the SI2ter must change.
For the SI2ter sent to BTS from BSC, before the change, there are four idle bytes in the
Rest OctetsIE of SI2ter based on the GSM 04.08. After the change, SI2ter Rest OctetsIE
length of SI2ter is the same, but the contents change as 3G cell reselection related
information based on the 3GPP 04.18 protocol. Because the number of bytes is restricted, the
example of each SI2ter includes the description of only one 3G cell frequency number, and
does not carry an optional parameter 3G Measurement Description (this parameter is carried
in SI2quater).
Table 13 Filling method of fields in SI2quater

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Name

Meaning

Internal Open

Filling method

BA_IND

The network discriminates the


measurement report from an UE is based
on which BA list. In idle state, an UE
constructs a set of BA list based on SI2,
SI2bis, SI2ter, and SI2quater. In a
dedicated mode, an UE constructs
another set of BA list based on SI5,
SI5bis, SI5ter, and MEASUREMENT
INFORMATION.

Fill in 0

3G_BA_IND

Similar to BA_IND

Fill in 0

MP_CHANGE_
MARK

Whether neighbor cell list information


changes

After the neighbor cell relation or SI


changes, the digit of the first example
is a reverse value of the digit when
SI2quater is delivered. In other
circumstances, the value of this digit is
the same when SI2quater is sent last
time. Under any conditions, the value
of this digit is the same as that in the
first example

SI2quater_INDE
X

SN of SI2quater example

The first example is numbered 0, and


the second example is numbered 1, and
so on

SI2quater_COU
NT

Total number of SI2quater example

The number of examples in SI2quater


of 3G neighbor cell relation subtracts 1

Index_Start_3G

3G neighbor cell information of this


example is added to the start point of the
item in 3G neighbor cell list

If this example is numbered n, and


0n-1example describes M 3G
neighbor cells, the field in the example
is numbered m

Repeated
UTRAN FDD
neighbor cells

Detail the UTRAN cell

FDD_ARFCN indicates cell frequency


number.
FDD_indic0 indicates whether
scramble in the
FDD_CELL_INFORMATION has 0.
NR_OF_FDD_CELLS indicates the
number of cells in the
FDD_CELL_INFORMATION
FDD_CELL_INFORMATION
indicates the result of scramble set
compression from the algorithm in the
GSM 04.08 Anex J

REPORT_TYPE

0 indicates common measurement report


and 1 indicates enhanced measurement
report

Fill in 0

SERVING_BAN The measurement report includes at least


D_REPORTING the number of neighbor GSM cells with
the same band with serving cell

Used in EMR, and fill in 0

Qsearch_I

Fill in 3G cell search threshold in idle


mode

The threshold of 3G cell search


For specific meanings, see 3GPP 0508

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protocol
Qsearch_C_Initi
al

Which value is used for search cell


threshold in Connect state before the
threshold is obtained. 0 indicates
Qsearch_I, and 1 indicates always
search

Fill in 0

FDD_Qoffset

Cell reselection offset: reselect 3G cell


only when average received level of 3G
cell is FDD_QoSffset larger than serving
cell

Fill in 3G cell reselection level offset

FDD_REP_QU
ANT

The index in the measurement report

Fill in 0

FDD_MULTIR
AT_REPORTIN
G

The measurement reports includes the


number of UTRAN FDD cell

Fill in 0

FDD_Qmin

3G cell reselection level threshold:


reselect the candidate cell only when
received level of 3G cell must larger than
FDD_Qmin

Fill in 3G cell reselection level


threshold

Qsearch_P

Cell reselection level threshold in the


packet idle mode

Fill in cell reselection threshold in


idle mode

0 indicates RSCP, and 1 indicates


Ec/N0

For specific meanings, see 3GPP 0508


protocol
3G_SEARCH_P
RIO

Whether to allow 3G cell search if BSIC


must be demodulated.

Fill in 1

0 indicates No, and 1 indicates Yes.

3. Modify SI3
Whether SI2tquater message and whether UE reports a UTRAN CLASSMARK
CHANGE message are added to the Rest OctetIE of SI3 defined in the 3GPP 04.18
protocol, so the SI3 must be modified.
Table 14 Filling method of fields modified in SI3

Name

Meaning

Filling method

3G Classmark
Sending Restriction

Whether to send a UTRAN CLASSMARK


CHANGE message. L indicates No and H
indicates Yes

Fill in L

SI2quater Indicator

Send SI2quater on which channel.

Fill in 0

0 indicates BCCH, and 1 indicates extended


BCCH

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5.5 Data Configuration for Supporting Roaming and Handover


between WCDMA and GSM/GPRS
When the functions are supported:
Roaming and handover between 3G and GSM/GPRS
PLMN selection
UE transition to 3G network from 2G network through cell reselection
UE transition to 2G network from 3G network through cell reselection
2G and 3G network must configure related data.

5.5.1 2G MSC Data Configuration

Add the records of 3G MSC/VLR number in the cell table of location area. RNC ID
= MCC + MNC + LAC + RNC-ID, location area class is GCI, and location area
type is neighbor VLR area.

Add related LAI record, 3G MSC/VLR number. LAI = MCC + MNC + LAC, the
location area class is LAI, and location area type is neighbor VLR area.

Change MAP version to PHASE 2PLUS in MAP function flow configuration


table.

Configure MTP layer data to ensure signaling transmission between 2G MSC and 3G
MSC.

Configure SCCP layer data, and the records of 3G MSC in GT table, SCCP SSN
table and SCCP DSP table to ensure inter-MSC MAP handover related signaling
transmission.

Configure inter-MSC trunk data, and it is the same as common data configuration

5.5.2 Data Configuration Added by BSC


When the roaming from GSM to WCDMA is supported, the GSM BSS must deliver the
following SI:

Add WCDMA cell and configure the data, including downlink frequency number,
primary scramble, diversity identification, MCC, MNC, LAC, RNC-ID, and
CELL-ID.

Add other system cell measurement and roaming control messages related to UE in
the IDLE mode, including Qsearch_I, FDD_Qoffset, and FDD_Qmin.

The above messages are sent to UE through SI 2ter and 2quater.

UE reselects other system cells based on the above messages.

When the handover from GSM to WCDMA is supported, the GSM BSS must deliver the
following SI:

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Add WCDMA cell and configure the data, including downlink frequency number,
primary scramble, diversity identification, MCC, MNC, LAC, RNC-ID, CELL-ID,
and level threshold for handover to the cell.

Add other system cell measurement and control messages in Connect sate, including
Qsearch_C.

The above messages are sent to UE through SI MEASUREMENT INFOMATION.

When the level of serving cell meets Qsearch_C, the UE measures the 3G cells and
reports periodically the result to BSC.

BSC initiates a handover to a WCDMA system.

5.5.3 Data Configuration Added by 3G MSC

Add 2G MSC neighbor location cell information in 3G MSC location cell table.
LAI = MCC + MNC + LAC, the location area class is LAI, and location area
type is neighbor VLR area.

Add related 2G MSC/VLR number, GCI=MCC+MNC+LAC+CI, location area class


is GCI, and location area type is neighbor VLR area.

Add related 2G MSC/VLR number.

Configure MTP layer data to ensure signaling transmission between 2G MSC and 3G
MSC

Configure SCCP layer data, and the records of 2G MSC in GT table, SCCP SSN
table and SCCP DSP table to ensure inter-MSC MAP handover related signaling
transmission.

Configure inter-MSC trunk data, and it is the same as common data configuration

5.5.4 Data Configuration Added by RNC


If the roaming from WCDMA to GSM/GPRS is supported, UTRAN must deliver the
following SI:

Add GSM cell and configure the data, including MCC, MNC, LAC, GSM CELL ID,
NCC, BCC, FREQ_BAND, Frequency Number and CIO;
ADD GSMCELL: MCC="460", MNC="10", LAC="0x0fa0", CID="0x0102", NCC=0,

BCC=0,

BCCHARFCN=60,

BANDIND=DCS1800_BAND_USED,

RATCELLTYPE=GSM;
ADD INTERRATNCELL: CELLID=123, MCC="460", MNC="10", LAC="0x0fa0",
CID="0x0102", CELLINDIVIDALOFFSET=50, QOFFSET1SN=-50, QRXLEVMIN=-58;

Configure FACH measurement occasion, and configure whether perform FDD


measurement on other system, TDD measurement on TDD and measurement on
other system in the FACH measurement occasion. If the roaming on other system is

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required, the measurement on other system starts in the FACH measurement occasion.
Otherwise, RNC does not deliver GSM neighbor cell information through the SIB11.
MOD CELLMEAS: CELLID=123, INTERFREQINTERRATMEASIND=INTER_RAT,
FACHMEASIND=REQUIRE, FACHMEASOCCACYCLELENCOEF=3;

Execute command MOD CELLSELRESEL to configure the SsearchRAT of GSM


system.

After the data configuration, SsearchRAT and GSM neighbor cell information are
sent in SIB3 and SIB11 respectively.

If the handover from WCDMA to GSM/GPRS is supported, UTRAN must deliver the
following SI:

Add the GSM cell and configure the information, including MCC, MNC, LAC, GSM
CELL ID, NCC, BCC, FREQ_BAND, Frequency Number, and CIO.

Execute command MOD CELLMEAS to configure measurement and control on


other system.

Chapter 6 Inter-RAT Roaming and Handover Strategies


6.1 Common Inter-RAT Handover Strategies
6.1.1 Coverage Based Handover
In the coverage areas without 3G system, the coverage based handover or cell
reselection is required for smooth transition from GSM to WCDMA.
In the areas with 3G coverage only, the GSM system also support coverage based
handover or cell reselection to ensure handover between GSM and 3G and cell reselection,
and smooth transition to 3G without a GSM system.

6.1.2 Load Based Handover


Load based handover or cell reselection is used for load sharing between GSM and
WCDMA. The handover is trigger based on the cell load measured by a GSM or WCDMA
network.
For example, whatever the GSM network load is, non-transparent CS data hands over to
WCDMA network to ensure better throughput. When the GSM system load is heavy, partial
voice and transparent data hand over to a WCDMA network. Load based handover adopted
in a GSM network early helps reduce the high load of a GSM network and extra investment
on the GSM network for the operators.
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In the packet switched domain, the network controls the cell reselection to realize the
service and load cause based cell reselection, that is, the network can order the terminal to
change the cell or system.
Load based handover and cell reselection aim to use fully two systems to avoid the extra
usage of the other system when one system has idle capacity.
Load balancing strengthens the capacity of the overall system. The capacity of the
overall system is greater than the sum.

6.1.3 Service Based Handover


Service based handover introduces the service stream in a GSM system or WCDMA
system. Even though the source cell has no overload, the service based load is performed.
During the load based handover/cell reselection or call setup, the service information can be
used. The operators introduce the voice to a GSM system through the function, and all the
VPs and packet data to a WCDMA system to reduce the investment on a 3G circuit network
and a 2G packet network.
The service priority information is saved in the CN (MSC/VLR or SGSN), and tells the
GSM system and radio access part of a 3G system through Iu_PS, Iu_CS, A, or Gb interface.
The complete service handover is performed by CN and access network together. The
CN indicates the access network to hand the service over to a GSM system through optional
cell service handover in RAB assignment message, or requires it in a 3G network, or has
no requirement. According to the protocol, service handover has three possibilities:

Handover to GSM should be performed

Handover to GSM should not be performed.

Handover to GSM shall not be performed.

If the access network performs Inter-RAT handover based on the requirement of


service handover, the CN control Inter-RAT handover is more flexible. The services
handover to a GSM system help the operators make good use of 2G devices.

6.1.4 Huawei Inter-RAT Roaming and Handover Strategies


To reduce the effect of GSM network and signaling exchange, improve the handover
success ratio, and avoid ping-pong handover cell reselection, Inter-RAT interoperation
strategies are as follows:

The voice service supports the handover from WCDMA to GSM, instead of from
GSM to WCDMA. The GSM network has a good coverage, the operators need not
hand a call over to a WCDMA network through the Inter-RAT handover.
Consequently, the GSM system can avoid frequent ping-pong handover and signal
exchange between WCDMA and GSM without the upgrade.

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When a connected dual-mode UE resides in a WCDMA network and moves from


a GSM/WCDMA coverage area to a GSM coverage area and is at the border of
WCDMA network, the WCDMA network initiates a handover from WCDMA to GSM
based on measurement report. The GSM network at the border supports the handover
from WCDMA to GSM.
When a connected dual-mode UE resides in a GSM network and moves from a
GSM coverage area to GSM/WCDMA coverage area, the handover from a GSM
network to WCDMA network must be avoided. When the call ends, and the UE is in
idle state, the UE resides in a WCDMA network through PLMN reselection or cell
reselection.
When the UE support handover from WCDMA to GSM only, PLMN reselection,
or cell reselection to WCDMA network, the upgrade for a GSM network is not
required.
The data service supports the handover from a WCDMA network to a GSM network
through cell reselection.
When a connected dual-mode UE resides in a WCDMA network, moves from
GPRS/WCDMA coverage area to GPRS coverage area and is at the border of WCDMA
network, the WCDMA network performs a network side-initiated cell reselection and helps
the dual-mode cell reselects the GPRS network.
When a connected dual-mode UE resides in a GPRS network and moves from GPRS
coverage area to GPRS/WCDMA coverage area, the UE performs data domain handover
through intra-GPRS cell

reselection. At that time, handover to a WCDMA network is

not required. Otherwise, the upgrade of GSM access network is required.


When the UE is in idle state, resides in a WCDMA network, and moves to the border of
WCDMA coverage area, it roams to a GSM network through PLMN reselection or cell
selection. If the UE resides in a GSM network and moves to WCDMA coverage area (it
is also in the GSM coverage area), it resides in a 3G network through periodical PLMN
reselection (if the UE resides in a 3G network through cell reselection, the UE resides in
a WCDMA network from a GSM network, and the upgrade of a GSM network is
required).
Namely, the WCDMA network and GSM network are configured a different
PLMN-Id. If a WCDMA network is configured as HPLMN in the USIM, the GSM
network is VPLMN. After an UE powers on, it selects the WCDMA network by priority
during the PLMN selection, and resides in the WCDMA cell. After the UE resides in a
GSM network due to handover/cell reselection, the UE reselects HPLMN periodically
because the GSM network is VPLMN. The reselection period is determined in the USIM.
It ranges from six minutes to eight hours and is defaulted to one hour.

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6.2 Inter-RAT Roaming and Handover Application Strategies


6.2.1 Difficult Reselection and Handover to a 2G Network
When the coverage in a 3G network is better than that in a 2G network, the UE must
reside in the 3G network.
If an UE is in IDLE state, and 2G level is better than 3G Delta dB, the UE reselects the
2G network. Delta dB is determined by Qoffset1sn. According to WCDMA R criterion,
Qoffset1sn is a key adjustment parameter and configurable in the network. If Qoffset1sn
(ranging from -50 to 50dB, and defaulted to 0) increases, handover to a 2G network is
difficult, for example, it is set to 50dB.
If an UE is in Connect state, CellIndividualOffset (ranging from -50 to 50dB, and
defaulted to 0) increases to avoid handover to a 2G network, for example, it is set to -50 dB.

6.2.2 Easy Reselection and Handover to a 2G Network


The 3G network has better coverage than 2G network in some areas, for example, the
2G network has DAS in the indoors but 3G network does not. When a connected UE moves
from a 3G coverage area to 2G coverage area, it must transit smoothly to a 2G network
without call dropped. When the UE is in IDLE state, it transits smoothly to a 2G network
without call dropped, and Qoffset1sn is set to 0.
When the UE is in Connect state, you can increase the start/stop threshold of
compression mode and start early the compression mode to measure 2G signals (such as
-90/-85dBm), and set CellIndividualOffset to 0. This operation aims to increase the overlay
areas of 3G and 2G and fast handover to 2G when the 3G signal decreases fast from outdoors
to indoors.

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Chapter 7 FAQs
7.1 Inter-RAT Ping-pong Reselection
7.1.1 Phenomenon Description
In part of the office building of a commercial deployment, the UMTS-GSM dual-mode UE
performs frequent ping-pong reselection of cells between 3G and 2G network in the idle state.
2G and 3G flag are displayed in the screen of Siemens U15 and Moto A835 UEs.
WCP and GCP are displayed in the screen of the Qualcomm test UE frequently. The
reselection from 3G network to 2G network takes 1min on average. The reselection from 2G
network to 3G network takes 12mins on average. During the testing, the location of the UE
and the circumstance keep fixed.

7.1.2 Problem Analysis


The reselection from 3G network to 2G network is as follows:
1)

When the pilot signal quality Ec/Io in 3G cells minus Qqualmin is less than the
Inter-RAT measurement start threshold SsearchRAT, the UE started to measure the 2G
neighbor cell.

2)

When the quality of signal in 2G neighbor cells satisfies the cell reselection criteria and
lasts for Treselection, the UE selects 2G cells.

3G RSCP is below -90 dBm at the borders of 3G network. However the 2G RSCP ranges
from -60 dBm to -70 dBm with signals of good quality. Therefore, once the UE starts to
measure the 2G neighbor cells and the signal in the cell fails to be better in Treselection, the
UE reselects the 2G cells.
The key parameter in reselection from 3G network to 2G network in test is SsearchRAT. The
rational configuration of the reselection delay timing parameter Treselection helps solve
ping-pong reselection.
The reselection from 2G network to 3G network is as follows:
1)

When the signal strength of 2G serving cell satisfies the Inter-RAT start threshold
Qsearch_I, the 3G neighbor cells are measured. From optimized 3G strategy, the current
configuration is 7 (always start).

2)

When the signal strength RSCP of the 3G cell minus the current RLA_C (the average
signal strength in 2G serving and non-serving cells) is greater than FDD_Qoffest, and it
lasts 5s, the 3G cell can serve as the target cell to be reselected. The current
FDD_Qoffset is 7 (always reselect 3G cells).

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When the signal quality Ec/Io of the 3G cell is greater than or equal to FDD_Qmin
threshold, the 3G cell can serve as the target cell to be reselected.

4)

In the cells that satisfy the previous conditions, the UE select the cell of best quality as
the target cell to be reselected.

Therefore, the key parameter in from 2G network to 3G is FDD_Qmin. The default


configuration is -12 dB.

7.1.3 Solutions
In network optimization, the operator can take the following adjustment:
1) The operator increases the interval between SsearchRAT and FDD_Qmin. According to

the default parameters, if 3G CPICH Ec/Io is greater than -12 dB in the GSM system,
the UE reselects 3G network. If 3G CPICH Ec/Io is less than or equal to -14 dB, the UE
reselects the GSM network from 3G network. In the current parameters configuration,
the signal fluctuation of 3G CPICH Ec/Io decides the frequency of cell reselection. If
the signal fluctuation is over 1 dB, the ping-pong reselection occurs. In field test of 3G
cells, if Ec/Io is less than -14 dB, the UE drops off the network easily, so the
SsearchRAR cannot be less, and FDD_Qmin can be increased. The value range of
FDD_Qmin is over small, so it can be only set to its maximum value -13 dB. Since the
protocol of September 2003, the value range of FDD_Qmin is increased through CR
GP-032221 (see 5.2

for details). If the UE is updated according to GP-032221, the

FDD_Qmin is increases completely. If FDD_Qmin is set to -8 dB, compared with the


start measurement threshold -14 dB of reselection from 3G network to 2G network,
FDD_Qmin has a space of 6 dB. In this way, the ping-pong reselection caused by signal
fluctuation is less likely.
2) Treselection is increased. If the default configuration is 1s, the Treselection can be set to

5s. In this way, the reselection between 3G network and 2G network is reduced.

7.2 Inter-RAT Ping-pong Handover of PS


7.2.1 Phenomenon Description
The UE performing PS domain services hands off between 3G network and 2G network.

7.2.2 Problem Analysis


For Inter-RAT handover of CS and PS, the services for CS and PS are different in handover
between 2G to 3G network.
1)

In CS service, after handover from 3G network to 2G network and after release of


services in 2G network, the UE reside again in 3G cell through reselection from 2G
network to 3G network or reselection of PLMN.

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In PS service, after the reselection from 3G network to 2G network started by the


network, the UE re-accesses the 2G network. In services transmission, the UE
performing PS services may return to 3G network through reselection between 2G
network and 3G network. According to the analysis of 3.1

, in the reselection of the

cells performing PS domain services from 2G network to 3G network, the actual


working factor is the configuration of FDD_Qmin (measuring Ec/Io). If Ec/Io is greater
than FDD_Qmin, the UE reselects 3G network. Whether the UE has handed off from
3G network to 2G network is judged through measuring RSCP in condition of the cell as
a border cell. Measuring RSCP cannot assure that Ec/Io is greater than FDD_Qmin, so
no mechanism can avoid ping-pong handover.
The solutions lie in as follows:
1)

The measurement target of 2G and 3G network is unified. If this cannot be performed,


the following method is adopted.

2)

The start parameters in compression mode and reselection threshold from 2G network to
3G network is adjusted.

7.2.3 Solutions
I. Unification of Measurement Target in 3G and 2G Network
When there are more than one 3G cells, the change of Ec/Io indicates the change of 3G cell
quality. If the cell attribute is configured as cell of the carrier center and the measurement
target in 2D event is Ec/Io, the measurement target between 3G and 2G network is Ec/Io. The
default parameter of 2D/2F with the measurement target Ec/Io is -24 dB. The parameter can
be adjusted to -12/-10 dB to avoid ping-pong handover (see the configuration of Mauritius
commercial deployment Emtel). 7.1.3

is a reference for next adjustment.

In addition, the new 3GPP TS 05.08 protocol defines the RSCP (FDD_RSCP) that can
measure 3G network in reselection from 2G network to 3G network. Now only Ec/Io can be
tested. The adjustment fits the 3G cells the cell attribute of which is carrier border cell.
However many current NEs does not support this.
II. Adjustment of Start Parameters in Compression Mode and Reselection Threshold
from 2G to 3G Network
The adjustment fits the 3G cells the attribute of which is carrier border cell. Only 3G Ec/Io
can be measured in reselection from 2G network to 3G network. The start/stop threshold in
compression mode can be lowered to -105/-100 dBm. 7.1.3

is a reference for the next

adjustment.

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7.3 Failure in handover from 3G to 2G Network


7.3.1 Phenomenon Description
In the office building of a commercial deployment, when the UE makes a voice call in areas
covered by 3G network and moves towards the areas covered by 2G network, the call drops
easily. The call succeeds one or two times every ten times.

7.3.2 Problems Analysis


The 2G neighbor cells configuration of the 3G network cells that cover the office building in
the WCDMA network parameters is examined. The 2G cells that cover office building need
to be confirmed in the 2G neighbor cells list. UMTS outdoor macrocells are used to perform
3G coverage in the office building, the test route is switched by passing two iron doors. After
the operator opens the door, enters, and closes the door, the signal attenuates sharply. Figure
12 shows the UMTS signal distribution observed by a Scanner.
The signal attenuates sharply, so the handover is not performed in time, and then the call
drops. The key solution is to adjust the Inter-RAT switching parameters. This leads to an
earlier and faster handover.
The operator does as follows:
1)

Change the cell independent offset (CIO) in the GSM neighbor cell from 0 dB to 5 dB.
The UE hands off to the GSM cell more easily. Call still drops in test.

2)

Change 2D RSCP Threshold from -95 dBm to -85 dBm to -75 dBm. The Inter-RAT
measurement starts earlier. Call still drops in test.

3)

Change GSM RSSI Thd from -90 dBm to -95 dBm. The UE hands off to GSM cells
more easily. Call still drops in test.

4)

Change 2D Trigger Time from 640ms to 320ms to 0ms. The Inter-RAT measurement
starts more easily. Call still drops in test. Change the parameter back to 640ms.

5)

Change the cell location attribute from carrier border to carrier center (the
associated measurement changes from RSCP to Ec/Io). Change 2D Ec/Io Threshold
from -24 dB to -10 dB. Call still drops in test.

6)

Change Inter RAT handover trigger time from 5000ms to 2000ms. The UE performs
Inter-RAT more quickly. Calldrop is improved.

7)

Recover the parameter changed in Step 5 as it was.

8)

Change Inter RAT handover trigger time from 2000ms to 1000ms. The UE performs
Inter-RAT handover more quickly. Calldrop is solved.

The adjustment results in that the change to the parameter Inter RAT handover trigger time is
the most effective to complete Inter-RAT handover. Now the parameter is changed to
TimeToTrigForVerify in RNC C03B130. The default is 0. This triggers handover more easily.

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Figure 12 Indoor 3G RSCP distribution

7.3.3 Solution
The operator checks as follows:
1)

Examine that 2G neighbor cells are validly configured.

2)

Reduce TimeToTrigForVerify (TimeToTrigForNonVerify needs no change. The current


protocol defines that the UE needs not to report on NonVerify) to make UE hand off to
2G network more quickly.

3)

Increase GSM CIO. This increases the possibility of handover to 2G network, but
increases the coverage of 2G network and reduces the coverage of 3G, therefore this
step need consideration.

4)

Increase the GSM RSSI handover threshold. This increases the coverage of 2G network,
but reduces the coverage of 3G network, therefore this step need consideration.

5)

Increase 2D/2F threshold in compression mode to start compression mode earlier.

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Chapter 8 Appendix 1: 2G Measurement by UE


8.1 Introduction
The network side must decide whether to measure a GSM system according to the UE
capability. If a UE does not support the cell channel number in a neighbor GSM system or
GSM/GPRS systems, the UE cannot measure the GSM system and the services cannot hand
over to a GSM system or GSM/GPRS systems. If the UE supports the channel numbers in
these neighbor cells, the UE capability decides whether to start the compression mode to
measure a GSM system.

If the UE requires a compression mode, the UE starts a compression mode to measure a


GSM system in transmission gaps.

If the UE does not require a compression mode, the UE may have two set of transceivers
and can measure directly a GSM system.

The measurement on a GSM system includes GSM carrier RSSI measurement, initial
confirmation of BSIC measurement, and BSIC reconfirmation measurement. The three
measurements use three different sample sequences in compression mode. Wherein, the BSIC
consists of network color code (NCC) and base station color code (BCC). The BSIC
discriminates neighbor cells. The NCC identifies the network. The BCC discriminates cells
that use the same BCCH channel number at different network borders. When the UE accesses
GSM cells randomly, the random access signaling includes the BSIC value of the GSM cell
to be accessed. The BSS compares the BSIC value with that of the serving cell. If the two
values are different, the BSS rejects the access request. During the measurement on other
system, the UE can measure observation time difference as follows:
T (GSM-SFN) = T(RXGSMj) - T(RXSFNi)
wherein,

T (RXSFNi) is the starting time of the frame (SFN = 0) on P-CCPCH in the UTRAN
cell i. The transmission of SFN on P-CCPCH is a timing reference on all physical
channels.

T (RXGSMj) is the starting time of a 51 multiframe on GSM BCCH carrier j. The


multiframe is the closest to T (RXSFNi). If T (RXGSMj) is equal to T (RXSFNi), T
(GSM-SFN) is equal to 0.

The GSM measurement may need three CMSSs simultaneously. The compression mode
affects the system capacity, so how to use compression mode sequence is also important.
In the serial compression mode, the UE does as follows:
1)

Measure the GSM RSSI.

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Re-configures the compression mode to complete initial confirmation of BSIC


measurement.

3)

Re-configure the compression mode again to complete reconfirmation of BSIC


measurement.

In this way, the time for using compression mode and transmission signaling increases.
In the parallel compression mode, the UE does as follows:
1)

Configure multiple compression mode sequences and activate them while measuring a
GSM system.

2)

Set TPGS Status Flag as Active, and assure no overlapped transmission gaps of
three compression mode sequences.

3)

Assure that at least one frame in three consecutive frames is not compressed and the
ending time of the first transmission gap in two consecutive compression frames is at
least eight timeslots earlier than the starting time of the second transmission gap.

Before performing Inter-RAT handover to services, the UE need consider service attribute,
neighbor cell attribute and UE capability. If RAB ASSIGNMENT REQUEST has a
Service Handover IE, the UE assigns the services using respectively three values based on
the IE.

Handover to GSM shall not be performed means the service cannot be handed over to
a GSM system.

Handover to GSM should be performed means the service needs to be handed over to
a GSM system as possible.

Handover to GSM should not be performed means the service needs not to be handed
over to a GSM system as possible.

The neighbor cell attributes indicate that the cell is in a GSM system or GPRS system, or
other types, such as TDD, and CDMA2000. The UE capability means whether the UE
supports Inter-RAT channel number. If no, the UE cannot perform the measurement on other
system.

8.2 Measurement on a GSM System in the CELL DCH State


In a WCDMA system, the handover to a GSM system is performed to process a connected
UE through RSSI measurement, confirmation and reconfirmation of BSIC. Since a WCDMA
system and a GSM system use different frequencies, the UE decide whether to use
compression mode to measure the GSM system according to UE capability.

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8.2.1 Measurement of RSSI in GSM Cell Carrier


I. UE requring a compression mode
When a UE supports the measurement on a GSM system in a compression mode, the
transmission gap of GSM RSSI measurement must satisfy the minimum number on GSM
RSSI carrier measurement in Table 15. The measurement is based on mode sequence.
Table 15 Number of GSM carrier RSSI

TGL

Number of GSM carrier RSSI samples in each gap.

10

10

14

15

The UTRAN side must configure the CMSS for GSM RSSI measurement. The combination
of TGL1, TGL2, and TGD in each compression mode sequence satisfies Table 16.
Table 16 Combination of TGL1, TGL2, and TGD in GSM

TGL1 [slots]

TGL2 [slots] TGD [slots]

undefined

undefined

undefined

undefined

10

undefined

14

undefined

15269

15269

15269

15269

10

10

15269

14

14

15269

When the UE is in the CELL DCH state, the measurement period of GSM RSSI (TMeasurement
Period, GSM)

is 480ms. The measurement precision of GSM RSSI by the UE must satisfy the

specifications in the TS45.008 protocol. In a measurement period, the UE can sample at least
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three GSM RSSI values for each centralized GSM carrier. If the UE cannot sample enough
values of each GSM carrier, it measures as more GSM carriers as possible within a
measurement period. If time is limited, the UE must sample at least three values. The GSM
carriers not measured in this period are measured in the next measurement period. Namely,
the period reported to higher level by L1 is an integer times of measurement period.
II. UE requiring no compression mode
The measurement period is 480ms. The UE must collect at least three RSSI measurement
values in each GSM carrier. The UE must allocate sampling points as averagely as possible to
GSM carriers within each measurement period.

8.2.2 Confirmation and Reconfirmation of BSIC in GSM Cell Carrier


The BSIC confirmation in GSM cell includes initial confirmation of BSIC and
reconfirmation of BSIC.
I. UE requiring a Compression Mode
The UTRAN side must configure the CMSS of measurement on GSM Initial confirmation of
BSIC or GSM BSIC reconfirmation. The combination of TGL1, TGL2, and TGD in each
compression mode sequence satisfies Table 17.
Table 17 Combination of TGL1, TGL2, and TGD in UTRAN

TGL1 [slots]

TGL2 [slots]

TGD [slots]

undefined

undefined

10

undefined

14

undefined

15269

15269

10

10

15269

14

14

15269

The network side measures GSM cells through BSIC confirmation and non-BSIC
confirmation.
If BSIC confirmation is adopted, the UE reports GSM cell verified by BSIC and measures
the BSIC initial confirmation and BSIC reconfirmation within the respective gaps.
If the CMSSs of BSIC reconfirmation and BSIC initial confirmation are not activated
simultaneously, or CMSS of BSIC reconfirmation is not activated within one frame after
CMSS of BSIC initial confirmation is deactivated, the BSIC is taken as the
non-confirmation BSIC after the UE reports related measurement information. The UE
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evaluates the event and submits event trigger reports after BSIC confirmation. The periodical
reports are submitted within a specified interval. Even though the BSIC is not confirmed, the
report indicates BSIC is not confirmed. A GSM cell is taken as a confirmed cell after at least
one BSIC initial confirmation. The GSM cell must reconfirm the BSIC within Tre-confirm_abort.
Otherwise, the BSIC is taken as a non-confirmed cell. In a compression gap, if the middle
time point of GSM synchronization burst and that of valid compression gap satisfy the
requests in Table 18, the UE must decode BSIC.
Table 18 Gap length and maximum time difference

Gap length

Maximum time
difference [s]

[slots]
5

500

1200

10

2200

14

3500

Initial confirmation of BSIC

1)

At the beginning, there is no timing relationship between FDD cells and GSM cells. The
initial confirmation of BSIC includes searching BSIC and decoding BSIC. The UE initials
BSIC confirmation within sample sequence transmission gap of BSIC initial measurement in
a GSM system. For GSM cells in the measurement control identifier, the UE arranges the
GSM RSSI measurement values (after L3 filter) from strong to weak. The UE decodes the
SCH in the first eight cells requiring BSIC confirmation. The arranged GSM RSSI
measurement values must be recently valid measurement result. When decoding an unknown
BSIC, the UE attempts to decode BSIC within compression gaps for measurement on BSIC
initial confirmation. If the UE decodes the BSIC successfully, the UE at once decodes the
next unknown BSIC on the carrier with maximum GSM RSSI. The cells with decoded BSIC
enter the BSIC reconfirmation. If the UE fails to decode the BSIC on BCCH within TGPL
* Nidentify_abort, the UE stops the BSIC confirmation of the GSM carrier, and continues to
confirm the next unknown BSIC on the carrier with maximum GSM RSSI. The GSM carriers
with failed confirmation can perform the BSIC confirmation after the UE attempts to
decode all the eight BSICs on the carrier with maximum GSM RSSI.
Table 19 lists the Nidentify_abort values of CMSS.
Table 19 Nidentify_abort values of sample sequence in compression mode

GL1

GL2

[slots] [slots]
Pattern 1

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TGD

TGPL1

[slots]

[frames] [frames]

undefined

TGPL2 Tidentify abort

TGPL1

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Nidentify_abort

[s]
1.56

[patterns]
52

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Pattern 2

undefined

TGPL1

5.28

66

Pattern 3

47

TGPL1

2.88

36

Pattern 4

38

12

TGPL1

2.88

24

Pattern 5

14

undefined

TGPL1

1.84

23

Pattern 6

14

undefined

24

TGPL1

5.28

22

Pattern 7

14

14

45

12

TGPL1

1.44

12

Pattern 8

10

undefined

TGPL1

2.88

36

Pattern 9

10

10

75

12

TGPL1

2.88

24

Note:

Nidentify_abort is the number of UE attempting to decode BSIC at least twice.


Tidentify_abort is the duration corresponding to Nidentify_abort CMSSs.

2)

BSIC Reconfirmation

The UE traces and decodes the BSIC passing BSIC initial confirmation. The UE starts BSIC
reconfirmation within the transmission gap for CMSS of GSM BSIC reconfirmation. The
UE maintains the timing relationship of eight confirmed GSM cells during the BSIC
reconfirmation using the timing information of each GSM cell of BSIC initial
confirmation. The UE updates the timing relationship when succeeding in decoding BSIC.
In each CMSS for GSM BSIC reconfirmation, the UE tries to decode the GSM cell BSIC
within the transmission gap.

If the UE can decode more than one GSM BSICs within a transmission gap, the UE first
decodes the recently-decoded BSIC in the GSM cell.

If the UE fails to decode the BSIC twice, or it cannot complete GSM BSIC
reconfirmation within Tre-confirm_aborts, it aborts the GSM BSIC reconfirmation, and
takes the GSM cell as a cell without the BSIC initial confirmation.

The UE performs BSIC reconfirmation to the eight GSM cells with maximum GSM RSSI.
Table 20 lists the values of Nre-confirm_abort and Tre-confirm_abort from pattern 1 to pattern 15.
Table 20 Values of Nre-confirm_abort and Tre-confirm_abort in patterns

TGL1 TGL2

TGD

TGPL1 TGPL2 Tre-confirm_abort


[s]
[slots] [frames] [frames]

[slots] [slots]

Nre-confirm_abort
[patterns]

Pattern 1

undefined 3

TGPL1

1.32

44

Pattern 2

undefined 8

TGPL1

5.04

63

Pattern 3

undefined 15

TGPL1

8.1

54

Pattern 4

69

23

TGPL1

10.12

44

Pattern 5

69

TGPL1

2.64

33

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Pattern 6

14

undefined 8

TGPL1

1.6

20

Pattern 7

14

14

60

TGPL1

0.80

10

Pattern 8

10

undefined 8

TGPL1

2.64

33

Pattern 9

10

undefined 23

TGPL1

8.05

35

Pattern 10

47

TGPL1

2.64

33

Pattern 11

38

12

TGPL1

2.64

22

Pattern 12

14

undefined 24

TGPL1

5.04

21

Pattern 13

14

14

45

12

TGPL1

1.20

10

Pattern 14

10

undefined 13

TGPL1

4.94

38

Pattern 15

10

10

75

TGPL1

2.64

22

12

Note:

Nre-confirm_abort is the repeated times of CMSS within Tre-confirm_abort

II. UE requiring no compression mode


Once the UE succeeds in decoding the BSIC in a GSM cell, the cell is taken as a confirmed
cell. Otherwise it is a non-confirmed cell. The UE must confirm BSIC according to its
sensitivity and reference interface standard specified in the protocol TS45.005.

8.2.3 Selection of CMSS


A UE need measure several items during the GSM cell measurement. The UE measures these
items within transmission gap. Therefore, the transmission gaps for each measurement items
must not be overlapped. Namely, the UE cannot measure RSSI and confirm BSIC within one
transmission gap. This adds requests to the selection of CMSS. Since the sample sequences
are periodical, the UE must not overlap the measurement transmission gaps during repeated
measurement items. In addition, The UE needs to increase the probability of obtaining
measurement item results.

8.3 Measurement on a GSM System by UE in the CELL FACH State


According to the protocol 25.133, a UE in the CELL FACH state can monitor at most 32
WCDMA intra-frequency cells or 32 WCDMA inter-frequency cells. The 32 WCDMA cells
use three channel numbers, two of which are different from the current channel number. The
UE can support 32 inter-frequency GSM cells or monitor at most 16 intra-frequency cells in
idle period in downlink (IPDL) measurement gap. The protocol also defines as follows:

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In the CELL FACH state, the UE must continuously measure confirmed intra-frequency
cells and search new intra-frequency or inter-frequency cells indicated by the network.

If the intra-frequency cells are configured in monitor set, and the signals satisfy that
CPICH Ec/Io is equal to or greater than -20 dB and SCH_Ec/Io is equal to or greater
than -20 dB, the UE must detect the signal within Tidentify,intra (defined in the protocol
25.133).

If the inter-frequency cells are configured in a monitor set, the signals satisfy that
CPICH Ec/Io is equal to or greater than -20 dB and SCH_Ec/Io is equal to or greater
than -17 dB, the UE must detect the signal within Tidentify,inter (defined in the protocol
25.133).

The measurement occasion is specified SIB11 or SIB12.

If the parameter FACH Measurement occasion cycle length coefficient is provided in


the FACH measurement occasion info:

When the UE does not support the measurement while monitoring SCCPCH, the
UE performs inter-frequency measurement or Inter-RAT measurement at specified
measurement occasion.

When the UE supports the measurement while monitoring SCCPCH, the UE


performs inter-frequency measurement or Inter-RAT measurement at different
time.

If the parameter FACH Measurement occasion cycle length coefficient is not provided
in the FACH measurement occasion info, the UE performs measurement while
receiving SCCPCH only according to its capability.

The measurement occasion is calculated as follows:


SFN div N = C_RNTI mod M_REP + n * M_REP
wherein,

M_REP = 2^k. K is FACH Measurement occasion cycle length coefficient, and its
value ranges from 1 to 12 (integer).

N is the number of frames included in the maximum TTI on SCCPCH monitored by


UE.

C_RNTI is the C_RNTI allocated by CRNC, and it is not empty.

N = 0, 1, 2, the SFN must be smaller than maximum value.

From the previous formula,

C_RNTI mod M_REP decides the offset of measurement occasion in a measurement


period.

M-REP decides measurement period.

n is a temporary variable for the convenience of understanding.

If the UE decides a measurement on other system after the cell reselection and evaluation, it
performs the measurement at the SFN point that satisfies the previous formulas.
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The protocol 25.133 defines the following rules in the GSM measurement occasion:
One of every two measurement occasions is allocated to measurement on Initial

confirmation of BSIC measurement.


In the remaining measurement occasions, 3/4 of them are allocated to RSSI

measurement and 1/4 of them are allocated to BSIC reconfirmation measurement.


The measurement period of GSM carrier RSSI is 480ms. The measurement precision of GSM
RSSI by UE must follow the protocol TS45.008. The UE can sample at least three GSM
RSSI values for each centralized GSM carrier. If there are too many carriers and the
measurement cannot be completed within a period, the measurement continues in the next
period and each carrier is sampled for at least three times. Different length of measurement
occasion decides different sampling number, so the number of carriers measured in a
measurement period is different.
Table 21 Relationship between length of measurement occasion and number of GSM carrier RSSI samples

Length of measurement occasion


(frames)

Number of GSM carrier RSSI samples in each


measurement occasion, NGSM carrier RSSI.

16

32

64

128

BSIC initial confirmation measurement means that the UE continuously captures the
synchronous burst (SB) of the six cells with maximum RSSI in neighbor GSM cells and
decodes BSIC.

If the UE succeeds in decoding BSIC, it continues to decode the BSIC of next cell.

If the UE fails to decode BSIC within T (identity, GSM), it stops BSIC confirmation
measurement of the cell and then performs the BSIC confirmation of the next cell.

BSIC reconfirmation measurement means that the UE performs BSIC reconfirmation


after BSIC initial confirmation. The maximum time for BSIC reconfirmation of a cell is T
(re-confirm, GSM). The BSIC of each cell need be confirmed at least once within 6 x T
(re-conform, GSM). Otherwise, the BSIC of the cell is considered as unconfirmed. Frequency
switch takes some time in measurement occasion. The protocol 133 defines that the middle
point of SB and that of measurement occasion are valid within the same range in the case of
BSIC initial confirmation and BSIC reconfirmation.
Table 22 Relationship between measurement occasion length and max. time difference

Measurement occasion
length [frames]

Maximum time difference


[s]

4100

9100

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39100

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8.4 Measurement on a GSM System by UE the in IDLE/CELL


PCH/URA PCH State
In the measurement of GSM carrier RSSI, the UE measures RSSI of each GSM carrier at
least every other T (measure, GSM). The UE samples RSSI at least four times on each carrier
within the measurement period. T (measure, GSM) is decided by DRX cycle length (see the
appendix in 2.3

).

The BSIC confirmation measurement is as follows:


1)

The UE selects the four strongest cells.

2)

Each cell confirms the BSIC value every other 30m.

3)

If a GSM cell detects that BSIC changes, the cell is taken as a new cell.

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Chapter 9 Appendix 2: Compression Mode and


Parameters Configuration
In the WCDMA FDD mode, to perform hard handover of different frequency and handover
from FDD to TDD and handover to GSM system, the UE need measure the target cell that
needs handover. The frequency to be measured is different from the serving frequency of UE.
Namely, measurement of different frequency is necessary.
In the WCDMA FDD mode, if the UE uses the downlink signal all the time, it need receive
downlink data continuously. Therefore, the receiver cannot receive signals of other frequency
while receiving the signal of the serving frequency. If the UE has only one set of transceiver,
idle slots is necessary in downlink radio frames. This is the compression mode.
Figure 13 shows the frames in compression mode.

One frame
(10 ms)

Transmission gap available for


inter-frequency measurements
Figure 13 Frames in compression mode

In the Figure 13, since the data transmission ratio of compression frames is higher, the power
need be increased. In the idle period the measurement of different frequency is performed.
In the downlink compression mode, if the UE uses the uplink frequency all the time and the
frequency to be measured is close to the uplink frequency, the uplink frequency may interfere
the frequency to be measured. To assure the validity of measurement, the UE must stop
transmitting in uplink. This is the uplink compression mode. In the duel-transceiver scheme,
if the frequency to be measured is close to the uplink frequency, the uplink compression
mode is necessary.
Figure 14 shows the CMSS parameters according to the protocol.

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#1

#2

#3

#4

#5

#TGPRC

TG pattern 1

TG pattern 2

TG pattern 1

TG pattern 2

TG pattern 1

TG pattern 2

TG pattern 1

TG pattern 2

Transmission
Transmission

Transmission

Transmission

gap 1

gap 2

gap 1

TGSN

gap 2

TGSN
TGL1

TGL1

TGL2
TGD

TGL2
TGD

TGPL1

TGPL2

Figure 14 CMSS parameters

The Compression mode sequence consists of pattern 1 and pattern2 alternately. Each pattern
includes one or two transmission gaps. The UTRAN allocates the parameters in compression
mode to UE through signaling.
Figure 14 includes parameters for gap orientation as follows:

TGCFN is the connection frame number of the radio frame where the first gap of CMSS
is. Namely, it is the starting point of compression mode.

TGSN is the starting timeslot number of radio frame of which the connection frame
number is TGCFN. A radio frame includes 15 timeslots.

TGL1 and TGL2 are the durations of the first and second gap respectively by timeslots.

TGD is the distance of starting points between gap 1 and gap 2 (unit: slot).

TGPL1 and TGPL2 are the length of pattern 1 and pattern 2 respectively (unit: slot).

The starting point of the first gap is defined through TGCFN and TGSN. The starting point of
the second gap is determined by TGCFN, TGSN, and TGD. The starting point of each pattern
is determined by TGCFN, TGSN, TGD, TGPL1, and TGPL2.
The compression mode includes dual-frame mode and single-frame mode according to
transmission gap length.

In the single-frame mode, all timeslots of the transmission slot are in the same frame.

In the dual-frame mode, the timeslots of a transmission slot are in two frames.

According to the protocol, two transmission slots cannot exist in the same frame
simultaneously. The gap length over seven timeslots must adopt dual-frame mode.

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There are three ways to realize compression mode: puncturing, the spreading factor reduction,
higher layers dispatching.
The compression mode sample command (SET TGPSCP) is set as an internal one. With it
CMSS is changed. The parameter often needs no change.

Table 23 Parameter and meanings.

ID

Name

CMCFCELLT
YPE

Cell type in
compression
mode

Meaning
Value range: WALKING_SPEED_AND_HOT_SPOT_CELL (in walking
and hot spot cells), MID_SPEED_AND_HOT_SPOT_CELL (in hot-spot
cells with medium speed), HIGH_SPEED_AND_HOT_SPOT_CELL (in
hot-spot cells with high speed),
LOW_SPEED_AND_MEDIUM_COVERAGE_CELL (in
medium-coverage cells with low speed),
HIGH_SPEED_AND_MEDIUM_COVERAGE_CELL (in
medium-coverage cells with high speed),
LOW_SPEED_AND_HIGH_COVERAGE_CELL (in high-coverage cells
with low speed), LOW_SPEED_AND_HIGH_COVERAGE_CELL (in
medium-coverage cells with low speed), OTHER_CELL (in other cells)
Physical unit: none
Content: the cell type in compression mode. The compression mode
parameters are configured according to cell types. Different cells use
different CMSSs. Each cell type in compression mode respectively
corresponds to the spreading factor reduction in downlink compression
mode and puncturing.
Recommended value: hot-spot cell with medium speed

CMMETHOD

Method in
compression
mode

Value range: PUNCTURING, SPREADING_FACTOR_REDUCTION


(spreading factor reduction)
Physical unit: none
Content: PUNCTURING (the puncturing way),
SPREADING_FACTOR_REDUCTION (the spreading factor reduction
parameter)
Physical unit: none

CmMeasType

Measurement
type in
compression
mode

Value range: CMCF_MEAS_TYPE_FDD (used in measurement of


different frequency), CMCF_MEAS_TYPE_GSM (used in measurement
of different frequency), CMCF_MEAS_TYPE_FDD_GSM (used in
coexistence of measurement of different frequency and of Inter-RAT)
Physical unit: none
Content: the measurement type for the compression mode sequence
Recommended value: none

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ID

Name

TGMP

Compression
mode target

Internal Open

Meaning
Value range: FDD_MEASUREMENT,
GSM_CARRIER_RSSI_MEASUREMENT,
GSM_INITIAL_BSIC_IDENTIFICATION,
GSM_BSIC_RE-CONFIRMATION
Physical unit: none
Content: the aim to perform measurement in compression mode
Recommended value: none

NIDABORT

The maximum
repeated times
of coding BSIC
by UE

Value range: 1128


Physical unit: none
Content: the maximum repeated times of initial confirmation of BSIC in a
GSM cell
Recommended value: none

TRECONFAB
ORT

The allowable
maximum time
for
reconfirmation
of BSIC

Value range: 120


Physical value range: 0.510.0, the step is 0.5
Physical unit: s
Content: the maximum times for reconfirmation of BSIC in a GSM cell
Recommended value: none

TGSN

TGSN

Value range: 014


Physical unit: slot
Content: the starting timeslot number of the first gap in the first
compressed frame in CMSS
Recommended value: none

TGL1

TGL1

Value range: 114


Physical unit: slot
Content: the length of gap 1, in the unit of slot
Recommended value: none

TGL2

TGL2

Value range: 114


Physical unit: slot
Content: the length of gap 2, in the unit of slot
Recommended value: none

TGD

TGD

Value range: 15270


Physical unit: slot
Content: the starting timeslot position offset of compression slot 2
compared with TGSN. 270 indicates undefined. If only one compression
slot is in CMSS, the configuration is undefined, namely, 270
Recommended value: none

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ID

Name

TGPL1

TGPL1

Internal Open

Meaning
Value range: 1144
Physical unit: frame
Content: the length of CMSS 1, in the unit of frame
Recommended value: none

TGPL2

TGPL2

Value range: 1144


Physical unit: frame
Content: the length of CMSS 2, in the unit of frame
Recommended value: none

RPP

RPP

Value range: MODE0, MODE1


Physical unit: none
Content: MODE0 indicates the mode 0, and MODE1 indicates the mode 1.
Recommended value: none

ITP

ITP

Value range: MODE0, MODE1


Physical unit: none
Content: MODE0 indicates the mode 0, and MODE1 indicates the mode 1.
Recommended value: none

DLFRAMETY
PE

Downlink
frame type

Value range: A, B
Physical unit: none
Content: the frame of type A is the common frame in compression mode,
and for the frame of type B, the TPC bit is inserted in compression mode
to optimize power control capacity
Recommended value: none

NODEBDELT
ASIR2VALID

NodeB
DeltaSIR2 valid
identity

Value range: Valid, Invalid


Physical unit: none
Content: valid means that NodeB DeltaSIR2 value is valid, and namely,
the NodeB DeltaSIR2 value may not be equal to the NodeB DeltaSIR1
value; Invalid means that the NodeB DeltaSIR2 value is invalid, and
namely the NodeB DeltaSIR2 value is equal to NodeB DeltaSIR1 value.
Recommended value: none

NODEBDELT
ASIRAFTER2
VALID

NodeB
DeltaSIRAfter2
valid identity

Value range: Valid, Invalid


Physical unit: none
Content: valid means that NodeB DeltaSIRAfter2 value is valid, and
namely, the NodeB DeltaSIRAfter2 value may not be equal to the NodeB
DeltaSIRAfter1 value; Invalid means that the NodeB DeltaSIRAfter2
value is invalid, and namely the NodeB DeltaSIRAfter2 value is equal to
NodeB DeltaSIRAfter1 value.
Recommended value: none

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ID

Name

NODEBDELT
ASIR1

NodeB
DeltaSIR1

Internal Open

Meaning
Value range: 030
Physical range: 03, the step is 0.1
Physical unit: dB
Content: the added value of downlink target (SIR) of the frame where
TGL1 is
Recommended value: none

NODEBDELT
ASIRAFTER1

NodeB
DeltaSIRAfter1

Value range: 030


Physical range: 0~3, the step is 0.1
Physical unit: dB
Content: the added value of downlink target (SIR) of the next frame where
TGL1 is
Recommended value: none

NODEBDELT
ASIR2

NodeB
DeltaSIR2

Value range: 030


Physical range: 03, the step is 0.1
Physical unit: dB
Content: the added value of downlink target (SIR) of the frame where
TGL2 is
Recommended value: none

NODEBDELT
ASIRAFTER2

NodeB
DeltaSIRAfter2

Value range: 030


Physical unit: 03, the step is 0.1
Physical unit: dB
Content: the added value of downlink target (SIR) of the next frame where
TGL2 is
Recommended value: none

UEDELTASIR
2VALID

UE DeltaSIR2
valid identity

Value range: Valid, Invalid


Physical unit: none
Content: valid means that UE DeltaSIR2 value is valid, and namely, the
UE DeltaSIR2 value may not be equal to the UE DeltaSIR1 value; Invalid
means that the UE DeltaSIR2 value is invalid, and namely the UE
DeltaSIR2 value is equal to UE DeltaSIR1 value.
Recommended value: none

UEDELTASIR
AFTER2VALI
D

UE
DeltaSIRAfter2
valid identity

Value range: Valid, Invalid


Physical unit: none
Content: valid means that UE DeltaSIRAfter2 value is valid, and namely,
the UE DeltaSIRAfter2 value may not be equal to the UE DeltaSIRAfter1
value; Invalid means that the UE DeltaSIRAfter2 value is invalid, and
namely the UE DeltaSIRAfter2 value is equal to UE DeltaSIRAfter1
value.
Recommended value: none

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ID

Name

UEDELTASIR
1

UE DeltaSIR1

Internal Open

Meaning
Value range: 030
Physical range: 03, the step is 0.1
Physical unit: dB
Content: the added value of uplink target (SIR) in the frame where TGL 1
is
Recommended value: none

UEDELTASIR
AFTER1

UE
DeltaSIRAfter1

Value range: 030


Physical range: 03, the step is 0.1
Physical unit: dB
Content: the added value of uplink target (SIR) in the next frame where
TGL 1 is
Recommended value: none

UEDELTASIR
2

UE DeltaSIR2

Value range: 030


Physical range: 03, the step is 0.1
Physical unit: dB
Content: the added value of uplink target (SIR) in the frame where TGL 2
is
Recommended value: none

UEDELTASIR
AFTER2

UE
DeltaSIRAfter2

Value range: 030


Physical range: 03, the step is 0.1
Physical unit: dB
Content: the added value of uplink target (SIR) in the next frame where
TGL 2 is
Recommended value: none

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Chapter 10 Appendix 3: Compression Mode Start/Stop


Now Huawei adopts 2D/2F start/stop compression mode.
The frequency quality estimate used in events 2a, 2b 2c, 2d, 2e and 2f is defined as:

NA j

Q frequencyj 10 LogM frequency j W j 10 Log M i j (1 W j ) 10 LogM Best j ,


i 1

The variables in the formula are defined as follows ("the virtual active set on frequency
j" should be understood as the active set if frequency j is the used frequency. If frequency j is
a non-used frequency, the way the virtual active set is initiated and updated is described in
25.331.
Qfrequency j is the estimated quality of the virtual active set on frequency j.
Mfrequency j is the estimated quality of the virtual active set on frequency j.
Mi j is a measurement result of cell i in the virtual active set on frequency j.
NA j is the number of cells in the virtual active set on frequency j.
MBest j is the measurement result of the cell in the virtual active set on frequency j with
the highest measurement result.
Wj is a parameter sent from UTRAN to UE and used for frequency j.
If the measurement result is CPICH-Ec/No then MFrequency, Mi j and MBest are expressed
as ratios.
If the measurement result is CPICH-RSCP or PCCPCH-RSCP then MFrequency, Mi j and
MBest are expressed in mW.

10.1 Event 2d: The estimated quality of the currently used frequency
is below a certain threshold
A UE shall be able to perform this measurement and the corresponding event reporting
without requiring compressed mode.
When an inter-frequency measurement configuring event 2d is set up, the UE shall:
1>

create a variable TRIGGERED_2D_EVENT related to that measurement, which

shall initially be set to FALSE;


1>

delete this variable when the measurement is released.

When event 2d is configured in the UE within a measurement, the UE shall:


1>

if equation 1 below has been fulfilled for the used frequency during the time

"Time to trigger":
2>

if the variable TRIGGERED_2D_EVENT is set to FALSE:

3>

set the variable TRIGGERED_2D_EVENT to TRUE;

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3>

send a measurement report with IEs set as below:

4>

set in "inter-frequency event results": "inter-frequency event identity" to "2d" and

no IE "Inter-frequency cells", not taking into account the cell individual offset;
4>

include in IE "Inter-frequency measured results list" the measured

results for the used frequency, not taking into account the cell individual offset;
4>

set the IE "additional measured results" according to 25.331, not taking into

account the cell individual offset.


1>

if the variable TRIGGERED_2D_EVENT is set to TRUE and if equation 2 is

fulfilled for the used frequency:


2>

set the variable TRIGGERED_2D_EVENT to FALSE.

Triggering condition:
Equation 1:

QUsed TUsed 2d H 2d / 2
The variables in the formula are defined as follows:
QUsed is the quality estimate of the used frequency.
TUsed 2d is the absolute threshold that applies for the used frequency and event 2d.
H2d is the hysteresis parameter for the event 2d.
Leaving triggered state condition:
Equation 2:

QUsed TUsed 2d H 2d / 2
The variables in the formula are defined as follows:
QUsed is the quality estimate of the used frequency.
TUsed 2d is the absolute threshold that applies for the used frequency and event 2d.
H2d is the hysteresis parameter for the event 2d.

10.2 Event 2 f: The estimated quality of the currently used frequency


is above a certain threshold
A UE shall be able to perform this measurement and the corresponding event reporting
without requiring compressed mode.
When an inter-frequency measurement configuring event 2f is set up, the UE shall:
1>

create a variable TRIGGERED_2F_EVENT related to that measurement, which

shall initially be set to FALSE;


1>

delete this variable when the measurement is released.

When event 2f is configured in the UE within a measurement, the UE shall:


1>

if equation 1 below has been fulfilled for the used frequency during the time

"Time to trigger":
2>
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3>

set the variable TRIGGERED_2F_EVENT to TRUE;

3>

send a measurement report with IEs set as below:

4>

set in "inter-frequency event results": "inter-frequency event identity" to "2f",

and no IE "Inter-frequency cells";


4>

include in IE "Inter-frequency measured results list" the measured results for the

used frequency, not taking into account the cell individual offset;
4>

set the IE "additional measured results" according to 25.331, not taking into

account the cell individual offset.


1>

if the variable TRIGGERED_2F_EVENT is set to TRUE and if equation 2 is

fulfilled for the used frequency:


set the variable TRIGGERED_2F_EVENT to FALSE.
Triggering condition:
Equation 1:

QUsed TUsed 2 f H 2 f / 2
The variables in the formula are defined as follows:
QUsed is the quality estimate of the used frequency.
TUsed 2f is the absolute threshold that applies for the used frequency and event 2f.
H2f is the hysteresis parameter for the event 2f.
Leaving triggered state condition:
Equation 2:

QUsed TUsed 2 f H 2 f / 2
The variables in the formula are defined as follows:
QUsed is the quality estimate of the used frequency.
TUsed 2f is the absolute threshold that applies for the used frequency and event 2f.
H2f is the hysteresis parameter for the event 2f.

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List of references:
1.

Huawei Engineers, White Paper for Inter-RAT Interoperation, 2003/12

2.

Chen Gong, WCDMA Radio Network Optimization Inter-RAT Cell Reselection and Handover Guide,
2004/6

3.

Hu Zhongji, UAE Business Technical Summary--- Arrangement and Analysis for Algorithm
Requirement, 2004/5

4.

Hu Zhongji, UAE Commercial Office Inter-RAT Handover Summary,2004/5

5.

S Project Team, Sunday 3G 2G Reselection and Handover Optimization Guide, 20040905,2004/01

6.

Peng Honghua, Inter-RAT Roaming and Handover, ppt,2003/05

7.

U Project Team, WCDMA RNO Inter-RAT handover Description and parameter setting, 2004/02

8.

3GPP TS 25.304/25.331/25.133/05.08

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