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ARCHITECTURAL STRUCTURES:

FORM, BEHAVIOR, AND DESIGN


ARCH 331
DR. ANNE NICHOLS
FALL 2013
lecture

twenty two

concrete construction:

http:// nisee.berkeley.edu/godden

materials & beams


Concrete Beams 1
Lecture 22

Architectural Structures
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Concrete Beam Design


composite of concrete and steel
American Concrete Institute (ACI)
design for maximum stresses
limit state design

service loads x load factors


concrete holds no tension
failure criteria is yield of reinforcement
failure capacity x reduction factor
factored loads < reduced capacity

concrete strength = fc
Concrete Beams 2
Lecture 22

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Concrete Construction

cast-in-place
tilt-up
prestressing
post-tensioning

Concrete Beams 3
Lecture 22

arch.mcgill.ca
Architectural Structures
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http:// nisee.berkeley.edu/godden
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Concrete Beams
types
reinforced
precast
prestressed

shapes
rectangular, I
T, double Ts, bulb Ts
box
spandrel
Concrete Beams 4
Lecture 22

Architectural Structures
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Concrete Beams
shear
vertical
horizontal
combination:
tensile stresses
at 45

bearing

http://urban.arch.virginia.edu

crushing

Concrete Beams 5
Lecture 22

Architectural Structures
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Concrete
low strength to weight ratio
relatively inexpensive
Portland cement
types I - V

aggregate
course & fine

water
admixtures
air entraining
superplasticizers
Concrete Beams 6
Lecture 22

Architectural Structures
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Concrete
hydration
chemical reaction
workability
water to cement ratio
mix design

fire resistant
cover for steel
creep &
shrinkage
Concrete Beams 7
Lecture 22

jci-web.jp
Architectural Structures
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Concrete

placement (not pouring!)


vibrating
screeding
floating
troweling
curing
finishing

Concrete Beams 8
Lecture 22

Architectural Structures
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Reinforcement
deformed steel bars (rebar)
Grade 40, Fy = 40 ksi
Grade 60, Fy = 60 ksi - most common
Grade 75, Fy = 75 ksi
US customary in # of 1/8

longitudinally placed

(nominal)

bottom
top for compression
reinforcement
Concrete Beams 9
Lecture 22

Architectural Structures
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Reinforcement

prestressing strand
post-tensioning
stirrups
detailing
development length
anchorage
splices

Concrete Beams 10
Lecture 22

Architectural Structures
ARCH 331

http:// nisee.berkeley.edu/godden
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Composite Beams
concrete
in compression

steel
in tension

shear studs

Concrete Beams 11
Lecture 22

Architectural Structures
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Behavior of Composite Members


plane sections remain plane
stress distribution changes

f1 E1
Concrete Beams 12
Lecture 22

E1 y

f 2 E 2

Architectural Structures
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E2 y

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Transformation of Material
n is the ratio of Es

E2
n
E1

effectively widens a material to get


same stress distribution

Concrete Beams 13
Lecture 22

Architectural Structures
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Stresses in Composite Section


with a section
transformed to one
material, new I
stresses in that
material are
determined as usual
stresses in the other
material need to be
adjusted by n
Concrete Beams 14
Lecture 22

Architectural Structures
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E steel
E2
n

E1 E concrete
fc
fs

My
I transformed
Myn
I transformed
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Reinforced Concrete - stress/strain

Concrete Beams 15
Lecture 22

Architectural Structures
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Reinforced Concrete Analysis


for stress calculations
steel is transformed to concrete
concrete is in compression above n.a. and
represented by an equivalent stress block
concrete takes no tension
steel takes tension
force ductile failure

Concrete Beams 16
Lecture 22

Architectural Structures
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Location of n.a.
ignore concrete below n.a.
transform steel
same area moments, solve for x

x
bx nAs ( d x ) 0
2
Concrete Beams 17
Lecture 22

Architectural Structures
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T sections
n.a. equation is different if n.a. below
flange
f

hf

hf
bw

bw

x hf
h

f
bf hf x
x hf bw
nAs ( d x ) 0

2
2

Concrete Beams 18
Lecture 22

Architectural Structures
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ACI Load Combinations*

1.4D
1.2D + 1.6L + 0.5(Lr or S or R)
1.2D + 1.6(Lr or S or R) + (1.0L or 0.5W)
1.2D + 1.0W + 1.0L + 0.5(Lr or S or R)
1.2D + 1.0E + 1.0L + 0.2S
0.9D + 1.0W
0.9D + 1.0E
*can also use old
ACI factors

Concrete Beams 19
Lecture 22

Architectural Structures
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Reinforced Concrete Design


stress distribution in bending
0.85fc

b
C

x
d

h
As

NA

T
actual stress

a=
1x

a/2 C

T
Whitney stress
block

Wang & Salmon, Chapter 3


Concrete Beams 20
Lecture 22

Architectural Structures
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Force Equations
C = 0.85 fcba
T = Asfy
where

0.85fc
a=1x

fc = concrete compressive
strength
a = height of stress block
1 = factor based on fc
x = location to the n.a.
b = width of stress block
fy = steel yield strength
As = area of steel reinforcement
Concrete Beams 21
Lecture 22

Architectural Structures
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a/2 C

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Equilibrium
T=C
Mn = T(d-a/2)

0.85fc

d = depth to the steel n.a.

with As
a=

a=1x

a/2 C

As f y

0.85 f cb

Mu Mn = 0.9 for flexure*


Mn = T(d-a/2) = Asfy (d-a/2)
Concrete Beams 22
Lecture 22

Architectural Structures
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Over and Under-reinforcement


over-reinforced
steel wont yield

under-reinforced
steel will yield

reinforcement ratio
As

bd

http://people.bath.ac.uk/abstji/concrete_video/virtual_lab.htm

use as a design estimate to find As,b,d


max is found with steel 0.004 (not bal)
*with steel 0.005, = 0.9

Concrete Beams 23
Lecture 22

Architectural Structures
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As for a Given Section


several methods
guess a and iterate
1. guess a (less than n.a.)
0.85 f cba
2.

As

fy

3. solve for a from Mu = Asfy (d-a/2)

M
u

a 2 d

A
f
s
y

4. repeat from 2. until a from 3. matches a in 2.

Concrete Beams 24
Lecture 22

Architectural Structures
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As for a Given Section (cont)


chart method
Wang & Salmon Fig. 3.8.1 Rn vs.
Mn
1. calculate Rn
bd 2
2. find curve for fc and fy to get
3. calculate As and a

simplify by setting h = 1.1d

Concrete Beams 25
Lecture 22

Architectural Structures
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Reinforcement
min for crack control
3 f c
required

As

(bd )

fy
not less than
200
As
( bd )
fy
As-max : a ( 0 . 375 d )
1

cover

typical cover

1.5 in, 3 in with soil

bar spacing
Concrete Beams 26
Lecture 22

spacing
Architectural Structures
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Shells

http:// nisee.berkeley.edu/godden Architectural Structures


Concrete Beams 27
ARCH 331
Lecture 22

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Annunciation Greek Orthodox Church


Wright, 1956

Concrete Beams 28
Lecture 22

Architectural Structures
ARCH 331

http://www.bluffton.edu/~sullivanm/

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Annunciation Greek Orthodox Church


Wright, 1956

Concrete Beams 29
Lecture 22

Architectural Structures
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Cylindrical Shells
can resist tension
shape adds depth

not vaults
barrel shells
Concrete Beams 30
Lecture 22

Architectural Structures
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Kimball Museum, Kahn 1972

Concrete Beams 31
Lecture 22

Architectural Structures
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Kimball Museum, Kahn 1972


outer shell edges

Concrete Beams 32
Lecture 22

Architectural Structures
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Kimball Museum, Kahn 1972


skylights at peak

Concrete Beams 33
Lecture 22

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Approximate Depths

Concrete Beams 34
Lecture 22

Architectural Structures
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