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CONTENT, MATERIALS, AND TEACHING STRATEGIES

FOR
THE ADVANCED PLACEMENT COURSE
IN
MUSIC THEORYTM
Dr. Joel Phillips, presenter
Westminster Choir College of Rider University
101 Walnut Lane
Princeton, NJ 08540-3899
Skype ID: JCPatWCC
Email: phillips@rider.edu
Co-author of W. W. Norton and Companys
The Musicians Guide to Aural Skills, Volumes 1 and 2
and
The Musicians Guide to Fundamentals
Participants may self-enroll in the course by visiting
https://canvas.instructure.com/enroll/6ABY77

Joel Phillips, AP Music Theory 1

CONTENTS OF PACKET
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Session Description and Learning Objectives


Topics
Essential Information and Materials
Supplemental Resources for Teachers
Music Technology: Select Items
Pattern Recognition and the Importance of Solmization
Essential Rhythmic Patterns
The Importance of Skills Integration: Representative Activities
Musical Meme 1: TDT Phrase and Authentic, Half, and Deceptive Cadences
Musical Meme 2: Inverted Dominant-function Seventh Chords and Their Resolutions
Improvising Melodic Variations Using Embellishing Tones SNAP and CS
Musical Meme 3: D-R-M Bass Line Harmonizations
Four-Part Realization: Roman Numerals and Figured Bass
Musical Meme 4: TPDT phrase & Authentic, Half, Deceptive, and Plagal Cadences
Musical Meme 5: Phrygian Cadence, Inverted V7 Chord Review, and Suspensions
N6 and A6 Chord Bonus Activities
Peer Evaluation of Sight Singing Performances
Recent AP Sight Singing Melodies
Musical Meme 6: Descending Fifths Sequence
Musical Meme 7: Descending Thirds Sequence
Secondary Dominant-Function Chords
Four-Part Realization of Secondary Dominant-Function Chords
Free Response Questions 57 from Recent AP Exams
Strategies for Counterpointing a Bass Line: Phrases That Conclude With A PAC
Strategies for Counterpointing a Bass Line: Phrases That Modulate
Strategies for Counterpointing a Bass Line: Interior Phrases
Compositional Techniques and Motive Development
Motive Transformation Worksheet
Bach Invention No. 1
Music for Analysis and Performance
Music Paper

2 Joel Phillips, AP Music Theory

SESSION DESCRIPTION
Participants will examine AP music theory course content and relevant materials and develop
strategies to improve classroom instruction. They will analyze selected problem types typical of
first-year college music theory, infer their construction and solutions, learn to create comparable
questions for their own classroom use, and learn ways to evaluate student responses to these
problems. Ultimately participants will be able to develop or refine their own AP music theory
course and submit a course audit.
LEARNING OUTCOMES
By the end of the session participants will be able to:

Infer the musical patterns on which AP music theory problems are based

Memorize those patterns employing moveable-do solfge syllables

Realize the patterns in different keys by performing and notating them

Create and perform melodic variations of those patterns

Create new, comparable exercises based on the patterns

Apply various methods to assess student performance

Adapt AP assessment methods to their own classroom needs

Develop or refine then implement their own AP music theory course


Joel Phillips, AP Music Theory 3

TOPICS

EQUITY AND ACCESS

ABOUT THE AP EXAMINATION IN MUSIC THEORY

COURSE CONTENT

AP COURSE AUDIT

COURSE MATERIALS

STRATEGIES FOR IMPROVED INSTRUCTION


o Integrate all musical and analytical skills to make a course in MUSIC theory
rather than a course in music THEORY
o Memorize Musical Memes: the Importance of Pattern Recognition
o Develop and refine listening skills and strategies
o Employ performance, improvisation, and composition as tools for skills
integration
o Recognize that aural and visual analysis are two sides of the same coin
o Clarify our own expectations and those of our students
o Understand, employ, and adapt the AP evaluation process
o Increase opportunities for collaborative learning, especially those involving peer
evaluation
o Integrating music theory into the entire music curriculum
o Vertical-Team Approach

TEACHERS DISCUSSIONS OF COMMON PROBLEMS

EXAMINATION ADMINISTRATION

CONTINUING PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT

DIVERSIONS AS NECESSARY!

4 Joel Phillips, AP Music Theory

ESSENTIAL INFORMATION AND MATERIALS


AP MUSIC THEORY COURSE HOME PAGE: BOOKMARK IT!
http://apcentral.collegeboard.com/apc/public/courses/teachers_corner/2261.html
This website includes the following plus much more.
Very Important Change! Digital Audio Submission
AP Music Theory Course Resources
o AP Music Theory Course Description
o AP Music Theory Teachers Guide
o AP Music Theory Teacher Community
Exam Resources
AP Course Audit Information
Professional Development
Classroom Resources
WIDELY-USED COLLEGE TEXTBOOKS
All publishers have high school or AP reps. Contact them to obtain examination copies of any of
the following.
W. W. Nortons Musicians Guide Series is the most widely-used text by AP music teachers and
second most widely-used in the college market. (Please note that I am coauthor along with
Clendinning, Marvin, and Murphy.)
For more information: http://books.wwnorton.com/books/highschool.aspx
The Musician's Guide to Aural Skills: Ear Training And Composition
Melodic, harmonic, and rhythmic dictation. Short examples AND the most extensive set
of AP-style Contextual Listening available.
The Musician's Guide to Aural Skills: Sight Singing and Rhythm Reading (Improvisation
and Keyboard Skills)
The Musicians Guide to Theory and Analysis
The most comprehensive and integrated text/workbook/anthology + aural skills in the
market
McGraw Hills Tonal Harmony (Kostka, Payne, Almn) is the most widely-used college text in
the college market. For more information:
http://highered.mheducation.com/sites/0078025141/information_center_view0/index.html
Oxford University Press The Complete Musician (Laitz) is the text of choice by many colleges
and conservatories, including the Julliard School. For more information:
https://global.oup.com/ushe/product/the-complete-musician-9780199347094?cc=us&lang=en&
Pearsons Music for Sight Singing (Rogers, Ottman) is a very nice collection of melodies (and
rhythms). For more information: https://www.pearsonhighered.com/program/Rogers-Music-forSight-Singing-9th-Edition/PGM1100059.html
Joel Phillips, AP Music Theory 5

SUPPLEMENTAL RESOURCES FOR TEACHERS


PEDAGOGY
Barrons AP Music Theory with MP3 CD, 2nd Edition by Nancy Scoggin
Journal of Music Theory Pedagogy. http://music.appstate.edu/about/jmtp
Teaching Approaches in Music Theory: An Overview of Pedagogical Philosophies (2nd
ed.) by Michael R. Rogers. Carbondale : Southern Illinois University Press, c1984
INEXPENSIVE OR FREE FULL SCORES FOR ANALYSIS AND PERFORMANCE
Dover Publications http://store.doverpublications.com/by-subject-music.html
IMSLP.org
COUNTERPOINT
The Craft of Tonal Counterpoint by Thomas Benjamin. Nicely staged assignments,
with a complete Bach anthology at end. The text is easy to understand can also be
used with most students.
A Practical Approach To Eighteenth-Century Counterpoint by Robert Gauldin. Good
historical material and employs a linear approach/melodic diminutions model, but
the text is too sophisticated for most students.
Counterpoint: Based on Eighteenth-Century Practice by Kent Kennan. Good analysis
examples and descriptions. The text is easy to understand and can be used with
most students.
FORM AND ANALYSIS
Phrase Rhythm in Tonal Music by William Rothstein.
Structural Hearing by Felix Salzer.
The Time of Music by Jonathan Kramer.
Sonata Forms by Charles Rosen.
Form in Tonal Music by Douglass Green.
Form in Music by Wallace Berry.
MUSIC TECHNOLOGY: SELECT ITEMS
ATMI: http://www.atmimusic.com
CAI
o Auralia https://www.risingsoftware.com/auralia/
o MacGAMUT http://www.macgamut.com/
o Music Lessons http://www.mibac.com
o Practica Musica http://www.ars-nova.com
Educreations. Desktop- or iPad-based App that lets you have a SmartBoard-type
environment or create mini-instructional videos for your class.
https://www.educreations.com
forScore. Sophisticated music reading app for iPad. Versions for iPhone and iPad mini,
too. http://forscore.co
StaffPad. PC-compatible tablet software for music notation.
http://www.staffpad.net/#about
6 Joel Phillips, AP Music Theory

PATTERN RECOGNITION AND THE IMPORTANCE OF SOLMIZATION


POINT AND SING EXERCISES
EMBELLISHED PENTACHORD

MAJOR SCALE

CHROMATIC SOLFGE

Joel Phillips, AP Music Theory 7

ESSENTIAL RHYTHMIC PATTERNS


COMPOUND-METER PATTERNS

SIMPLE-METER PATTERNS

8 Joel Phillips, AP Music Theory

THE IMPORTANCE OF SKILLS INTEGRATION: REPRESENTATIVE ACTIVITIES


Musical example: Mozart Piano Sonata in B-flat, K. 570, movement 2, mm. 14

FORM (AURAL ANALYSIS)


What key does it sound like? Discuss strategies for hearing keys using relative pitch.
What is the probable meter for the example? Why?
How many phrases do you hear?
Sing the tonic pitch. What is the bass pitch at the end of the example? What cadence does this imply?
What is the bass pitch at the end of the first phrase? What cadence does this imply?
Using your assumption of meter, in what measure and on what beat do the cadences occur?
Compare the beginnings of each phrase. Are they similar or are they different?
Use all of the information you now know to diagram the structure of this example.

HARMONIC DICTATION (AURAL ANALYSIS)


Sing the bass line with solfge.
Sing the rhythm of the bass line.
Notate the bass line beneath the melody.
What are the possibilities for harmonizing the melody using this bass line?

MELODIC DICTATION (AURAL ANALYSIS)


Sing the melody with solfge.
Sing the rhythm of the melody.
Conduct as you perform.
Notate the melody.

SCORE ANALYSIS (VISUAL ANALYSIS)


Until now students have not seen the score!
The first purpose is to confirm what their ears have told them already.
Now they may study non-chord tones, voice leading, and other features of the composition.

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
Joel Phillips, AP Music Theory 9

IMPROVISATION (DEMONSTRATE REAL-TIME MASTERY OF CONCEPTS.)


Improvisation Team Project (Note the similarity to the composition assignment!)
Divide the class into pairs. Each pair will improvise an eight-measure parallel period. Each team member
must be prepared to perform either the antecedent or the consequent phrase in the improvisation.
The improvisations should have the following features:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Major key
Common time
Rhythm values in the range of eighths through halves
Singing with solfge
Conducting while performing (or listening!)
Phrase 1 ends with re (mi-re implies the cadential six-four; that would be deluxe!)
Phrase 2 ends with do (mi-re-do would complete the motion nicely)
Cadences that occur on strong beats (1 or 3)

Strategies: (Create a list beginning with ideas like these.)


1. Make a one-bar motive that is simple and memorable. Remember your partner must recall this motive.
2. Make a sentence structure: idea (1 bar), varied idea (1 bar), contrasting idea > cadence (2 bars).
3. Make your melody rise so that you will be able to fall to the cadence.
4. Keep it simple. Sing mostly steps and employ skips within tonic or dominant triads only.

COMPOSITION (COMPLETING UNDERSTANDING BY CREATING NEW, ORIGINAL WORKS.)


The composition should have the following features:
1.
2.
3.
4.
4.
5.
6.

Eb major
Common time
Rhythm values in the range from eighth notes through half notes
Melodic range of a 9th; Bb to C
Phrase 1 ends with re (mi-re implies the cadential six-four; that would be deluxe!)
Phrase 2 ends with do (mi-re-do would complete the motion nicely)
Cadences that occur on strong beats (1 or 3)

Some of the many potential uses for compositions (All may be sung or played.)
Score for error detection, melody for sight singing, melody to be harmonized,
melody for a melodic dictation, melody for transposition or instrumentation example
W. A. Mozart, Piano Sonata in Bb Major, K. 570, second movement

b 4
& b b 4

? b b 44 j j
b

n n b
J ..
. n

j .
.

.
&

10 Joel Phillips, AP Music Theory

MUSICAL MEMES
Memorize memes to make more music!
Then, SPICE things up: Sing, Play, Improvise, Compose, Evaluate.
MUSICAL MEME 1: TDT PHRASE AND AUTHENTIC, HALF, AND DECEPTIVE CADENCES
Part
1
2
3
B

3 .
& 4 ..

Chord # 1

2a

? 43 .

1.

2.

3.

3a

3b

3c

...

.
T

.. . .
.
.. .

.. . .
.
.. .

..
..

_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
SUGGESTIONS FOR INTRODUCING THE TDT MODEL IN STAGES
Perform chord #s as indicated. Conclude with chord 2b to create a HC.
Triads 1-2b-1 as written (IAC).
1-2b-1 with part 2 as soprano (PAC).
1-2b-1 with part 3 as soprano (IAC).
1-2b-3a as written (PAC).
V8-7 1-(2b)-2c-3a as written (PAC).
1-(2b)-2c-3a with part 3 as soprano (IAC).
1-(2b)-2c-3b with part 2 as soprano (PAC with tripled root).
Create longer dictations from the above. E.g., 1-2b-1-2b (HC) 1-2b-1-2c-3a (PAC)
Perform minor-key versions of the above.
V 1-2a-2b-1 as written (IAC).
1-2a-2b-1 with part 2 as soprano (PAC).
1-2a-2b-1 with part 3 as soprano (IAC).
1-2a-2b-3a as written (PAC).
V 1-2a-2c-3a as written (PAC).
1-2a-2c-3a with part 3 as soprano (IAC).
1-2a-2c-3b with part 2 as soprano (PAC with tripled root).
DC
For any conclusion above on 3a or 3b, substitute 3c.
Create longer dictations from the above. E.g., 1-2b-1-2b (HC) 1-2b-1-2c-3a (PAC)
Perform minor-key versions of the above.
Joel Phillips, AP Music Theory 11

MUSICAL MEME 2: INVERTED DOMINANT-FUNCTION SEVENTH CHORDS AND THEIR RESOLUTIONS


bbb

2a

? b
bb

&



T
D
T





Part
1
m
f
m
2
d
r
d
3
s
s (l)
s
4
d
t
d

GETTING THE MOST FROM THIS EXAMPLE
For V7 chords perform chord 2a; for viio7 perform 2b.
Memorize V7 before introducing viio7.
Parts 1, 2, and 4 are typical bass lines; any part may appear as S, A, or T.
Sustain an upper part from chord 23 to create suspensions and/or retardations.
Combine this progression with others to make longer examples.
Secondary dominant-function chords follow the same VL. V/V-V equals V: V-I

Other comments: ___________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________________________

12 Joel Phillips, AP Music Theory

IMPROVISING MELODIC VARIATIONS USING EMBELLISHING TONES SNAP AND CS


Follow the procedure below to improvise melodic variations of a progressions soprano voice.
Practice each type of embellishmentN, CS, CS+P, and DNseparately then mix them to create free
improvisations.
1.

Learn the progression that is the basis of your improvisation. While playing the progression, sing the melody.
Listen for these original melodic pitches as guide tones during each embellishment that follows.

2.

Perform neighbor tone (N) tudes.

3.

Perform chordal skip (CS) tudes.

4.

Perform a passing tone (P) tude by filling in the chordal skip (CS) tude from #3.

Joel Phillips, AP Music Theory 13

5.

Perform double neighbor (DN) tudes.

6.

Create free improvisations by mixing the embellishments you practiced in the tudes.
Perform a transcription of one such possibility. Note the rhythm has been varied. In addition you could add
rests, change dynamics or articulations, etc. to make your improvisation unique.



MUSICAL MEME 3: D-R-M BASS LINE HARMONIZATIONS

PARALLEL 10THS CONTRARY MOTION/VOICE EXCHANGE
CHORD 2 = SEVENTH CHORD CHORD 2 = TRIAD

&

bbb

? b
bb



Part
1
2
3
B

T

m
d
s
d

2a

D

f
t
s (l)
r

T

s
d
s
m

14 Joel Phillips, AP Music Theory

T

m
d
s
d

2a

D

r
t
s (f)
r

T

d
d
s
m

FOUR-PART REALIZATION
ROMAN NUMERALS AND FIGURES

4
&4
? 44
C:

____ : V

____ : i

vii

4
&4
? 44
_____ :

vii7

## 4
& 4

____ :

____ : i

FIGURED BASS

? # # 44
#
B minor:

## 4
& 4

? # # 44
#
B minor:

Joel Phillips, AP Music Theory 15

SUMMATIVE PROGRESSIONS
MUSICAL MEME 4: TPDT PHRASE & AUTHENTIC, HALF, DECEPTIVE, AND PLAGAL CADENCES
Part

1
2
3

3 .
& 4 ..

? 43

Chord # 1

..
.

2a

OR

2b

1.



3a

.
..

4a

5a

2.

3.

5b

5c

.. . . .. . . ..
.
.
.. .

.. .

..

TO CREATE THE DESIRED CADENCE, BEGIN WITH CHORD #1 AND


Half (HC): Conclude with chord 4b.
Authentic (AC): Conclude with 5a, 5b, or 1.
For a PAC
Perform as written, concluding with 5a or 5b.
Perform with part 2 as soprano, concluding with 5b.
For an IAC
Perform with part 3 as soprano, concluding with 5a or 5b.
Perform with either part 2 or 3 as soprano. After 4b, conclude with chord 1.
Deceptive (DC): Conclude with 5c.
Plagal: Make a PAC. Conclude with chords 3a-1. Variations: Conclude with 3b-1 or 3c-1.
BONUS! To make the N6 chord, lower chord 3bs re to ra.
MUSICAL MEME 5: PHRYGIAN CADENCE, INVERTED V7 CHORD REVIEW, AND SUSPENSIONS
Part
1
2
3

2
# c
&


? # c #
Chord # 1



n
3

5a

5b

6a

6b

GETTING THE MOST FROM THIS EXAMPLE


The cadence proper is chords 5b-6b.
Create a simpler phrase by performing chords 1-(4)-5b-6b.
Create 76 and 43 suspensions by performing chords 1-(2-3)-4-5a-b-6a-b.
Create suspensions by sustaining #2s R.H. pitches over beat 3s change of bass note.
Review all inverted V7 chord voice leading by performing chords 1-2-3.
BONUS! To make A6 chords, raise chord 5bs soprano from fa to fi.
o It+6: Perform exactly as modified, which doubles do.
o Fr+6: Change chord 5 part 2 to re.
o Gr+6: Change chord 5 part 2 to me.
16 Joel Phillips, AP Music Theory

DR. PHILLIPS
PEER EVALUATION OF SIGHT SINGING PERFORMANCES
OVERVIEW
Students will form peer pairs that meet in person to perform and evaluate each others singing on
a weekly basis. You may have the same partner for two weeks after which you should find a new
partner. Each week you will send a single PDF of your peer evaluations via email to me not later
than midnight on the Sunday of the week it is due.
During your meeting each peer will both perform and evaluate two melodies. Once an item has
been performed and evaluated, it may not be performed again. For example, if Peer 1 asks Peer 2
to sing Melody #493, Peer 2 may not ask Peer 1 to sing the same melody.
SIGHT SINGING PROCEDURE
Peer 1 chooses a melody (not an tude) and gives only the tonic pitch.
Peer 2 warms up briefly then performs the melody.
Peer 1 quietly listens and evaluates. No coaching or comments please.
Peer 2 quietly self-evaluates his/her first performance.
Peer 2 performs for the second and final time.
Peer 1 quietly listens and evaluates again. Again, no coaching or comments.
Peer 1 records the higher of the two scores, if they are different.
After the second performance the evaluator should always provide the performer
with comments or suggestions for improvement.
Switch roles and repeat the procedure.
During the second meeting of each peer pair, the peer who performed first during
meeting 1 should choose first during meeting 2.
SUBMISSION OF EVALUATIONS
During the in-person evaluation you may use scrap paper to record each others performances.
However, when you report your evaluations to me, please use the Word document template I
have uploaded to our class website (filename: Sight Singing Peer Evaluation). When complete,
create a PDF of your evaluation and email it to me no later the Sunday midnight of the week it is
due.

Joel Phillips, AP Music Theory 17

DR. PHILLIPS, SIGHT SINGING PEER EVALUATION


Performer Name

___________

Melody # _______

Date __________________________

Pitch
Rhythm
Solfge
Conducting
Musicality

Evaluator Name _______________________

1st Hearing
2, 1, 0
2, 1, 0
2, 1, 0
2, 1, 0
2, 1, 0

2nd Hearing
2, 1, 0
2, 1, 0
2, 1, 0
2, 1, 0
2, 1, 0

_____

_____

Opt. +1
Total

Comments and suggestions for improvement:

Interpretations
Scoring
2 = good to excellent
1 = fair
0 = poor or skill omitted
Optional discretionary point: Employ this option with discretion for performances that are
compelling, but that (inadvertently) omit one skill other than Musicality.
Comments
Suggest strategies for improvement next time or tell a performer about an improvement made
over past performances.

18 Joel Phillips, AP Music Theory

RECENT AP MUSIC THEORY SIGHT SINGING MELODIES


2016 SS1

SS2

Joel Phillips, AP Music Theory 19

20 Joel Phillips, AP Music Theory

SEQUENCES
MUSICAL MEME 6: DESCENDING FIFTHS SEQUENCE (PHONE NUMBER? 1-473-6251)
ROOT POSITION CHORDS WITH 108 PATTERN (M-F MELODY OVER D-F BASS)

& 44
10

? 44

10

IV

iii

SEVENTH CHORDS WITH 107 PATTERN

&

10

10

vi

ii

vii

10

10

10

10

ALTERNATING ROOT AND FIRST INVERSION

&
10

10

10

VARIATIONS
Triads with passing tones: Perform as written in mm. 13.
Triads only: Omit quarter notes on beats 2 and 4 in mm. 13.
Alternating triads and inverted 7th chords: Omit the quarters on beat 3 in mm. 13.
MUSICAL MEME 7: DESCENDING THIRDS SEQUENCE
ALTERNATING ROOT AND 1ST INVERSION

ROOT POSITION CHORDS WITH 105 PATTERN

& c
10

?c
I

10

vi

10

iii

IV

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

vi

iii6

IV

I6


ii

V6

V7

Joel Phillips, AP Music Theory 21

SECONDARY DOMINANT-FUNCTION CHORDS


D-T relationships can be applied to non-tonic scale degrees, but the D-T VL remains the same.
Example 1s voice leading is the same as that of meme 2. Example 2s bracket indicates the D-T
voice leading is applied to the tonic scale degree. Examples 35 are in a different key, but
employ the same D-T voice leading, this time applied to scale degree 5. The bracket, slash, and
colon notations each mean of.

# 41
& 4
? # 44

G: V 5

n3

C: V 5

V5
I

MELODIC STRATEGIES
Major-key music
I hear/see
Possible tonicization
fi-sol
V (most common)
si-la
vi (common)
di-re
ii (somewhat common)
ri-mi
iii (rare)
te-la
IV (very common)

Bracket

n #
6

Slash

V 5/V

Colon

V: V5

Minor-key music
I hear/see
Possible tonicization
fi-sol
V or v (very common)
mi-fa
iv (very common)
te, not ti
III or VI if part of a D-T sound
III (most common)

TO FOLLOW THE MELODIC STRATEGIES


Listen for the chromatic pitch. To which scale degree does it lead? Write the Roman
numeral of the scale degree beneath the bracket. E.g. If you hear fi>sol, scale
degree 5 is tonicized; write Roman numeral V beneath the bracket.
Use D-T listening strategies to write the D-T progression over the bracket. E.g.,
Locally, the bass line sounds like ti-do. The most common D-T progressions with a ti-
do bass line are V- or V -I.
TIPS
Raised pitches can act like ti; lowered pitches can act like fa.
Listen for the quality of the tonicized chord. E.g., in major, a tonicized major chord is V or IV.

22 Joel Phillips, AP Music Theory

FOUR-PART REALIZATION OF SECONDARY DOMINANT-FUNCTION CHORDS


ROMAN NUMERALS AND FIGURES
1. Notate the key signature.
2. Identify the tonicized scale degree from the colon, slash, or bracket.
3. Which pitch is that scale degree? Think in the key of that pitchs chord.
4. Look at the D-T progression and recall its D-T voice leading.
5. Notate the pitches of the D-T progression in the key of the tonicized scale degree.
6. Check to make sure you notated any necessary accidental(s).

4
&4
? 44
C:

V: V

B:

V/IV

IV

F: i

V
vi

FIGURED BASS
1. Identify the key.
2. Sing the solfge of the bass line or recall the pattern indicated by the figures.
Example 1s si-la suggests of vi. Si is raised, so acts like ti. Ti-do of vi is Vi.
Example 2s bass has no accidentals, but the figure pair means the bass notes are
fa-me. Sing f-m-r-d to identify the of key, B minor or ii.
Example 3s figure includes . Because the bass note moves, it must be a passing , so
the line is a d-r-m bass. The of key is v. In minor keys, the chord of V is major, but
the key of v is minor.
3. Recall the patterns D-T voice leading.
4. Thinking in the tonicized key, notate the pitches, including any necessary accidental(s).

## 4
& 4

? # # 44
#
D:

###

###

A:

# #
e:

Joel Phillips, AP Music Theory 23

MORE PRACTICE WRITING SECONDARY DOMINANT-FUNCTION CHORDS


REALIZATION FROM ROMAN NUMERALS AND FIGURES

4
&4
? 44
_____ :

IV: V

V: V

V: V

____ : V/V

____ : i

V
vi

____ : i

V
ii

4
&4
? 44
_____ :

____ : V/iv iv

4
&4
? 44
_____ :

____ : V/vi vi

24 Joel Phillips, AP Music Theory

____ : I

V
V

FREE RESPONSE QUESTIONS 57 FROM RECENT AP EXAMS


NB. MOST INCLUDE SECONDARY DOMINANT-FUNCTION CHORDS
2012 FR 5

2016 FR 5

Joel Phillips, AP Music Theory 25

2016 FR 6

2015 FR 6

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26 Joel Phillips, AP Music Theory

2016 FR 7

2012 FR 7

Joel Phillips, AP Music Theory 27

STRATEGIES FOR COUNTERPOINTING A BASS LINE: PHRASES THAT CONCLUDE WITH A PAC

# 4
& 4

& b 44

EXAMPLE 1

?# 4
4
EXAMPLE 2

?b 4
4

### 4
& 4

EXAMPLE 3

? ### 4
4

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28 Joel Phillips, AP Music Theory

STRATEGIES FOR COUNTERPOINTING A BASS LINE: PHRASES THAT MODULATE

### 4
& 4

EXAMPLE 1

? ### 4
4
EXAMPLE 2

& b 44
? 4
b 4

# 4
& 4

EXAMPLE 3

?# 4
4

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Joel Phillips, AP Music Theory 29

STRATEGIES FOR COUNTERPOINTING A BASS LINE: INTERIOR PHRASES

# 4
& 4

EXAMPLE 1

?# 4
4

EXAMPLE 2

& b 44
?b 4
4

### 4
& 4

EXAMPLE 3

? ### 4
4

jU

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30 Joel Phillips, AP Music Theory

COMPOSITIONAL TECHNIQUES AND MOTIVE DEVELOPMENT


1. Repetition Repetition Repetition
2. Transposition Transposition Transposition
3. Sequence [Repetition + Transposition] Sequence Sequence Sequence
4. Change of interval interval interval
5. Rhythmic manipulations [A u g m e n t a t i o n, Diminution, rhythmic a c c e leration! ostinato]
6. Fragmentation/truncation [use of only a portion of the motive motiv moti mot mo m]
7. Retrograde [backwards] edargorteR
8. Inversion [contour is mirrored - "upside down"]
9. Retrograde Inversion [upside down and backwards ]
10. Imitative procedures [canon, fugue, invertible counterpoint, hocket, etc.]
11. Cadence patterns [Authentic, Half, Phrygian, Plagal, Deceptive]
12. Variations
Sectional: classical theme and variations
Continuous: chaconne [repeated harmonic progression] and passacaglia [repeated bass]
13. Pedal point [usually on the tonic or the dominant pitch, may be in an upper voice]
14. Compound melody [implies more than one voice leading strand in a single line]
15. Changes in texture, dynamic, register, orchestration, tempo, mood, etc. [usually emphasize
the piece's form]
16. Changes in mode [tonicization or modulation]
17. Formulas or Systems [Numerology, 12-tone technique, use of sets, programs, etc.]
18. Parody [quote or otherwise employ or adapt earlier work]
19. Combine any two or more above
20. Add your own to this list...

Joel Phillips, AP Music Theory 31

32 Joel Phillips, AP Music Theory

Joel Phillips, AP Music Theory 33

34 Joel Phillips, AP Music Theory

Joseph Haydn, String Quartet in Bb Major, op. 33, no. 3, third movement
Violin 1

& b 43 .

& b 43

Violin 2

B b 43

Viola

? 3
b 4

Cello

& b .

&b

Bb

?
b

. k k . k
k p
S k k


k k k
k
k k

k
k

S
b
J

k k k k

S
S

k k k


J k k
k

k k k

k k k k

k k k k
.


k k

j

j

Henry Purcell, Minuet

#
& 43 #

P
? # 43 .
.
p
8
# 1.

&
F
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F

#
.

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2.

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Joel Phillips, AP Music Theory 35

%
>
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..

Ludwig van Beethoven, Ecossaise in G (adapted)

#2
& 4
P
? # 42

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& .
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.

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j Fine
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1.

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11

Ludwig van Beethoven, German Dance No. 3

3
&b4
f
? b 43

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.
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f

.
& b .
.
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&b

13

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1.

36 Joel Phillips, AP Music Theory

.
. .
. . .
.

j D.S. alFine

.
P
.

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.
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.
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p
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.
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p


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2.
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p.

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&

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Piano Sonata, K. 545, first movement

& 44

Beethoven, Fr Elise, from Albumblatt, mm. 1720a

.
J

& 38

.
J

? 38

.
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& # 44

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Piano Concerto, K. 448

? # # 44

.
.

.
.

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Piano Sonata, K. 310, third movement

& 42 .

.
J

.
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#
J

? 2 j j
4
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# #

Johann Sebastian Bach, Auf, auf! die rechte Zeit ist hier (Up, up! The Right Time is Here! adapted)

& 44
F
? 44
F

Moderato

& .

? n

j
#

#

..
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U
U

Joel Phillips, AP Music Theory 37

..
..

j
& b 44
P

? 4
b 4J
F
6
j
& b .

Henry Purcell, A Farewell


j
# . . . . .
F

.
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J
F
. j .
#
p
F
.
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p
F

b .
& b 42 J
f
? b b 42

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Allegro

.. j j

. . .
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p
.
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..
J
J
p
f
10
.
b
j

j
& b . # . J .. .. n n .
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f. .
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b
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f
21
b
. j
j
j
& b . . . . . . J
p
. . . . . . F

? bb
J
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.
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f
p
F

Johann Sebastian Bach, Herr, wie du willst, so schicks mit mir

4
& 4

? 44

# #

n

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38 Joel Phillips, AP Music Theory

J j j #
n
p.
f
.

J J
p
f
.
.
J j J
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p
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Joel Phillips, AP Music Theory 39

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40 Joel Phillips, AP Music Theory

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Joel Phillips, AP Music Theory 41

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42 Joel Phillips, AP Music Theory