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Evacuated Tubes

Evacuated tubes (Fig. 2-6) have a premeasured vacuum that automatically draws the
volume of blood indicated on the label. A tube that has lost all or part of its vacuum will fail
to fill with blood or fill incompletely. Vacuum loss can occur if tubes are stored improperly,
opened, dropped, or advanced too far onto the needle before the draw or if the needle bevel
backs out of the skin during the draw. Tube stoppers are colorcoded to identify a type of
additive, absence of
additive, or special tube property. Although generally
universal, color-coding varies slightly by manufacturer.
Table 2-1 lists common stopper colors, additives,
and departments.
Evacuated tubes. (Reprinted with permission from
McCall R, Tankersley C. Phlebotomy essentials. 4th ed. Baltimore,
Md.: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2008.)

A cuvette is a small tube of circular or square cross

section, sealed at one end, made of plastic, glass, or
fused quartz (for UV light) and designed to hold
samples for spectroscopic experiments. The best
cuvettes are as clear as possible, without impurities that might affect a
spectroscopic reading. Like a test tube, a cuvette may be open to the
atmosphere on top or have a cap to seal it shut. Parafilm can also be used to
seal it.

Folin-Wu tube for blood glucose


used in Folin and Wu's method of non-enzymatic

estimation of blood glucose.

A cylindrical , round tube

Pipettes are washed in special cylindrical washers, if it is necessary to wash
them. The ends of the pipettes with the smaller openings are placed toward the
top of the wash cylinder and the ends with the larger openings are positioned
toward the bottom to facilitate quick and easy drainage (Figure 8-2).
All plastic or glass supplies should be completely dried after the fi nal rinse and
before use.
For safety, it should be noted that glass and plastics that are in direct contact
with biohazardous materials are most often disposable. In

In using cuvettes, Always rinse the cuvette with a couple of portions of the next sample

you are testing before you take a measurement. > Wipe off the outside of the cuvette with a

Kimwipe to remove liquid or fingerprint smudges before you place it in the sample holder.
Never wipe with any other kind of towel or cloth.

Keep glassware clean.
a. Clean immediately after use. The longer glassware sits, the harder it is to clean.
b. Use laboratory-grade detergents for cleaning glassware. Chromic Acid
(dichromate/sulfuric acid mixture) should never be used to clean glassware.
c. Be sure to rinse glassware well.
d. When using brushes, make sure the metal part of the brush does not scratch the glass.
General Cautions
a. Use glassware that is without defect and has smooth edges.
b. Glassware should have no cracks, chips, or scratches. In particular, be wary of star
cracks that can form on the bottom of beakers and flasks. Any glassware with such
cracks should be properly disposed of immediately.
c. All glass tubing should be fire-polished.
d. Never set hot glassware on cold surfaces or in any way change its temperature suddenly.
Even a Pyrex or Kimax beaker will break if cold water is poured into a hot beaker.

Defective glassware should be disposed of correctly.

a. Glassware should be disposed of in a separate container from normal trash. Such

container should be clearly labeled BROKEN GLASSWARE ONLY.
b. When handling broken glassware, wear gloves or use a dustpan and broom. Do not pick
up broken glass with bare hands.

VI. Safe Handling of Equipment

Avoiding Accidents by Using Equipment Safely

Last draw - additive tubes in this order:

Last draw - additive tubes in this order:
SST (red-gray, or gold, stopper). Contains a gel separator
and clot activator.
Sodium heparin (dark green stopper)
PST (light green stopper). Contains lithium heparin
anticoagulant and a gel separator.
EDTA (lavender stopper)
ACDA or ACDB (pale yellow stopper). Contains acid
citrate dextrose.
Oxalate/fluoride (light gray stopper)
Size: 15 X 100mm, 16 x 100mm
Thickness: 0.9mm
Material: Boron silicon glass
Package: 250PCS/box, 8 boxes per carton
The tubes are used to contain blood, the specially treated inner wall can guarantee
the blood non-deterioration during the stock period. With good heat resistance and
high intensity, the tubes can meet the requirements of low tempriture or frozen
stocking and the high speed centrifuging.
> A tapered and specially-engineered test tube specifically for centrifuge work,
designed to resist the high G-forces induced by the centrifugal forces. They are
mainly used in medical work to centrifuge human blood for test purposes. despite
all the potential hazards I have never heard of a centrifuge accident or explosion if
used properly with all safety devices employed. there was a tale in a Gotham paper

of a centrifuge (Open and uncovered) blowing up with an induced chemical

reactionk, certtainly not SOP. a teacher or student had some mild splash burns.