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2009

WELL TESTING COURSE

Francesca VERGA POLITECNICO DI TORINO

Course Program
Introduction to well testing

types

objectives
equipment
Recap of flow equations for an infinite acting porous medium
Flow equations for closed reservoirs
Tests description and interpretion for oil and gas wells
Drawdown periods
Buildup periods (Horner plot)
Recap of well productivity and deliverability
Introduction to the pressure derivative method
Pressure derivative analysis: interpretation models for early, middle and late time
Excercises on well tests interpretation (Interpret by Paradigm/Saphir by Kappa)
Tutorials
Real cases
Numerical well testing (Saphir by Kappa)

Basics on unconventional well testing


Decline curves
Tutorials (Topaze by Kappa)

Well Testing
The principle of Well Testing is to analyze the output signal of a well
on which a known input signal has been applied.

INPUT

OUTPUT

(well + reservoir)

Production/Injection flow rates

Bottom Hole Pressure

Standard Well Testing


Rate and Bottom Hole Pressure vs Time

Main Targets of Well Testing


Reservoir description:
define nature of produced fluids;
estimate (initial) static pressure pi (ps )
estimate permeability (horizontal and vertical k);
analyse reservoir
characteristics);

heterogeneities

(natural

fractures,

layering,

change

of

evaluate reservoir size (drainage area);

Well description:
define production potential (Productivity Index, well deliverability)
well damage (skin factor S);
design remedial jobs (i.e.: acid treatment, gravel pack, fracturing);
verify completion efficiency;
design surface production facilities;
optimize drilling technique by choosing the best mud in order to minimize formation
damage (for new infilling wells)

Types of Well Test

Mini DST MDT (Modular Dynamic Tester)


Standard Production Test
Limit Test
Interference Test
areal interference
vertical interference

Well Test Type


Mini DST MDT
WELL: exploration
COMPLETION: Open/Cased hole DST string
DURATION: very short (few hours)
OBJECTIVES: formation pressure, fluid samples,
mobility

DESCRIPTION
It is possible to test the fluids in an open hole or cased hole
(perforations h=30 cm) by setting packers above and below
the interval of interest. This way a well interval is isolated (1
m) and the formation fluids are allowed to flow into the well
by using a downhole pump. The tools can be run in hole by
wireline or drill pipes. The formation pressure and fluid
mobility (thus permeability) can be measured and the
formation fluids sampled.

MDT Mini DST


Courtesy of Schlumberger

Well Test Type


Production test with DST string
WELL: exploration
COMPLETION: DST string + TCP
DURATION: variable (2-7 days)
OBJECTIVES: formation pressure, fluid samples,
permeability, well damage,
DESCRIPTION
A drill stem test is a test which uses special tools mounted on
the end of the drill string, comprising a downhole valve,
pressure gauges, and fluid samplers.
The well can be perforated in underbalance conditions,
avoiding mud invasion. The well is opened to flow by a valve
at the base of the test tool, and reservoir fluid flows up the
drill string.
A common test sequence is to produce, shut in, produce
again and shut in again. DST can be quite short, since the
positive closure of the downhole valve avoids wellbore
storage effects.
Courtesy of Schlumberger

Well Test Type


Standard production test
WELL: production
COMPLETION: final
DURATION: variable (2-7 days)
OBJECTIVES: formation pressure, permeability, well damage, reservoir
boundaries, well deliverability

DrawDown

BuildUp

Well Test Type


Standard P.T.
1

DD

BU

DRAWDOWN PERIOD
A well that is static, stable and shut-in is opened to flow
and the downhole pressure measured as the pressure
declines. For the purposes of traditional analysis, the
flow rate is supposed to be constant. Many of the
traditional analysis techniques are derived using the
drawdown test as a basis. However, in practice, a
drawdown test may be rather difficult to achieve under
the intended conditions. In particular:
(a) it is difficult to make the well flow at constant rate,
even after it has (more-or-less) stabilized;
(b) the well condition may not initially be either static or
stable, especially if it was recently drilled or had been
flowed previously.

BUILDUP PERIOD
A well which is already flowing (ideally at constant rate)
is shut in, and the downhole pressure measured as the
pressure builds up. Analysis of a buildup test often
requires only slight modification of the techniques used
to interpret drawdown test. The practical advantage of a
buildup test is that the constant flow rate condition is
achieved (since the flow rate is zero).
Buildup tests also have disadvantages:
(a) It may be difficult to achieve the constant rate
production prior to the shut in.
(b) Production is lost while the well is shut in.

Real Well Test

Buildup Period
Drawdown Period

Running gauge
in hole

Pulling out
gauge

Well Test Type


Limit Test
WELL: exploration/appraisal
COMPLETION: provisional or final
DURATION: variable (days-weeks)
OBJECTIVES: investigate reservoir boundaries, estimate reservoir size

Well Test Type


Areal Interference
FIRST WELL: active (producing) well
SECOND WELL: observation/spy well(s) (shut-in)
COMPLETION: final
DURATION: variable (days-weeks)
OBJECTIVES: recognise reservoir continuity between wells

p
t

t
p
Observation well

DESCRIPTION
Interference tests require longduration production or injection rate
changes in the active well. The
associated pressure disturbance
t in the observation well(s)
recorded
yields information regarding the
degree of hydraulic communication
within the interwell region.

Well Test Type


Areal Interference

Dt = time lag
observation well

observation well

producing well

Well Test Type


Vertical Interference

FIRST POOL: active (producing) pool


SECOND POOL: observer pool (shut-in)
COMPLETION: final dual completion
DURATION: variable (hours-days)
OBJECTIVES: recognise comunication between the pools or at the well

DESCRIPTION
These tests are conducted to
determine crossflow between two
layers separated by a lowpermeability layer or to detect
leaks behind the casing due to
poor cementation or through the
paker.

Courtesy of Schlumberger

Well Testing
Field Data
Field Data
Surface
Data

Produced
Fluids

Flow
Rates

Wellhead
Pressure

Wellhead
Temperature

Field Fluid
Properties
DWT
Separators

Bottom
Data

SRO

Memory
Gauge

Well Testing Equipment

Surface Equipment:
bi three phase separator
choke manifold
Dead Weight Tester (DWT)
heater
piping/burners

Downhole Gauges:
electronic (Memory , SRO) gauges

Courtesy of Schlumberger

Well Testing
Field Data Quality Control

Bottom Pressure / Temperature :


Always check the coherence of the instrumental response in terms of both pressure
and temperature (option Validation Gauges)
Always check gauge pressure against the corresponding wellhead pressures (Dead
Weight Tester) taken as a reference.

Flow Rate:
The flow rates selected in the Rate History must be homogeneous with the
corresponding bottomhole pressures ( option Validation Rates)

Downhole Gauge Specifications


Mechanical Gauges (Amerada)

are at home to enjoy their pension!

Downhole Gauge Specifications


Electronic Gauges (Memory / SRO)
Memory-The gauge is placed downhole, there is no connection to the surface during the
test. Batteries provide energy to make the tool work. Data are recorded and
stored during the test. The gauge is recovered when the test is over. Low cost but
no possibility to monitor the test.

Surface Read Out- Connection to the surface and data transferring is maintained during
the test through an electric wireline cable. High cost (surface wireline unit and
personnel) but possibility to intervene changing the test sequence if needed.

Max W.P.: 20 kpsia


Max W.T.: 185 190 C

Strain Gauge

Quartz Gauge

Resolution: 0.2 psia

Resolution: 0.01 psia

Accuracy: 10 psia

Accuracy: 2 psia

Drift: 3 psi/1 day or 1.5 psi/week

Drift: negligible

Downhole Gauge Specifications

Courtesy of Schlumberger

Microsystems Technology

Courtesy of Schlumberger