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Chapter 4: Electronics

CHAPTER 4: ELECTRONICS
THE CATHODE RAY OSCILLOSCOPE (C.R.O)
Thermionic emission is the process of emission of electrons from a heated metals surface.
Metal consists of a large number of electrons which are free to move.
At room temperature, the electrons are free to move but remain inside the metal.
The electrons cannot escape at the surface because they are held back by the attractive forces of the
atomic nucleus.
If the metal is heated at a high temperature, some of the free electrons may gain sufficient energy to
escape from the metal.

A beam of electrons moving at high speed in a vacuum is known as a cathode ray.


Four characteristics of the cathode rays:
1. They are negatively charged particles.
2. They travel in a straight lines
3. They possess momentum and kinetic energy
4. They are deflected by magnetic and electric field.
Factors that influence the rate of thermionic emission
Factor
Effect on the rate of thermionic emission
Temperature of the cathode
When temperature increases, the rate increases
Surface area of the cathode
A larger surface area increases the rate of thermionic
emission.
Potential difference between the
The rate of thermionic emission unchanged, but the
anode and cathode
emitted electron accelerate faster towards anode if the
potential difference increases.
Energy Change in A Cathode Ray

Chapter 4: Electronics

Exercise:

1. In a cathode ray tube, an electron with kinetic energy of 1.32 10-14 J is accelerated. Calculate the
potential difference, V between the cathode and the accelerating anode. [ e = 1.6 x 10 -19 C]

2. In a vacuum tube, a cathode ray is produced and accelerated through a potential difference of
2.5kV. Calculate:
(a) The initial electric potential energy of the cathode ray.
(b) The maximum velocity of the electron.
[ e = 1.6 x 10 -19 C; m= 9 x 10 -31 kg]

3. If the potential difference between the cathode and the anode in a CRO is 3.5 kV, calculate the
maximum speed of the electron which hit the screen of CRO.
[ e = 1.6 x 10 -19 C; m= 9 x 10 -31 kg]

4. The mass of an electron is 9x10-31 kg and its charge 1.6x10-19 C. For an accelerating voltage of 3000 V,
calculate the speed of the electron.

Chapter 4: Electronics

Investigate the properties of cathode ray

Procedure
Connect only the 6.3 V power supply to
the filament
Connect the 6.3 V and EHT to the
electrodes
Bring a pole of a bar magnet near to the
neck of the tube.
Reverse the pole of the bar magnet

Figure 2
Observation on the fluorescent screen
A dark shadow of the Maltese Cross is formed on the
screen.
A darker shadow of the Maltese Cross is seen on the
screen. The shadow is surrounded by green light
Two shadow are seen on the screen. The light shadow
remains at the centre of screen while the dark one is shifted.
The light shadow remains at the centre of screen while the
dark one is shifted to the opposite direction.

Discussion
1. When the 6.3 V power supply is switched on, the filament is heated. The Maltese cross shadow is
formed on the screen due to the light from the filament.
2. When the EHT power supply is switched on, a high voltage is applied between the cathode and
anode causing electrons to accelerate at high speeds from cathode to anode. These electrons are
the cathode rays.
3. The cathode rays blocked by the Maltese Cross causing a shadow to form on the screen. The cathode
rays travel in straight lines.
4. The green screen formed around the shadow when the EHT power supply is switched on shows that the
kinetic energy of the electron is converted into light energy when the electrons hit the fluorescent screen.
5. When a strong magnet is placed at the side of the Maltese Cross tube, the shadow formed is moved and
distorted. This shows that cathode rays are deflected by a magnetic field.
Investigate the properties of cathode rays in an electric field ( Figure 2 )
Observation:
No voltage connected to the deflecting plates
No deflection
Top plate is connected to EHT (+) and lower plate is
The electron beam will deflect upward
connected to EHT (-)
The electron beam will deflect downward
Top plate is connected to EHT (-) and lower plate is
connected to EHT (+)
Discussion:
1. The cathode ray is negatively charge.
2. It will deflect in an electric field.
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Chapter 4: Electronics

Cathode Ray Oscilloscope


Uses a cathode ray tube that converts electronic and electrical signals to a visual display.
The graph produced consist of a horizontal axis which is normally a function of time, and a vertical axis
which is a function of the input voltage.
The components in a cathode ray tube consists of a vacuum glass tube with an electron gun, a deflection
system for deflecting the electron beam and a fluorescent coated screen.
Structure of the Cathode Ray Oscilloscope

Main Part

Electron gun

Component

Function

Filament

When a current passes through the filament, the filament


becomes hot and heats up the cathode.

Cathode

Emits electron when it is hot.

Control grid
Focusing Anode
Accelerating Anode

Control the number of electrons hitting the fluorescent screen.


Control the brightness of the spot on the screen.
To focus the electrons onto the screen.
To accelerate the electrons to high speed.

Y- plates

To deflect the electron beam vertically

Deflection system

X plates

To deflect the electron beam horizontally from left to right at a


steady speed.

Fluorescent screen

Glass surface coated


with a fluorescent
materials

To convert the kinetic energy of the electrons to heat and light


energy when the electrons hit the screen.

Application of CRO
1. Measuring potential difference
2. Measuring short intervals
3. displaying wave forms

Chapter 4: Electronics

The working Principle of the Cathode-Ray Oscilloscope.

.
Control Knob

Function

Power Switch

Control the power supply

Focus

X-input

Control the sharpness of the bright spot


Connected to the focusing anode
The sharpness of the bright spot is also affected by the brightness
To control brightness or intensity of the bright spot
Connected to the control grid
Brightness level should be set as low as possible to obtain a clear and sharp
trace
To adjust the horizontal position of the bright spot on the screen
Connected to the X-plates
To adjust the vertical position of the bright spot or the trace displayed
Connected to the Y-plates
To control the magnitude of the vertical deflection of the bright spot or the trace
displayed on the screen by adjusting amplitude
Connected to the Y-plates
To control the magnitude of the horizontal deflection of the bright spot or the
trace displayed on the screen by adjusting the frequency
Connected to the X-plates
A terminal to connect the voltage to the X-plates

Y-input

A terminal to connect the voltage to the Y-plates

AC/DC
switch

To select the type of input received


When the switch is at DC position, the a.c and d.c voltages will be displayed
When the switch is at AC position, only the a.c voltage will be displayed. Any
signals of d.c voltage will be blocked by a capacitor in the CRO
To disconnect the input voltage at the Y-plates and to earth the input terminal

Brightness

X-shift
Y-shift
Y gain
(volts / div)
Time-base
(time/div)

Earth

Chapter 4: Electronics

Display wave forms and measuring voltage from a DC source using a CRO

Exercise:
1.

If the CRO in figure uses Y-gains of 1.5 Vcm-1, calculate the value of voltage.

2.

The figure shows a trace on a CRO set at 5 Volt per division on the vertical axis. What is
the maximum voltage (peak voltage) indicated?

3.

Diagram 2 shows a trace produced by an a.c power supply connected to a CRO with the time base is
switched of. The Y-gain is set to 20 V/div. Find the peak voltage.

Chapter 4: Electronics

4.

Figure shows a trace on an oscilloscope for an a.c source. If the Y-gain is set to 1.5 Vcm-1 and the timebase is 2 ms cm-1.
(a) Calculate the peak voltage, Vp of the a.c source.
(b) Calculate the frequency, f of the a.c source
1
(c ) Sketch the trace displayed on the screen if the settings are changed to 1 Vcm-1 and 1 ms cm-

5. The diagram shows the trace on the screen of a CRO when an a.c voltage is connected to the Y-input. The
Y-gain control is set at 2V/div and the time base is off. Calculate the value of:
a ) Peaktopeak voltage, Vpp
b ) Peak voltage , Vp
c) root-mean-square voltage, Vr.m.s

6.

When two claps are made close to a microphone which is connected to the Y-input and earth terminals,
both pulses will be displayed on the screen at a short interval apart as shown in figure below. Measure the
time lapse between the two claps.

Chapter 4: Electronics

7. Figure shows the trace displayed on the screen of a CRO with the time-base is set to 10 ms/div. What is the
frequency, f of the wave?

8. An ultrasound signal is transmitted vertically down to the sea bed. Transmitted and reflected signals are
input into an oscilloscope with a time base setting of 150 ms cm-1. The diagram shows the trace of the two
signals on the screen of the oscilloscope. The speed of sound in water is 1200 ms-1. What is the depth of
the sea?

9. Diagram 3 shows a wave produced by an audio generator displayed the screen of a CRO. The length
between the two crests is 3 cm.
a) If the time-base is set to 5 ms/div, find the frequency.
b) What is the period of the wave?
c) When the frequency of the wave is double, what is the length between the two crests?

.
10. Diagram 1 shows a trace produced by an ac power supply which is connected to Y-input of an CRO setting
at 20 V/div and 5 ms/div. Calculate:
(a) Period
(b) Frequency
(c) Peak voltage

Chapter 4: Electronics

SEMICONDUCTOR DIODES
A material that has an electrical conductivity that is between that of a conductor and an insulator.
The resistance of semiconductors is between that of conductors and insulators.
At 0 Kelvin it behaves as an insulator. When the temperature increases, the conductivity of the electricity
will increase because its resistance will be lowered
Electricity conductivity in semiconductors occurs because there is two type of charge carriers:
Electron which is negatively charge
Hole which is positively charge
An intrinsic semiconductor is made of pure materials such as silicon or germanium.
1.

There are four electrons in the outermost shell of a silicon


atom and they are shared between four other neighboring
atoms to form four covalent bonds.
2. Each of the covalent bonds has a pair of electrons. Every
atoms shares one electron with each of its neighbours.
3. Figure on the left shows the outer electrons in a silicon crystal
which all are involved in perfect covalent bonds, leaving no
free electrons to conduct electricity.
4. At very low temperature, pure silicon crystal is an insulator and
has a high resistance to current flow.
5. As the temperature of pure silicon crystal increases, the
energy of the vibrating atoms in the silicon crystal causes
some electrons to break free.
6. For every electron that is broken free, there is a hole in the
bonding structure between the atoms of the crystal. (atom X)
7. These holes are said to be carriers of positive charge
8. One outer electron from the neighbouring atom (Y) will fill
the hole and at the same time will produce a hole at Y.
9. When the valence/outer electron moves to the left, the hole
move to the right
10. This is the physical origin of the increase in the
11. electrical conductivity of semiconductors with temperature

Doping is a process of adding a certain amount of specific impurities called dopants to a pure
semiconductor to increase its electricity conductivity.
An extrinsic semiconductor is a semiconductor that has a certain amount of impurities added into it,
such as gallium or arsenic.
Doping process produces two groups of semiconductors. They are the n-type ( negative charge
conductor) and p-type (positive charge conductor) semiconductor.
9

Chapter 4: Electronics

n- type semiconductor

p-type semiconductor

n-type doping increase the number of free


electrons in a doped semiconductor.
A silicon atom has four valence / outer electrons
which each electron is covalently bonded with one
of four adjacent silicon atoms
If atoms with five valence electrons
(pentavalent atoms) are doped into the pure
semiconductor, then each of the pentavalent
atoms will have four covalent bonds and one
extra electrons.
It takes only a very small quantity of the
impurity to create enough free electrons to allow
electric current to flow through silicon.
The free electrons are the majority carriers and the
holes are the minority carriers
Since the pentavalent atom donates an extra
electron it is therefore called the donor atom.
Example: phosphorus, arsenic, or antimony

p-type doping increases the number


of holes in a doped semiconductor.
If atoms of three valence electrons (trivalent
atoms) are doped into the pure
semiconductor, one electron is missing from
one of the four covalent bonds. The
deficiencies of valence electrons are called
holes.
When current passes, a hole is filled by an
electron from a neighbouring atom. In this
way the hole moves from one atom to
another.
The holes are the majority carriers and the
free electrons are the minority carriers.
Since the trivalent atom accepts an electron,
it is therefore called the acceptor atom.
Examples: boron, aluminium, gallium

Semiconductor Diodes
A semiconductor diode is a device made from p-n junction.
A p-n junction is formed when a n-type and p-type semiconductors are joined together.
At the junction of a p-type and an n-type semiconductors, a region called the depletion layer
formed.
At the depletion layer, some free electrons from the n-type diffuse across the junction into the ptype and fill up the holes. The holes from the p-type appear to move across the junction to the ntype.
The nature of the depletion layer is that it will block the current flow from the n-type region to the
p-type region, but will allow the current to flow from the p-type region to the n-type region.
A diode is a device that allows current flow in one direction only.

10

Chapter 4: Electronics

There are two ways a diode can be connected in series to a battery, in forward bias or reverse bias.
Forward bias
Reverse bias

The p-type of the diode is connected to the


positive terminal and the n-type is
connected to the negative terminal of a
battery.
The diode conducts current because the holes
from the p-type material and electrons from
the n-type material are able to cross over the
junction.
A light bulb will light up.

The n-type is connected to the positive


terminal and the p-type is connected to the
negative terminal of the battery.
The reversed polarity causes a very small
current to flow as both electrons and holes
are pulled away from the junction.
When the potential difference due to the widen
depletion region equals the voltage of the
battery, the current will cease. Therefore the bulb
does not light up.

Diode as a Rectifier
A rectifier is an electrical device that converts alternating current to direct current.
Rectification is a process to convert an alternating current into a direct current by using a diode.
Two type of rectification: (a) Half-wave rectification (b) Full-wave rectification
Half-wave rectification

A process where only half of every cycle of an


alternating current is made to flow in one
direction only.
When a diode is connected in series with the
resistor, any current that passes through the
resistor must also pass through the diode.
Since diode can only allow current to flow in
one direction, therefore the current will only
flow in the first half-cycle when the diode in
forward bias.

Full-wave rectification

A process where both halves of every


cycle of an alternating current is made to
flow in the same direction.
In the first half, the current flows from A to P to
TU to R to B
In the second half, the current flows from B
to S to TU to Q to A.The direction of the ac
current passing through the resistor for
each half cycle is the same as T to U.
11

Chapter 4: Electronics

Capacitor Smoothing

Both half-wave and full-wave rectifications do not provide a steady direct current like the battery. To
provide an uniform d.c output, the varying rectified output needs to be smoothen. This can be done by
using a capacitor.
When the current pass through the resistor and capacitor, the capacitor is charged and stores energy.
When there is no current pass through the resistor and capacitor, the capacitor discharge and the
energy from it is used to produce voltage across the resistor. As a result it produces a smooth dc
output.

Exercise:
Figure 9. 47 shows a full wave bridge rectifier. The a.c supply has a frequency of 50 Hz.

Figure 9.47

(a) When the polarity of the a.c supply voltage is positive at A, state the two diodes which are forward
biased.
(b) When the polarity of the a.c supply voltage is negative at A, state the two diodes which are forward
biased.
(c) Using the axes in figure 9.48, sketch the voltage-time graph across the resistor, R.
(d) On the figure 9.49, sketch the voltage-time graph across the resistor if a capacitor is connected across
the resistor if a capacitor is connected across the resistor R parallel with the resistor.

12

Chapter 4: Electronics

TRANSISTOR
A transistor has three leads connected to the emitter, base and collector.
The emitter emits or sends charge carriers through the thin base layer to be collected by the collector.
There is two-type of transistor: n-p-n transistor and p-n-p transistor.

In an npn transistor the emitter sends negative electrons to the collector.


In an pnp transistor, the p-type emitter sends positive holes to the collector.
In both cases, the arrow on the emitter shows the direction of current flow.
The output current, of a transistor flows between the emitter and the collector.
The current in the collector lead is called collector current, IC.
The base current, IB is used to control the collector current through the transistor. The base current can
be used to switch the collector current on or off.

Transistor circuit ( 2 batteries)

13

Chapter 4: Electronics

Potential divider circuit (1 battery)


If there is a small current in the base-emitter
circuit the transistor is switched on and
conducts electricity.
A transistor can be switched on or off by
varying the voltage applied to the base
terminal.
This can be done by connecting two resistors in
series across the main battery. This is called a
potential divider.
The voltage can be calculated as:
=

Example:

Application of transistor
Current Amplifier

A transistor functions as a current amplifier by allowing a


small current to control a larger current.
The size of the collector current, , is determine by the
base current, .
The graph below shows the relationship between the
base current and the collector current. The collector
current is directly proportional to the base current.

14

Chapter 4: Electronics

Transistor as An automatic switch


If the variable resistor in the transistor ( in potential divider circuit )is replaced by a device such as light dependent
resistor (LDR), a thermistor or a microphone, the transistor can be used as an automatic switch controlled by
light, heat or sound.
Light controlled switch

1. Figure shows a transistor-based circuit that


functions as a light controlled switch.
2. The Light Dependent Resistor (LDR) has a
very high resistance in the dark and a low
resistance in bright light. R is a fixed resistor.
3. The LDR and R form a potential divider in the
circuit.
4. In bright light, the LDR has a very low resistance
compared to R. Therefore, the base voltage of
the transistor is too low to switch on the
transistor.
5. In darkness, the resistance of the LDR is very
large and the voltage across the LDR is high
enough to switch on the transistor and thus lights
up the bulb.
6. This circuit can be used to automatically switch on
the bulb at night.

Heat Controlled switch

1. Figure shows a transistor-based circuit that


function as a heat controlled switch.
2. A Thermistor is a special type of resistor. Its
resistance becomes very high when it is cold.
When the thermistor is heated, its resistance
reduce/drops rapidly.
3. At room temperature, the thermistor has a high
resistance compared to R. Therefore, the base
voltage of the transistor is too low to switch on
the transistor.
4. When the thermistor is heated, its resistance
drops considerable compared to R. Therefore,
the base voltage, VB is high enough to switch
on the transistor.
5. When the transistor is switch on, the relay
switch is activated and the relay is switched on.
The circuit can also be used in a fire alarm
system.

15

Chapter 4: Electronics

Logic Gates

Security lamps, alarm systems, and washing machines can make some simple decisions.
The switching on and off operations are controlled by electronic switches made up of logic gates.
Logic gates work using tiny transistors as switches.
They are manufactured as integrated circuit (IC), with each chip holding several gates.
A logic gate is a circuit that has one or more input signals but only one output signal.
For each gate, the input or inputs are on the left of the symbol. The output is on the right.
Each input and output can be either high (logic 1) or low (logic 0).
A binary 0 represents 0 V, and a binary 1 represents a non-zero voltage.

Truth table
A truth table lists all input possibilities and the corresponding output for each input.
Gates
1. AND gate

Truth table

Action
For the input to be ON, both inputs
must be ON.
Output in ON only when both
inputs A and B are ON.

2. OR gate

For the output to be ON at least


one of the inputs must be ON.
Output Q is ON when input A or B
or both is ON

3. NOT gate

The output is ON when the input is


OFF, and vice versa

4. NAND gate

It is equivalent to an AND gate


with its output inverted by a
NOT gate.
Output Q is OFF when inputs
A and B are both ON

16

Chapter 4: Electronics

5. NOR gate

It is equivalent to an OR gate
with its output inverted by a NOT
gate.
Output Q is ON when both input
A and input B are OFF

Boolean algebra can be used to describe the switching functions of logic gates. The operation of the Boolean
algebra can be shown as in Table below.
OR
AND
NOT
(+)
(.)
( )
0+0=0
0+1=1
1+0=1
1+1=1

0.0=0
0.1=0
1.0=0
1 . 1 =1

Combinations of logic Gates


1

17

0=1

1 =0

Chapter 4: Electronics

18

Chapter 4: Electronics

Logic Gate control systems


Most of the electronic control systems consist of three parts as shown in diagram.
1. The input sensor is used to detect any
changes in physical conditions.
2. The control circuit is a logic gate circuit that
used to make decision.
3. The output device can be any indicator.
Street light
1.

Block diagram of a simple electronic


control system that is used as an
automatic and manual switch to switch on
the street lights when it is dark.

2.

The control system allows the street lights


to either be switched on manually at any
time or automatically by a light sensor
when it is dark.

Simple security system


1. In this security system, the LDR and the
infrared sensor are input sensors.
2. The AND gate is the control circuit while
the output device is the alarm.
3. The function of this security system is to
detect any night intruder into premises.
19

Chapter 4: Electronics

Exercise:
Figure shows a logic gate system which switches on an air-conditioner automatically.

(a) Complete the truth table below:


Input

Output

(b) Based on the truth table in (a), state the conditions in which the air-conditioner conditions in which
the air-conditioner will operate and function normally.

20

Chapter 4: Electronics

Reinforcement
Part A: Objective questions

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

1. Which of the following is not a property of


cathode rays?
A. It is positively charged.
B. It travels in a straight line.
C. It can be deflected by magnetic field. D.
It can be deflected by electric field.

2.5 V
5.5 V
7.5 V
12.5 V
15.0 V

5. In p-type semiconductor
A. The number of holes are equal to the
number of electrons.
B. The number of the holes are more
than the number of electrons.
C. The number of the holes are less than the
number of electrons.

2. Cathode rays consists of


A. Fluorescent particles
B. Light rays from a screen
C. Beams of fast moving particles
D. Light rays from hot filament

6. Which of the following is not true about


diode?
A. It can be used to rectify alternating
current.
B. It can only conduct electricity when it is
connected in forward in forward bias in a
circuit.
C. It is formed by joining an n-type and a ptype semiconductor.
D. The majority charge carriers in the
diode are electrons.

3. A beam of electrons is being deflected due


to a potential difference between plates P
and Q.
P
Figure 9.33
Q
Which of the following statements is not
true?
A. The potential at plate P is positive.
B. The deflection would be greater if the
potential difference is greater.
C. The deflection would be greater if
the electrons are moving faster.
D. The electron beam will return to
straight line if a suitable magnetic
field is applied between the plates.

7. The figure 9. 35 shows the arrangement of


silicon atoms after an atom P is doped to
form an extrinsic semiconductor.

4. The figure 9.34 shows the trace


displayed on a CRO with the Y-gain
control is turned to 3.75 V/div.
What is the maximum value of the
potential difference being measured?

Figure 9.35
Which of the following is not true?
A. The conductivity of the
semiconductor increases.
B. The semiconductor becomes an ntype.
C. The majority charge carrier is
electron.
D. Atom P is a trivalent atom.

Figure 9.34

21

Chapter 4: Electronics

8. The figure 9.36 shows a rectifier circuit.


Which of the following statements is
true?

components connected in a circuit. Which


of the following bulbs will light up
continuously when the switch is on?
A. P and Q only
B. P, Q and R only
C. R and S only
D. P, Q and S only

P
Q

11. Which of the following circuits shows


the connect directions of the base current IB,
emitter current, IE and collector current, IC?

Figure 9.36
A. A rectifier changes d.c to a.c.
B. Device P allows current to flow in any
directions.
C. Device Q acts as a rectifier.
D. The rectifier circuit would still work if
device P is reversed.
9. The figure 9.37 shows a circuit consisting of
two diodes and a bulb. When the switch is
on, the bulb does not light up.
What needs to be done to light up the
bulb?

Figure 9.37

A.
B.
C.
D.

Replace the diode with a new one.


Reverse the connection of the diode.
Increase the number of bulbs.
Connect a resistor in series with the
bulb.

10.

Figure 9.38
Figure 9.38 shows four identical bulbs, P,
Q, R and S, and four electronic

22

Chapter 4: Electronics

12. Which of the following statements about a


transistor is not true?
A. A transistor can act as an amplifier
B. A transistor can act as a relay switch.
C. The function of a transistor is the same
as that of two diodes.
D. A transistor is a combination of two
types of semiconductors.

Figure 9.41
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Figure 9.39

13. What is the function of the transistor


circuit shown in figure 9.39?
A. As an amplifier
B. As a rectifier
C. As a switch device
D. As a modulator

3 k
4 k
5 k
6 k
7 k

16. The figure 9. 42 shows a transistor


circuit being used to amplify sound.
M- Microphone
C- Capacitor
S- Speaker

14. The figure 9.40 shows a transistor being


used as a current amplifier.
IB

IC

Figure 9.42
Which of the following is not correct
about the circuit?
A. T is an npn transistor
B. The capasitor prevents d.c current
but allows a.c current to pass through it.
C. Speaker amplifies the sound.
D. R1 and R2 act as potential divider.

Figure 9.40
Which of the following is correct?
A. IB > IC
B. IB = IC
C. IB < IC

17. The figure 9.43 shows a logic gate circuit with input
signals, X and Y.

15. Figure 9.41 shows a circuit consisting of a


transistor which acts as an automatic switch.
When the potential difference across the
thermistor is 3 V and the resistance of the
thermistor is 1000 , the resistance value of
resistor, R is ..

Figure 9.43
Which of the following is the output signal?

23

Chapter 4: Electronics

18. The figure 9.44 shows a logic gate


circuit.

20. The figure 9. 45 shows a combination of three


logic gates in a logic circuit. When inputs P
and Q are both 1 output Y is 1.

Figure 9.43
Which of the following is the output
signal Z?
A. 0110
B. 1010
C. 1110
D. 0101
19. The figure 9.44 shows the combination of three

logic gates.
Figure 9.44
The truth table for the combination of
tree logic gates is as follows.

J
K
Figure 9.45

Which of the following logic gates can be


used to represent J and K?
A.
B.
C.
D.

J
AND
NAND
OR
NOR

What is gate X?
A. AND
B. NOR
C. OR
D. NAND

Part B: Structured Questions.


1. Figure 9.46 shows a trace obtained on an oscilloscope screen when an a.c voltage is
connected to the Y-plates of an oscilloscope.
Scale: 1 division = 1 cm
The Y-gain is set at 3 V/cm
The time base is set at 5 ms/cm

Figure 9.46

(a) Explain what is meant by thermionic emission.

(b) Determine the peak voltage of a.c voltage.

24

K
NOR
NOR
AND
AND

Chapter 4: Electronics

(c) Determine the time for one complete oscillation on the screen.

(d) What is the frequency of the a.c voltage?

(e) With the same a.c voltage applied to the oscilloscope, the time-base setting is altered to
2.5 ms/cm and the Y-gain setting is altered to 2 V/cm. On the space below, sketch the new trace would
appear on the oscilloscope.

2. A student wants to build a simple lift motor control system which operates using two buttons, A and B
for a two-storey building.
A: Up button
B: Down button
The lift motor only activates when someone presses any one of the buttons. Figure 9.50 shows
the circuit that can be used to activate the motor.

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Chapter 4: Electronics

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