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Chapter 11: Polar Equations and Complex Numbers

Lesson 11.1.1

11-1.
See diagram at right. A

I,J C
11-2. F,G E
B
D and H; F and G; I and J
H,D
11-3.
a. 2,( 116! ) , ( !2, 56" ) are two ways. There are many others.
b. (1, 94! ) , (1, ! 74" ) are two ways. There are many others.
11-4.
( !2 ) , B = ( !2, "4 ) , C = ( 3, 0 ) , D = ( 2, ! )
A = 1,

11-5.
Radius of A: r 2 = 32 + 32 Radius of D: r 2 = (!4)2 + (!4)2
r 2 = 18 r 2 = 32
r=3 2 r = !4 2

(
A = 3 2, !
4 ) , B = ( 3, ! ) , C = (1, 32! ) , D = ( !4 2, "
4 )
11-6.
r q r q
7!
0 0 0.5 6
! 5!
0.5 6 –0.707 4 r = sin !
! 4!
0.71 4 –0.866 3
! 3! 1
0.87 3 –1 2
-1
! 5!
1 2 –0.866 3
2! 7!
0.87 3 –0.707 4
3! 11!
0.71 4 –0.5 6
5!
0.5 6 0 2!
0 !
The shape of this graph is a circle.
11-7.

r = 3sin !

1
-1

r = " 2sin !

a. b.
c. In the equation y = k sin ! , k = diameter.

Review and Preview 11.1.1

11-8.
See diagram at right. A
C, D
11-9. B
( ) (
A = ( 2, 0 ) , B = 3, – !6 , C = ( 3, ! ) , D = 1, – !2 )
11-10.
r q r q
7!
0 0 –1.732 6
! 5!
1.732 6 –1.414 4
! 4!
1.414 4 –1 3
! 3!
1 3 0 2
! 5!
0 2 1 3
2! 7!
–1 3 1.414 4
3! 11!
–1.414 4 1.732 6

–1.732 5!
2 2!
6
r = 2cos !

–2 ! 1

This is a graph of a circle of radius 1 centered at (1, 0). 1


11-11.
a. Circle along positive x-axis with diameter of 3 units.
b. Circle along negative x-axis with diameter of 2 units.

11-12.
a. !16 = 16 " !1 = 4i
b. !8 = 4 " !1 " 2 = 2i 2
c. 5 ! !9 = 5 ! 9 " !1 = 5 ! 3i
4+ !12 4+ 4 " 3" !1
d. 2
= 2
= 4+2i 3
2
= 2+i 3

11-13.
a. y = x 2 ! 4x + 13 b. y = x 2 ! 4x + 13
y = x 2 ! 4x + (4 ! 4) + 13 !(!4)± (!4)2 ! 4(1)(13)
x= 2(1)
y = (x ! 2)2 + 9
4 ± 16!52 4 ± !36 4 ±6i
V (2, 9) x= 2
= 2
= 2
x = 2 + 3i, 2 ! 3i
c. The graph does not cross the x-axis.

11-14. v(t)
a. See diagram at right.
b. Distance for first boat: 10 ft/sec ! 5 seconds = 50 feet 12 1st boat
8
Distance for second boat: ! 5 ft/sec ! 5 seconds = 12.5 feet
1
2
4 2nd boat

4 8 12 16 t (seconds)
c. Distance for first boat: 10 ft/sec ! t seconds = 10t feet
Distance for second boat: 1
2
! t ft/sec ! t seconds = 0.5t 2 feet
d. 10t = 0.5t 2 The second boat will past the first after 20 seconds.
0 = 0.5t 2 ! 10t
0 = !0.5t(t ! 20)
t = 0, 20 seconds

11-15.
2m + m = 18
Let u = m
u 2 +u = 3 2
u( 2 + 1) = 3 2

( )
2
u= 3 2
, m= 3 2
= 3.088
2 +1 2 +1

11-16.
Radian mode, domain = [ !4" , 4" ] , range = [ !8, 8 ] .
11-17.
a. cos ( 34! ) = x3 sin ( 34! ) = 3y (! 3 2
2
, 3 22 )
y
" 2
2
= x
3 2
2
= 3

x=" 3 2
2
y= 3 2
2

b. cos ( 32! ) = 5x sin ( 32! ) = y


5
(0, 5)
0= x
5 1=
y
5
x=0 y=5

Lesson 11.1.2

11-18.
a. A spiral graph.
b. A circle centered on the y-axis.
c. A circle centered on the negative x-axis. r= 5
cos ! +sin !

1
-1
11-19.
a. See graph at right above. This is the line y = !x + 5 .
b. This should be the line y = !x ! 2 .
c. See graph at right below.
11-20. r= "2
cos ! +sin !

This should be in the shape of a 4-leaf rose. 1


-1

r = 3 sin 2!
1

-1

11-21.
b. r = 3 sin 4! is an 8-leaf rose and r = 3 sin 5! is an 5-leaf rose. r = 3 sin 4!
1
See graphs at right.
-1

11-22.
Asymptotes.

r = 3sin 5!

-1
Review and Preview 11.1.2

11-23.
a. Because cos ! = x
r
. b. y = r sin !
r sin ! y
c. r 2 = (r cos ! )2 + (r sin ! )2 d. r cos !
= x
r 2 = x 2 + y2 tan ! =
y
x
r = x 2 + y2
tan "1 tan ! = tan "1 ()
y
x

! = tan "1 ()
y
x

11-24.
a. Multiply each side by sin ! + cos ! . b. r cos ! + r sin ! = 5
x + y = 5, y = 5 " x

11-25.
y = 3 ! 2x
r sin " = 3 ! 2r cos "
r sin " + 2r cos " = 3
r(sin " + 2 cos " ) = 3, r = 3
2 cos " +sin "

11-26.
a. 3i(2 + 4i) = 6i + (3i)(4i) = 6i + 12i 2 = !12 + 6i
b. (5i)2 = 5 2 i 2 = !25
c. (2 + i)(2 ! i) = 4 ! 2i + 2i ! i 2 = 4 ! (!1) = 5
d. (3 ! 2i)(4 + i) = 12 + 3i ! 8i ! 2i 2 = 12 ! 5i ! 2(!1) = 14 ! 5i
e. (4 ! 5i)2 = 16 ! 20i ! 20i ! 5 2 i 2 = 16 ! 40i + 25(!1) = !9 ! 40i

11-27.
y = (x ! (4 ! i))(x ! (4 + i))
y = x 2 ! (4 ! i)x ! (4 + i)x + (4 ! i)2
y = x 2 ! 4x + ix ! 4x ! ix + 16 + i 2
y = x 2 ! 8x + 15

11-28.
3
a. e3 ln x = eln x = x 3 b. ln e5 x = 5x
c. log 10 x = log(10 x )1/2 = 1
2
log 10 x = 1
2
x d. 10(3+log x) = 10 3 !10 log x = 1000x
11-29.
a+ 2a
3
+ 4a
9
+ 8a
27
+ . . . = 90

a ( 20
3
+ 21
3
+ 22
3
+ 23
3 )
+ … = 90

90 = 1!2/3
a

90 = 1/3
a

3a = 90, a = 30
11-30.
w = 2u ! v
w = 2 !3, 2 ! 4, 1 = !6, 4 ! 4, 1
w = !6 ! 4, 4 ! 1 = !10, 3
w = (!10)2 + (3)2 = 109

11-31.
h(t) = !16t 2 + 20t + 50 h(2.5 + h) = !16(2.5 + h)2 + 20(2.5 + h) + 50
0 = !16t 2 + 20t + 50 = !16(6.25 + 5h + h 2 ) + 50 + 20h + 50
0 = !8t 2 + 10t + 25 = !100 ! 80h ! 16h 2 + 100 + 20h
0 = (4t + 5)(!2t + 5) = !16h 2 ! 60h
t = !1.2, 2.5
h(2.5) = 0
h(2.5+h)!h(2.5)
= !16h 2 !60h = !16h ! 60
2.5+h!2.5 h
lim (!16h ! 60) = !60
h"0
The ball hits the ground after 2.5 seconds with a velocity of –60 feet per second.

11-32.
A circle centered at the origin with radius 4.

11-33.
A circle centered at the pole with radius 4.
Lesson 11.1.3

11-34.
a. (r cos ! )2 + (r sin ! )2 = 2r cos ! b. x 2 + y 2 = 2x
r 2 cos2 ! + r 2 sin 2 ! = 2r cos ! x 2 ! 2x + y 2 = 0
r 2 = 2r cos ! x 2 ! 2x + 1 + y 2 = 1
r = 2 cos ! (x ! 1)2 + y 2 = 1

11-35.
y = x2
r sin ! = (r cos ! )2
r sin ! = r 2 cos2 !
sin !
r=
cos2 !

11-36.
r = 2 sin ! + cos !
r 2 = 2r sin ! + r cos !
x 2 + y 2 = 2y + x
r = 2 sin !
11-37. r = 2sin( ! # "4 )

a. See graph at right. 1


! -1
b. The second graph is obtained by rotating the first graph 4
.

11-38.
r = 1 + 3 sin(! " # )

11-39.
((
r = sin 2 ! " #
3 ) ) is the same graph as r = sin 2! , just rotated in angle of !3 .
11-40.
sin !
r=
cos2 ! r= sin( " + !4 )
cos 2 ( " + !4 )

Rotated clockwise 45 o 1

sin (! + " 4 )
-1

r=
cos2 (! + " 4 )

11-41.
a. Every point with first coordinate 3 lies on the graph.
b. It is a line through the origin of slope 1.
c. It is a circle of radius 3 centered at the origin.
11-42.
2!
a. A line through the origin making an angle of 3
with the positive horizontal axis.
2!
b. y= 3
+ 2! = 23! + 63! = 83! !!or!!y = 23! "! 2!
= 3 " 3!
3
= " !3
c. != " #3 + # n where n is an integer.

Review and Preview 11.1.3

11-43.
a. (
r = f ! " #2 ) b. (
r = f ! + "2 )
11-44.
a. 6x ! x 2 = y 2 b. 2r cos ! + 3r sin ! = 5
6r cos " ! (r cos " )2 = (r sin " )2 r(2 cos ! + 3 sin ! ) = 5
6r cos " = r 2 cos2 " + r 2 sin 2 " r= 5
2 cos ! + 3 sin !
6r cos " = r 2
r = 6 cos "
c. x 2 + y2 = 7 d. y = x2
r2 = 7 r sin ! = r 2 cos2 !
r= 7 sin ! = r cos2 !
sin !
r=
cos2 !
11-45.
a. r = 6 sin ! b. r + 3 sin ! = 0 c. r(2 cos ! + sin ! ) = 4
r 2 = 6r sin ! r 2 + 3r sin ! = 0 2r cos ! + r sin ! = 4
x 2 + y 2 = 6y x 2 + y 2 + 3y = 0 2x + y = 4

11-46.
sin (! + " 4 )
r= r 2 cos2 (! + " 4) = r sin(! + " 4)
cos2 (! + " 4 )
(r cos(! + " 4))2 = r(sin ! cos "4 + cos ! sin "4 )

( r(cos ! cos "4 # sin ! sin "4 )2 = 2


2
r(sin ! + cos ! )

( )
2
2
2
r(cos ! # sin ! ) = 2
2
r(sin ! + cos ! )
1
2
(r cos ! # r sin ! )2 = 2
2
(r sin ! + r cos ! )
1
2
(x # y)2 = 2
2
(x + y)
(x# y)2
(x+ y)
= 2
11-47.
opposite
a. tan ! = adjacent
= 3t
800" 4t
b. t= 800 ! 302.372!sec
7

tan "1 (tan ! ) = tan "1 ( 800"3t 4t ) " = tan #1 ( ) ! 48.59°


3
7
! = tan "1 ( 800"
3t
4t )

11-48.
a. ( 3 + 2i ) ( 3 ! 2i ) = 9 ! 6i + 6i ! 4i 2
= 9 ! 4(!1)
= 13
b. ( 5 !i 3 )( )
5 + i 3 = ( 5 )2 ! i 15 + i 15 ! i 2 3 " 3 = 5 ! (!1) " 3 = 8
c. 3 ! 7i
d. a ! bi

11-49.
a. 5 ! 3"2i = 15"10i = 15"10i = 15 " 10i
3+2i 3"2i 2 13 13 13
9" 4i

b. 2!i " 2!i = 4! 4i+i 2 = 3! 4i = 3 ! 4i


2+i 2!1 4!i 2 5 5 5
2i 3"14i 2
c. 2i ! 3" 7i
= = 2i 3+14
= 7 + 3
i
3+ 7i 3" 7i 3"149i 2 52 26 26
3+2i 6 +2i 2
d. 3+i 2
" 3+i 2
= = 1+2i5 6
= 1 + 2 6
i
3!i 2 3+i 2 3!2i 2 5 5

11-50.
r = !5 sin " Center at (0, !2.5) , radius = 2.5
r 2 = !5r sin "
x 2 + y 2 = !5y
x 2 + y 2 + 5y = 0
x 2 + (y + 2.5)2 = 6.25

11-51.
Vertical shift of 4 units.
Amplitude: 5!2 3 = 1
2!
Period: b
=6
6b = 2!
b = !3
Horizontal shift of 1 unit right.
y = cos ( !3 (x " 1) ) + 4
Lesson 11.1.4

11-52.
1. n determines the number of petals on the flower. If n is even there will be twice as many
flowers. b acts as a stretching factor.
2. As one set of petals shrink, the other set grows. The sums of the lengths of two alternating
petals will equal 2b. The length of the first petal is a + b.
3. Limaçon
4. Cardioids
5. Circle rotated about the pole
6. Line rotated about the pole
7. Spiral
8. Parabolas
9. Ellipses and hyperbolas

Review and Preview 11.1.4

11-53.
a. r = 8 sin ! b. r= 3
5 sin ! +cos !
r 2 = 8r sin ! 5r sin ! + r cos ! = 3
x 2 + y 2 = 8y 5y + x = 3
x 2 + y 2 " 8y = 0
x 2 + (y " 4)2 = 16
Center at (0, 4) and radius 4.

11-54.
a. 6x ! 2x 2 = 2y 2 b. 5x ! 3y = !2
6r cos " ! 2r 2 cos2 " = 2r 2 sin 2 " 5r cos " ! 3r sin " = !2
6r cos " = 2r 2 sin 2 " + 2r 2 cos2 " r(5 cos " ! 3 sin " ) = !2
!2
6r cos " = 2r 2 r= 5 cos " ! 3 sin "
3 cos " = r

11-55.
a. (4 + 3i) ! (2 ! 4i) = 4 + 3i ! 2 + 4i = 2 + 7i
b. (4 ! 2i)(3 + 4i) = 12 + 16i ! 6i ! 8i 2 = 12 + 10i + 8 = 20 + 10i
c. (3 ! 5i)2 = 9 ! 30i + 5 2 i 2 = 9 ! 30i ! 25 = !16 ! 30i
d. 1+i " 1+i = 1+2i!1 = 2i =i
1!i 1+i 1!(!1) 2
11-56.
y = (x ! 3)(x ! 2 ! i)(x ! 2 + i) y-intercept: (0, –15)
y = (x ! 3)(x 2 ! 2x + ix ! 2x + 4 ! 2i ! ix + 2i ! (!1))
y = (x ! 3)(x 2 ! 4x + 5)
y = x 3 !4x 2 + 5x ! 3x 2 + 12x ! 15
y = x 3 !7x 2 + 17x ! 15

11-57.
a. Vertical asymptote at x = 8 ; horizontal asymptotes at y = 6 and y = !3 .
b. See sample graph at right. y

11-58. 4
f (x) = x2 + 3x 2 x

f (x + h) = (x + h)2 + 3(x + h) = x 2 + 2xh + h 2 + 3x + 3h


f (x+h)! f (x)
= x 2 +2 xh+h 2 + 3x+ 3h! x 2 ! 3x = 2 xh+h 2 + 3h = 2x + h + 3
x+h! x h h
lim( 2x + h + 3) = 2x + 3
h"0

11-59.
4 cos x +( !
3 ) = 4 ( cos x cos ( !3 ) " sin x sin ( !3 ) )
=4 ( 1
2
cos x " 2
3
sin x )
= 2 cos x " 2 3 sin x

11-60.
c 4 ! 12c 2 ! 64 = 0 c 2 ! 16 = 0 c2 + 4 = 0
(c 2 ! 16)(c 2 + 4) = 0 c 2 = 16 c 2 = !4
c = ±4 c = ±2i

11-61.
( x+12 ) + 1
2
x = 2t ! 1 y(x) =
x + 1 = 2t
f (x) = ( x+1 )
2
2
+1
t= x+1
2
11-62.
x 2 + y 2 ! 6x = 0
r 2 cos2 " + r 2 sin 2 " ! 6r cos " = 0
r 2 (cos2 " + sin 2 " ) ! 6r cos " = 0
r 2 ! 6r cos " = 0
r 2 = 6r cos "
r = 6 cos "

11-63.
a. ln 3 + ln k = ln 3k b. ln ( 12t ) = ln 12 ! ln t
5
c. e5 ln x = eln x = x 5 d. ln 12 ! ln 4 + ln(x ! 3)
ln ( 124 ) + ln(x ! 3)
ln(3(x ! 3))
ln(3x ! 9)
i
" 3 + 4i

Lesson 11.2.1
"2 " i !

11-64.
See graph at right.
a. !3 + 4i = (!3)2 + 4 2 = 9 + 16 = 25 = 5 b. !2 ! i = (!2)2 + (!1)2 = 5

11-65.
a. C = A + B = 2 ! 5i ! 1 + i = 1 ! 4i i

b. A = (2)2 + (!5)2 = 4 + 25 = 29
"1 + i

B = (!1)2 + (1)2 = 1+1 = 2 !


1 " 4i

C = (1)2 + (!4)2 = 1 + 16 = 17 2 " 5i

c. Triangle inequality.

11-66.
a. r = 32 + 32 = 18 = 3 2 b. r = 2 2 + (!2 3)2 = 4 + 12 = 4
tan ! = 3 =1 tan " = 2 =! 1 !(Quadrant!4)
3 !2 3 3
"
!= 4 " = ! #6
(
z = 3 2 cos "4 + i sin "4 ) ( ( )
z = 4 cos ! #6 + i sin ! #6 ( ))
11-67.
a. z = 4 cos( ( ) + i sin ( ) )
3!
4
3!
4
b. ( ( ) + i sin ( ) )
z = 2 6 cos !
6
!
6

a = 4 cos ( 34! ) = "4 # 12 = " 42 = "2 2 a = 2 6 cos ( !6 ) = 2 6 " 23 = 18 = 3 2

b = 4 sin ( 34! ) = 4 # 1 = 4 = 2 2 b=2 6 sin ( !6 ) = 2 6 " 12 = 6


2 2

"2 2 + 2 2i 3 2 + 6i

11-68.
a. Because f (1) = 0 . b. (x ! 1)(x 2 + x + 1)
!1± 12 ! 4(1)(1) !1± !3
c. x= 2(1)
= 2
=! 1
2
± 2
3
i

11-70.
(x 4 ! 1) = (x 2 ! 1)(x 2 + 1) x2 ! 1 = 0 x2 + 1 = 0
x2 = 1 x 2 = !1
x = ±1 x=± i

Review and Preview 11.2.1

11-70.
a. r = 32 + (!4)2 = 25 = 5 b. r = (!12)2 + (!5)2 = 169 = 13
3 = 5 cos " !12 = 13 cos "
3
5
= cos " ! 12
13
= cos "
" = 5.359, !0.927 " = 3.5364
!4 = 5 sin " !5 = 13 sin "
! 4
5
= sin " 5 = sin "
! 13
" = !0.927, 5.359 " = 3.536 ! 2# = !2.747
Polar form: z = 5 ( cos(!0.927) + i sin(!0.927) ) z = 13 ( cos(3.536) + i sin(3.536) )
z = 5 ( cos(5.359) + i sin(5.359) ) z = 13 ( cos(!2.747) + i sin(!2.747) )

11-71.
a. z = 6 cos( ( ) + i sin ( ) )
5!
6
5!
6
b. ( ( ) + i sin ( ) )
z = 7 cos 3!
2
3!
2

z=6 " ( 2
3
)
+ 12 i = "3 3 + 3i
z = 7(0 + ("1)i) = "7i
11-72.
a. r 2 = cos ! sin ! b. r = !3 csc "
r 2 r 2 = r 2 cos ! sin ! = r cos ! r sin ! !3
r= sin "
(x 2 + y 2 )2 = xy r sin " = !3
y = !3

11-73.
2 sin(2! ) = 2 cos ! cos ! = 0 2 sin ! " 1 = 0 ( 0, ± !2 ) ,!( 3, ± !6 )
4 sin ! cos ! = 2 cos ! ! = ± "2 sin ! = 1
2
4 sin ! cos ! " 2 cos ! = 0
r = 4 sin 2!

r=0 ! = ± #6
cos ! (2 sin ! " 1) = 0 1
r = 2 cos !

r= 3 -1

11-74.
x "2
a. lim # x +2 = lim x" 4 = lim 1 = 1 = 1
x!4 x" 4 x +2 x!4 (x" 4)( x +2) x!4 ( x +2) 4 +2 4

b. lim x+2x " 2 = 6+26 " 2 = 2 26" 2 = 62


x!6
x 3 "8 (x"2)(x 2 +2 x+ 4)
c. lim = lim = lim (x 2 + 2x + 4) = 12
x!2 x"2 x!2 (x"2) x!2

11-75.
a. cos a cos b ! sin a sin b = cos(a + b)
b. 20 sin(3x) cos(3x) = 10 ( 2 sin(3x) cos(3x) ) = 10 sin(2 ! 3x) = 10 sin(6x)
c. sin(3x) cos(x) ! cos(3x) sin(x) = sin(3x ! x) = sin(2x)
d. sin 2 (4y) ! cos2 (4y) = !(cos2 (4y) ! sin 2 (4y)) = ! cos(2 " 4y) = ! cos(8y)

11-76.
( cos ( ) + i sin ( )) " (cos ( ) # i sin ( ) ) =
!
5
!
5
!
5
!
5

cos2 ( !5 ) # i cos ( !5 ) sin ( !5 ) + i cos ( !5 ) sin ( !5 ) # i 2 sin2 ( !5 ) =


cos2 ( !5 ) # i 2 sin 2 ( !5 ) = cos2 ( !5 ) + sin 2 ( !5 ) = 1

11-77.
(x + y)3 = x 3 + 3x 2 y + 3xy 2 + y 3
(2 + (!2i))3 = 2 3 + 3(2)2 (!2i) + 3(2)(!2i)2 + (!2i)3 = 8 ! 24i ! 24 + 8i = !16 ! 16i
Lesson 11.2.2

11-78.
a. z1z2 = r1 (cos a + i sin a) ! r2 (cos b + i sin b)
= r1r2 ( cos a cos b " sin a sin b + i(sin a cos b + cos a sin b) )
b. = r1r2 ( cos a cos b ! sin a sin b + i(sin a cos b + cos a sin b) ) = r1r2 ( cos(a + b) + i sin(a + b) )

( 6 ( cos ( ) + i sin ( ) ) ) ( ( ) ( !6 + !6 ) ) =
2
!
c. !
6
!
6
= 6 " 6 cos 6
+ !6 + i sin

( ( ) + i sin ( ) ) = 36 (
36 cos !
3
!
3
1
2
+i 2
3
) = 18 + (18 3)i

11-79.
a. ( ) (
z1 = 2 cos 116! + i sin 116! , z2 = 3 cos 23! + i sin 23! )
( ) (
z1z2 = 2 cos 116! + i sin 116! " 3 cos 23! + i sin 23! )
z1z2 = 6 ( cos ( 116! + 46! ) + i sin ( 116! + 46! ) ) = 6 ( cos ( !2 ) + i sin ( !2 ) ) = 6(1i) = 6i

= 3 cos 2! 3+i sin 2! 3 = 23 ( cos ( 116! " 46! ) + i sin ( 116! " 46! ) ) =
z1 2 ( cos11! 6+i sin11! 6 )
b. z2 ( )

3( (6)
2 cos 7! + i sin 7!
( 6 ) ) = 23 ( " 23 " 12 i ) = " 33 " 13 i
11-80.
a. z1z2 = r1r2 ( cos(a + b) + i sin(a + b) )
z 2 = r ! r(cos(" + " ) + i sin(" + " ))
z 2 = r 2 (cos(2" ) + i sin(2" ))
b. z 3 = r ! r ! r(cos(" + " + " ) + i sin(" + " + " ))
z 3 = r 3 (cos(3" ) + i sin(3" ))
z 4 = r ! r ! r ! r(cos(" + " + " + " ) + i sin(" + " + " + " ))
z 4 = r 4 (cos(4" ) + i sin(4" ))
c. z n = r n (cos(n! ) + i sin(n! ))

11-81.
( ( ) (
z = 2 cos 6 ! "6 + i sin 6 ! "6 ))
z 6 = 2 6 (cos(" ) + i sin(" ))
z 6 = 64(#1 + i ! 0) = #64
11-82.
a. z = 2 ! 2i Polar form: 2 2 cos ( ( ) + i sin ( ) )
7!
4
7!
4
r = 2 2 + (!2)2 = 8 = 2 2
tan " = !1!!(Quadrant 4)
7#
"= 4
b. ( ( )
(2 ! 2i)8 = (2 2 )8 cos 8 " 34# + i sin 8 " 34# ( ) ) = 4096 ( cos ( 6# ) + i sin ( 6# ) )
= 4096(1 + i " 0) = 4096

11-83.
a. z = r ( cos ! + i sin ! ) b. They have the same distance.
z = r 2 cos2 ! + r 2 sin 2 !
z = r 2 (cos2 ! + sin 2 ! ) = r 2 = r

11-84.
z = 16(cos ! + i sin ! )
4
( (
16 cos !
4 ) + i sin ( !4 ) ) = 2 ( 12 + 12 i ) = 2 + i 2
4
16 ( cos ( 4 )
3!
+ i sin ( 34! ) ) = 2 ( " 1 + 1 i ) = " 2 + i 2
2 2
4
16 ( cos ( 4 )
5!
+ i sin ( 54! ) ) = 2 ( " 1 " 1 i ) = " 2 " i 2
2 2
4
16 ( cos ( 4 )
7!
+ i sin ( 74! ) ) = 2 ( 1 " 1 i ) = 2 " i 2
2 2

Review and Preview 11.2.2

11-85.
z = cos !2 + i sin !2
2
( ) 22 + 22 i
1 cos !4 + i sin !4 =
2
1 ( cos 54! + i sin 54! ) = " 22 " 22 i

11-86.

( ( 12! ) + i sin ( 12! ) ) ( cos ( 6 " ) + i sin ( 6 " ) ) == cos ( ) + i sin ( ) = i


6 6
! ! ! !
cos =1 12 12 2 2

11-87.
( ( ) + i sin ( ) )!!"!!i
i = 1 cos !
2
!
2
n
( ( ) + i sin ( ) ) = cos ( ) + i sin ( )
= 1n cos n!
2
n!
2
n!
2
n!
2
11-88.

( cos ( ) + i sin ( ) )
6
! !
12 12
=i

$# ( cos ( ) + i sin ( ) ) '&


" % 6 1/3
! !
12 12
= (i)1/3

( cos ( ) + i sin ( ) )
2
! !
12 12
= 3i

cos ( !6 ) + i sin ( !6 ) = 3 i
2
3
+ 12 i = 3 i

11-89.
r1 (cos a+i sin a) (cos a"i sin a) r1 (cos a+i sin a) (cos b"i sin b) r1 (cos a+i sin a)(cos b"sin b)
!
r2 (cos b+i sin b) (cos b"i sin b)
= !
r2 (cos b+i sin b) (cos b"i sin b)
=
r2 (cos2 b+sin 2 b)

=
r1 (cos a cos b+i cos a sin b+i sin a cos b+sin a sin b)
r2 1
=
r1
r2 ( cos(a " b) + i sin(a " b) )

11-90.
a. Amplitude = 7 = 7
2!
Period = 2
=!
Vertical shift of 11 units, y = 11 " 7 cos(! x)
b. 10 = 11 ! 7 cos(" x)
cos(" x) = 1
7
cos!1 cos(" x) = 1.4274
" x = 1.4274
x = 0.4543 + 1.0917 = 1.546 seconds

11-91.
7 2 = 32 + b 2 cos x = ! 2 10
7
49 = 9 + b 2 tan x = ! 3
2 10
40 = b2
cot x = ! 2 10
3
b = 2 10
sin 2x = 2 sin x cos x = 2 " 73 " ! 2 10
7
= ! 124910

11-92.
a. y ! 2 = !4(x ! 3) b. y ! 2 = !4(3.2 ! 3)
y = !4(x ! 3) + 2 y = !4(0.2) + 2 = !0.8 + 2 = 1.2
Chapter 11 Closure

CL 11-93.
a. r = 10 cos ! b. 3r cos ! = 2(r sin ! + 1)
r 2 = 10r cos ! 3x = 2(y + 1)
x 2 + y 2 = 10x 3x = 2y + 2
x 2 + y 2 " 10x = 0 3x " 2y = 2

x 2 " 10x + 25 + y 2 = 25
(x " 5)2 + y 2 = 25

c. r = 6 cos ! " 8 sin !


r 2 = 6r cos ! " 8r sin !
x 2 + y 2 = 6x " 8y
x 2 " 6x + y 2 + 8y = 0
x 2 " 6x + 9 + y 2 + 8y + 16 = 9 + 16
(x " 3)2 + (y + 4)2 = 25

CL 11-94.
a. x 2 + y 2 = 20 b. 4x + 3y = 2
r 2 = 20 4r cos ! + 3r sin ! = 2
r = 20 r(4 cos ! + 3 sin ! ) = 2
r= 2
4 cos ! + 3 sin !
c. y= x d. 6y + y 2 = x 2
y2 = x 6y = x 2 ! y 2
(r sin ! )2 = r cos ! 6r sin " = r 2 cos2 " ! r 2 sin 2 "
r 2 sin 2 ! = r cos ! 6r sin " = r 2 (cos2 " ! sin 2 " )
cos ! 6r sin " = r 2 (cos 2" )
r=
sin 2 !
6 sin "
r= cos 2"

CL 11-95.
y = x3
r sin ! = r 3 cos 3 !
sin !
r2 =
cos 3 !
sin !
r=
cos 3 !
CL 11-96.
They can make a table and plot points. It is a 4-petal rose with each pedal having a
diameter of 3 units with each pedal drawn along each of the axes.

CL 11-97.
sin ! sin (! " # 4 )
From problem CL 11-95, r = . Rotated 45º counter-clockwise, r = .
cos 3 ! cos 3 (! " # 4 )

CL 11-98.
The graph forms a figure 8 along the x-axis with each petal having a diameter of a.

CL 11-99.
a. (2 + 3i)(2 ! 3i) = 4 ! 6i + 6i ! 9i 2 = 4 + 9 = 13
b. (5 ! 4i) ! (6 ! 5i) = 5 ! 4i ! 6 + 5i = !1 + i
c. (4 ! 2i)2 = 16 ! 8i ! 8i + 4i 2 = 12 ! 16i
3i " 2+ 3i
d. 2! 3i 2+ 3i
= 6i!9
4+9
= ! 13
9 + 6 i
13

e. 3 ! 2i = ( 3)2 + (!2)2 = 3 + 4 = 7
f. 1+ 4i " 1+ 4i = 1+8i!16 = !15+8i = ! 15 + 8 i
1! 4i 1+ 4i 1!(!16) 17 17 17

CL 11-100.
a. r = 4 2 + (!4)2 = 32 = 4 2 Polar form: 4 2 cos ( ( ) + i sin ( ) )
7!
4
7!
4
tan " = 4 !!(Quadrant
!4
4)
7#
"= 4

b. r = (2 3)2 + (!2)2 = 12 + 4 = 4 ( ( ) + i sin ( ) )


Polar form: 4 cos 11!
6
11!
6
tan " = !2 =! 1 !!(Quadrant 4)
2 3 3
11#
"= 6

CL 11-101.
a. ( ( ) + i sin ( ) ) = 5 ( + i ) =
5 cos !
3
!
3
1
2 2
3 5
2
+ 5 3
2
i

b. 2 2 ( cos ( ) + i sin ( ) ) = 2 2 ( "


5!
4
5!
4
1 " 1
)
i = "2 " 2i
2 2
CL 11-102.
a. z1 = 6 "# cos( 712! ) + i sin ( 712! ) $% ,!z2 = 3 "# cos ( !4 ) + i sin ( !4 ) $%
z1z2 = 18 ( cos ( 712! + 312! ) + i sin ( 712! + 312! ) )

z1z2 = 18 ( cos ( 56! ) + i sin ( 56! ) )

z1z2 = 18 & ( 2
3
+i 1
2 ) = &9 3 + 9i

b.
z1
z2 ( ( " ) + i sin (
= 2 cos 7!
12
3!
12
7!
12
" 3!
12 ))
= 2 ( cos ( ) + i sin ( ) )
! !
z1
z2 3 3
z1
z2
=2 ( 1
2
+i 2
3
) = 1+ 3i

CL 11-103.
r = 2 2 + (!2)2 = 2 2 Polar form: z = 2 2 cos ( ( ) + i sin ( ) ) w
7!
4
7!
4

= (2 2 ) ( cos ( 6 " ) + i sin ( 6 " ) )


tan " = !2 !!(Quadrant 4) 7! 7!
2 z6 6
4 4
7#
"= 4
z6 = 512 ( cos (21!
2 ) + i sin ( ) ) 21!
2

z6 = 512 ( cos ( ) + i sin ( ) ) = 512i


!
2
!
2

CL 11-104.
z = i = cos ( !2 ) + i sin ( !2 )
Roots:
3
(
1 cos !6 + i sin !6 = ) 2
3
+ 12 i, 3 1 cos 56! + i sin 56! = " 2
3
+ 12 i, 3 1 cos 32! + i sin 3!
2
= "i

CL 11-105.
Horizontal velocity: 100 cos 30º = 86.603
Vertical velocity: 100 sin 30º = 50, t = 0!50
!32
= 1.5625
Ball was in the air: 1.5625 ! 2 = 3.125 seconds
The ball travels: 86.603 ! 3.125 = 270.6 feet

CL 11-106.
w = 2u ! 3v = 2 !3, 2 ! 3 4, !1 = !6, 4 ! 12, !3 = !6 ! 12, 4 ! (!3) = !18, 7
w = (!18)2 + 7 2 = 373 " 19.313