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CHAP

TER 1:
OVER
VIEW

Automatic pump control and level indicator

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overview
This is simple automatic water level controller circuit. It will
make you more comfortable because it enables open close
water pump automatically. When full of water, was ordered off
the water. But when levels gradually reduced to the required,
Then turned on fully the water. So we do not have to worry
about overflow and water out anymore.

ABSTRACT
Automatic water level controller circuit is a simple engineering
project.
It can automatically switch ON and OFF the domestic water pu
mp setdepending on the tank water level. You can implement th
is motor driver circuit at your home or college using less
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costly
components. The approximated cost of the project is very less.
The main advantage of thiswater level controller circuit is that
it
automatically controls the water pump without any user interac
tion. The heart pump controller circuit is a NE 555 IC;
here we have
manipulated the flip flop inside the 555 timer IC. Our project co
nsists of three water level sensors, one fixed at the top and oth
er at the bottom. Working of this circuit is almost similar to a Bi
stable mutlivibrator.

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IC 555
TIMER

MOTOR
TRANSIST
OR

RELAY

POWER
SUPPLY

BLOCK DIAGRAM

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COMPONENT LIST
1. Power supply (12v)
2. NE 555 timer IC
3. Resistors (100x2, 10k,1k)
4. Relay (12V, 30A)
5. SL 100 transistor
6. 1N4007 Diode
7. BC 547 transistor= 1
8. LED =7
9. Pump (165-250v/ 50 Hz)
10. Battery (12 v)

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CHAP
TER 2:
INTRO
DUCTI
ON
WITH
LITER
ATUR
INTRODUCTION
E
SURV
EY

People generally switch on the pump when their taps go dry an


d switch off the pump when the overhead tank starts overflowin

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g. This results in the unnecessary wastage and sometimes nona


vailability of water in the case of emergency.
The circuit that we are using makes this system automatic, i.e. i
t
switches on the pump when the water level in the overhead tan
k goes low and switches it off as soon as the water level predetermined
level. It also prevents dry run of the pump in case the
level in the tank goes below the suction level.
Water Level Controller employs a simple mechanism to detect a
ndmaintain the water level in a tank or any other container by s
witching it on/off the motor automatically when needed. The lev
el sensing is done by
though sensors which are placed at different levels on the tank
walls.
Level indicator:
This is the circuit diagram of a simple corrosion free water level
indicator for home and industries. In fact the level of any
conductive non corrosive liquids can be measured using this
circuit. The circuit is based on 5 transistor switches. Each
transistor is switched on to drive the corresponding LED, when
its base is supplied with current through the water through the
electrode probes.

REVIEW OF RECENT
WORK
Automatic control Systems were first developed over two
thousand years ago. The first feedback control device on record
is thought to be the ancient Ktesibios's water clock in
Alexandria, Egypt around the third century B.C. It kept time by
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regulating the water level in a vessel and, therefore, the water


flow from that vessel. This certainly was a successful device as
water clocks of similar design were still being made in Baghdad
when the Mongols captured the city in 1258 A.D. A variety of
automatic devices have been used over the centuries to
accomplish useful tasks or simply to just entertain. The latter
includes the automata, popular in Europe in the 17th and 18th
centuries, featuring dancing figures that would repeat the same
task over and over again; these automata are examples of
open-loop control. Milestones among feedback, or "closed-loop"
automatic control devices, include the temperature regulator of
a furnace attributed to Drebbel, circa 1620, and the centrifugal
fly ball governor used for regulating the speed of steam
engines by James Watt in 1788.
Schneider Electric is a France-based multinational
corporation that specializes in electricity distribution,
automation management and produces installation components
for energy management.

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CHAP
TER 3:
CIRCU
IT
DIAGR
AM

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3.1 CIRCUIT
DIAGRAM

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Circuit description
Pump Controller
The three sensors are placed as following: Sensor C- At the
bottom of the tank.
Sensor B- A little above of sensor 1. Sensor A-At the top of the
tank.
The three sensors are maintaining the water level in the tank
by triggering & retriggering the timer IC. Here the timer IC is
acting in monostable mode or one-shot mode. Sensor C carries
the +Vcc supply thus when the water level falls below sensor B
the timer IC is triggered & the pump is energized through a
relay & transistor. Now when the water reaches the topmost
level & touches sensor A it retriggers the timer IC once again &
and the pump is switched off automatically.
Hence this water level controller is one of the cheapest &
simplest devices which prevents wastage of both electricity &
water.

Level indicator
One electrode probe is (F) with 6V AC is placed at the bottom of
tank. Next probes are placed step by step above the bottom
probe. When water is rising the base of each transistor gets
electrical connection to 6V AC through water and the
corresponding probe. Which in turn makes the transistors
conduct to glow LED and indicate the level of water. The ends
of probes are connected to corresponding points in the circuit
as shown in circuit diagram. Insulated Aluminum wires with end
insulation removed will do for the probe. Arrange the probes in
order on a PVC pipe according to the depth and immerse it in
the tank.AC voltage is use to prevent electrolysis at the probes.
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CHAP
TER 4:
METH
ODOL
OGY

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Working of Automatic
water tank level
CONTROLLER
We know the property of 555 timer IC, i.e. its output goes
HIGH when voltage at the second pin(trigger pin) is less than
1/3 Vcc.
Also we can reset back the IC by applying a LOW voltage at
the 4th pin (Reset pin).
In this project 3 wires are dipped in water tank. Let us define
two water levelsBottom (L) level and Top (H) level. One of the wire or probe is
from Vcc, which can be called as middle level (M).
The probe from bottom level is connected to the trigger (2nd)
pin of 555 IC. So the voltage at 2nd pin is Vcc when it is
covered by water.
When water level goes down, the 2nd pin gets disconnected
(untouched) from water i.e. voltage at the trigger pin becomes
less than Vcc. Then the output of 555 becomes high.
The output of 555 is fed to a SL 100 transistor, it energizes the
relay coil and the water pump set is turned ON.
While the water level rises, the top level probe is covered by
water and the transistor becomes ON. Its collector voltage goes
to Vce (sat) =0.2V.
The low voltage at the 4th pin resets the IC. So the output of
555 becomes 0V. Hence the motor will turn OFF automatically.
For practical implementation, you must use a relay. Rating of
relay is chosen according to the load (Motor). 32 Ampere relay
is best suited for domestic applications.

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Working of water level


indicator
When water level falls below probe B but above probe A, water
inside the tank still provides base voltage to transistor T1 and
relay RL1 remains energized to make pin 13 of gate N3 high.
However, transistor T2 doesnt conduct and the logic built
around NAND gates N1 and N2 outputs high to pin12 of N3. As
a result, the output of N3 remains low and motor remains
stopped.
When water level falls below probe A, both transistor T1
and T2 do not conduct. NAND gates N3 gives a high output to
drive relay RL2 and the motor restarts pumping water into the
tank.
Fig.2 shows the indicator/monitoring circuit. It consists of
five LEDs which glows to indicator the level of the water in the
overhead tank, transistors T3 through T7 gates base voltage
and conduct to light up the LEDs(LEDs down through LED1).
When water in the tank reaches the minimum at level 0,
transistor T7 conducts and LED 1 glows. When water level rises
to one-fourth of the tank, transistor T6 conducts and LED 1 and
LED 2 glow. When water level rises to half of the tank, transistor
T5 conducts and LED 1, LED 2 and LED 3 glow. When water
level rises to three-fourth of the tank, transistor T4 conducts
and LED 1 through LED 4 glow. When the tank is full, transistor
T3 conducts and all the five LEDs glow. So, from glowing of
LEDs, one can know water level in the tank (see the table).The
LEDs can be mounted anywhere for easy monitoring.

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MODE OF OPERATION OF
BLOCKS
NE555 (Timer) : The 555 timer IC is an integrated
circuit (chip) used in a variety of timer, pulse generation, and
oscillator applications. The 555 can be used to provide time
delays, as an oscillator, and as a flip-flop element the standard
555 package includes 25 transistors, 2 diodes and 15 resistors
on a silicon chip installed in an 8-pin mini dual-in-line package
(DIP-8). The 555 has three operating modes : Monostable mode,
Astable mode and Bistable mode.

Relay : Electrically operated switch. Relays are used where it


is necessary to control a circuit by a low power signal. It
consists a electromagnet and also set of contacts. Switching
mechanism is carried out by electromagnet. Used where single
signal is used to control a lot of circuit.

Display unit : It contains LEDs which are visible to the


observer. Green light of the LED lits momentarily when a person
enters into the room while the red light lits when the person
goes out of the room. It also contain a bulb which turns ON and
OFF in the same fashion.

Power supply : It is the main power supply of the whole


set up. Main supply is 230 V A.C which is given to a centretapped transformer giving the output 12 V D.C.
A pump is a device that moves fluids (liquids or gases), or
sometimes slurries, by mechanical action. Pumps can be
classified into three major groups according to the method they
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use to move the fluid: direct lift, displacement, and gravity


pumps.

Electric Pumps:
Pumps operate by some mechanism (typically reciprocating or
rotary), and consume energy to perform mechanical work by
moving the fluid. Pumps operate via many energy sources,
including manual operation, electricity, engines, or wind power,
come in many sizes, from microscopic for use in medical
applications to large industrial pumps.
Mechanical pumps serve in a wide range of applications such as
pumping water from wells, aquarium filtering, pond filtering and
aeration, in the car industry for water-cooling and fuel injection,
in the energy industry for pumping oil and natural gas or for
operating cooling towers. In the medical industry, pumps are
used for biochemical processes in developing and
manufacturing medicine, and as artificial replacements for body
parts, in particular the artificial heart and penile prosthesis.

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CHAP
TER 5:
ILLUS
TRATI
ON OF
HARD
WARE
ELEM
ENTS

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SELECTION OF
MATERIALS
component

specification

Quantity

timer
Transistor
Relay
Electric Pump
Power Supply
Diode
capacitor
Battery
Resistors

NE555
SL 100, BC547
12V-30A
(165-250v/ 50 Hz)
12V
1N4007
0.01F
12V
100,
10K,1K,470
General Type
Dotted
General

1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
8

Bread Board
Vero Board
LED

2
2
7

FUNCTIONAL DETAILS
OF EACH
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ELEMENTS
NE555 (Timer) : NE555 is an integrated circuit (chip) used
in a variety of timer, pulse generation, and oscillator
applications. The 555 can be used to provide time delays, as an
oscillator, and as a flip-flop element. Derivatives provide up to
four timing circuits in one package. the standard 555 package
includes 25 transistors, 2 diodes and 15 resistors on a silicon
chip installed in an 8-pin mini dual-in-line package (DIP-8)
The connection of the pins for a DIP package is as follows :
Pin No

Pin NAME

DESCRIPTION

GND

TRIG

OUT

RESET

Ground reference
voltage, low level
(0 V).
The OUT pin goes
high and a timing
interval starts
when this input
falls below 1/2 of
CTRL voltage.
This output is
driven to
approximately 1.7V
below VCC or GND.
A timing interval
may be reset by
driving this input to
GND, but the
timing does not
begin again until
RESET rises above
approximately 0.7
volts. Overrides
TRIG which

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CTRL

THR

DIS

Vcc

Automatic pump control and level indicator

overrides THR.
Provides control
access to the
internal voltage
divider
The timing (OUT
high) interval ends
when the voltage
at THR is greater
than that at CTRL.
Open collector
output which may
discharge a
capacitor between
intervals. In phase
with output.
Positive supply voltage,
which is usually between
3 and 15 V depending on
the variation.

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NE555 (Timer) With Pin


diagram

The 555 has three operating modes :


Monostable mode : In this mode, the 555 functions as a "oneshot" pulse generator. Applications include timers, missing
pulse detection, bounce free switches, frequency divider, pulsewidth modulation (PWM) etc.
Astable (free-running) mode : The 555 can operate as an
oscillator. Uses include LED, pulse generation, security alarms,
pulse position modulation etc. The 555 can be used as a simple
ADC, converting an analog value to a pulse length.
Bistable mode or Schmitt trigger : The 555 can operate as a
flip-flop, if the DIS pin is not connected and no capacitor is
used.
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Relay (12 V) : Relay is an electrically operated switch.


Relays are used where it is necessary to control a circuit by a
low power signal. It consists a electromagnet and also set of
contacts. Switching mechanism is carried out by
electromagnet. Used where single signal is used to control a lot
of circuit.
Iron core is surrounded by control coil. When current starts
flowing through the coil, electromagnet energizes and thus
intensifies the magnetic field. Upper contact arm gets attracted
towards lower fixed arm and closes the contact causing short
circuit. If relay was de-energized when the contacts were closed
then contacts move oppositely and make an open circuit.
NO (Normally open) contact also known as make contact
closes the circuit when relay is activated and disconnects the
circuit when relay is inactive whereas NC (Normally close)
contact also known as break contact does the opposite thing.
CO (Change over) or DT (Double throw) is the common terminal
also known as break before make or make before break
contact.
This project uses a 5 terminal SPDT type relay.

RELAY
(12V,30A)

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Resistors and capacitors : Resistors are passive 2


terminal electrical components that provides electrical
resistance. They are used to limit the flow of current or voltage.
Capacitors are also passive 2 terminal electrical components
used to store energy. They are widely used in circuits for
blocking direct current and allowing alternate current to pass,
smoothing the o/p of power supplies and stabilizes the voltage
and power flow.

RESISTORS
CAPACITORS

Diodes : A diode is a 2 - terminal electronic component


having low resistance and allows electric current to flow in one
direction. It passes the current in one direction (forward
direction) and blocks the current in other (reverse direction).
Due to its unidirectional behavior diode is used for rectification
purposes.
The 1N4007 is a small, general purpose device that can handle
currents up to 1 ampere and voltages up to 1000 volts.

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1N4007

DIODE

LED:- A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor light


source. LEDs are used as indicator lamps in many devices and
are increasingly used for other lighting. When a light-emitting
diode is switched on, electrons are able to recombine with holes
within the device, releasing energy in the form of photons.
A light-emitting diode (LED) is a two-lead semiconductor light
source. It is a pn junction diode, which emits light when
activated. When a suitable voltage is applied to the leads,
electrons are able to recombine with electron holes within the
device, releasing energy in the form of photons. This effect is
called electroluminescence, and the colour of the light
(corresponding to the energy of the photon) is determined by
the energy band gap of the semiconductor.
An LED is often small in area (less than 1 mm2) and integrated
optical components may be used to shape its radiation pattern.
Appearing as practical electronic components in 1962, the
earliest LEDs emitted low-intensity infrared light. Infrared LEDs
are still frequently used as transmitting elements in remotecontrol circuits, such as those in remote controls for a wide
variety of consumer electronics. The first visible-light LEDs were
also of low intensity, and limited to red. Modern LEDs are
available across the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared
wavelengths, with very high brightness.

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Transistors: Transistors are the semiconductors used to


amplify and switch electronic signals. Hence it acts as an
amplifier and switch also. It has 3 terminals viz base, the lead
responsible for activating the transistor, collector is the positive
lead while emitter is the negative lead. The circuit uses two
NPN transistors.
SL100 is a general purpose, medium power NPN transistor. It is
mostly used as switch in common emitter configuration.

Transistor
s

Bread board and vero board : A breadboard is


used to make up temporary circuits for testing. No soldering is
required so it is easy to change connections and replace
components. Parts will not be damaged so they will be available
to re-use afterwards. Breadboards have many tiny sockets
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(called 'holes') arranged on a 0.1" grid. The leads of most


components can be pushed straight into the holes. ICs are
inserted across the central gap with their notch or dot to the
left. Wire links can be made with single-core plastic-coated wire
of 0.6mm diameter (the standard size). Stranded wire is not
suitable because it will crumple when pushed into a hole and it
may damage the board if strands break off. The top and bottom
rows are linked horizontally all the way across as shown by the
red and black lines on the diagram. The power supply is
connected to these rows, + at the top and 0V (zero volts) at the
bottom. The other holes are linked vertically in blocks of 5 with
no link across the centre as shown by the blue lines on the
diagram.

Vero board is a widely-used type of electronics prototyping


board characterized by a 0.1 inch (2.54 mm) regular
(rectangular) grid of holes, with wide parallel strips of copper
cladding running in one direction all the way across one side of
the board. It is a trademark, in the UK, of British company Vero
Technologies Ltd. In using the board, breaks are made in the
tracks, usually around holes, to divide the strips into multiple
electrical nodes. With care, it is possible to break between holes
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to allow for components that have two pin rows only one
position apart such as twin row headers for IDCs.

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Automatic pump control and level indicator

CHAP
TER 6:
ILLUS
TRATI
ON OF
MEAS
URIN
G
MULTIMETER
DEVIC
ES

Page 29

A multimeter or a multitester, also known as a VOM (Volt-Ohm


meter), is an electronic measuring instrument that combines
several measurement functions in one unit. A typical
multimeter would include basic features such as the ability to
measure voltage, current, and resistance. Analog multimeters
use a micro ammeter whose pointer moves over a scale
calibrated for all the different measurements that can be made.
Digital multimeters (DMM, DVOM) display the measured value
in numerals, and may also display a bar of a length proportional
to the quantity being measured. Digital multimeters have all
but replaced analog moving coil multimeters in most situations.
Analog multimeters are still manufactured but by few
manufacturers. A multimeter can be a hand-held device useful
for basic fault finding and field service work, or a bench
instrument which can measure to a very high degree of
accuracy. They can be used to troubleshoot electrical problems
in a wide array of industrial and household devices such as
electronic equipment, motor controls, domestic appliances,
power supplies, and wiring systems.

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POWER SUPPLY

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A power supply is a device that supplies electric power to an


electrical load. The term is most commonly applied to electric
power converters that convert one form of electrical energy to
another, though it may also refer to devices that convert
another form of energy (mechanical, chemical, solar) to
electrical energy. A regulated power supply is one that controls
the output voltage or current to a specific value; the controlled
value is held nearly constant despite variations in either load
current or the voltage supplied by the power supply's energy
source. Every power supply must obtain the energy it supplies
to its load, as well as any energy it consumes while performing
that task, from an energy source. Depending on its design, a
power supply may obtain energy from :
Electrical energy transmission systems. Common examples of
this include power supplies that convert AC line voltage to DC
voltage.
Energy storage devices such as batteries and fuel cells.
Electromechanical systems such as generators and alternators.
Solar power.
A power supply may be implemented as a discrete, stand-alone
device or as an integral device that is hardwired to its load.
Examples of the latter case include the low voltage DC power
supplies that are part of desktop computers and consumer
electronics devices.
Commonly specified power supply attributes include:
The amount of voltage and current it can supply to its load.
How stable its output voltage or current is under varying line
and load conditions.
How long it can supply energy without refueling or recharging
(applies to power supplies that employ portable energy
sources).

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CHAP
TER 7:
COST
OF
THE
PROJE
CT

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COST OF THE
PROJECT
COMPONENTS

PRICE

NE555 (Timer)
Relay
Transistors
Diodes
Resistors
Capacitors
LED
Bread Board
Vero Board
Power supply
Battery
Electric Pump

30
150
90
20
40
40
35
240
50
85
20
550

The total cost the project is approximately


Rs.2000

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CHAP
TER 8:
RESUL
T
DISCU
SSION

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RESULT AND
DISCUSSION
The system is sensitive to the change in the in water level. The
circuit was built and tested. Reference can be taken from
Gallery for the pictures of tested circuit. The Electric Pump is
controlled by the energizing and de energizing of the relay with
the help of the timer

VISUAL OBSERVATION
A visual observation of the circuit was conducted to look for any
broken connection in the circuit or any other visible fault. No
such fault was detected during the visual observation.

OPERATION OBSERVATION
The circuit was operated and checked whether it is performing
the desired operation. The LED was whether displaying proper
colour and whether the relay was energizing de energizing
properly or not.

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FUTURE
SCOPE OF
PROJECT

CHAP
TER 9:
FUTU
RE
SCOP
E AND
APPLI
CATIO
NS

THE

Alarm system:
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This project can be added with a voice alarm system to indicate


when the tank is full and no more water can get inside.

Microcontroller:
The use of microcontroller can be considered as a major future
modification that can be done in this project.

IR sensors:
This circuit can also be implemented using IR sensors

LCD display
LCD display can be used in this circuit to display the level of
water inside the tank.

APPLICATIONS
This project has a very wide application in todays corporate
and busy life. Now a days no one is having time to switch on
and switch off light by own. Every single person is dependent
on automated system to live an easy life. We present you a
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system here which will have a wide application and will be the
remedy of your entire problem on saving energy rather money.
The list is provided here :
Industry
Public toilets
Power plants to control the level of boiler drum
Petrol pumps
Oil refineries
Homes
Government offices

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REFERENCE
Websites name :
http://www.circuitstoday.com
http://www.electronics-lab.com/projects/
http://www.electronicsforu.com/
http://www.academia.edu
http://www.datasheetarchive.com
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/555_timer_IC
http://www.electroncomponents.com
http://www.semiconductor4u.com

Books name :
The art of electronics by Brian

CHAP
TER
10:
REFER
ENCE

Getting started in electronics by Forrest Mims III

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CHAP
TER
11:
PHOT
O
GALLE
RY

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PHOTO GALLERY

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