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CONCLUSION

A large number of changes that were introduced in the countrys regulatory economic policies heralded
the liberalization era of the FDI policy regime in India and brought about a structural breakthrough in the
volume of the FDI inflows into the economy maintained a fluctuating and unsteady trend during the study
period. It might be of interest to note that more than 50% of the total FDI inflows received by India , came
from Mauritius, Singapore and the USA.
The main reason for higher levels of investment from Mauritius was that the fact that India entered into a
double taxation avoidance agreement (DTAA) with Mauritius were protected from taxation in India.
Among the different sectors, the service sector had received the larger proportion followed by computer
software and hardware sector and telecommunication sector.
According to findings and results, we have concluded that FII did have significant impact on Sensex but
there is less co-relation with Bankex and IT. One of the reasons for high degree of any linear relation can
also be due to the sample data. The data was taken on monthly basis. The data on daily basis can give
more positive results (may be). Also FII is not the only factor affecting the stock indices. There are other
major factors that influence the bourses in the stock market.

Research methodology

In order to accomplish this project successfully we will take following steps.


Data collection:
Secondary Data:
Internet, Books , newspapers, journals and books, other reports and projects, literatures
FDI:
The study is limited to a sample of investing countries e.g. Mauritius, Singapore, USA etc. and sectors e.g.
service sector, computer hardware and software, telecommunications etc. which had attracted larger
inflow of FDI from different countries.
FII:

Correlation: We have used the Correlation tool to determine whether two ranges of data move
together that is, how the Sensex, Bankex, IT, Power and Capital Goods are related to the FII
which may be positive relation, negative relation or no relation.

We will use this model for understanding the relationship between FII and stock indices returns.
FII is taken as independent variable. Stock indices are taken as dependent variable

Hypothesis Test: If the hypothesis holds good then we can infer that FIIs have significant impact
on the Indian capital market. This will help the investors to decide on their investments in stocks
and shares. If the hypothesis is rejected, or in other words if the null hypothesis is accepted, then
FIIs will have no significant impact on the Indian bourses.

Objective of the study:

To know the flow of investment in India


To know how can India Grow by Investment .

To Examine the trends and patterns in the FDI across different sectors and from different countries
in India
To know in which sector we can get more foreign currency in terms of investment in India
To know which country s safe to invest .
To know how much to invest in a developed country or in a developing.
To know Which sector is good for investment .
To know which country in investing in which country

To know the reason for investment in India


Influence of FII on movement of Indian stock exchange
To understand the FII & FDI policy in India.

History
In the years after the Second World War global FDI was dominated by the United States, as much of the
world recovered from the destruction brought by the conflict. The US accounted for around three-quarters
of new FDI (including reinvested profits) between 1945 and 1960. Since that time FDI has spread to
become a truly global phenomenon, no longer the exclusive preserve of OECD countries.
FDI has grown in importance in the global economy with FDI stocks now constituting over 20 percent of
global GDP. Foreign direct investment (FDI) is a measure of foreign ownership of productive assets, such
as factories, mines and land. Increasing foreign investment can be used as one measure of growing
economic globalization. Figure below shows net inflows of foreign direct investment as a percentage of
gross domestic product (GDP). The largest flows of foreign investment occur between the industrialized
countries (North America, Western Europe and Japan). But flows to non-industrialized countries are
increasing sharply.

Foreign Direct investor


A foreign direct investor is an individual, an incorporated or unincorporated public or privateenterprise, a
government, a group of related individuals, or a group of related incorporated and/or unincorporated
enterprises which has a direct investment enterprise that is, a subsidiary, associate or branch operating
in a country other than the country or countries of residence of the foreign direct
investor or investors.

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4

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Types of Foreign Direct Investment: An Overview


FDIs can be broadly classified into two types:
1

Outward FDIs

Inward FDIs

This classification is based on the types of restrictions imposed, and the various prerequisites required for
these investments.
Outward FDI: An outward-bound FDI is backed by the government against all types of associated risks. This
form of FDI is subject to tax incentives as well as disincentives of various forms. Risk coverage provided to the
domestic industries and subsidies granted to the local firms stand in the way of outward FDIs, which are also known
as 'direct investments abroad.'
Inward FDIs: Different economic factors encourage inward FDIs. These include interest loans, tax breaks, grants,
subsidies, and the removal of restrictions and limitations. Factors detrimental to the growth of FDIs include
necessities of differential performance and limitations related with ownership patterns.

Other categorizations of FDI


Other categorizations of FDI exist as well. Vertical Foreign Direct Investment takes place when a
multinational corporation owns some shares of a foreign enterprise, which supplies input for it or uses the
output produced by the MNC.
Horizontal foreign direct investments happen when a multinational company carries out a similar business
operation in different nations.

Horizontal FDI the MNE enters a foreign country to produce the same products product at home.

Conglomerate FDI the MNE produces products not manufactured at home.

Vertical FDI the MNE produces intermediate goods either forward or backward in the supply
stream.

Liability of foreignness the costs of doing business abroad resulting in a competitive


disadvantage.

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Methods of Foreign Direct Investments


The foreign direct investor may acquire 10% or more of the voting power of an enterprise in an economy
through any of the following methods:

by incorporating a wholly owned subsidiary or company

by acquiring shares in an associated enterprise

through a merger or an acquisition of an unrelated enterprise

participating in an equity joint venture with another investor or


enterprise Foreign direct investment incentives may take the following
forms:

low corporate tax and income tax rates

tax holidays

other types of tax concessions

preferential tariffs

special economic zones

investment financial subsidies

soft loan or loan guarantees

free land or land subsidies

relocation & expatriation subsidies

job training & employment subsidies

infrastructure subsidies

R&D support

derogation from regulations (usually for very large projects)

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Entry Mode

The manner in which a firm chooses to enter a foreign market through FDI.
International franchising
Branches
Contractual alliances
Equity joint ventures
Wholly foreign-owned subsidiaries

Investment approaches:
Greenfield investment (building a new facility)
Cross-border mergers
Cross-border acquisitions
Sharing existing facilities

Investment Risks in India


Sovereign Risk
India is an effervescent parliamentary democracy since its political freedom from British rule
more than
50 years ago. The country does not face any real threat of a serious revolutionary movement
which might
lead to a collapse of state machinery. Sovereign risk in India is hence nil for both "foreign
direct
investment" and "foreign portfolio investment." Many Industrial and Business houses have
restrained
themselves from investing in the North-Eastern part of the country due to unstable conditions.
Nonetheless
investing in these parts is lucrative due to the rich mineral reserves here and high level of
literacy.
Kashmir on the northern tip is a militancy affected area and hence investment in the state of
Kashmir are
restricted by law

Political Risk
India has enjoyed successive years of elected representative government at the Union as well as
federal level. India suffered political instability for a few years in the sense there was no single
party which won clear majority and hence it led to the formation of coalition governments.
However, political stability has firmly returned since the general elections in 1999, with strong
and healthy coalition governments emerging. Nonetheless, political instability did not change
India's bright economic course though it delayed certain decisions relating to the economy.
Economic liberalization which mostly interested foreign investors has been accepted as essential
by all political parties including the Communist Party of India Though there are bleak chances of
political instability in the future, even if such a situation arises the economic policy of India
would hardly be affected.. Being a strong democratic nation the chances of an army coup or
foreign dictatorship are minimal. Hence, political risk in India is practically absent.

Commercial Risk
Commercial risk exists in any business ventures of a country. Not each and every product or
service is profitably accepted in the market. Hence it is advisable to study the demand / supply
condition for a particular product or service before making any major investment. In India one

can avail the facilities of a large number of market research firms in exchange for a professional
fee to study the state of demand / supply for any product. As it is, entering the consumer market
involves some kind of gamble and hence involves commercial risk

Sector-wise FDI Inflows ( From April 2000 to January 2010)


SECTOR

AMOUNT OF FDI
INFLOWS
In Rs Million

Hotel and Tourism

52500.05

In US$
Million
1217.50

PERCENT OF TOTAL FDI


INFLOWS (In terms of Rs)

1.49

Hotel & Tourism: FDI in Hotel & Tourism sector in India


100% FDI is permissible in the sector on the automatic route,
The term hotels include restaurants, beach resorts, and other tourist complexes providing
accommodation and/or catering and food facilities to tourists. Tourism related industry include
travel agencies, tour operating agencies and tourist transport operating agencies, units providing
facilities for cultural, adventure and wild life experience to tourists, surface, air and water
transport facilities to tourists, leisure, entertainment, amusement, sports, and health units for
tourists and Convention/Seminar units and organizations.

For foreign technology agreements, automatic approval is granted if


i.

up to 3% of the capital cost of the project is proposed to be paid for technical and
consultancy services including fees for architects, design, supervision, etc.

ii.

up to 3% of net turnover is payable for franchising and marketing/publicity support fee,


and up to 10% of gross operating profit is payable for management fee, including incentive fee.