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The means, sanctioned by these rules, of ascertaining in a
judicial proceeding, the truth respecting a matter of fact.
[Rule 128, Sec. 1]
The mode and manner of proving competent facts in judicial
proceedings. [Bustos v. Lucero]
Definition: Those addressed to the senses of
the court. [Rule 130, Sec. 1]
It includes the anatomy of a person or of any substance taken
there from. [US v. TanTeng]
General rule: When object is relevant to the fact in issue, it
may be exhibited to examined or viewed by the court. [Rule
130, Sec. 1]

Exception: Court may refuse introduction of object evidence and rely on

testimonial alone if:
1) Its exhibition is contrary to public policy, morals or decency;
2) It would result in delays, inconvenience, unnecessary expenses, out of
proportion to the evidentiary value of such object. (People vs.Tavera)
3) The evidence would be confusing or misleading. [People v. Saavedra]

the latter prevails. Particular intent controls general one

inconsistent with it. [Rule 130, Sec. 12]
The circumstances under which an instrument was made,
including the situation of the subject thereof and of the parties
to it, may be shown, so that the judge may be placed in the
position of those whose language he is to interpret. [Rule 130,
Sec. 13]
General rule: All persons who can perceive, and, perceiving,
can make their known perception to others, may be witnesses.
Religious/political belief, interest in the outcome of the case, or
conviction of a crime unless otherwise provided by law, shall
not be ground for disqualification. [Rule 130, Sec. 20]

By reason of mental incapacity or immaturity; [Rule 130, Sec. 21]
A. those whose mental condition, at the time of their production for
examination, is such that they are incapable of intelligently making known
their perception to others
B. Children whose mental maturity is such as to render them incapable of
perceiving the facts respecting which they are examined and of relating
them truthfully.


Writings or any material containing letters, words, numbers, figures,
symbols or other modes of written expression offered as proof of their
content. [Rule 130, Sec. 2]

Requisites of competency of a child as witness: [People vs.

Mendoza (1996)]
(1) Capacity of observation;
(2) Capacity of recollection;
(3) Capacity of communication

General rule:
When the subject of inquiry is the contents of a document, no evidence
shall be admissible other than the original document itself.

By reason of marriage; [Rule 130, Sec.22]

General rule: During their marriage, neither the husband nor the wife
may testify for or against the other without the consent ofthe affected

1) When the original has been lost or destroyed, or cannot be produced
in court, without bad faith on the offerors part
2) When the original is in custody or under control of party against whom
evidence is offered, and latter fails to produce it after reasonable notice
3) When the original consists of numerous accounts or other documents
which cannot be examined in court without great loss of time, and the fact
sought to be established from them is only the general result of the whole
4) When the original is a public record inthe custody of a public officer or
is recorded in a public office.
1. formal written reports ( medical certificate, physical examination report,
necropsy report, laboratory exam. report, exhumation report, medical
examination/investigation report ).
2. Written opinions
3. Certificates (medical certificate, certificate of physical health, death,
certificate, birth certificate, certificate of physical injuries )

Interpretation of a writing according to thelegal meaning it

bears in the place of execution, unless parties intended
otherwise.[Rule 130, Sec. 10]

Instrument construed so as to give effect to all provisions. [Rule

130, Sec. 11]

Parties intention is to be pursued in construction of instrument.

In the inconsistency between general and particular provision,

a) In a civil case by one against the other;
b) In a criminal case for a crime committed by on against the other or the
latter's direct descendants/ascendants.
Ex. The wife is competent to testify against her husband in a prosecution
against him for raping their daughter. [Ordoo v.Daguigan]
By reason of death/insanity of adverse party [Rule 130, Sec. 23]
Dead Mans Statute or Survivorship Rule

Parties or assignors of parties to a case, or persons in whose

behalf a case is prosecuted, against an executor/administrator
cannot testify as to any matter of fact occurring before the
death of such deceased person or before such person became
of unsound mind.

Marital privilege; [Rule 130, Sec. 24(a)]

Purpose: Privilege for confidential communications justified on the ground
that it promotes marital harmony. Marital partners should be encouraged
to share their most closely-guarded secrets as an additional measure of
intimacy and mutual support to their marriage.
General rule: Husband or the wife, during or after the marriage, cannot be
examined without the consent of the other as to any communication
received in confidence by one from the other during the marriage
a) In a civil case by one against the other;
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b) In a criminal case for a crime committed by one against the other or

the latter's direct descendants/ascendants.
A widow of a victim allegedly murdered may testify as to her husbands
dying declaration as to how he. [US v. Antipolo]

Attorney-client privilege; [Rule 130, ec.24(b)]

An attorney cannot, without the consent ofhis client, be examined as to
any communication made by the client to him, his advice given thereon in
the course of, or with a view to, professional employment.
Exception: [Regala v. Sandiganbayan(1996)]
a) When a strong probability exists that revealing the name would
implicate that person in the very same activity for which he sought the
lawyers advice;
b) When disclosure would open the client to liability;
c) When the name would furnish the only link hat would form the chain of
testimony necessary to convict.

Physician-patient privilege; [Rule 130, ec.24(c)]

General rule: A person authorized to practice medicine, surgery or
obstetrics cannot in a civil case, without the consent of the patient, be
examined as to any advice or treatment given by him or any information
which he may have acquired in attending such patient in a professional
capacity, which information was necessary to enable him to act in
capacity, and which would blacken the reputation of the patient.
The prohibition against the disclosure does not apply to 3rdparties but
only to the physician.[Bautista; Krohn v. CA]

The privilege belongs to the patient, not the physician so that

the latter cannot claim it if the patient abandons it. [Bautista]

This privilege does not apply when the doctor is presented as

an expert witness and only hypothetical problems were
presented to him. [Lim v. CA (1992)]

At the time evidence is offered to the court. [Rule 132, Sec.


ADMISSIBLE EVIDENCE Evidence that is both relevant

and competent. [Rule 128, Sec.3]
1. CONDITIONAL Evidence, at the time offered, appears to be
immaterial/irrelevant unless it is connected with other facts to be
subsequently proved. The evidence may be received in condition that the
other facts will be proved thereafter; but there should be no bad faith.
2. MULTIPLE Evidence is relevant and competent for 2 or more
3. CURATIVE Considers a partys right to introduce incompetent
evidence in his behalf where the court has admitted the same kind of
evidence adduced by the adverse party

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