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i-----.flPPsndix

- --l

Trrparing
Business
Documents
4 ,

'

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, ' , '

r"t'

r l i

Preparing businessdocumentsrequires a knowledge of the mechanlitof business


writing:
Y

using the parts of a letter correctly

addressingbusinessenvelopes

preparing nlenlos, reports, and proposals

forrnlttinpl letters

d o c u r n e n t i n gs o u r c c s

Nlechanics, refer to the "technical" aspectsof preparing a document, and they are
desigrred to imllrov.e comrnunication bv setting up clear standordsfor written docunlents. These standards are used consistently throughout the business community.
Appendix I describesthe trusinesswriting mechanics that apply to the lemers,
memos, repor$, and proposals exarnined in this text. \\/e begin by focusing on the
irnportance of document appearance.

[orttrnertts
ofBusiness
Iheflppedtnncs
Before your readerreadsa single word you havewritten, dre appearanceof your
It hastold your readcrhow much careand
documenthascommunicateda message.
concern you have put into your document,and it has testifiedto the profeisionalism of your approach.First of all, the appearanceof busines documentsis influenced by paper qualirl' and the accuracyof your word procesing.
I',.11'EII
Paper qualiry is usually taken for granted-unless it is substandard.Paper that is
ttrnrpri.nt, foo light, colored,or oddly sizedmay not.be acceptablefor business
purpor.r. Here are the basicstandardsthat all businesspapershould meet:
V

I
Apprruotx
Bustruess
PnepRnrruo
rurs
Docutue
558

Weight.Paperis categorizedby the weight of four 500-sheetreamsof letuse 2O-poundpaper for correspondence,
ter-iize paper.Most businesses
used for busines letters may be heavStationery
proposals.
reports, and
paper,espcially if it is transparLighter
paper
is
common.
ier;Z4-pound
ent (onion skin falls into this category),is not acceptablefor businessuse'
mail.
althoughit may be usedfor file copiesor overseas
Color.The standardcolor for businesspaperis white, although off-rvhite
Unlessthere is a spestationeryin ivory or gray tonesis alsoacceptable.
cial reasonto use thetn, pastels-including grecn, blue, yellow, and
lavender-are generalll'no, appropriatefor businesscorrespondence.
Colored paperis sometimesusedin massmailingpas a way of attracting
attention.
stadoneryand paper
Stzc.The standardsizefor Nonh Americanbusiness
lettersare rvritbusiness
most
and
is 8l by ll inches.Reports,proposals,
sizes:
in
two
other
comes
Stationen'also
ren on paperthis size..
(used.for
notes,memos):
5l by 8i incha
Baronial
correspondence):
brsiness
for personal
l{onarch(usedby someexecutives
7i b1'l 0l i nches
Conon Content.The best stationery has 100-percent cotton content; inexpensive paper bond is used primarily for routine mailings and docurnents.

\
li
p

tt
i j

Lgttgrs
-------r'-----------r'-of[usingss
Pnrts

-'--'

can
as seventeenindividualelements'fu you
Businesslettersmay contain as many
letters,
.r.,,,.n$ are includedin ail business
seein Thble r-r, *rrrilJ;;;;;i,h.i.
we have arrangedtheseitems in the order
optional.
ten othersmay be .onrid.r.d
leners'
in which they appearin trusiness
I I f uI DI iV G
.osuoften consistsof the brsinesslettnhead,
The headingof the businessrerter,which
ally containsthe following elements:
Y
v
v

the complete legal name of the business


box number
full sueet addressand/or post office
telePhonenumber

]:
ui
G I

nl
,l

logoa.ndmay specifr the department


The letterheadmay alsocontain a business
r-rit.trt.tdtg?,1to=!?P:ttln?ll1tl.
or divisionto which the lener ,"ri,.. belongs.
of letterheads
Tod;Y'@er
ro include
ail adffisses'
DII'I'EI-INE

^r';;;;;should

two-tofou.rlinesbeneath
aPpear
*:]:f:*f

-.- ,:-^

,HF:r?:"Iil:
:;i::t::'dletd';;:;;;;,r'-"i:;iyi'-:*':::*i:1:i*Jm11'il"'J;
'J:::;ffifulF#fi
bvbenveen
followed
be
should
r-a"^i^ii-oir,,,,thedatetine

of lct-,.
rdence,
: heavmsper-

l.j:fi

H.iii'i,r;

t ---t^e^*
^f '|ifforpnt
different
lettersof
accommodates
,pr..r. The variedspacing

en$n'
'rr
of the datelinein reference
:e later in this appendix,
*"' s(
you wlll
/\svou
As
' the position
- ^re
--^ --^i-rnnd
simandsim":::::;";"-;il"
tull-block
In G,ll-hln"L
using.
il fonttat.yov
to the left margin dependson the Imer
modified,gtint' the left riargin; in the
plified formas, the datelin. ,pp.rrr'flu'rtt

3SSUSe,

f-white
i a sp-:
w, and;
rdence.'''
racting

ofoEusinesqlgllgl
l-l tlements
Inble
StandardElements

Optional Elements

- - - - F - - - -

J paper
re writ-

heading

referenceline

dateline

personalor confidentialnotadon

insideaddress

attention line

salutation

subjectline

middle

identificanonline

close
cornplirnentary

enclosurenotation

signarure

mailnotation
copy notauon
posscriPt
continuation-Pageheading

. '',,i
. ; ,.,.,*l
..

,'.;t,,rii

,.Itii.

ri;
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\ / I \ t , . \ 6 /i //r.r.e L tti l ,t,I' t,


Guideas unprofessional'
iclendfycrocunrents
,a'uscripr errors are red flags.th-at
word
your
through
,tr^lghtfort"arcl'Rttn everydocurneni
li^es here are in fr;;ri;.
well'
as
docurnent
o.f
v<lur
copy
spell checfer.Then, p.oof..tcl a hard
prrcessor,s

I
Apperuotx
Bustruess
PnrpeRtttc
DocuueHrs
559

block format, it appearstwo to three charactersPacesto the right of the centerof


the page and is aligned with the complimentaryclose.Another option is to placc
the datelineflush againstthe right marginRri/;/iR/i^'( :ti LI i\'I i
linesaredesignationsreferring the receiverof a documentto a relevantfile
Refermce
number or code.If yJur stationerydois not includea printed.referenceline, place
the referenceline rwo lines below the dateline;align.i! itq:_ai*gly_y-ldsl9x 6"ts!

your
plac-gpgr-rt
characte-L.of_{e-&ElneJg3,1n,
e-f={fi:fgE!F- .liiedry,,en-{9.-upon
-letter
and
writer
both
of
codes
aerign"iJfriTeFrence
for*rt. n*l;fe;;i'iinis
-

recipient.In this casethe sender'sreferenceline should appearbeforethe recipient's'


refeienceline. Figure I-l featuresdual referencecodes.
PIiIISONAL OR C0ili I;I D EN'fIil I'

l!07)rrIo^l

When a lener containspersonalor confidentialmaterialintendedonly for the


The writer
the writer ,rru.lly makesa specialnoution on the envclope.
addressee,
or Conf''
Pnsonal
notation
the
letters,
may makea notationin thi letter .r *ell. In
notatigtt-ate
the
FgUgwing
line.
two linesbelowthe reference
dentiolappears
1bou1
fush left and
four line rpr.., andthenthe insidegd{$ss.Noationsalwap apPear
oi irnderlined:
maybe-capitaliied
PERSONAL
',,, P*tl

CONFIDENTI,AL
Confidential

IA/S7DEIDDRESS
companyto whomthe lener
whichidentifiesthe personand"/or
The insideaddress,
It canbebenreentwo and
leners.
is beingsent,is an obligatorypaft of all business
or personalor corifi-line,
reference
.i.ggry-d-q!gli"e,
twelve"linesafte1th. lL,
four linesbefore
allows
spacirig
common
*ort
lineiTL.
the
Alica noo,ion-of
+
**'-#-*
addreqs.
inside
the
U.ji""ing
**---The insideaddress
andappeanin uPPeI:endlower-case
ii alwap single-spaced
should
fu a rule,the insideaddress
l letters.It is positionedflush.gri*ffi; left-margin.
to
riiiintiin-tlils
ne&ssary
if
title
;.-;; ;n,i' than fve lines.-Omitthe recipie-nt's
-T-feng.h.
Xk
TllrCiie'io*eldciirional guidelineifor composingthe insideaddress:

FigureI-I SamPle
Letter:DualReference
Codes

Melro Molor CorPorollon It50t S. FlguotooStrrcf


Corton, CA 907t16'tl50a
(707)55s-9t92(phon )
(707)555'919t (for)
mmcoxxx.com (o.moll)

t't"

'l'hc

the
ven
ava

May21, 199X

:tlt rl
:t si

OurrsfennceA8C33221'4

I
Apperuotx
BustHess
Pnepnntruo
Docullterurs

's6o

YourrlferenceciCccu*{

..-F-

addressshould cross over the ccnter 'oint of the pagq' Lines


lin-e.-1n.tl.re
,,No
ln half arrtl iontinued
contarnrng roo many charactcrsshould lle broken
spaces'
two
g ,ih._-n.*I11. 3fte1 an indent of
-I'he
the person's courteryritlr, follorvetl
with
inside adclressshould bcgin
f
professlmaltitle is short enottgh,
recipient's
the
If
fry his or her full name.
name' For cxamplc:
the
as
line
sanre
the
on
ir'c.n be includecl
I

Ms. AlexandraBcnninglon,Tieasuier
exantple:
Longer dtles should appear on separate lines. For
Mr. futhur HawleY
Vice President,nd Director of Fluman Resources
the name of his or
The name of the recipient's colnpany should precede
her departrnent.
complete and official name. It is acceptableto abbrev
use the company's
'Corporotion
(Corp; and Incorporated (*.).
viate words like
an individual, the inside
When you are addressing a comPany rather than
Y' -';ilr;;r"ttoura
V

include the name'of the company,the departrnentto which


the letter is being sent' and the company'sfull address'
a company's
When both a post office box and a sreet addressappearon
officebox
post
the
use
to that companyshould
letterhead,l.ttlrs addressed
on both the envelopeand insideaddress'
while streets
Streetsnumberedozethrough nuelueshould be spelledou-t,
For example:
numerals.
fuabic
in
wrinen
be
shou-i.l
tndabove
I3
numbered
3004 Tenth Avenue
127 42nd Street

directions are
Use cardinal numbers (14, 15, 16, " ') when compass
(l4th, l5th,
numbers
ordinal
Use
adclress'
the
of
part
included as
For
reference.
l6th, ...) whin the numberedstreet makesno compass
example:
3r3 East 30 Street
201 29th Sueet

..t/"/'/t.\'I'lON L/\'Ii
to a companybut directedto
ithe anentionline is used when a letter is adclressed
the attention li'e id to preof
purpose
The
the arrentionof , ,p..in. indivi<lual.
nanredin the line is not
person
the
If
artention:
immediate
*"r-a.r.ys and ensure
elsein the company'
,*ilrbl. io ,e..in. the letter, it will be opened by someone
flush left
It always.appcars
The attentionline ,horri,lfollow the insideaddress.
tn
.n,l?i.i.
rinc
,pr..r-L.f,ir.
with
ancrshouldbe set off frorn the other crcnrenrs
line:
attention
forrnitf triple-Splcebeforerrnclaftcr'ihd
a sin',plifiecl
r\{cDonald'sCorPoration
Plaza
McDonald's
'O
ak
B r o o k ,I L 6 0 5 2 1
Attention MargaretO'FIara,Public l{clations Departnrent

. ''.., ' '..'''':

. ,::ir' i r* I r

'i' ',;
'il'.
.L ,l r*,:
'3' . "rt,;;'l;'

1.,,i.,1i+*.{
.-i,ti::,lil',";',lr-

.:f.i:

){

'ti:f,r;r,ll.i
.

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,'1 $;

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I
Apprruotx
Bustruess
PnepRRtruc
Docuuerurs
561

SALL]TATION
The official greeting that appears immediately before the body of the letter, the rslrrtiltiurt, follows eidrer thc inside address or the anention line. As you will see later in
usillg the sjmpl!fied f,qlmrt.
this appendix, s'.rlutationsappear il all fenels 3gg-ep--t-$ose
In nrost cases,uritcri should double-spa-ce-0.*ine on. bl*k lin.) befoie'and
woiilD-car foli6wed by the
after thc salutation. Salutation, urrfrily Ggin tidithi
saluution
that you usc rvill
The
specific
l)ro[)cr form of address for thc recipicnt.
letter
is
known
of
the
or unlmown
whcther
rccipient
the
factors:
threc
depend on
to you, rvhether a titlc precc<lcsthe recipientts name, and whether you rrc writing
ro onc or more than one person. The salutationjg a business letter is always followecl [r], a c<-,lorrunless tlic u'ritei it uti\g-0.W.^poo@LOpen
Puncnration is I
funcruaiion*iryle in which drcTritcr does not use a colon aher the salutation or a
.orn,rl. after ihc complirrrentary close. Examples of salutations puncruated with

}f
P"

I
t
I

colons follow:

s
I

Dear Customer ServiceManager: (name unknown) ,


Dcar Sir: (name unknown but gender known; a lessprefemedoption)

,.

Dear Madam: (name unknown but gender known; a lesspreferredoption) .


Ladies and Gentlemen:(a salutation to a company;a lesspreferredoption)

'

,1

,s

Dcar Mr. Vanclli:


Dear Dr. Vanclli:(not Dcar Dr. \tanelli'M.D.)
Dear LeslieAdams:(genderunknown)

'

I
tt

.: i '
t'

Dear Mr. Vanelli and Ms. Bloom:


Dear Mr. Vanelli and Mr. Deaver:
Dear Messrs.Vanelli and Deaver:
Deaver:
.D"r, Ms. Vanelli and Ms.
Dear Mss. Vanelli and Deaver:(both women are Ms.)
Dcar Dr. and Mrs. Vanelli:(titled husband)

r
t
t

(
1
u
f
t
d
t

Dear Dr. Vanelli and i\{r. Vanelli: (tided wife)


Dear Drs. Vanelli:(both spousesare tided)
Dear Friends:(group address)

d
u

Dear Stockholders:(group address)


Dear Employees:(group address)

c
d

Dear Neighbors:(gtoup address)

SUBJECT LII{E
The sattjcctline summarizesthe purposeof the letter. ln most formatswriters usea
doublc-spacebeforeand after the subjectline,.lg3glggge !!ank-!inea&er-{e saluJatloh and one blank line before the body of thA lener. In a sinplifiedformat (which
tft.i-ih. subigqqlinc.
?oei not'-iiclude a saiutation),wriiilrs-triilelspicf6ifottfrI
'fhe
subject line begini flu5[-'againstt]re left marginlli *tf U.gin *ith the
word SUB|ECT follorvedby a colon, or it may state the subiectwithout inuoduc-lo
its irnportance,sonlewriters capitalizeall or pan of the subject
ernphasize
tion.
For example:
line. (In the simplifiedforrnat,the subjectline is usuallycapitalized.)
l)carAIr. L.vcrhartlt:
I
Apperuotx
PnrpRRrruc
Busrruess
Docularurs

A N N U A I.S ALISI{E Ii I' IN G

for Februaryl.
for the annualsalesmeetingscheduletl
IIcrc arc prclirninan'plans
562

I r r c l u d e r li l r c . . .

1
u
c

Or:
Dear Mr. I'lverhardt:
SUBJECT:Annual SalesMeeting
for Februaryl'
plansfor rhe annualsalcsmcetingschetluled
Ilere are.prelirninary
I n c l u d e da r e . . . .
tt

. MIDDLE
It follows.t::lt"oggl.ot
,
rThe middleof the letter contains the letter'smessage.
' subiectline and is separatedfrom the previouselemint by a 1i1gfe-lin1!p1e' Line
---J---!-.:--..1--.
_:--L
ti;-f:;;'*L^
^^,-^limantanr
nlncp

***;1i#

;p.;fif*;;;--''.t

closerEtheaoinplimenEfu
11
;." gaph;".d-bafo

format.
')
, Prrrgrrph linesare almost alwaysryp.q in single-spaced
,
In the full-block and rirnptin.i formats,paragraphsbegin_flush left. In'the
il moain.a-UIo"f. format, writers may chooseto begin paragraphsflush left or indent
jlx tojgl characterspacesfrom the left \
, . paragraphs.If indented, start paragraphl
margln.
r l

COMPLIMENTARY CLOSE
of the lener' It is
The cwnplinancry closeappearsone line space-1fter the middle
flush left in the
appears
It
format.
simplified
the
,"osdin att lett.r'for-ro,.*..p,
characterspaces
three
two
to
appe.ars
it
sry19,
modified-block
n fl-lio.f. sryle;in the
a.lwap aligned
is
close
complimentary
The
page.
the
of
..n,..
,h,
rishiof
to the
t;ir;;t[.n.r*
margin. In
right
the
with
flush
is
the date, .*..p, *li.n the date
ithat casealign the close direcdy beneaththe inside address'
of
The first word'of the complimenrarycloseis capitalizedand the last word
Ithe closeis followed by a commr. Not., however,that the comma is omitted when
relationshipwith the reader,the close
,.,usingopen puncruador,.Depending on your
used closesin businessletters are
:i[, ts"?o#rr or informa!. the r6rt commonly
;rtltOr. in the "Less Formal" categoryof the following examplecloses:
' ,,'.

'i

For'rrrnl

qt,yours'
Y.ry
RespectfullY,
-VerysincerelYYours,
Itss Fonnat

'

SincerelY,
SincerelYYours,
CordiallY,
CordiallY Yours'

Least Fonul
Best wishes,
Ilest regards,
Regrrds,
Kindest regards,

SIGNATURE

closc' The
The letter writer's signatureappearsdirectly under the cornplimentary
after the
spaces
line
fogr
signamre-usually
the
belo*
rhen"typed
writer,s neme is
'{
rvriter's'business
the
close. fth.n the letterhead does not include
;;;Iil;;ry

I
Apprruotx
Bustrursso
PREpRntrue
Docuurrurs
563

ri,l;,. ,. i

title, a sccorrdtine rnly alsobc addedto includethis information.In all letter styles,ggB.
tlie gypeclnanri-anclii,l" ;r.. aligneclclirectlybelow the cornfliinenteiy'cltis6."Tor

'rFrt

(Jr:

exantple:
Sinccrcll',
Ql,ce 0. 4ro/n,,

Altet
Alicc l). I;clttotr
\ 4 c c I ) r e s r t l c r r t ,l { c c r t r i t i n g
sigrrature blocks clo not include courtesy titles such as IVIs.,Mrs., Mr,
An
c.rccptir>n, horvcver, can llc nrade when the titlc is needed to clari$r
and Miss.
M6st

gerrclcr(Mr l;rm Ban'onor Ms. Bilty Dian,on\.In businessthe preferredtitle for


'I'hat
unlessthe signer indicatesMissor Mn.
titlc is assurned
*.r,rl",r is I4.i.
If thc writer'sletterheaddoesnot identify the nameof his or her company,the
n
| .onlprny name should bc typed in capital letters rwo lines below dre complimenexample:
I ,rry closc.Iiour lines below dris is the qped signahrre.For

l,

MA.
:
i
i

Ant
thel
For

5tncercl\'.

ELVIM

ELECTRONICS

loaallarl / ?'Bo,;a-

Her

JonathanJ. O'Brian
\tce President
assistantsoften do
If sorneone signs the letter for the writer-administrative
initials just below
orvn
her
his
or
place
should
person
this for their employers-that

and to the right of the signature.


I D IiN'I'IF I CATI ON LII,JIJ
The identifuationline indicateswho wrote the letter and who typed it. This optional
element is typed two lines below the signatureblock and flush againstthe left margin. When a-personalsignarureis shown in the signarurebloclq the nriter's initials
ire optional. indeed, the most common practicetoday is to omit the writer'sinitials.
If the writer's and rypist'sinitials are used, the writer's initials usuallyappear
in capitalletters,the typist'sinitials in lower-case.The two setsof initialsare separated by a colon. If only the typist'sinitials are included,they are typedin lowercasc.For example:
DAIS:jw
tlr

I iN ( :I,OS( IRIi N 0' I)11'I0 N


If an enctosurcis includcdwith the letter, its presenccshouldbe indicatedirnmedito write this
atcly after the identificarionline or thc signatureline. It is acceptable
ways:
following
of
the
in
anv
notatiotr
Iltcl<lsttrc
L,nc.
Ilncl.

I
ApprNotx
Pnepnnrtre
Bustness
Docuurrurs

Illii
'l'hc

nor;rtion ntav als<ltcll tlrc rcadcr solncthing about the cncloscd.Filr cxattrplc:
trvo clrccks
I'.nclosurcs:

CA
OR
cot
c0fr
sur
on

Cat
wh
mc
col

y,
C)r:
Enclosures
l. conract
2' rnectingagenda

of itenls enclosetl:
may simply indicate the nurnber
Alternately, the notadon
3 enclosures

MAIL

NOT/TION

indicatesdrat
the enclosurenoration. This enrry
[, mair not'tionmay appear after
that is of interestto the recipicnt'
*;; ;;;;""t"
the letter was mailed in a special
For examPle:,
fhb
Enclosures
Certified
used mail notations:
Here are some other commonly

;
rr

BY messenger
Bv Federal ExPress
Bi United Parcel Service
fyfax
Mail'notadons

'

'

copies and added to file coPies'


are frequently left off original

]
COPYNOTATION
t ,,..^is not the only personrecelvrge
a letter is addressed
whom
a
often, the personto
other thanthe addressec'
individuals
.r. ;;;;"
endocopyof the letter.Wh;;;"pi.,
the
flushleftafter
end.This notationapPears
nototimrry o.'riil*!a;
copy
the n3mesares*&ed
,...iu.'.opies,
sureandmailnotations.wher, ,*.ri;;.0].
list to indinttt:
tht'
pfJ." cf,ectmarks
T:
on top of_one.n",t.i. iufrny*rit"r,
coS.npaniet::,1"":imost
pas,
h-,t.
catewhich,copygoesto which.indiffi;. fu--o:t:t::sses makecarboncopiesany*py"'.Btttu"
which starrdwforq;;b""
to&y's
to copy notationthat accuratelyreflects
more, many firms t r". ,*i,.lr.d
copying technology. .
|
,-r^ :- -orraral'r'wq.
made in several w8|s'
The copy n6tation can be

dihis

CoPY to
CoPiesto:
copy:
c:
pct (standsfor "PhotocoPY")

lines and
various combinations of identification
The following examples show
notauonsr
enclosure, mail, and coPY

br

,le:

Enclozures
l. check
2. conuact
By FederalExPress
c: John'McCoY

I
APPeHotx
BustHrss
PnepmtHo
DocuturHrs

565

:!. r

, l '

.!

btt
Copy to Ann Hastings

\\AA:nra
Iinc.
Oopiesto: Carolpr Millcr
RonaldYang
Sonretirnescopies of a document are disuibuted to people whose names are
not listed on the original document. Blind copiesare copies sent to individuals n'ithout the knowledge of the addressee.The initials &cshould appear on both the copy
of the letter sent to the blind-copy recipient and the file copy. The notadon must
?t\t ^ppelr on the copy sent to the addressee.
Regardlessof format, all notations, including the enclosure notation, mail notation, and copy notation, appear flush left. Double- or single-spacingmay be used
benveen notation items. Double-spacing is generally preferred.

POS'TSCRIPT
Some letters end with postsoipts-afterthoughtsabout subjectsessentiallyunreleted
to the rnain topic of the lettersthemselves.Posecriptsshould not containcomments
directly relatedto the topic of the lener: Relegationof relevantmaterialto a postscript may be perceivedas an indication of a poorly organizeddocument.
A single posscript beginswith the initials PS. If a secondpostscriptis necessary use the initials PPS. All postscriptsshould end with the ryped initials of the
writer. For example:
P.S.The budgetmeetinghrs beenrescheduled
to May l. MRB
P.P.S.
Call me nextweekto ulk aboutthe Andersondeal.MRB
CONT/N UATION- PAGE H MDING
Long lenersrequirecontinuatinn
sheets-blanlgquality stationeryusedfor secondend
all subsequentpagesof the lener. Each continuation page includesa headingwith
the addresseetname,the'date,and page number. This information is usuallypldced
flush againstthe left margin, with each item starting a new line. Unlessthe letter is
in block format, the continuadon-pageheading may also be spreadout on a single
l i n c . F o r e x a m pl e:
EdithSakura
Ap ri l 1 4 ,l 99X
page2
Or:
April 14, 199X,page2
EdithSakura,
O r:
Ildith Sakura

Apprruorx
I
Pneplnrrue
Busrnrss
0ocur'leHrs
566

.,t.,'

April 1,+,l99X

page2

The continuationaageheadingshould appeartwo to six linesfrom $e top of


the pirgeand at leastwo line spacesshould be allowedbeforeresumingthe body
of the lctter.

flddressing
Business
[nvelopes
First impressionsare fclrmednot rvhen vour recipient llegirrsreaclingvour lettcr, but
rvhen he or she receivesthe envelope containing it, Tb lnake thc best impression,
be sure that your envelopelooks professional.rvith every elernentcorrectly forrnatted in its proper place.
'I'he
U.S. Postal Service reconunends the follorving sn'lc fr;r the varigus elem e n t s o f t h e e n v e l o p e .U n l e s so t h e n v i s ei n c l i c a t e da, l l l i n e s s h o u l d b e s i n g l e - s p a c e d .

re
h-

?v

Place the addressblock, rvritten in lll capital lerrers, in the approximate


vertical and horizontal center of the envelope.

The addressee's
name appearson the first line. If there is space,include
the person'stitle on that line as well, using a comma ro separatethe name
and tide. Place long titles on the second addressline.

The company name comes next, followed by the conrplere street address
or post office box nunrber.

The last line of the addressblock showsthe ciry and the nvo-letterstate
abbreviation.
Use a cornnlato separatethe city and state.Nlow rwo spaces
after the stateabbreviation,then add the ZIP code.fu a generalrule, the
envelopeshouldbe adclressed
in the samemannerasthe insideaddress
on
the letter itself.

tst
a-

:d

:d
itS

rt-

s1e

rd
rh
:d
is
Ie

Follow the samepatrern for the rerurn address,which is placedin the


upper-left corner of the envelope.Unlike the addressblock, the rerurn
addressneednot appearin all capitals.
Most companies
imprint the businessnameon their envelopes,
and writersneed only add their own names.
Place deliverynorations-for example,SPECIAL DELIVERY or F/RST
Crlss-in
all capirallettersseverallines below the posragearea.
Placeforwardingand rerurn-postage
notarionsflush againstthe left nrargin of the envelope,about rrvo or three lines belorvthe renlrn address.
These notationsshould be to the left of and abovethe addressblock.
Place confiCentialor personal notarjons in the bottom-left corner of the
envelope.

FigrrreI-2 shows how theseelemcnts are nrrangeclon the cnvelopc's[ace.The nrodel


sh<rwnis for a standardNo. l0 businessenvelope.

Fign'e I-2

Elementson

anEnvelooe
l-/,*-f

-l ltttr' .r'l,,ttt:'
litttt lrtlt --

Cynthla Deal
Antlques and CollecUbtcs,Inc.
255 Flrst Straet
Los Angeles, CA 9005$5678

\.o'

SPECIAL DELIVERY

i lttt( ,1,,r,Ls f)rtnt t'(lut't,l


ADDRESSCORRECNONREOUESTED

of
Jt'

- : _l . / : t u r l , r . . t( l i t t t I \ t l l _ _ - - _ _ .
| 1 1 tl ) o l r l r t l ti r r t t l 1 i t r i l ' r ,

}IS. AGATHA CAPILLO. PRESIDENT


JONES & CAPELLO DBCORATORS
600 NORTfl LARE SEORE DRIVE
cHICAGO. IL 60611-1234

l ) ' , , r i tl r l ' t L t l . q t
.l

i / i t t t . \ ' l t / t ( (r. rt l , o l t , r t r , l
i t',\'--j11,'1,
lrt ltollutrt tt/rrt rint

l>.

PBRSONAL AlrD CONFIDBNTIAL

l'lemos
Preparinq
lefters,they print lllenro{ontrs
itr lrusiness
Justascoprplniesprint stationeryfor usc
evenincludetear-offforms'
may
and
sizes
various
iri
conle
I{crnos
1sc.
for iptelral
is printedat the top of thc tttettlo.Just
rcturn adclrcss
In sor.rccasesthc comllany'.s
rnav bc tlrc printcd title I4EMO or lt4ENIoRAl{DUA4'
:rl)or,c'r 6cl6rvrhc aclilrcs.s

;:

/llli7.\ ol: .I .\lliMo


yer''s urc sirnltlerthan lettersand inclu<jefewer elements.Unlike a letter, for
close,9l:igtltPre.line--In
complinrentary
, ,r',.,r- hasno insidearldress,
exarnple,
gimplyinitial their tyllcd
wrllers
instcad,
signecl;
not
arc
$ay
nrernos
nrany
acl6ition,
next....
is described
dtel;r-orngmidetr.ea-d-ing,_]yhich
"r.r.r.i,.r.
Man' *cn"rosbegin with four"hll-i,',-th.-blanklineii n,'Fror,, Date,and Srr/''fhesc
rnay be arrangedon the page in different
lseailings,
el.,,.,ents
jrcr.
, Er grtide
"sllo*n
'Ii'o
i-1. Rttttoughmany companiesinclud.e
in
Iigure
are
exanrplcs
\{,ays.
on printcd memo forris, others expectwritersto type in the headgui,l. 6eaclipgs
ingsthernsclves.
dre
Allo*, nyo ro three line spacesafter tl'relast guide headingbeforebeginning
marleft
the
against
flush
placed
paragraphs
menrobodi,,rvhichconsistsof single-spaced
benueerier.hprt gttph. Sorn. memoforms includethe word
grn.A line spaceappars
memo about
IIESSAGETR.T,hiprinted headings.fn ,ttit case,beginthebody !f lout
and
MESS'4GE
tides
the
include
may
fonns
,nJrrrge
T*o-pr.
three lines belo*. thai.
document'
the
in
information
of
placement
the
guide
shonld
headinp
kEpLI: These
docirmentsfor vital information,many u'riters incorpoTo help readers"scan
a matrateheadingiin,o their menros.Although the style of your headingsis largely
d'cument'
your
throughout
h-eadings
creating
in
ter of prcfJr.n.e, be consistent
Here, fo. .*rtple, is one way to style memo headings'
y
v
V

Capiulize and center;useupper- and lower-caseletters'


hirrar-y-lnel hendings.
Underline and placeflush aghinstthe left rnargin'
Srrouiory-lnelhendings.
Third-teuetlteadings.Indent paragraph headingsif yo11 paragrapht 3l'
tre.ain[s at the left margin.The headingis folildented;oth..*ii., begin
"*o
,pr..s; the openingsentenceof the paragraph
and
to**'.aby a period
heading'
the
as
line
same
the
on
begins

The sameheadingsrylescan be usedin reportsand proposals..


headingsfT* $..b"d): of your t tno b{
Set off prinia.y- and secondary-level
If the body of
double-spa.irig
ti.rJing one blank iine) befor" tnd afterthe heading.
beadContinuati\n-page
sheets.
continuation
use
long,
a
page
vour memo islncrretha-n
letters.
blsiness
for
suggested
that
as
style
sa-nte
follo*-the
should
itrgsin nlernos
wirh notarionsiik" thot. usedin standardbusinessletters'
. Man1,memosclose
left margin,
Notarionsshouldbe placedat the end of the memo, flush againstthe
item'
each
beween
with or without line spaces
consistentlvspaced,
thereis no signatureblock in a memo,notationsbegin eithertwo lincs
Because
handwrimeninitials' '
after the lastline of dre *.,i.o bodi' or two lines after the sender's.
lvlro receives
indicating
noutions,
of
tt'e
lronom
at
the
appear
A <listributionlist mav
For examplc:
fornr.
metno
the
of
head
at
the
listed
people
rhe r'enro in addiuon',u',i.
dh
Enclosurc
I)istribution
Anna Serrell
l'Iay Allrrisht

0rnr

r-rE

Art
abr
f'ess
ingr

t'l /,

Un
rvic

2t

a -

ln.s

ns.
JSt

w.
For

lL
red
lb9nt
rde

rd-

Societyof ManufacturingEngineers
Ml 481281
OneSMEOrive' Dearborn'
(e-mait)l
(fax)'arne@xxx'com
'
(313)
555'1696
(phone)
(313)555-1695

Ml 48128
OneSMEDrive' Dearborn,
(fax)' 36t6*t''com (e'mail)
555-1696
(phone)'(313)
(313)555-1695

To:

To:
n
From: (:, nii '^!i' - "

Societyof ManufacturingEngineers

'' l '' '

Date:

Date:
Subject:

From:

Subiect:

the
nrord
out
rnd
lt.
)oatlnt.

ers.
;in.
are
bllph

by
, of.
'ad;.
ers.
iltr,
nes
ials.

ifir
ple:

,rnv

Headings
FigureI-3 MemoGuide

Proposols
nnd
fleports
Preporing
nronths to researchand rvrite can still nlake
A report or proposal that takes wccks or
doctttttentis sloppy or inconsistent'A proa bad impression if the appearanceof thc
,n.l .u,,ett use of margins' heaclfessional ,pp"rrrrr.. .o,r',., fronr the consistcnt
ings, line spacing, and page nttttrbcrs'
,f{,rlR(;INS
in thc bocly 9f a rel)ort should be I ipcl'r
Unless your report is bguntl' lll ttrrtrgins
or fl section. T'h"rt pllge reqtrircs a 2- ttl
rvide, except for the first pagc of ,r c6',rptcr
2l -inch top rnnrgin'
is l.st in thc 6i'ding 'rocess' As "'r
If binding is usctl, :rllout i inch of prr'cr
loss'
result, margins rnust be rrtljustctlfirr thc
'lt
lclve r r l ] - i n c h t r t a r p g i n t h e t o p o f
In top-botttrclttt:ttrttscripts'
v
Top-bortnd:
or sectiott.r\fter binding, thc
aa.l', p.g. exceptthe first p''rgc of :r chrrptcr
-lir
ensrrreth'.rta 2- or 2!-inch nrarp.ge tuilishow I inclr of toll tttrtrqittsllrrcc'
2J to l-inch ttt:rrgin for the first
gin t"ntrins aftcr the bintlirtg, 'tllou' rr
page of a clrapter or il scctlotl'
a I l - i n c h l c f t r n a r g i r rs o t h a t a
Y Left-Bormd:In lcft-lr<ltttttlttrrtntlscrll)ts'
l-inch margin rctnirinsafter bintling'

I
ApPeruotx
Bustltess
PRrpRRtruo
DOCUtr,ttrufS
569

IIr.,{DINGS
Likc thosc itt lcttcrs nncl rnernos, thc hcarlingsin rcprlrts ancl pnlposrls rnust lrc
lllanncclin advanccand rtrust be irnplcnrentcclconsistently.I{eadings shoul<lalso usc
p:rrallclstrurcftre.You can use any clcirr and rersonablc hcading systcnl,lrut rcrncrnbcr that yclu havc onc g<lal in rnind: to nukc infrlnnation casy to fincl.

For

'l'he
/
on rh
rlatcli
letter:
perso

I.INE SI",ICII\,IG
I)cpcnding ul)orl citltcr yorlr pcrsonal prcfcrenceor the choscn srvle of X)ur organization, your report or prol)osal can bc single- or double-spacccl.
Sirrglc-spacingis
Illore cotlttllon. In double-spaceddocunrenls,I)aragraphsarc indcnted fivc spaces;in
singlc-spaccdclocurncnts,paragraphs usually begin flush lcft and arc scparatedfrorrr
onc anothcr by single line spaces.
Prollcr spacing around primary', secondary and paragraph headings nrakes
thcm ttrore lloticeallle-and more effective.Here are some gcncral guidelines fcrr
spacingarouncl hcadings:
Y
Y

FUL]
Every
left n
graph
NIOL

Unlili
choot
five t

Ti'iple-space
before and after llrirnaryheadings.
'lriple-space
before secondaryhcadings;double-spaceaftcr secondary
headings.
Do not add any extra line spacingbeforeor after paragraphheadings.

Iine,
usual
Thesr
bewt
all th
grapt
with

\A/hereas quotations of fewer than four lines generally are incorporated into
-fhey
the tcxt, quotations longer than four lines rre typically set apart frorn the rexr.
appear below the regular text and are indented five to ten spacesfrorn both thc left
and right margins. When the text is doubfe-spaced,the excerpt is generallv singlespaced. In addition, at least one blank space is added above and one blank space
bclow the excerpt to separate it further from the regular text.
*f.

PAGE NUMBERS
Obviously,page numbers are crucial in long reports and proposals.Placement
dependson whetheryour documentis left-boundor top-bound.
V

'fhe

Apprruorx
I
PnrpRRrrue
Busrrurss
DocurrlErurs
570

Left-boand.Page numbers are uzuallyryped at the top right of the page,


approximatelyl inch from the top edge and I inch from the right edge;
alternately,they can be centeredl inch from the top edge of the page.
The first pageof the report texghowever,is unnumbercd.
Tbp-ltound.
Becausetop bindingrnakesnumbersat the top right of rhepage
clifficult to read, they are usuallycenteredat the bottonr of the prg., l
inch from the bottom edge.

front nratterof reportsand propsals is numberedwith lower-case


Roman
nunrcrals(ii, iii, iu, and so on). Although the title pageis technicallythe lirst page
of the front nratter,it remainsunnunrbcred.
Sinrilarly,the letter of ransmittalis
pagcii, but the page is olien missingbecause
c<rnsidcrcrl
it is consiclerctl
a lcttcr
rrlther thun tcxt rnaterial.The acrualpagenumberingbeginsafter the tallleof contcnts,rvhichis oftenpageiii of thc front metter.fuabic nurnbersllcgin u'ith thc {irst
pagcof report text.
Pascnunrbersshouldstandaloneandshouldnot l)c set<lffbv clashcs.
parenthcscs,or llcriods

SIM)
Lette
two f

All li
grapt

knorv
ci{ic
"f)ea
struc

Ioc

Whe
must

Formnllinq
Letters
1'hefonnnf of a letterrefersto the rvayin which the elcrncntso[ a lcttcr :rrcplacctl
on thc page-for example,whethcrparrgrallhsarc indcrrtctllnrl rvlrcreto lllaccthc
'l'hree
and salutation.
rlifferentfbrrnirtsarc rrsctlin ltusilress
dateline,insideaddress,
Your choice of frrrrrrattlepcnrlson
lemers:rhefull bloch,modifedhlock,andsimpliJierl.
personalpreferenceand on the sryleaclopte<l
by your orgnnizrrtion.

i1

FULL BLOCK
Everyline in a full-blockformat-fronr the clatelineto the postscript-beginsat the
left margin. Paragraphsare single-spacecl,
and a double spaceseparatesone paragraph frorn andther.Figure I-4 depictsa lettcr in full-block forrnat.

| **l'

ii

,{
'l

.t
i
t

iil

MODIFIED BLOCK
Unlike the full-block sryle,writers using the modified-blocksryle may or may not
If paragraphs
chooseto indent paragraphs.
are indented,writers shouldindent thern
five to ten characterspaces.
Also in contrast to the full-block style, the position of the dateline,reference
line, complimentaryclose,and signarureblock are not flush left. Instead,they are
usuallytfped two to three characterspacesto the right of the center of the page.
These elementsmay also be placedflush againstthe right rnargin or sorliewhere
betweenthe right margin and the centerof the page.fu you can seein Figure I-5,
all the other letter elementsare placedflush againstthe left margin, and the paragraphsare not indented.Figure I-6 showsa sampleletter in modified-blockformat
with indented paragraphs.

;li
{
il
r{
li

i
't;

Ir

T
iI

rl
I

it

SIMPLIFIED
Lettersusinga simplifiedformat look somewhatdifferentthan lettersusingthe other
two formats.There are three main differences:
V
V

the absenceof a salutationand cornplinrentaryclose


the inclusionof a subjectline in every letter; rfped in all capital letters,
the subjectline appearsthreelinesbelow the insideaddrcssand three lines
abovethe middle of the lemer
the signatureline appearsfive lines below the nriddleof the letter because
there is no complirnentary close; often, the writer's narne and title are

ryped in all capitalletters


All lines-in this format are ryped flush againstthe left margin; thcre are no paragraph indentatjons.
The simplified-letter format enatrlesyou to address the reaclerwhen you don't
know who the reader is. For example, whcn writing to a corrlpany rather than a specific individual, elirninating the salutirtionenablcs you to avoid stilted openings likc
'l'hc
sarnlllc lcttcr in Iiipjrre I-7 is con"Dear Customer Service Representativc."
structed in a simplified format.

Iocumenlin0
$ources
VVh.r, your report or proposal relies on secondary sources for information, you
must acknowledgethese sources.You can rnake your acknowledgment either by

il

Apprruorx
I
PReplnrrvc
Busrrurss
Docuurrurs
571

BlllowsReolEslolo
Comm0rclolReolEsloleDoportmsnl
'123 BlngAvenue
lrvlne,CA92733
( 7 1 4 ) 5 5 5 - 7 1 1 3( P h o n o )
( 7 1 4 ) s 5 s - 7 1 1 4( l o x )
(e'moU)
Jeofilippe@blllows.com

All tl:c t'luttutts in t JilllblockJinnt t btqin,fl uslt


rtQninsttl.tclr.1irtrrtrgitt'
Allozt,nl lutst nto to Jbur
nl,oL't'nnl ltclozu
linc sltrrct's
thc datt. Iirucl sPntina
dcpmds on tbc lmutlr of thc
lettcr T-bezw'itcr limits
thc insidc ndth'cssto four'
lincs lty climiutting o
sel)ariltcline Jin' tlte
ndtlrcssec'stitle

l{arch 22, l99X


llr. Sanuel Jenkina
tfestern States Bank & Trust
1000 Hicheleon Drlve
Irvlne. CA 92730

tt
tl I

Dear San:
vlcc
o:r your promotlon to erccut{vc
Congratulltlone
but not
I ea dcllghted'
ln charge of real aatrte'
prefldent
the good
h
a
d
S
t
a
t
c
a
l
l
c
g
t
e
r
n
aurprleed. by your auccesa.
Porton for thc Job'
senae to cholal thc rogt quallfied
Callneonceyougetrettled.lJe'llhavclunchanddigcusg
for both our
leveral deala that look llke opportunltlcr
conpanice.

I)

fl
n,
il.

C or d l a l 1 Y

Ir

6//rff"
fen/4etlp

lt,

Jeanette
lrecutlvc

FtllPPc
Presl'dent

ln

't
('l,

tl

F
Lr
Fc
In

FigureI-4 SamPle
Format
Full-Block
Letter:
inserting parentheticalreferenceswithin your text or by footnoting.or endnoting
includyou, ..F.i"nce material. Footnoresand endnotescan also add meaningby
your
of
end
at
the
appear
should
ing adclitionalcommentary.Complete sourcelists
document.

I
Apprruotx
Bustruess
PnrpeRtruc
Docul.ttrrurs
572

I'A R I',1,{TI I ET I CA L RDFTRENCT'S


at which
ParentheticalrcferencesspeciStfor readersthe points in a document
re'rders
give
also
They
summarized'
rnatcrial has becn quot.d, prraphrased,or
your
of
cncl
at
the
listed
sources
cited
fully
cnoush inforrnation'tofincl'rp..ifi.,
i
tlocurncnt
wrinen in
Both parentheticalrcferencesand concludingsourcelists are usually
I'anguage
Modern
the
by
developed
style,
ML4
the
sgles:
one of rwo {ocumentation
Asociafusociation; and the APA stylc,developedby the American |tfthgtoqcal
in Al'A
cited;
wbrks
tit-rrr.In MLA style the end-of-docum;nt source list is called
sn'le it is calledRcfcrenccs.

M
p2
pt

N
th
ap

re
Fc

'

I'1.,rI t t r, tuttrpl i tttctt lrtr'.1'

{lo.st',tt tt,l si uttrtI ttt'c ltlocA'


rrrc phrul

tu tltc rialtt o.l'

tltc cctttt'r'of'rlrt pttttc

I't m urupl.,strrc t.yped


fluslt tgrrinst rbeIcJt
mnrei tr. Si tt ale-sptcirrtt is
usul zritl.,irrrrprtrtrutupls,
ccrr
ttt'i n,qlrctzu
doulil c-s1s
prrrtrSqnrphs

'

r,,,, ri rrrt iotr rrnl


l'll a i 11

t'tt t'lostt t'c t t ot rtt io tt rtt'c


t lttys

t.y,
ltul .l/ usb ltJi

FigureI-5 Sample
Letter:
Modified-Block
withoutParagraph
Format
lndentation
MLA Srn r In MLA style parentheticalreferencesincludethe author'snameand
page number after the materialrequiring documentation.In its simplestform, the
parentheticalreferencelooks like this:
(Thnnenl4).
communica.tion
Men and women often suffer from cross-culrural
Notice that the author's name and the page nunlber are enclosedin parenthesesand
that the reference includes no internal puncfuation. Note also that the reference
appears before the puncruadon that ends the sentence.
When the author's name is used in the documented sentence, you need not
repeat it in the parenthetical reference, which will include only the page number.
For example:
According to Deborah Tannen, men and women often mffer from a form of crosscultural communication (14).

Apperuorx
I
PnrpnRruo
Bustruess
Docurr,teHrs
573

Lark and Loltlsh CorPoratlon


56 Denvllle Road
Nashua. Nll ()3()6()
(603) 555-7 I l5 Plrone
(603) 555'71lO fax
mwllcl@llc.com e-mnll

Aptl I 1, 199X

Tltc dttcline,
ond
ctttnrTclose,
coaryli?n
signann'eblockoppearto
thc rigltt of thecentcrof tbc
page. Pnragrnpbsare
indentedfue to tan
characterspaces.
Parag'aphsare singlewith double+pacing
spaced
paragraphs.
between

Mr. Sven Seligson


Amedcan Cancer Soclety
4 Mandesia Strset
Nashua, NH 03060
Dear Mr. Sallgaon:
There ls no morc worthwhlle charltable oqanlzetlon In our communlty than tho
Amerlcan Cancer Soclety. t am honored by ycr lnvltatlon to lpeak at your annual
banquet neri month.
My membershlp on several corporate bodt phcet a gtat many demands on
Regcttably' becauge of
my tlmi, and nrt month ls my bualest travel dod.
prevlous commlbnentr, I wlll not be able to acopt your lnvltstlon.

Ii
It
(l
II

la thers another Amerlcan Cancer SocletTfunctlon at wttlch I can rpeak? I


have encloged open dates In my achedule onr lhe nsxt three months.
Call me after you have looked at the achcdule. I look fonvard to the
opportunlty to epeak belora an organlzauon arworthwhlle a8 your own.
Slncaly,

l1a,n/toWi//p,
MartraWllder
Chld ExecutlveOfflcer

lr
Enclosurs

,l
.f/

((
l(

FigureI-6 SamPle
Letter:Modified-Block
withParagraph
Format
lndentation
Referencesto works written by ruo mthors cite both names (oined by and) and
the pagenumber. When the source has too or threeauthors,all the namesare cited
in the ieference.\4rhen a work hasmoretfun tlme oathors,use the first author'sname
plus the Latin abbreviation et al, For examPle:
mustnot be takenfor granted;theymustbe
in the workplace
Culruraldifferences
(FlarrisandMoran 3).
rnanaged
in the
the negativesiruationdescribed
lenersshouldavoidemphasizing
Adjustment
originalcomplaintletter,but shouldfoarson the actionsbeingtakento correctthe
(Brusarv
et al. 23).
situation
I
Apprruotx
Bustruess
PnepnRrrue
Docuurrurs

574

0r riore worksby the sarneoutbn4youl parentheticalreferIf you must cite nDQ


encesmust differenriateberweenthe worla. Do this by providing the author'slast
name,a shortenedtitle of the worlq and pagenumbers.For example:
I ll)
ffannen, Understand
StYle89)
(fannen,Contersational

v.
F

sl
al
rl

I
u

''rj
. I ll tlrrtrL'ul.t tt ltlttrrt' f/ trtlt
, t q ( t i t t i l t l , c l t ' l t t t t t t t ' . \t t

Ittstrttl of't stluturtiott,rt


,^xltfrt linc i.rrrll upitnl
lcttt't'slitllous tltc irrsidt

ccbcJ'orr
t I I rtss.'I i'ipIc-sprr
tnl tlirr thcsullrctlinr

9:.
'o

',i

'

' t' 1t.1'' il


4

iii:; .- 4n;

'

t,'.

.!

.:l>l

'":-.;i.
.
: "'5ri

" {
.l r

{il'

'l'ltr

lt'llcr contninsa
si{truttrreblock irt tll
mpittl lfit(r's but no
tottrpl it trt'rtI ur1 d osa

FigureI-7 SamPle
Format
Simplified
Letter:
end
ited
n$e

.Notice, by the way, that a comma separetesthe author's name and the tide and
that the title is either italicized or underlined.
If the author of the work is a corporation or other organization, and if no individual author is cited, use the organization's name in your parenthetical reference.
For example:
(Xerox Corp. 57)
When no author, indiviclual or corporate, is citedr /our parenthetical reference
should use the title of the u,ork itself or an abbreviated version of that title. The
ab[reviatccl title sh<lul<lstart with thc rvord by u'hich the rvork is alphabetizedin
the \\ilrk Cited list at the cnd of t'our clocument.For example:
(Stotistical,345)
Hcre the titlc is italiciz.erl(or untlerlincd) bccauscit is a book. \\'hen citing articles.
use quotation marks.

I
Apperuorx
ParpaRrruc
Busrrurss
Docutr'tErurS
575

I
tl
ll

lill

'I'herc

are tirnes, of course, when nrore than one sourcc rvill contribute to an
iclerrcirccl in vour clocurnent.In this casc both sources(separatedby a semicolon)
shoulcl bc incluclcclin your parentheticalreference:

1l

:,,

(-Fannen167;Ilaron 6'l)

( G i l l i g a nq t d . i n T h n n e nl l 3 )
In this citation, the abbreviation qtd. tells the reader that Deborah Tlnnen's book
includes a quote by Carol Gilligan rnd that the source list at the back of the document includes an entry under Thnnen's name.
Always place parenthetical reftrences immediately after quoted material, even
if the quote ends in the middle of a sentence.For example:
According to Deborah tnnen, "For most women, the languageof conversationis
primarily a languageof rapport" (77) to establishconnectionsand form relationships.
If the quote ends the sentence, place the parenthetical reference immediately after
the quoted material, but before the closing period. For instance:
"For most women, the languageof conversationis primarily a languageof rapport"
flannen 77).
This format gives the reader enough information to locate the source of the quote

in your Worla Cited list.

t,
lr

(Thnnen,
1990,p. 101)
Notice that commasseparateeach elementand that a period is used afterp:
or ntmmarizedmaterialmay or may not includepage
Referencesto poraphrased
numbers;as a rule, the writer may decidewhetheror not the readeris likely to need
the exactlocationof the cited material.
Although the samebasicrules govern both MLA and APA citations,there are
a few notervorthyrequirementsin APA style:
v

Apperuorx
I
PnrpnRrruc
Busrrurss
DoculvrErurs
576
. 1 ., '

If you mention a work more than once,the full parentheticalreferenceis


includeonly authorand page
references
usedthe first time; all subaequent
number.
!\hen citing worla written in the sameyear by the same author, alphabetize the works in your Referenceslist and then assigna letter to each
work (a, b, c, and so on); thesesamelettersshould then appearin your
parenrheticalreferencesas a meansof distinguishingamong the author's
variousworla. For example:

(lannen,1990a,
P.39)

/
I
I

\,Vhcn your source cites another source, the names of both authors should be
ntentioned in your parenthetical reference.For example:

APA Sryr-r, In APA style parentheticalreferencesalso point the reader to the full
citation at the end of your documenLThe purpose,then, is the sameasthat of MLA
sryle; it is format that differs.
First, APA referencesdistinguishbeween quotedmaterialon the one hand and
paraphrasedor summarized material on the other. When citing quotedmaterial,
include the author'sname, the year of the work's publication,od page nurnber(s),
rvhich should be inuoduced with p, for one page andpp, for wo or more pages.For
example:

lt
tl

r'-

srylc,-it is irnportentto use your chosetr


whether you chooseMl,A or APA
and in the s.urce list at thc
both in your 'arcntheticafrefcrctrccs
swle consistently,
citation stylcs'
;;{d";Gr,, ao.un''tnt' l)o not urix
I ; O O ' l' N o ' t' l i A\tD l i ,\' l )' \' o ' l ri R I:' ttl ;' ,R /i ' N (l /i ' s
r'cthotl' lrr
to thc llrrrcntrrcticat-reference
Iiootnotesand enrrnotcsare nrternativcs
citecltnrrtcwhich
on
tl'tt bottom of thc Pagc
footnotcs,cortrltlctcsourccslll)pcrlr.,
tltc tcxt
c<xlrdin:rtcs
''i"'til"t
r\rrrbic
ir',tlic nrr,r.,,rf a r:risctl
ri:rl allllcarr.n .rra,.rr.r'4,t
or
chaPtcr'
page'
by
sctlucntially
ntttttllerctl
are
l;.r,rt,'t,ltcs
rcfcrcnceto the f.r.rt,',,rtc.
tltc
at
listecl
are
in c'rltr.tc, .*."1ri th:'t sources
rloctrnrent.The sa'rc sysrcl' is uscrl
work as a whole'
thc
of
cn<l
."a tf eachchaptt' nt thc
perforrn two.clifferc't fi,r'ctions.Iixpranntorl'
nray
cntrrotes
ancr
Both footnotes
or explainstl'ret'ain point made in the
rotcsincludeco"nent'rry th.t ,uppit'ltino
of the docu,r-,ry'^i,o.ttu"-itfercncc other parts
text itself. Explanatoryfootnot.,
establishthe sourcesfor quoted,paraphrasecl,
rnent or otrrersources.Refu-cuce,otr.i
or summarizedmaterial"
to irrcluclenote numbersin your document:
Use the following grridclirres
is' a litde abovethe linc
1. The nurnbershouldappcaras superscrillt-that
of words'
as pos.sibleto the text to which it
2. The numbcr shoulclappearas close
puncftlauon'
refers,but after any acconrpanying
3 . O n e s p a c e s l r o u | c l f o l l o w t h e n u n l b e r w h e n i t a p p eaanew
r s i nsentence'
themiddleofa
number is followedb
,.rr,.n."i-u;"-;; spaceswhen the
endnote numbers,or parentheticalreferwhether you use foomote numbers,
rvith rJtcsotrce'ristin which you collect
ences,your citati*, nrur, be coordinated
examine
have used in your docUment'We will
referencesto the materialthat you
these sourcelists next'
r,,.

t/sr.s
.5()L/R(;n

with a rist of sourcesthat


are coorcrinated
references
a'd er.rdnote
Both parentheticar
are found at the botfootnotes
for
att. tources
appearsat the end of your.docut'.,.ni,
list as WorksCited;
source
the
to
refers
sryle
tom of pages.e, *" not.d earlier,MLA
your list Notes'
nrsy*1ii \Arhenyou
'all use endnotes'label
in ApA sryle, i, ;;ii;in your doccited
rhesourcesactually
In eachcaseyour list should contain
paraphrase'
quoution'
a
in
it
cite
do not
ument. If you .onJult a sourcebut
"ru'lly
it in your so11c1-]ist'
or summery you need not include
arrengedalphabetiyour sourcelist shouldbegin on a new page,with enuies
on a work' alphanamed
not
is
*,In,
,n
\lhen
cally.according,o ,.*t,o.r, namis.
the title (Tle' A' andAn erenot con."6' ;t ,i* n*, tignificantword of
ffi#;;
sideredsignificantwords)'
Wewillnlrnnexttothell:rsiccitatiorrsrylestrscdtocreatelistsofWorksCited,
anclMrr's'
Raferenccs,
\A/<lnxs(]l'l.t,t; I,ls.t.
MLA Docultl,N.IXl.l()NS.t.t.t,t,:
infonrati.n ('lrrce
rrutrr.r,titrc, rr'tl 1;trrllication
Books citati<lnstor rr''ks i'cr'trc
l )\' ' r
l l ' ' l cl rcl crl tcnri s scl )l l rrte(l
rrn tltl a tc,,f 1r,,l ,l i .,,ti ' rr)'
s'ttrcc
, . I llu l l l i c a ti o nPu
, l l l i s h e r,
t'c
rr
\4/lre
c:r'italiz'ctl'
a.e
I
All rrl'.ri.rtr,,r,l, ,f'tlrc titlc
Apprltotx
llcri,cl rlrltlr*,. sl)..lccs.
l ' l srrshl cft a' tl l l l fi tl l ' * ' i rrgl i rrcs
ri r.,.l l l )r)c1rt'
Bustrurss
ti
r.,
trrc
Pnrpnntnc
l
i
rrc
,
r c t lt r i rc s .ro rc ,,.,' r,.,,,,.,.
rutS
DOCUt,lf
I"or t:x''tlttplc:
rrrcintlcntctllive sl)1lccs'
Ilarris,lrhilipl{.,rrrrtlliobcrt'1.}l'rr':rrt"\ltttttt,qitt'q("rthtrmlDi'l'lhuxts'llottst{)tr:
C l u l f P , , 1 , 1 1 5 h i ; 1l (s),( )l '

577

( l i t : r t i ' r r s , l ' r t r t i c l c s f i ' , t t t t t r l r g r r z i l r ej s' u, r n a l s ,


a n t l n c * , s 1 ) l l p c rl rsl s . c , ' t a i l r
"lt'trrlr't
t l t r c c t t t ; t i o rl ) i t r t s :; t t t l l l o r , ; r r t i c l ct i t i e . , r r r t l p r r l r l i c l t i o n
i n l i r r r r r r r t i ' n .I ) r r l r l i c a t i ' '
i l r l i r r t r r r t t i ' ti lrt t ' l r r t l ct sl r c t i t l c t l ' t l r c
c r r r r r l r crr.,c r r ,r f ' l l r r l r l i c a t i ' n ,
l l c r i , r r l i c r rrl,,o l r r r n n
r r r r t lr r p l l l i c : r l r llel r r g cr r u r r r I r c r sI i. o r c . v r r n l l l c :
S a t l k c rI,t V r : t ,r r r r rIl) : r ' i t l S r r t l k c r" .s c r i s r ni l r t h e ( , l a s s r ' . r r r :
l i r . r n ( J r a r l cS c . l r ' ' lt '
( ir:rrlrrrttc
Sclrool."ll;i 11r1,,,
Ktrpp,t67 119t)6):
7.
Ntrtc that M[--'\ style rcverscstl'reordcr of the first
antl llsr nanresJbr thelirst
'lhe
oiltl'to''onl.y'
titlc of thc Pcriorlical is italicizerl (or un<lcrlinerl),
and the public a t i o n r l r r r ci s c n c l o s e t il l t
1l:rrenthcscs.
lVhcn citing in :lrticlc irt a popular perioclicalor a
newsl)aper,use the frrll clate
rather than a volunre nunrbcr. lior e.xarnple:
Satlkcr,NlFa, antl I)avid .Satlker.
"Se.xism
in the Schoolroornof the
'foday,
r"! ,g0s.,,
vv! psycholog
March lg15: 54_5j.
When the date includes a spccific day, the dayshoulcl
be written firsr, as ;n I4
March 198t.
online Databases To cite inforrnadon offered on online
-Citing
databases,such as the
Internet, the MLA requires three additional elements
that.itatioir i"t frirted information do not' The additional elements are the publication
medlu- iorrtine), the
nanle of the computer service or nerwork through
which you accessedthe source
(Internet, Nexis, CornpuServe, and so on), and
thJ date of retrieval. An opdonal element is the electronic address (or user resource locator,
URL) you used to access
the document' precedeclby the worcl Auailable.Each
new'element is separated by a
periocl t-1d *" spaces.The new etements follow the
informarion about'the original
source' If you cannot find sorne of the information required,
cite what is available.
Some exanrplesfollow:
Angier, Natalie. "Chemists Learn lVhy Vegetablesfue
Good for you., Na, york
r3 Apr. 1993,late ed.: c r. N; tdrF iiiii
oitirr. online. Nexis. l0 Feb.
T,:t:,
t996.
"Time Warner, Inc-r SalesSunrrnary t988- lgg2." Dischnre/LVorldscope.
>' / '/ v"wLvrv' Online.
\

Nexis.

4 Jan. 1996.

Jacobsen,Jan-e."A Flistory of CollaborativeCommunication.' Amricon psychohgist,


62 (1996) 153-159.online. Internet. 3 Apr. 1996.Availabl;
hd:/twww. apa.org/
journalVjacobsen.h
trnI
Note that a closing period is not used after an Internet
addressgiver\ in a source
list.
'
For the correct MLA fornr frrr all possible citations,
consulr Joseph Gibaldi,
Mr'4 tlnndltook for writers oJ-Resenrch
lraper-s,4th ecl. (New york: miA, 1995).
i\ [,A Doc uMrlN'tA't'roN S-tyt. t.: R tit;trR'._N(:tl-sLIS'.
Bo(.s. In APA sryle book citaticlns,includc flour rnajor
parrs: ruthor, tl.rre,titlc, and
publicirtion inforrnation. Iior e.ralrrlile:
IIrrll, lr'"'l', attd IIall, NI' R. (l9ti7). IIiddm difJerertce.r:
Doing!,usiness
-zuithtbeJoprrrtese.
JJ
(lirrtlerr(lirv. N,r: I)oublcrlay.

Appenorx
I
PRrpRnrrue
Busrrurss
Docurumrs
578

AI,A sryle the last nillne of each autlor always appears


first. The date of
ptrblication appears-ne.\tin parcnthes.es,followed by the
tiile, which is italicized (or
underlincd)'-Only the Iirst wonl of thc-title is capitalized,
as is any *o.d following
I colon' If the reder.is likely to be unfamiliar with the
ciry of puLlication (as rvith
Gatrlen City, Nrw York),the U.S. Postal Service state abbr.uir.ion
can be added.

rtarn
tion '
:ion,

to

frot
bli-

late

ry
t4

the
brthe
rce
leess
Ya
nal
rle.

il

r#

also includc frrur rnajor parts:author, datc, articlc titlc.


Articles APA articlc citatior"rs
and pulllication infornration. Publication infornration inclurlesthc publication titlc,
volume nurnllcr, anrl applicablepagcs. lior exarnple:
Cox,'ll, and Nkoltto, S. M. (1990).Lrvisilllclncn rrrrrl\r'onren:
A statusrcport oll
racc :ls a variablcin <lrganizatiort
bchitviorrcscarr:h.
lJchm'iot',
.'fonmnlof Orvnnizntionnl
I I, 1990.2.lf.l-2.s6.
Notc that quotrttic.rn
nrarks rl<l zol cnclosc thc titlc of thc article :rnd th'.rtthc
inclusivc llage nutttbcrsare given in full. Pagc referencingcontrastsrvith MLA sn,lc:
MLA uses tlte full sccond nunrber through 99 (for cxarnplc,26-37) but then onli'
t h c l a s t t w o d i g i t s ( 1 8 7 - 9 3 ) u n l e s sc o n l ' u s i o nc o u l d r c s u l t ( l 9 l - 2 0 3 ) .
In sonre journals page nurnbers run continuously throughout an annual volurne: That is, if the first issueof a volume ends on page 125, the second issuestarts
'lir
on page 126. In rnost iournals, however, llagination is separatefor each isstrc.
cite articles from journals in the latter group, include both the uolumenuniltu and
the isnrc nuntber.
In APA sryle the volume numtrer is italicized (or underlined) and the issue
number follows immediately after within parentheses.For example:
Droge, C., and Germain,R. (1990).Note on marketingand the corporateannual
report: l910- 1950. Journal of tbe Acadenryof MnrketingScirncc.I8(4), 345-363.
lnfomution Ren'ieaedf'tn tbe Internet Many rypcs of information can be retrieved
electronically via the Internet. Generally, to cite sources retrieved frorn dre Internet, begin with the same information that would be provided for a printed source
(author, date, tide, and publication information), or as much of that infomration as
possible. Then add a description in brackets of the document type, a retrieval notice
(where the information was obtained from), and the URL (Unifonn Resource Locator, or Internet address).Again, do not use a closing period at the end of a IJRL,
as the address does not have a final period. Here are sorne examples:
AmericanPsycboloJacobsen,
J. R. (1996).A history of collaborativecommunication.
online]. Retrievedfrom \4/orld \4/ide
gist,62, 153-159 [fournal,selected'articles
Web: http://www.apa.orgljournals/jacobsen.html
build a culture of peace.APA Monitor;pp. l,
Slcek,S. (l996,January).Psychologists
33 [Newspaper,selectedstories online]. Retrievedfrom \Abrld Wide Web:
http://www.apa.orgljournals/ab
I .html
For further information about citations using APA sryle, contact the APA at its
home page: http.//www.apa.org or consult American Psychological fusociaaon, Publication Manual of the American PrychologicalAssociation, 4rh ed. flVashington, D.C.:
APA,'1994).

li,

,i
r
g

)
f

When you use a note fornrat, your source can


Foo.rworES AND Exnruores
appear either at the bottom of the page with the footnote or listed on separatepagcs
at the end of the clocurnent. \A&en you usc cndnotes, ccntcr tlre s'ord Notc.r (no
underlining or quotation marks) at the top of a separatepage.Thcn skip four lincs
before starting the 6rst notc. Inclent the 6rst line of each note fivc charactcrsl)accs;
a l l o t h c r l i n c s s t a r t a t t h c l e f t r n a r g i n . I i a c h n o t c n u n r b e r i s r a i s c ds l i s h t l ) ' a b o v ct l r c
cntry and is rvrincn rvithout a lleriorl.
'l'hc
M L A s r y l c i s t r c q u c n t l y t r s c < lt o f r r n r r : r tl i x r t n o t c sa n < lc n r l n o t c s . , \ 1 1 , , \
s t y l c i s s l i g h t l r 'd, i f f c r c n t f r < l r 1t h a t u s e t l i p t h e \ A t r r k s( l i t c t l l i s t t 6 l t i s u s u a l l t ' c t 1 , r tlin:rtctlrvitlt llrrrcnthcticalrcf'crcttccs.Iior cx:utrplc.tlrcrc is no rcvcrsalin tlrc orticr
< l f a u t h o r s ' n A n l c s ,a r t r l t h c p u l l l i c r r i o n i r r f r r r t r t a t i o (r lrl l e c c o f p u b l i c r r t i o np, u l r l i s h c r .
a n r l r l a t c ) i s c n c l < l s c <i n1 p a r c n t h e s c s .

Apptrvorx
I
Pnepnnrrvc
Busrr,rrss
Docuvrrui
s
579

I
I
I

BII.
d,
ten
in
tio
no

I
i

'otc
rrc s()lrle rirst-rctcrcnce
r;irst Rc.rit.r:ttttsI Icrc

firrrrrs for cot.rn.n

tr'1lcs'I

S()tlrCcS.r\sy<lttrvilIscc,su|tsetlttetttrcteretrccsllscllshtlrtenedfornr'
l9tt6) I i{'
( \ c s t l r l v c n : - Y a l cU n i v e r s i n ' P r e s s '
rl)ctrtris ll:trotr, (irtnutdr rtnrl
-(ictriar
'lrtl etl'
culttn'nlDifl'erints'

rPhilirrR. rr,..r,.ir'.L,i
ir,,r,.r, Il ril,;";r, I lu,,usi,,,(t

na
th,

Accrc'lrrtrinI;a*etr
l{cp.rt-s
Rcwrotc
tii:ntl,ll'ii.l",rll;';fii,fii),i,tfir,,n,',,r
'l'ima
,i,,n lli,l,"'Ncrl )irrl
oK..r1'J. fr.,i".il"rg.i

ll M';rrch1992:.\l
"'
';ffictive
Conr'un'
Lff'ectiveConrlltuntcator:
"Crn a'''tyt"tt IJcc'tnca i\lorc

US

rh
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JrHllitt,if fi '}:L:Til'Lt'fi
"i;iil*::a-:j::lyl?1",i#,iusincss
Co**ttnicttion55'4(1992)10-12'
of tbeAssuiorirr'i{r"ilrt;'rri
Writing,,,Bultetiri

avoid repetition' subsequentreferences


Referencesfb savetime an,
Subsequent
5rylc'
sourcenotescan useeithera traditional
appearin shortenedform. shortenecl
not'
or the lvlIJA ty.lt' which does
used:
which includesLatin abbro,iations'
-t tin abbreviationsare commonly
r.6*irs
In the tradidonal sryle,the
Y i b i d . ( L a t i n m e a n i n g . . i n - t h e s a m e p l a c e 'preceding
' ) . T h i s a bit;bwhen
r e ' r i apage
t i o nnumisusedwhen
* *. tt" immediaiely
,n .n..iir';;;.J
number
page
entry i, tht same[ut the
bers foilow the abbrevir,ion,the
is different'
v o p . c i t . ( L a t i n m e a n i n g . . i n t h e w o r k c i,"[.,.n.e
t e d ' ' ) T hfrom
i s a bits
b roriginal
e v i a t i ocitanisused
when one or more referencesseparate.,
ti o n ;to c o o rd i n a tc rr,.r.r.* cew i ththeori gi nal ci tati on' i ncl udethel ast
namesoftheaudrorsaswellaspagenumbers.
is usedin
the flace cited") This abbreviation
v loc. cit. (I-atin merning "in
thesamewayasoP.clt.'.*."p.thatitreferstoexacdythesamepagenumber as the Previomcitation'
actualsources:
how theseabbreviationsapply to
The follorving examplcsshow
rD e n n i s B a ro n ,G rn mmmandGenderQ* i ervLl aven:Y al euni versi tyP ress' 1986)l 14 '
'Ibid',47.
Srded'
culnral Diftrences,
rphilip R. I-IarrisandRobert-I'.l,{oran,Nlonnging
1991)256'
Culf Publishing'
(Houston:
,'H_g1pit^al
RewroteReportsin FailedAccreditaGottlieb,
1ffi;l:l;il';f.l"rrtin
1992:Al'
tion Bitl,"'frl'- Wp Ti'ot I I March
6tbid.
TFIarri,and Moran, loc' cit'
^4LAstylecloesnotrrseLatinexpressions.toind
i c a t e s uwhen
b s e q ufootnotes
e n t r e f e r or
ences'
referencesto original sources'
include
Rrrther,lvtlA rclies on shortened
neecl
references
^",hur, ,utrr.,1uent
*uru ;;;;
encln.tes ir.rcludeo'ly one
rcftrcncc:
page
thc
a'tl
nanre
i".'ii irt. .uti''"'l' lttst
to'N"ill, 199'
by the s:rrttc
cite rttore thln one rvork
'eachlllust
ar'oitl ctlltfirsion rryhen)'otl.
p''ruc
narrc
title, ..rrclngrvith the author!
"r'rl
ftrrn*f
i*rthor, use a slrorte.crr
ttttntbcrs:
-lo

I
ApPtruotx
Bustltrss
TEPARING
Docuturrurs
580

')SnrYthc,
234'
Conmunicntion
'iliti"fi., Corporotc
Culwe 49-54'

is to grride
A t l x r r l a l r c p o r t r n a y a l s o - i n c l t r c l e a bbitrliographies
i b l i o g r , a p l r ynext'
whosepurpose
We rvill examine
renclersto adtlitior;;i:";;;"t

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BIBLIOGMPHIES
L bibliograpby
is n alphabetizedlist of the sourcesused to prepare a body of rvritten material.A bibliographydiffers frorn lists of works cited, ,.f...n..r, and notes
in that it may include worla not specificallyreferred to in rhe document. In addition, the bibliographyusesinclusivepagenumbersfor entire articlesin periodicals,
not iust the pagesspecificallyreferredto as sourcesof citcd infornrarion.
Eachentryin thc bibliography
bcginsat the lefr margin,with the author'slast
appearingfirst. L,ntriesrvith no authorare listeclalphabetically
bv title (use
1t-9
the first significantword). Nl subsequent
lines are indent.d 6u. ,pr..r. Entriesare
usually-single-spaced,
with a doubleline spacebetu,ecnentries.fu you can seefropr
the following examples,the tlate in a billliographyappcarslater than it does in a
sourcelist:
Adler,litnqJ "CulruralSlnergy:Managingthe Irnpact_of
CulruralDiversiry."In
The1986-A!!yl:p*rlopiris Humai R-rrourrrr.
SanDiego:universityfusoci_
ates,1986,229-jB.
Copeland,-l*nnie.
"ValuingDiversity:Makingthe Most of CulruralDifferences
at
peionnel,42
the Workplace,,'
fuu"ef lfSy, iZ_AO.
Hymowitz,Carol."One Firm'sBid to KeepBlacks,Women:CorningBanlesto
overcome
Ingrained
Biases."
walt sieetJournal,l6Februaryiqg9, gr.
Intcrnatianal
Dimensions
of Organizationdl
BehaalbrBoston:Kent Publishing,19g6.
Johnston,William3., andArnoldE..Packer.
Worlforce
2000:Workand Workers
for the
Twntyfm century.Indianaporis:
HudsonInstirute,June 19g7.
Leffler,Ann,DianeGillespie,andJoanC. Conary."The Effec6of StarusDifferenriationon NonverbalBehavior,"Srial Psychilog
Quanerty45:3 l5i-61.
Thnnen,Deborah.Tltat'sNotWat I Meant!HoatConaenational
SryleMakes
or Breaks
YourRdttionswitb othm. New york wlliam Morrow, lggi6.
Whgn you cite severaldifferent sourcesby the sameauthorsin a bibliography,
you crn eliminatethe.need to repeat authors' namesby using a long dash insiead
'
v
e
of the samenameeach tinie.
To make an extensivebibliography more manageable,you can divide the
e.ntriesintg cltgqoriesaccordilg subjea. For exampl-e,
in r i.pon on workforce
!o
diversity,the bibliogra-phymiglt be divided into the fbilowing headings:age, communication, orln'al diversiry disabiliry,gendeEand race aniethnicitlr. It can also
be divided by q?o of entries:boola, journal afticles,magazineand ne*spaper articles,and governmentpublications.
To help readersevaluatethe usefulnessof sources,annotatedbibliographiesprovide shon cornmentson eachentry. For example:
Ilit !t,JamesS. "OlderWorkersChafeunderYoungManagers."Wall Street
Jountal,
Bl. Discusses
howthe 3.4million"*.if,.ir .g.d;t'."d olderin
lj
theT.,bfty^1990,
unlted Statescreateuniqueproblemsandopportunities
for-themselves
andtheir
corporations.
If you decideto annotateyour bibliography,rememberthat all of the entriesmust
be annotated.

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I
PRrpRRrrue
Busrruess
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