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1. An adaptation is _____.

a trait that gives an organism a reproductive
advantage in the current environment
2. Which of these conditions are always true of
populations evolving due to natural selection?
Condition 1: The population must vary in traits that are
Condition 2: Some heritable traits must increase
reproductive success.
Condition 3: Individuals pass on most traits that they
acquire during their lifetime.
Conditions 1 and 2
3. Charles Darwin _____.
proposed natural selection as the mechanism of
4. It has been observed that organisms on islands are
different from, but closely related to, similar forms
found on the nearest continent. This is taken as
evidence that ____.
island forms are descended from mainland
5. In 1959, doctors began using the powerful antibiotic
methicillin to treat infections of Staphylococcus aureus,
but within two years, methicillin-resistant strains of S.
aureus (MRSA) appeared. How did the resistant strains
of S. aureus emerge?
Staphylococcus aureus bacteria that were able
to synthesize cell walls using a protein that was
not affected by methicillin survived the methicillin
treatments and reproduced at higher rates than
did other individuals. Over time, these resistant
individuals became increasingly common.
6. During a study session about evolution, one of your
fellow students remarks, "The giraffe stretched its neck
while reaching for higher leaves; its offspring inherited
longer necks as a result." Which statement is most
likely to be helpful in correcting this student's


Characteristics acquired during an organism's

life are generally not passed on through genes.
7. Over long periods of time, many cave-dwelling
organisms have lost their eyes. Tapeworms have lost
their digestive systems. Whales have lost their hind
limbs. How can natural selection account for these
Under particular circumstances that persisted
for long periods, each of these structures
presented greater costs than benefits.
8. A group of small fish live in a lake with a uniformly lightbrown sandy bottom. Most of the fish are light brown,
but about 10% are mottled. This fish species is often
prey for large birds that live on the shore. A
construction company dumps a load of gravel in the
bottom of the lake, giving it a mottled appearance.
Which of these statements presents the most accurate
prediction of what will happen to this fish population?
The proportion of mottled fish will increase over
9. Of the following anatomical structures, which is
homologous to the bones in the wing of a bird?
a. bones in the flipper of a whale


Currently, two of the living elephant species (X and Y)

are placed in the genus Loxodonta and a third surviving
species (Z) is placed in the genus Elephas. Assuming
this classification reflects evolutionary relatedness,
which of the following is the most accurate
phylogenetic tree?
a. D