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CBL - VDL

Cement Bond Logging


with DSLT

Outline CBL-VDL
Introduction to Cementing

Role of cementing
Mechanics

Sonic as a Cement Evaluation tool


Hardware
Operations

Parameters & Setup


LQC & Hints
Normalization
Safety

Factors effecting tool response


Log Example
2

CBL-VDL
Introduction to Cementing

Cementing Objectives

Role of primary cementing


Typical casing string
Conductor Casing (spudded)
Isolate loose surface sediments
Avoid surface corrosion

Surface Casing
Isolate sweet water zones
Mounting rig BOP and
later CSG strings

Intermediate Casing
Isolate loose or high pressure formation

Oil string (Casing/Liner)


Isolate production zones
Avoid hydrocarbon loss to thief zones
Reduce water production
5

Environment
Fluid filled casing

Cement top.
Micro-Annulus due to expansion of
casing during cement job.
Poor cement to formation bond.
(example: due to mud-cake)

Formation
Two stage cement job.

Less than perfect cement job.

Double Casing
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Role of secondary cementing


Repair defects in primary cementing job

Unsuccessful primary cementing


Casing corrosion, leaking, split

Isolate water production in old well

Causes of bad cementing


Mechanical problems

Poor pipe centralisation


Hole conditions:

Poor removal of mud from around pipe


Channels or missing cement

Pressure problems

Influx of formation fluid


Loss of cement into permeable zone: Permeable, weakened or missing cement

Micro-and cement annulus (Casing flexing contraction)


Changes in pressure inside casing before setting
Over pressuring the casing after cement setting

May not isolate over gas zones


8

Good Cement ?

Why run CBL-VDL


Primary application is to evaluate the quality of the
casing cement job
Secondary but equally important application is to
depth match the open hole GR to the cased hole CCL
The CBL-VDL-GR-CCL becomes the cased hole base
log to which all subsequent work is depth referenced.

10

Sonic Path in Cased Hole

CBL measures casing to cement bond


VDL indicates cement to formation bond if casing to
cement bond is good
11

Cement to Casing Bond


If the casing is well bonded, the
sound will be attenuated as it travels
through the casing
The received amplitude will be low
1
2

We measure E1 amplitude and call it


CBL

3
4
Transit Time (TT)
CBL: Poor Bond
CBL: Good Bond

12

Free Pipe Amplitude


If there is no cement bonded to the
casing, then the amplitude will not
be attenuated.
1

This is called the free pipe


amplitude.

3
4

CBL: Free Pipe

13

Less Than Perfect Bond


The more free pipe or
contaminated cement in an interval
, the poorer the bond.
1
2

If the cement job is not perfect, the


amplitude will not decrease as
much.

3
4

CBL: Poor Bond

14

What is Acoustic Impedance?

15

Sound Transmission
The amount of sound transmitted depends on the acoustic
impedance (Z) difference between the two materials
If Z1/Z2 is high, low transmittance
If Z1/Z2 is low, high transmittance
Z1

Z2
Water
Steel
Cement
Sound

16

Sonic Path in Cased Hole

CBL

VDL

17

5ft VDL
5ft VDL gives deeper depth of investigation than 3ft CBL
5ft VDL indicates cement to formation bond if casing to
cement bond is good

18

Expected Free Pipe CBL Values


Casing Weight Estimated transit Expected
size
(lb/ft)
time (msec)
free-pipe
reading
(ETT)
5 in.

5.5 in.

7 in.

7.625 in.

9.625 in.

10.75 in.

13.375 in.

15
18
21
15.5
17
20
23
23
26
29
32
35
38
40
26.4
29.7
33.7
39
40
43.5
47
53.5
40.5
45.5
48
51
54
55.5
48
68

SLS-W

SLS-C

245
243
241
254
253
251
250
278
276
275
273
272
271
269
288
287
285
283
320
318
317
315
340
339
338
337
336
335
385
380

238
236
234
248
247
245
243
271
270
268
267
265
264
262
282
280
278
276
313
312
310
308
333
332
331
330
329
328
378
373

77mV

71 mV

61 mV

59 mV

52 mV

50 mV

47 mV

These values are for water filled casing


Refer to WRM: DSLT table 7
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Factor effecting tool response


Eccentering
Cycle skipping
Fast Formation
(if good cement)

Fluid Type
Stretch
Casing Size

Cement quality!

20

Eccentering
As in open hole, the amplitude is
dramatically decreased when the
tool is eccentered.
1
2

This will give show an incorrectly


good bond.
Since the travel distance is
decreased, the transit time will also
decrease.

4
Transit Time (TT)

21

A bad log which


cannot be played back.

Eccentering Effects

Eccentering by 0.5 reduces amplitude to 30%


It is crucial to have a well-centralized tool for good CBL
data
22

Cycle Skipping
Very common in good cement bond (low amplitude E1)

23

Fast Formation

24

Micro Annulus
A micro annulus is caused by the
expansion of the casing under
pressure during cementing.
1
2

E1 amplitude is larger than it should


be (poorer bond than actual)
A pressure pass can be used to
eliminate the micro annulus.

3
4

CBL: Poor Bond

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Interpretation Hints
VDL
TYPE OF BOND

26

CBL
AMPLITUDE

CASING
ARRIVALS

FORMATION
ARRIVAL

Free Pipe

High

Large

Very Weak or none

Good Casing to - Cement to - Formation

Low

Weak

Strong

Good Casing Bond


- Poor Formation Bond

Low

Moderate to Weak

Weak or none

Microannulus, Channeling,
Thin Cement Sheath

High

Moderate

Moderate

Fast Formation Arrivals

High

Absent

Strong

Interpretation Hints

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Cement to Formation Bond

1
2

3
4

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Conclusion
CBL VDL Measurement Provides

Casing to Cement Bond


Cement to Formation Bond
Zonal Isolation
Channels / Patchy Cement Identification

Microannulus
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