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- Gradually-varied Flow
- Solution manual hydraulics
- Solution Manual for Elementary Hydraulics 1st Edition by Cruise
- Hydraulic Machines Question Bank
- Hydraulics
- Hydraulics
- To Study the Flow Characteristics of Hydraulic Jump Developed in Laboratory Flume
- Attachment 2
- FLOW IN OPEN CHANNEL
- Dam Design
- Leet_FundamStructAnalysis_3rd_ISM
- Hydraulic Structures Lecture Notes
- Gradually Varied Flow
- Hydraulics Manual
- Report 2 Open Channel
- Tut2004-G4H
- Notes Grit Removal
- 20320130406011-2-3
- Byron Gates
- Problems Open Channel Flow

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15.1. A wide rectangular river with a bed slope of 14 10-4 carries a discharge of 3.6

m3/s/m`. A dam is built across the river at which the afflux is found to be 1.0 m. Using

the numerical integration method, estimate the water depth at a distance of 500 m

upstream of the dam. Take Manning roughness coefficient, n, as 0.025.

Solution:

q2n2

y 0 =

S0

0.3

(3.6) 2 (0.025) 2

=

4

14 10

0.3

= 1.69 m

q 2 3 (3.6) 2

=

= 1 .1 m

g

9.81

Therefore, M1 curve will be formed ahead of the dam. The depth of water at the dam =

1.69 + 1.0 2.7 m. Let yi = 2.7 m and take dl1 = -500 m. Then,

yc =

(3.6) 2 (0.025) 2

0.000988

(2.7)10 / 3

y`i =

=

= 0.0012

2

0.81878

(3.6)

1

9.81 (2.7) 3

Assume y`i+1 = y`i

yi+1 = 2.7-0.0012 500 = 2.1 m

0.0014

(3.6) 2 (0.025) 2

0.000525

(2.1)10 / 3

=

= 0.000612 . Then,

2

0.857

(3.6)

1

9.81 (2.1) 3

0.0014

y i +1 =

0.0012 + 0.000612

y i +1 = 2.7

500 = 2.247 m

2

(3.6) 2 (0.025) 2

0.000686

(2.247)10 / 3

y i +1 =

=

= 0.000776 , and

2

0.883

(3.6)

1

9.81 (2.247) 3

0.0012 + 0.000923

y i +1 = 2.7

500 = 2.175 m

2

0.0014

Elementary Hydraulics

(3.6) 2 (0.025) 2

0.0014

0.000645

(2.175)10 / 3

y`i +1 =

=

= 0.000736 . Then,

2

0.8769

(3.6)

1

9.81 (2.206) 3

0.0012 + 0.000906

y i +1 = 2.7

500 = 2.2174 m

2

(3.6) 2 (0.025) 2

0.0006556

(2.174)10 / 3

=

= 0.000746 . Then,

2

0.8785

(3.6)

1

9.81 (2.216) 3

0.0014

y`i +1 =

0.0012 + 0.000746

y i +1 = 2.7

500 = 2.214 m

2

The depth of water at a distance of 500 m upstream of the dam is 2.174 m. As it can be

seen, this method involves iteration procedure. The use of a computer code is therefore

recommended.

15.2. A wide channel, having a bed slope of 0.01, carries a specific discharge of 5.0 m2/s.

A gate is located in the midway of the channel where the depth of water at the venacontracted section is 0.4 m. Draw the water surface profile and estimate the length of the

rising curve formed after the gate using the numerical integration method. Take n =

0.025.

Solution:

q 2n2

y 0 =

S0

0.3

(5.0) 2 (0.025) 2

=

0.01

0.3

0.015625

=

0.01

0.3

=1.14 m

q2

(5.0) 2

= 3

=1.366 m

g

9.81

Therefore, the channel has a steep bed slope. The water surface profile is shown in the

Figure below. S3 profile will be formed after the gate. It is now required to calculate the

length of S3 curve between y = 0.4 m and y = 1.14 m. Let yi = 0.4 m and take dl1 = 50 m.

yc = 3

262

0.015625

(0.4)10 / 3 0.32135

yi ` =

=

= 0.00828

38.82

(5) 2

1

9.81 (0.4) 3

Assume y`i+1 = y`i.

yi+1 = 0.4 + 0.00828 50 = 0.814 m

0.01

0.015625

(0.814)10 / 3 0.02103

y `i +1 =

=

= 0.005646 . Then,

3.725

(5) 2

1

9.81 (0.814) 3

0.01

0.00828 + 0.005646

yi+1 = 0.4 +

50 = 0.612 m

2

Another iteration:

0.015625

0.01

(0.612)10 / 3 0.0703

y`i +1 =

=

= 0.0069 . Then,

10.18

(5) 2

1

9.81 (0.612) 3

0.00828 + 0.0069

yi+1 = 0.4 +

x 50 = 0.78 m

2

Again,

0.015625

(0.78)10 / 3 0.02577

y `i +1 =

=

= 0.0059 . Then,

4.37

(5) 2

1

9.81 x (0.78) 3

0.01

0.00828 + 0.0059

yi+1 = 0.4 +

50 = 0.755 m

2

Another iteration:

0.015625

0.01

(0.755)10 / 3 0.02987

y i +1 =

=

= 0.00607 . Then,

4.9215

(5) 2

1

9.81 (0.755) 3

0.00828 + 0.00607

yi+1 = 0.4 +

50 = 0.759 m

2

Now, we consider that the correct value of yi+1 is 0.76 which is the depth of water after

50 m from the vena-contracted section. Let yi = yi+1 and take dl2 = 70 m.

263

Elementary Hydraulics

0.015625

(0.76)10 / 3 0.029

y`i =

=

= 0.00604 . Then,

4.805

(5) 2

1

9.81 (0.76) 3

yi+1 = 0.76 + 0.00604 70 = 1.183 m

Another iteration:

0.01

0.015625

(1.183)10 / 3 0.001076

y`i +1 =

=

= 0.002 . Then,

0.539

(5) 2

1

9.81 (1.183) 3

0.01

0.00604 0.002

yi+1 = 0.76 +

70 = 0.901 m

2

Another iteration:

0.015625

0.01

(0.901)10 / 3 0.01212

y`i +1 =

=

= 0.00488 . Then,

2.484

(5) 2

1

9.81 (0.901) 3

0.00604 0.0048

yi+1 = 0.76 +

70 = 1.142 m

2

Another iteration:

0.015625

0.01

(1.42)10 / 3 0.000037

y `i +1 =

=

= 0.000052 . Then,

0.711

(5) 2

1

9.81 (1.42) 3

0.00604 0.000052

yi+1 = 0.76 +

x 70 = 0.973 m

2

Another iteration:

0.015625

0.01

(0.973)10 / 3 0.0071

y`i +1 =

=

= 0.00402 . Then,

1.7665

(5) 2

1

9.81 x (0.973) 3

0.00604 0.00402

yi+1 = 0.76 +

70 = 1.112m

2

264

Another iteration:

0.015625

(1.112)10 / 3 0.00097

y`i +1 =

=

= 0.00114 . Then,

0.8533

(5) 2

1

9.81 (1.112) 3

0.01

0.00604 0.00114

yi+1 = 0.76 +

70 =1.01 m

2

Again,

0.015625

(1.01)10 / 3 0.005115

y`i +1 =

=

= 0.00347 . Then,

1.4735

(5) 2

1

9.81 (1.01) 3

0.01

0.00604 0.00347

yi+1 = 0.76 +

70 =1.09 m

2

Repeating the iteration, we get yi+1 = 1.06 m at a distance of 120 m from the venacontracted section. Now, we can get the exact length by extrapolation. A length of 70 m

gives a water rise of 0.3 m (1.06 0.76). Then,

70 x 0.38

dl 2 =

= 88.7 m

0.3

The total length of S3 curve = 50 + 88.7 = 138.7 m 140m.

15.3. A wide channel carrying a discharge of 32 ft3/s/ft` is laid at a slope of 12 10-4. The

channel has a Manning roughness coefficient of 0.018. The channel terminates into a free

over fall at which the depth of flow is equal to 1.1 yc. Determine the depth of flow 400 ft

upstream of the fall using the numerical integration method.

Solution:

q 2n2

y o =

2

(1.49) S 0

0.3

(32) 2 (0.018) 2

=

4

2.22 12 10

0.3

0.149

=

4

12 10

0.3

= 4.25 ft

q 2 3 (32) 2

=

= 3.168 ft

g

32.2

Therefore, the channel has a mild bed slope and M2 curve will be formed before the fall.

Let yi = 1.1, yc = 3.5 ft and take dl1 = -50 ft.

0.149

0.0012

(3.5)10 / 3 0.00109

y`i =

=

= 0.00422

31.8

0.258

1

(3.5) 3

yc = 3

265

Elementary Hydraulics

yi+1 = 3.5 - 0.00422 (-50) = 3.71 ft

0.149

0.0012

(3.71)10 / 3 0.000685

y`i +1 =

=

= 0.00182 . Then,

31.8

0.37726

1

(3.71) 3

0.00422 + 0.00182

y i +1 = 3.5

(50) = 3.65 ft

2

Another iteration:

0.149

0.0012

(3.65)10 / 3 0.00079

y`i +1 =

=

= 0.00228 . Then,

31.8

0.346

1

(3.65) 3

0.00422 + 0.00228

y i +1 = 3.5

(50) = 3.66 ft

2

The last value of y is very close to the previous one. Then this is the correct value. Now,

let yi = yi+1 = 3.66 ft na d take dl2 = -100 ft.

yi+1 = 3.66-0.00228 (-100) = 3.89 ft

0.149

0.0012

(3.89)10 / 3 0.000409

y=

=

= 0.0089 . Then,

31.8

0.459

1

(3.89) 3

0.00228 + 0.00089

y`i +1 = 3.66

(100) = 3.818 ft

2

Another iteration:

0.149

(3.818)10 / 3 0.000513

=

= 0.001197 . Then,

31.8

0.4286

1

(3.818) 3

0.0012

y`i +1 =

0.00228 + 0.001197

y i +1 = 3.66

(100) = 3.83 ft

2

This is the correct value for y at a distance of 150 ft upstream the fall. Now, let yi = yi+1

= 3.83 ft and take dl3 = -200 ft.

yi+1 = 3.83-0.001197 (-200) = 4.07 ft.

266

0.149

(4.07)10 / 3 0.000184

=

= 0.0003483 . Then,

31.8

0.528

1

(4.07) 3

0.0012

y`i +1 =

0.001197 + 0.0003483

y i +1 = 3.83

(200) = 3.98 ft

2

Another iteration:

0.149

0.0012

(3.95)10 / 3 0.0003294

y`i +1 =

=

= 0.00068

31.8

0.484

1

(3.95) 3

Then,

0.001197 + 0.00068

y i +1 = 3.83

(200) = 4.018 ft

2

Another iteration:

0.149

0.0012

(4.018)10 / 3 0.00024484

y `i +1 =

=

= 0.000048

31.8

0.5098

1

(4.018) 3

Then,

0.001197 + 0.00048

y i +1 = 3.83

(200) = 4.0 ft

2

Therefore, the depth of water at a distance of 350 ft upstream the fall is 4.0 ft.

15.4. A wide rectangular channel under a bed slope of 14 x10-4 carries a discharge of 3.6

m2/s. An afflux of 1.0 m is measured at a dam located downstream of the river.

Determine the distance upstream of the dam where the water depth is 2.2 m. Use the

direct step method and take 1/n = 40.

Solution:

0.3

0.3

q 2n2

(3.6) 2 (0.025) 2

=

y o =

= 1.69 m

4

14 10

S0

Therefore, M1 curve will be formed ahead of the dam. The calculation for the required

distance is given in Table P15.4. The depth of water at the dam = 1.69 + 1.0 2.7 m.

yc = 3

Sf =

q2

=

g

(3.6) 2

= 1 .1 m

9.81

q2n2

y 10 / 3

267

Elementary Hydraulics

Table P15.4: Calculations for the distance between y = 2.2 m and y = 2.7 m.

y

2.7

0.556

2.716

2.5

0.6

2.518

Sf 10-4

2.955

-0.198

0.652

2.322

0.682

dl

3.397

10.603

-186.7

4.432

9.568

-204.8

5.447

8.552

-114.6

5.043

-0.098

2.2

(So- S f ) 10-4

3.82

-0.196

2.3

S f 10-4

2.224

5.58

L = 506 m

15.5. A wide river having a bed slope of 20 cm/km conveys a specific discharge of 4.1

m2/s. A dam is built across the river where the afflux at the dam site is 1.55 m. The Chezy

roughness coefficient is 45 (metric). Find the length of the backwater curve using the

direct step method.

Solution:

y0 = 3

(4.1) 2

q2

=

3

= 3.46 m

C 2 S0

(45) 2 20 10 5

yc = 3

q2

=1.23 m

g

The channel has a mild bed slope and M1 curve will be formed before the dam. The

depth of water at the dam = 3.46 + 1.55 = 5.0 m.

q2

Sf = 2 3

C y

Table P15.5. Calculations for M1 profile.

y

3.5

1.17

3.57

4.0

1.025

4.05

Sf 10-5

19.36

0.48

0.911

4.54

0.82

5.034

dl

16.165

3.835

12516

11.04

8.96

5468

7.875

12.125

4074

9.11

0.494

5.0

(S0- S f ) 10-5

12.97

0.49

4.5

Sf 10-4

6.64

L = 22058 km

268

15.6. A weir is constructed across a wide channel to elevate the water level. The channel

conveys a specific discharge of 3 m2/s and has a Chezy roughness coefficient of 50

(metric). Assuming that the water depth at the weir remains constant at 4.5 m, estimate

the length of the backwater curve using the direct step method for the following two

cases: (a) The bed slope = 5 cm/km, and (b) The bed slope = 10 cm/km.

Solution:

The critical depth does not depend on the channel slope and hence will be constant for the

two cases.

yc = 3

Sf =

q2

=

g

(3) 2

= 0.972 m

9.81

q2

C 2 y3

q2

=

C 2 S 01

(3) 2 10 5

= 4.16 m

(50) 2 5

The channel has a mild bed slope and M1 profile will be formed. The calculations of the

length of the backwater curve are presented in Table P15.6a.

q2

Sf = 2 3

C y

Table 15.6a: Length of M1 profile (So = 5 cm/km).

y

4.18

0.718

4.206

Sf 10-5

4.929

0.02

4.2

0.714

4.226

0.697

4.325

4.4

0.682

4.424

4.523

0.106

4.694

0.306

dl

18868

32353

15891

4.377

0.623

4.089

0.911

4.226

0.099

0.667

4.894

4.528

0.099

4.5

(So - S f ) 10-5

4.859

0.099

4.3

Sf 10-5

10867

3.951

L = 77,979 m

q2

=

C 2 S 01

(3) 2 10 5

= 3.30 m

(50) 2 5

The channel has a mild. M1 profile will be formed. The calculations of the length of the

backwater curve for this case are presented in Table P15.6b.

269

Elementary Hydraulics

3.32

0.904

3.362

3.5

0.857

3.537

Sf 104

9.837

0.175

0.789

3.818

0.732

4.127

4.5

0.667

4.523

dl

9.116

0.884

19796

7.478

2.522

11142

5.892

4.108

7522

4.587

5.413

7135

6.56

0.309

4.1

(So - S f ) 10-5

8.396

0.281

3.8

S f 10-5

5.223

0.396

3.951

L = 45595 m

Therefore, the length of the curve decreased when the slope increased. Shorter profiles

are generally encountered as the bed slope increases.

15.7. A wide rectangular channel has a bed slope of 8 cm/km and carries a discharge of

1.5 m3/s/m`. The channel terminates into a sudden fall. Determine the length of the water

profile, assuming a critical depth at the sudden fall. Take the Chezy coefficient as 40

(metric).

Solution:

y0 = 3

q2

=

C 2 So

(1.5) 2 10 5

q 2 3 (1.5) 2

3

=

2

.

6

m

and

y

=

=

= 0.612 m

c

g

9.81

(40) 2 8

The channel has mild bed slope and M2 will be formed before the free fall. It is required

to evaluate the length of the M2 profile between yc = y1 = 0.612 m and yo = y5 = 2.6 m.

Consider three other depths y2 = 1.0 m, y3 = 1.5 m, and y4 = 2.0 m. Table P15.7 is

developed to calculate the required length.

Table P15.7: Calculation of the length of M2 profile.

y

0.612

2.45

0.92

1.0

1.5

1.15

1.5

1.0

1.55

Sf 10-5

6.13

0.23

2.03

0.577

2.63

3.635

-3.555

-63.3

0.913

-0.833

-480.2

0.296

-0.216

-2222.2

0.128

-0.048

-12500

0.176

0.60

2.6

dl

0.416

0.48

0.75

(So- S f 10-3)

1.41

0.40

2.0

S f 10-3

0.08

L = -15265.7 m

The total length of M2 profile is 15.265 km. The length of the profile stretches when the

flow approaches the normal depth.

270

15.8. A triangular channel with a bed slope of 20 cm/km and a side slope of 1:1 carries a

discharge of 0.6 m3/s. The Chezy coefficient is 50 (metric) and the channel ends with a

sudden fall. Determine the normal and the critical depths. Hence, find the length of the

water profile if the flow has a critical depth at the fall.

Solution:

Q = AC RS o

y

y 02 x 50 0 ( 20 10 5 )1 / 2

2.83

5/2

(yo) = 1.427, or yo = 1.153 m

0.6 =

The critical depth is calculated from the equation of critical flow condition.

Q

g

y c2

y5/ 2

= c

2 yc

2

= y c2

0 .6

9.81

y c5 / 2

2

The channel has a mild bed slope and the M2 profile will be formed. Let y1 = 0.59, y2 =

0.7, y3 = 1.0, and y4 = 1.153 m. Table P15.8 is developed to estimate the length of M2.

The slope of the total energy line, Sf, in the above table is calculated from the Chezy

equation which, for this case, can be expressed as

V2

Sf =

(29.7) 2 y

Table P15.8: Calculations of the length of the M2 profile in the triangular section.

y

0.59

0.348

1.724

0.742

0.70

0.49

1.22

0.776

1.00

1.00

0.60

1.01

Sf 10-3

5.7

0.034

1.163

4.05

-3.85

-8.83

1.40

-1.20

-195.0

0.303

-0.103

-1485.44

0.407

0.153

0.451

(So- S f) 10-3 dl

2.4

0.234

1.153 1.33

S f 10-3

0.20

L = -1689.27 m

15.9. A wide channel having a bed slope of 20 cm/km carries a specific discharge of 2.2

m2/s. A gate is located along the channel where the depth of flow at the vena-contracted

section is 0.1 m. Determine whether a hydraulic jump will be formed after the gate or not.

At what distance will the jump be formed downstream the gate? Take the Manning

roughness coefficient as 0.02 (metric).

271

Elementary Hydraulics

Solution:

q2n2

y 0 =

So

0.3

(2.2) 2 (0.02) 2

=

5

20 10

0.3

= 1.98 m

q 2 3 ( 2 .2 ) 2

yc =

=

= 0.79 m

g

9.81

The channel has a mild bed slope. A hydraulic jump will be formed if the conjugate depth

to the normal depth is greater than the vena-contracted depth (0.1 m). Knowing the high

stage depth of the jump (y = 1.98 m), the low stage depth is calculated as

3

y1 =

y2

2

8q 2

1

1

+

+

3

gy 2

1.98

8(2.2) 2

1

1

=

+

+

9.81(1.98) 3

2

= 0.23 m

M3 profile will be formed through which the depth of flow increases from 0.1 m to 0.23

m. Let y1 = 0.1, y2 = 0.14, y3 = 0.18, and y4 = 0.23 m. Table P15.9 is developed to

calculate the length of M3.

Table P15.9: Calculations of the length of M3.

y

0.1

V

22

E

24.8

Sf 10-4

4.17

-12.1

0.14

15.7

12.7

12.2

7.77

9.56

dl

2.765

-2.7648

4.38

0.973

-0.9728

5.07

0.423

-0.4228

7.36

0.586

-3.11

0.23

(So- S f) 10-4

1.36

-4.93

0.18

S f 10-4

4.66

0.259

L = 16.81 m

15.10. A trapezoidal channel having a bed slope of 15 cm/km conveys water at a rate of

12.0 m3/s. The channel has a bed width of 6.0 m and a side slope of 2:1. The Chezy

coefficient is 40 (metric). A dam is built across the channel at which the water depth is

3.2 m. Sketch the water surface profile and estimate its length.

Solution:

Q = AC RS o

24.5 = (6yo + 2 y o2 )

(6 y o + 2 y o2 )

6 + 2 yo 1 + 4

(15 10 5 )1 / 2

(6 y o + 2 y 02

6 + 4.47 y o

272

Solving by trial and error, we get yo = 2.065 m. The critical depth is obtained from the

critical flow condition as follows:

Q

=A

A

. Hence,

B

12.0

= 3.83 = (6 y c + 2 y c2 )

(6 y

9.81

g

Solving by trial and error, we get yc = 0.685 m.

+ 2 y c2 )

6 + 4 yc

c

The normal depth, yo, is greater than the critical depth, yc. Therefore, the channel has a

mild bed slope and M1 profile will be formed before the dam. To calculate the length of

the profile, let y1 = 3.2, y2 = 3.0, y3 = 2.6, and y4 = 2.1 m. Table P15.10 is then developed.

Table P15.10. Calculations of the length of M1 profile.

y

3.2

39.68

20.3

1.95

0.302

3.205

3.0

36.0

19.41

1.85

0.333

3.005

Sf x 10-5

17.62

1.65

0.412

2.609

21.42

15.39

1.39

0.560

3.335

11.665

-1714

5.09

9.91

-3996

10.265

4.735

-10412

6.43

-0.493

2.1

dl

3.75

-0.396

29.12

(So- S f)

x 10-5

2.92

-0.20

2.6

S f-10-5

2.116

14.1

L = -16122 m

The total length of M1 profile is 16.122 km. The profile is presented below. The student

is advised to resolve this problem with either different or more depth intervals and

compare the results.

15.11. In Problem 15.10, calculate the depth of flow at a distance of 8.0 km upstream of

the dam.

Solution:

Referring to Table P14.8, at a distance of 1714 + 3996 = 5710 m the depth of flow is 2.6

m. This means that we need to assume a depth interval that would result in a distance of

8000 5710 = 2290 m. One may also assume that the depth at the required point is 2.4 m

and calculate the length of the profile between y = 2.6 m and y = 2.4 m. The calculations

are given in Table P15.11 in which the first two steps are acquired from Table P15.10.

273

Elementary Hydraulics

Table P15.11. Calculations for the depth at a distance of 8 km from the dam.

y

3.2

39.68

20.3

3.0

36.0

19.41

Sf x 10-5

17.62

25.92

16.73

3.335

11.665

-1714

5.09

9.91

-3996

7.535

7.465

-2652

6.43

-0.198

2.4

dl

3.75

-0.396

29.12

2.92

-0.20

2.6

S f x 10-5

8.64

L = -8362 m

Therefore, the depth of 2.4 m is located at a distance of 8.362 km upstream of the dam.

This means that at a distance of 8.0 km, the water depth will be slightly bigger than 2.4

m. One may also interpolate to get the required depth as follows:

0.2 x 2290

= 0.173 m

2652

The required depth = 2.6 0.173 2.43 m.

dy 4 =

15.12. A wide channel having a bed slope of 0.045 and the Manning roughness

coefficient of 0.025 carries a discharge of 2.0 m3/s. A dam is built across the channel at

which the depth of water is 1.6 m. Draw the water surface profile and estimate the

distance between the dam and the high stage depth of the formed hydraulic jump.

Solution: The normal and critical depths are calculated first.

q2n2

y 0

So

yc = 3

0.3

(2.0) 2 (0.0025) 2

=

0.045

0.3

= 0.42 m

q2 3 4

=

= 0.74 m

g

9.81

The channel has a steep bed slope. Since the water depth at the dam is 1.6 m, then a

hydraulic jump will be formed. The high stage depth of the jump, y2, can be calculated as

follow.

0.42

8(2) 2

y2 =

1

1

+

+

= 1.2 m

2

9.81(0.42) 3

S1 profile will be formed after the jump, through which the water depth will increase

from 1.2 m to 1.6 m as shown in the Figure. Table P15.12 is developed to calculate the

length of S1.

274

y

1.6

V

1.25

E

1.68

Sf x 10-5

52.18

-0.09

1.5

1.33

1.59

1.43

1.504

1.3

1.54

1.421

1.2

1.67

1.342

dl

58.285

44.4

-2.03

73.0

44.27

-1.94

93.04

44.07

-1.88

120.58

43.79

-1.8

64.39

-0.86

1.4

S fx10-5

81.61

-0.083

104.47

-0.079

136.69

L = -7.68 m

(distance between the dam and the

high stage depth of the hydraulic

jump) is 7.68 m. This length is

relatively short as the channel has a

very steep bed slope. One may

always note that the steeper the bed

slope the shorter the length of the

water surface profile.

15.13. A wide rectangular channel carries a discharge of 2.5 m3/s has a bed slope of 0.008

and a Manning roughness coefficient of 0.025. At a certain point the bed slope changes to

become 0.05. Sketch the water surface and estimate the length of the water profile.

Solution: The normal depths for the two reaches and the critical depth are calculated.

(2.5) 2 (0.025) 2

y 01 =

0.008

0.3

= 0.81 m , and y 02

( 2.5) 2 (0.025) 2

=

0.05

0. 3

= 0.465m

q 2 3 (2.5) 2

=

= 0.86 m

g

9.81

Therefore, the channel has a steep bed slope; the second reach is steeper than the first. An

S2 curve will form in the second reach as shown in the Figure below. The bed slope of

the second reach (0.05), where the entire profile is located, will be considered in the

calculations of the length of S2 as shown in Table P15.13.

yc = 3

275

Elementary Hydraulics

y

0.81

3.09

1.297

Sf x 10-3

S f x 10-3

3.57

1.35

0.6

4.17

1.486

0.5

5.00

1.774

1.34

17.145

32.855

4.14

30.425

19.515

14.71

44.795

13.205

12.57

39.37

0.166

1.94

39.467

21.48

0.288

5.38

10.355

12.81

0.136

0.465

dl

4.17

0.053

0.7

(So- S f) x 10-3

50.22

L = 32.76 m

15.14. A trapezoidal channel with a bed width of 2.0 m and a side slope of 3:2 carries a

discharge of 300,000 m3/d. The channel has a bed slope of 12 x 105 and a Manning

roughness coefficient of 0.018. At a certain point the bed slope increases to 20 x 10-3.

Draw the water surface profile and determine the length of the water profiles in the two

reaches.

Solution:

Q=

300000

= 3.472 m 3 / s

24 x 60 x 60

1

1 by 0 + ty 02

Q = A R 2 / 3 S 01 / 2 = (by 0 + ty 02 )

n

n b + 2 y 1 + t 2

2

1 by 01 + ty 01

2

3.472 = (by 01 + ty 01

)

0.018 b + 2 y 01 1 + t 2

2/3

S 01 / 2

2/3

(12 x 10 5 )1 / 2

Solving by trial and error, we get y01 = 1.5 m. The normal depth in the second reach is

calculated as follows:

by + ty 2

2

02

02

0.442 = by 02 + ty 02

)

b + 2 y 02 1 + t 2

2/3

Solving by trial and error, we get yo2 = 0.39 m. The critical depth can be calculated as

Q

A

=A

B

g

2 y c + 1.5 y c2

2 + 3 yc

9.81

Solving by trial and error, get yc = 0.58 m.

3.472

= 1.1085 = (2 y c + 1.5 y c2 )

276

Therefore, the first reach has a mild bed slope while the second one has a steep bed slope.

Figure P15.14 presents the water surface profile along the channel length. The M2 and S2

falling profiles will be formed in the first and second reaches, respectively. To calculate

the length of the M2 and S2 profiles, Tables P15.14a and P15.14b are developed.

Table P15.14a. Calculations of the length of M2 profile.

0.58

1.665

4.1

.406

2.09

0.803

Sf x 10-5

2.34

4.71

.497

1.48

0.862

1.00

3.50

5.61

.624

0.99

1.05

1.25

4.844

6.51

.744

0.717

1.28

1.50

6.375

7.41

.860

0.545

1.515

(So- S f)

x 10-5

dl

325.5

-313.5

-18.82

119.8

-107.8

-174.40

42.15

-30.15

-762.85

18.25

-6.25

-3760.0

471

.059

0.75

S f-10-5

180

.188

59.6

.230

24.7

.235

11.8

L = -4716.07 m

Table P15.14b. Calculations of the length of S2 profile.

0.58

1.665

4.1

.406

2.09

0.803

Sf x 10-5

1.375

3.81

.361

2.53

0.826

0.45

1.204

3.62

.333

2.88

0.872

0.39

1.084

3.41

.318

3.20

0.912

(So- S f)

x 10-5

dl

639

13.61

1.69

986

10.14

4.54

1346

6.54

6.12

471

0.023

0.50

S f-10-5

807

0.046

1164

0.040

1528

L = 12.35 m

The length of M2 profile is about 4716 m and the length of the S2 profile is 12.35 m. One

may note that S type profiles are generally much shorter than M type profiles. The total

length of the two profiles is 4728.35 m or about 4730 m.

277

Elementary Hydraulics

15.15. Water is issued into a wide rectangular channel from a large reservoir where the

water level is 6.0 m above the channel bed. The channel has a bed slope of 0.01 and a

Manning roughness coefficient of 0.021 (metric). Draw the water surface profile and

estimate the length of the water profile formed after the channel inlet.

Solution: For wide channels, E = 3/2 yc = 6.0 m. Hence, yc = 4.0 m

yc = 3

q2

. Hence, q2 = g yc3, Therefore, q = 25.06 m2/s.

g

yo = (

) = 2.7 m.

0.01

steep bed slope. The water surface

profile is presented here. To calculate

the length of S2 profile, Table P15.15

is developed.

y

4.0

6.27

6.0

3.7

6.77

6.04

Sf x 10-3

6.33

9.28

7.09

3.13

6.87

5.8

4.63

5.37

54

7.86

2.14

355

5.73

0.76

2.7

dl

3.53

0.29

7.83

(So- S f) x 10-3

2.73

0.04

3.2

S f x 10-3

10

414.8 m

15.16. A specific discharge of 2.1 m2/s is issued into a wide channel through a sluice gate

where the depth of flow at the vena-contracted section is 0.2 m. The channel has a bed

slope of 8 x 10-4 and a Chezy coefficient of 40 (metric). Determine whether a hydraulic

jump will be formed or not? What is the minimum length of the concrete apron required

after the gate to contain the jump assuming that the length of the jump is seven times its

height?

Solution:

(2.1) 2

(2.1) 2

3

yo =

= 1.51 m , and y c =

= 0.766 m

9.81

(40) 2 8 x 10 4

The low stage depth of the jump is given as;

3

278

8(2.1) 2

= 0.33 m

1 +

9.81(1.51) 3

Therefore, a hydraulic jump with a height of 1.51 - 0.33 = 1.18 will be formed and an M3

profile will be encountered before the jump. It should be noted that if yo1 is found less

than the depth of flow at the vena contracted section, then the gate will be submerged and

no jump will be formed. Table P15.16 is developed to calculate the length of M3.

1.51

y 01 =

2

0.20

10.5

5.82

Sf x 10-3

8.4

3.85

7.0

2.80

0.33

6.36

2.39

dl

434.5

-433.7

4.54

216.25

-215.45

4.87

131.65

130.85

3.13

280

-1.05

0.30

(So- S f) x 10-3

589

-1.97

0.25

S f x 10-3

152.5

-0.41

110.8

L = 12.54 m

The length of the M3 profile is 12.54 m. The minimum length of the concrete apron =

12.54 + 7 x 1.18 = 20.8 m 21.0 m.

15.17. A wide rectangular channel having a bed slope of 4.85 x 10-3 carries a discharge of

2.5 m3/s. The Chezy roughness coefficient is 45 (metric). A dam is built across the

channel at which the depth of water is measured as 1.8 m. Draw the water surface profile

and estimate the length of the backwater curve.

Solution: The normal and the critical depths are calculated first.

y0 = 3

q2

(2.5) 2

3

=

= 0.86 m

C 2 S0

(45) 2 4.85 x 10 3

yc = 3

q2

=

g

( 2 .5) 2

= 0 .86 m

9.81

The channel has a critical bed slope and C1 profile will be formed before the dam. The

water surface profile is presented below. The calculations for the length of C1 are given

in Table P15.17.

279

Elementary Hydraulics

y

1.8

1.39

1.9

1.5

1.67

1.64

Sf x 10-5

1.42

2.91

72.4

412.6

-63.0

134.9

350.1

-62.8

331.5

153.5

-84.7

178

-0.13

0.86

dl

91.8

-0.22

2.08

(So- S f) x 10-5

53

-0.26

1.2

S f x 10-5

1.29

485

L = -210.5 m

15.18. A rectangular channel with a bed width of 6.0 ft and a water depth of 4.0 ft

conveys a discharge of 30 ft3/s. Determine the bed slope assuming the Manning

roughness coefficient n = 0.025. At a certain point along the channel, the bed slope is

reduced such that the normal depth is increased to 6.0 ft. Draw the water surface profile

and estimate the distance through which the depth of flow varies.

Solution:

1.49 2 / 3 1 / 2

R S 01

n

2/3

1.49 24

1/ 2

30 = 24 x

S 01

0.025 14

Therefore, S01 = 21.4 x 10-5. The critical depth can be calculated as

Q= A

yc = 3

q2

=

g

(5) 2

= 0.92 ft

32.2

Since the critical depth is less than the normal depth, the bed slope is mild. M1 curve will

be formed in the first reach as shown in the figure below. Table P15.18 provides the

calculations for the length of M1 curve. The slope of the total energy line, Sf, in that

Table is given as

V2

Sf =

3552.16 R 4 / 3

280

6.0

36

18

2.0

0.833

6.01

5.5

33

17

1.94

0.909

5.513

Sf x 10-5

16

1.875

1.00

dl

8.68

11.82

-4204.7

10.895

9.605

-5174.4

14.01

6.49

-7642.5

18.67

1.83

9.61

-0.497

30

(So- S f)

x 10-5

7.75

-0.497

5.0

S f x 10-5

5.016

12.18

-0.496

4.5

27

15

1.80

1.11

4.52

15.84

4.0

24

14

1.71

1.25

4.024

-0.496

21.5

27103.8

L = -44125.4 ft

Therefore, the length of the gradually varied flow reach is 44125 ft.

15.19. A trapezoidal channel has a bed width of 4.0 ft, a side slope of 2:1 and a bed slope

of 12 x 10-4. The channel carries a discharge of 90 ft3/s and its Manning roughness

coefficient, n, is 0.021. A dam is built across the channel where the heading up (afflux) is

2.22 ft. Determine the depth of flow 1500 ft upstream of the dam. What is the total length

of the profile?

Solution:

1.49 by 0 + ty 02

Q = (by 0 + ty 02 )

n b + 2 y 0 1 + t 2

1.49 4 y 0 + 2 y 02

90 = (4 y 0 + 2 y )

0.021 4 + 2 y o 5

2/3

1/ 2

S 01

2/3

2

0

(12 x 10 4 )1 / 2

Solving by trial and error, we get yo = 2.78 ft. The critical depth is obtained from the

critical flow condition:

2

A

2 4 yc + 2 yc

=A

. Hence, 36.617 = (4 y c + 2 y c )

B

g

4 + 4 yc

90

32.2

= 15.86 = (4 y c + 2 y c2 )

1/ 2

4 y c + 2 y c2

4 + 4 yc

Therefore, the normal depth is bigger than the critical depth and the channel has a mild

bed slope. M1 curve will be formed before the dam. The depth of flow at the dam is: y1 =

2.78 + 2.22 = 5.0 ft. To calculate the depth at a distance of 2500 ft upstream of the dam,

Table P15.19 is developed.

281

Elementary Hydraulics

y

5.0

70.0

4.5

58.5

26.36 2.66

1.29

5.026

24.12 2.43

1.54

4.537

Sf x 10-6

21.89 2.19

1.88

4.055

38.5

19.65 1.96

2.34

3.586

3.0

30.0

17.42 1.72

3.00

3.141

-451.5

194.9

100.5

-479.6

344.6

85.5

-548.5

655.6

54.4

-818.0

1033.8

166

-1090.3

867.6

-0.181

3.39

108.3

443.5

-0.445

116.95

245.6

-0.469

3.5

dl

144.2

-0.482

48.0

(So- S f)

x 10-6

89.7

-0.489

4.0

S f x 10-6

2.96

1200

L = -3387.9 ft

The first three steps give a distance of 1479.6 ft measured upstream of the dam.

Therefore, the depth at a distance of 1500 ft from the dam is about 3.5 ft. The total length

of the M1 profile is 3388 ft.

15.20. A 12.0 m rectangular channel, having a bed slope of 50 cm/km and a Manning

roughness coefficient of 0.015, conveys water at a normal depth of 1.0 m. A dam is built

across the channel at which the water depth is 2.0 m. Calculate the depth of flow 2.0 km

upstream of the dam using the step by step method.

Solution:

Q=

1

x 12.0(0.857) 2 / 3 (50 x 10 5 )1 / 2 = 16.14 m 3 / s

0.015

Q 16.14

q2

(1.345) 2

2/ s

3

3

=

= 0.57 m

q= =

= 1.345 m . Hence, y c =

g

9.81

b 12.0

Therefore, the channel has a mild bed slope and M1 curve will be formed before the dam.

To calculate the depth of flow at a distance of 2.0 km upstream the dam, Table P15.20 is

developed.

Table P15.20: Calculations for the depth of flow 2.0 km upstream a dam using the step by step

method.

y

2.0

24.0 16.0

1.5

0.673

2.023

Sf x 10-4

19.2 15.2

1.26

0.841

1.636

15.6 14.6

1.06

1.035

1.355

1.2

14.4 14.4

1.00

1.12

1.264

dl

0.88

4.12

-939.25

1.68

3.31

-848.50

2.52

2.48

-366.35

1.17

-0.281

1.3

(So- S f)

x 10-4

0.59

-0.387

1.6

S f x 10-4

2.20

-0.091

2.82

L = -2154.1 m

282

From the last depth interval in the above table we deduce that dy of 0.1 m gives a length

of 366.35 m. Assuming a linear relationship between the values of dy and dl, then the

required value of dy for the last interval can be calculated as:

0.1 x (200 939.25 848.50)

= 0.058 m 0.06 m

366.35

Therefore, the depth of flow at a distance of 2.0 km upstream the dam = 1.3 0.06 = 1.24 m.

dy =

15.21. A trapezoidal channel of a bed width of 7.0 m and a side slope of 3:2 is laid on a

slope of 0.001 and carries a discharge of 30.0 m3/s. The channel terminates to a free fall

at which the depth is reduced to the critical depth. If the Manning roughness coefficient is

0.02, compute and plot the flow profile upstream from the over fall to a section where the

water depth is 0.9 yo. Use the step by step method.

Solution:

1 7 y 0 + 1.5 y 02

Q = 30.0 = (7 y 0 + 1.5 y )

n 7.0 + 3.6056 y 0

2

0

2/3

(0.001)1 / 2

(7.0 y 0 + 1.5 y 02 ) 5 / 3

18.973 =

(7 + 3.6056 y 0 ) 2 / 3

Solving by trial and error, we get yo = 1.71 m. Then 0.9 yo = 1.539 m. The critical depth

is calculated from the equation of the critical flow:

Q2B

(30) 2 (7.0 + 3 y )

=

1

.

Hence,

=1

2

gA3

9.81(7.0 y c + 1.5 y c ) 3

Solving by trial and error, we get yc = 1.132 m. The channel has a mild bed slope and an

M2 falling profile will be formed before the sudden fall. Table P15.21 presents the

calculations for the length of the M2 profile using the step by step method.

Table P15.21: Calculations for the length of M2 profile using the step be step method.

y

1.13

A

9.845

P

11.07

R

0.889

V

3.05

1.604

Sf x

10--4

10.03

11.15

0.900

2.99

1.606

1.20

10.56

11.33

0.932

2.84

1.611

1.25

11.09

11.51

0.964

2.71

1.624

1.30

11.64

11.69

0.995

2.58

1.640

1.40

12.74

12.05

1.057

2.35

1.681

1.54

14.33

12.55

1.142

2.09

1.763

10-4

43

0.002

1.15

S f x 10-4 (So- S f) x dl

42

-32

-0.63

38

-28

-1.78

32.5

-22.5

-5.78

28

-18

-8.89

24

-14

-29.29

17.5

-7.5

-113.89

41

0.005

35

0.013

30

0.016

26

0.041

20

0.082

15

L = -160.26 m

283

Elementary Hydraulics

The total length of the profile is about 160 m. A better accuracy can be achieved if

smaller dy intervals are taken as the flow approaches the normal depth rather than as the

flow approaches the sudden fall (or the critical depth).

15.22. The flow in a very wide channel tends to a free fall at which the depth is reduced

to 0.67 times the normal depth. The channel conveys a specific discharge of 4 m3/s and

has a bed slope of 10 cm/km. Estimate the distance upstream of the fall where the water

depth is 0.9 the normal depth. Take Manning coefficient, n, as 0.025 and use the step by

step method.

Solution:

The normal and critical depths are calculated first as follows:

0.3

0.3

q2n2

(4) 2 (0.025) 2

q2

(4) 2

3

3

y

=

=

= 1.177 m

=

y 0 =

=

3

.

981

m

and

c

g

9.81

10 5

S0

The channel has a mild bed slope and an M2 profile will be formed. The depth at the fall

is 0.67 times the normal depth = 2.667 m. The calculations for the profile length between

y = 2.667 m and y = 0.9 yo = 3.582 m are given in Table P15.22.

Table P15.22: Calculations for the length of M2 profile.

y

2.667

1.5

2.782

2.90

1.379

3.00

3.20

1.25

3.28

Sf x 10--4

3.34

-2.34

-931.6

2.475

-1.45

-1931

1.745

-0.745

-4912.7

2.07

0.366

3.646

dl

2.88

0.280

1.117

(So- S f) x 10-4

3.8

0.218

3.582

S f x 10-4

1.42

L = -7775.3 m

The length of the M2 profile between the two given depths is about 7775 m.

15.23. A broad-crested weir is located in a 40 m wide rectangular channel, as shown in

Figure 14.P9. The channel conveys a discharge of 500 m3/s under a bed slope of 1.8x10-3.

The Manning roughness coefficient, n, is 0.032. The sill height of the weir is 2.0 m. The

weir discharge is given as:

Q = 1.705 CdBh3/2

Where B is the weir width, Cd is the discharge coefficient = 0.86, and h is the water head

above the weir. Determine the length of the backwater curve using the step-by-step

method.

Solution:

The normal and the critical depths are evaluated first.

1

1 40 y 0

q = y 0 R 2 / 3 S 01 / 2 . Hence, 12.5 = y 0

n

0.032 40 + 2 y 0

284

2/3

(1.8 x 10 3 )1 / 2

2/3

40 y 0

9.428 = y 0

+

y

40

2

0

q 2 3 (12.5) 2

=

= 2.516 m

g

9.81

Therefore, the channel has a mild bed slope and an M1 curve will be formed. The water

head over the weir is deduced from:

yc = 3

h = (8.5248)2/3 = 4.17 m

The depth of flow at the weir = 2.0 + 4.17 = 6.17 m

M1 profile will therefore be formed before the weir. The calculations for the profile

length are tabulated in Table P15.23.

Table P15.23: Calculations for the backwater curve.

y

6.17

246.8

52.32

4.717

2.03

6.38

Sf x 10--4

220

51.0

4.314

2.27

5.76

5.00

200

50.0

4.00

2.50

5.32

4.50

180

49.0

3.673

2.78

4.89

4.15

166

48.3

3.437

3.01

4.61

(So- S f)

x 10-4

dl

6.42

11.58

-535.4

8.80

9.2

-478.3

12.02

5.98

-719.1

15.93

2.07

-1352.7

5.33

-0.62

5.50

S f x 10-4

7.51

-0.44

10.08

-0.43

13.96

-0.28

17.89

L = -3085.5 m

15.24. Considering the data given in Problem 15.3, estimate the length of M2 profile

using the step-by-step method.

Solution:

It is required to calculate the length of the M2 profile between y = 4.25 ft and y = 3.5 ft.

The slope of the total energy line is estimated from;

V 2n2

Sf =

2.22 y 4 / 3

The calculations are presented in Table P15.24. The total length of M2 curve is 2190 ft.

285

Elementary Hydraulics

y

3.5

9.14

4.8

3.8

8.42

4.9

Sf x 10-3

dl

2.0175

-8.175

-122.3

1.608

-4.08

-245.1

1.3605

-1.605

-623.0

1.225

-0.25

-1200

1.745

0.1

8.0

(So- S f) x 10-4

2.29

0.1

4.0

S f x 10-3

5.0

1.471

0.1

4.2

7.62

5.1

1.25

4.25

7.53

5.13

0.03

1.2

L = -2190.4 ft

15.25. A trapezoidal channel with a bed slope of 18x10-5 and a side slope of 2:1 carries a

discharge of 600 ft3/s. The channel has a best hydraulic section and terminates into a free

over fall. Determine the water depth 2750ft upstream of the fall using the step-by-step

method. Take the Manning roughness coefficient as 0.025 and assume a critical depth at

the fall.

b + 2ty

Solution: For the best hydraulic section,

= y 1+ t 2

2

1

Q = A R 2 / 3 S 01 / 2

n

1.49 y 0

600 = (by 0 + ty )

0.025 2

2

0

2/3

(18 x 10 5 )1 / 2

2/3

y

750.36 = 2.472 y 0

2

3/8

yo = (481.85) = 10.14 ft, and b = 4.79 ft

Q

A

=A

The critical depth is calculated from:

B

g

2

0

(4.79 y c + 2 y c2 )

(4.79 y

+ 2 y c2 )

=105.736

4.79 + 4 y c

c

Then the channel has a mild bed slope and an M2 profile will be formed as the flow

approaches the free over fall. To determine the water depth at a distance of 2750 ft

upstream of the fall Table P15.25 is developed. The depth of water at a distance of 2750

ft is around 8.2 ft.

286

Table P15.25: Computations for the water depth at a distance of 2750 ft upstream of the fall.

y

4.5

A

63.66

25.22

2.52

V

9.42

Sf x

10-3

Sf x E

10

(So- S f)

x 10-3

Dl

0.02

-6.67

-3

-3

0.06

-5.47

-10.96

-13.96

0.53

-3.32

-159.64

-173.6

0.77

-1.41

-546.1

-719.7

0.88

-0.619

-1421.6

-2141.3

0.18

-0.347

-518.7

-2660

-3

7.28

5.94

6.85

4.7

66.69

25.81

2.58

9.0

6.43

5.0

73.95

27.15

2.72

8.11

4.87

6.0

100.7

31.62

3.18

5.95

2.13

7.0

131.5

36.09

3.64

4.56

1.04

8.0

166.3

40.57

4.10

3.61

0.558

8.2

173.7

41.46

4.19

3.45

0.496

5.96

5.65

6.02

3.50

6.55

1.59

7.32

0.799

8.20

0.527

8.38

15.26. A trapezoidal channel of 2.5 m bed width and 1:1 side slope has a bed slope of

0.0045. Under the normal conditions the depth of flow is equal to the critical depth,

which is 0.9 m. A gate is located in the midway of the channel length. The depth of water

just upstream of the gate is 1.4 m. Determine the length of the backwater curve using the

step-by-step method. Take the Chezy roughness coefficient, C, as 45 (metric).

Solution:

Since the depth of flow under the normal conditions is equal to the critical depth, then the

channel has a critical bed slope. C1 rising curve will be formed before the gate.

A

Q = AC RS 0 , A = 3.06 m2, R = = 0.60647 m

P

Q = 3.06 x 45 0.60647 x 0.0045 = 7.19 m 3 / s

The length of the curve will be calculated between y = 0.92 m and y = 1.4 m. The

calculations are presented in Table P15.26.

Table P15.26: Calculations for the length of C1 profile.

y

1.4

5.46

6.46

.845

1.32

1.489

1.2

4.44

5.89

0.754

1.62

1.334

1.0

3.5

5.33

.657

2.05

1.214

0.92

3.146

5.10

.617

2.285

1.186

Sf x 10-3

S f x 10-3

(So- S f)

x 10-3

dl

1.369

3.131

-49.5

2.439

2.061

-58.2

3.669

0.831

-33.7

1.018

-0.155

1.719

-0.120

3.159

-0.028

4.179

L = -141.4 m

287

Elementary Hydraulics

15.27. A trapezoidal channel with a side slope of 1:1 and a bed width of 3.0 m is

comprised of two reaches with bed slopes of 0.0004 and 0.03, respectively. The channel

has a Chezy roughness coefficient of 55 (metric) and coveys a discharge of 12.0m3/s.

Determine the length of the gradually varied flow reach in this channel.

Solution: The normal depths in the two reaches of the channel are determined from the

discharge equation:

3 y 0 + y o2

x ( S 0 )1 / 2

Q = AC RS 0 . Hence, 12 = (3 y 0 + y 02 ) x 55 x

2

.

828

b

y

+

0

Substituting for So by 0.0004 and 0.03, and solving by trial and error, we get yo1 = 2.02 m

and yo2 = 0.55m, respectively. The critical depth is calculated as

Q

3 y c + y c2

3 + 2 yc

3.831 = (3 y c + y c2 )

g

Solving by trial and error, get yc = 1.02 m

The first reach has a mild bed slope while the second one has a steep bed slope. The

gradually varied flow reach comprises M2 and S2 profiles. The lengths of the two

profiles are calculated as given in Tables P15.27a and P15.27b, respectively.

Table P14.27a: Calculations for the length of the M2 profile, So = 0.0004.

y

1.02

4.1

5.885

0.697

2.927

1.457

Sf x 10-3

5.04

6.394

0.788

2.381

1.489

1.4

6.16

6.96

0.885

1.948

1.593

1.6

7.36

7.525

0.978

1.63

1.735

1.8

8.64

8.09

1.068

1.389

1.898

2.0

10.0

8.656

1.155

1.20

2.073

dl

3.22

-2.82

-11.35

1.898

-1.498

-69.43

1.157

-1.17

-121.37

0.747

-0.347

-469.74

0.504

-0.104

-1682.69

4.063

0.032

1.2

S f x 10-3

2.378

0.104

1.417

0.142

0.898

0.163

0.597

0.175

0.41

L = -2354.58 m

Table P15.27b: Calculations for the length of the S2 profile, So = 0.03.

y

1.02

4.1

5.885

0.697

2.927

1.457

Sf x 10-3

3.04

5.26

0.578

3.947

1.594

0.60

2.16

4.697

0.460

5.556

2.173

0.56

1.994

4.584

0.435

6.018

2.406

(So- S f) x 10-3

dl

6.487

23.513

583

15.545

14.455

40.06

24.85

5.15

45.24

4.063

0.137

0.80

S f x 10-3

8.91

0.579

22.18

0.233

27.52

L = 91.13 m

The total length of the gradually varied flow reach is L = 2354.58 + 91.13 = 2445.71 m

288

15.28. A triangular channel with a side slope of 1:1 and a bed slope of 0.02 carries a

discharge of 100 ft3/s. A gate is located at the end of the channel at which the water depth

is 7.0 ft. determine the length of the rising curve before the gate. Take Manning

roughness coefficient, n, as 0.02 and use the step-by-step method.

Solution: The critical depth is calculated as follows:

100

32.2

= y c2

y c2

. Hence, yc = (24.922)2/5 = 3.62 ft

2 yc

1.49 2 / 3 1 / 2

1.49 y 02

Q= A

R S o . Then, 100 = y 02 x

0.02 2.828 y 0

n

yo = (18.98)3/10 = 2.418 ft

Q2

Q2

A1 h1 +

= A2 h 2 +

gA1

gA2

1/ 2

(0.02)1 / 2

y 23

(2.418) 3

(100) 2

(100) 2

+

=

+

3

3 32.2 x y 22

32.2 x (2.418) 2

y 23 310.559

+

= 4.712 + 53.117 = 57.829

3

y 22

Solving by trial and error, we get y2

= 5.175 ft. A hydraulic jump with a

low stage depth of 2.418 ft and a

high stage depth of 5.175 ft will be

formed. An S1 rising profile will

then be formed after the jump as

shown the Figure. The calculations

are presented in Table P15.28.

Table P15.28: Calculations for the length of S1 profile.

y

5.175

26.78

14.64

1.83

3.73

5.391

Sf x 10-4

30.25

15.56

1.945

3.31

5.67

6.0

36.00

16.97

2.12

2.78

6.12

6.5

42.25

18.38

2.30

2.37

6.587

7.0

49.00

19.8

2.475

2.04

7.065

(So- S f)

x 10-3

dl

9.665

19.033

14.66

6.62

19.34

23.27

5.22

19.48

23.97

2.785

19.72

24.24

11.2

0.279

5.5

S f x 10-4

8.13

0.450

5.11

0.467

3.33

0.478

2.24

L = 86.64 ft.

The total length of S1 curve is about 87 ft. One may also proceed in Table P15.28 staring

from y = 7.0 ft to y = 5.175 ft. The same answer should be obtained but with a negative

sign.

289

Elementary Hydraulics

15.29 A wide channel terminates into a sudden fall. The channel conveys a discharge of

4.2 m3/s/m` and has a bed slope of 16 cm/km. Assume that the depth of flow at the fall is

equal to the critical depth and Manning roughness coefficient is 0.022, find the length of

the water surface profile ahead of the fall.

Solution:

(4.2) 2 (0.022) 2

y0 =

5

16 x 10

0.3

= 3.3 m

q 2 3 (4.2) 2

=

= 1.22 m

g

9.81

The channel has a mild bed slope and an M2 curve will be formed before the fall. The

calculations for the profile length are presented in Table P15.29.

yc =

y

1.22

3.44

1.823

Sf x 10-4

2.1

2.225

1.68

2.644

3.0

1.4

3.1

3.335

-26.635

-163

6.248

-4.648

-901

3.11

-1.51

-3020

1.936

-0.336

-6994

2.193

0.435

1.29

26.235

4.026

0.456

3.25

dl

8.47

0.419

2.5

44

0.402

2.0

S f x 10-4

1.679

L = 11078 m

Therefore, the length of M2 calculated between y = 1.22 m and y = 3.25 m is 11.078 km.

15.30. A trapezoidal channel with a bed width of 7.0 m and a side slope of 3:2 has a bed

slope of 0.001. The channel conveys a discharge of 30 m3/s and has the Manning

roughness coefficient of 0.02. A dam is constructed to elevate the water level. The water

depth at the dam is 2.5 m. Find the distance upstream the dam where the water depth is

2.0 m .

Solution:

2/3

1 7 y 0 + 1.5 y 02

1/ 2

30 = (7 y 0 + 1.5 y 02 )

(0.001)

0.02 7 + 2 y 0 1 + (1.5) 2

(7 y c + 1.5 y c2 ) 2

30

Q A2

= 9.578 =

=

. Hence,

7 + 3 yc

9.81

g B

Solving by trial and error, we get yc = 1.132 m. The channel has a mild bed slope and M1

curve will be formed before the dam. The calculations are given in Table P15.30.

290

Table P15.30: Calculations for the length of M1 between y = 2.5 m and y = 2.0 m.

y

2.5 26.875

14.5

16.01 1.68

1.116

2.563

2.3 24.035

13.9

15.29 1.57

1.248

2.38

Sf x

10-4

14.57 1.46

1.407

2.2

13.0

14.21 1.41

1.5

2.954 7.046

-259.7

4.098 5.902

-305.0

5.236 4.762

-178.5

4.781

-0.085

2.0 20.0

x 10-4

3.414

-0.18

13.3

10-4

2.494

-0.183

2.1 21.315

S f x (So- S f) dl

2.115

5.692

L = 743.2 m

15.31. A wide channel with a bed slope of 15x10-4 conveys a specific discharge of 25

ft2/s. A gate is located at the channel inlet where the depth of water at the vena contracted

section is 1 ft. Determine the length of the concrete apron to be constructed after the gate

to contain the jump. Take the Manning roughness coefficient as 0.018 and assume the

length of the jump to be 7 times its height.

Solution:

q = y0

1.49 2 / 3 1 / 2

R S0

n

q 2n2

y 0 =

2

(1.49) S 0

0.3

= 3.43 ft , and y c =

(25) 2

= 2.687 ft

32.2

Then a hydraulic jump must be formed after the gate if the conjugate depth to the normal

depth is greater than 1 ft.

3.43

8(25) 2

y=

1 + 1 +

2

32.2(3.43) 3

= 2.06 m

M3 curve will be formed between y = 1.0 m and y = 2.06 m. The calculations are

presented in Table P15.31, noting that

q2n2

0.091216

=

Sf =

10 / 3

2.22 y

y 10 / 3

Length of the jump = 7(3.43-2.06) = 9.59 ft

The required length of the apron = 209.8 + 9.59 = 219.39 ft

For safety considerations, the apron should have a length of not less than 250 ft

291

Elementary Hydraulics

y

1.0

25

10.71

1.25

20

7.46

Sf x 10-4

5.82

14.28

4.92

2.06

12.14

4.35

672.5

-657.5

49.4

334.5

-319.5

49.4

188.5

-173.5

51.9

111.5

-96.5

59.1

236

-0.9

1.75

dl

433

-2.18

16.67

(So- S f) x 10-4

912

-3.25

1.5

S f x 10-4

141

-0.57

82

L=209.8ft

15.32. A wide rectangular channel has a critical bed slope carries a specific discharge of

40 ft2/s. Determine the bed slope knowing that the Manning roughness coefficient is

0.022. A gate is placed in midway of the channel. Draw the water surface profile and

determine the length of the gradually varied flow reach after the gate. The depth of water

at the vena-contracted section after the gate is 1.5 ft.

Solution: The channel has a critical bed slope, i.e., yo = yc

(40) 2

= 3.676 ft

32.2

1.49

40 = (3.676)

(3.676) 2 / 3 ( S 0 )1 / 2

0.022

yc = y0 = 3

C3 curve will be formed after the gate. The water surface profile is shown below. The

calculations for the length of C3 are presented in Table P15.32.

292

1.5

26.67

12.54

2.0

20.0

8.21

Sf x 10-4

6.47

13.33

5.76

3.65

10.96

5.52

624.5

-579.0

74.8

255.25

-209.75

82.9

127.05

-81.55

87.1

68.1

-22.6

106.2

164.5

-0.71

3.0

dl

346

-1.74

16.0

903

-4.33

2.5

S f x 10-4

89.6

-0.24

46.6

L = 351 ft

15.33. A barrage is constructed across a wide river with a bed slope of 16x10-4. The

specific discharge of the river is 150 ft2/s. The afflux at the barrage is 5.0 ft. Find the

distance upstream of the dam where the depth of flow is 14.0 ft. Take the Manning

roughness coefficient as 0.026.

150 2

Solution: q = 150 ft /s, yc =

= 8.87 ft.

g

qxn

150 x 0.026

)3/ 5 = (

For wide channels, yn = (

) 3 / 5 = 12.29 ft.

1/ 2

1/ 2

1.49 x (0.0016)

1.49 x S o

So for an afflux of 5 ft, y1 = 12.29 + 5 = 17.29 ft. M1 profile will be encountered before

the barrage. So we must compute the profile between depths of 17.29 ft and 14.0 ft as

given in Table 15.33.

2

Table 15:33. Calculations of the length of M1 profile between y = 14.0 ft and 17.29 ft

y (ft)

V(ft/s)

E (ft)

17.29

8.67

16.46

16.0

9.28

17.36

15.0

10.0

16.55

E (ft)

Sf

0.000588

0.00101

1089

0.000743

0.000857

945

0.000931

0.000669

1151

0.000823

0.77

15.78

dl (ft)

0.000664

0.81

10.71

___

So - S f

0.000512

1.1

14.0

___

Sf

0.00104

Total 3185 ft

15.34. A sharp crested weir is constructed across a wide rectangular channel that carries a

specific discharge of 6.5 m2/s as shown in Figure P15.34. The channel has a bed slope of

20 cm/km and a Manning roughness coefficient of 0.026. The weir has a sill height of 3.0

m and the discharge per unit width over the weir is given as

2

q = C d 2g h 3/2

3

293

Elementary Hydraulics

Where Cd = 0.7 is the discharge coefficient and h is the water head over the weir.

Determine the normal and critical depths. Estimate the distance upstream of the weir

where the depth of flow is 4.75 m.

6.5 2

Solution: q = 6.5 m /s, yc =

= 1.62 m.

g

6.5 x 0.026 3 / 5

yn = (

) = 4.43 m.

(0.0002)1 / 2

2

q = C d 2g h 3/2 = 0.67 x 0.7 x 4.43 h3/2; h = 2.14 m

3

Then, y1 = 3 + 2.14 = 5.14 m. So, we must compute the water surface profile

between the depths of 5.14 m and 4.75 m. The calculations are presented in Table 15.34.

2

y (m)

V (m/s)

E (m)

5.14

1.26

5.22

4.90

1.33

4.99

E (m)

Sf

dl (m)

0.000132

0.000068

3382

0.000151

0.000049

3061

0.000144

0.15

1.37

___

So - S f

0.000121

0.23

4.75

___

Sf

4.84

0.000159

Total L= 6443 m

15.35. A dam is built across a wide rectangular river with a bed slope of 10-4. The river

conveys a specific discharge of 2.833 m2/s. If the depth of flow just upstream of the dam

is 3.5 m, estimate the length of the backwater curve. How far upstream of the dam will

the backwater curve cause a velocity reduction of 18% as compared to the velocity under

normal flow conditions? Take Chezys roughness coefficient as 70 (metric).

2.8332

= 0.935 m.

g

For wide channels, using the Chezy equation, q = C y3/2 So1/2

Then Vn 0.18 Vn = 1.97 m/s. Then, y at that point would be 2.833/1.97 = 1.44 m.

So, we must compute the M1 profile from an initial depth of 3.5 m, to the intermediate

depth of 1.44 m, and then on to normal depth of 1.18 m. Use the Chezy equation for Sf:

V2

Sf = 2

for wide channels.

C xy

The total length out to a depth of 1.4 m (approximately the 18% point) is 2365 m, while

the total length of the profile to 1.2 m (approximately normal depth) is 2933 m.

294

y (m)

V (m/s)

E (m)

3.5

0.81

3.53

E (m)

Sf

0.88

3.24

0.98

2.95

2.6

1.09

2.66

2.38

1.42

2.10

1.67

1.84

1.4

2.02

1.61

1.48

315

0.000114

0.000886

316

0.000170

0.000830

337

0.000270

0.000730

356

0.000465

0.000535

430

0.000771

0.000229

568

0.000595

0.13

2.36

0.0000804 0.000920

0.000335

0.23

1.2

308

0.000206

0.26

1.7

0.0000585 0.000941

0.000134

0.28

2.0

303

0.0000932

0.28

1.23

0.0000438 0.000956

0.0000676

0.29

2.3

dl (m)

0.0000494

0.29

2.9

___

So - S f

0.0000382

0.29

3.2

___

Sf

0.000947

Total L = 2933 m

15.36. A very wide river, with a bed slope of 10 cm/km and a Manning roughness

coefficient of 0.032, conveys a specific discharge of 10 m2/s. A dam is constructed across

the river so that the water depth behind it becomes 14.0 m with a water surface elevation

of 55.0 measured from an arbitrary datum. Two villages A and B are to be built 20 km

and 45 km upstream of the dam, respectively. Find the respective land elevation (relative

to the datum) of the two villages so that they are not to be drowned. Use the standard

step method.

Solution: At the dam, y = 14 m, WS = 55 m, so the channel invert is 41.0 m. Then, with

a channel slope of 0.0001 m/m, the channel invert 20 km upstream is 43 m and the invert

45 km upstream is 45.5 m.

(0.714) 2

At the dam, y = 14 m, q = 10 m2/s, V = q/y = 0.714 m/s, E = y+

= 14.03 or

2g

0.032 x 0.714 2

ET = 55.03 m. Sf = (

) = 0.0000155 m/m, for wide channels where R = y.

(14) 2 / 3

At Section 2, 20 km upstream, assume y = 13 m, WS = 56 m, V = 10/13 = 0.769 m/s,

(0.769) 2

0.032 x 0.769 2

= 13.03 m, ET = 56.03 m, Sf = (

E = 13+

) = 0.0000198 m/m.

2g

(13) 2 / 3

___

S + Sf2

S f = f1

= 0.0000176 m/m. Then hlobs = 56.03 55.03 = 1 m, and hcal = 0.0000176

2

x 20,0000 = 0.352 m. Since the two estimates do not match, estimate another y at Section

2.

295

Elementary Hydraulics

(V1 ) 2

(V2 ) 2

WS1+

+ hcal = WS2+

2g

2g

55.352 + 56

= 55.676

2

m. Then at Section 2, y = 55.676 43 = 12.676 m, V = 0.79 m/s, E = 12.708 or ET =

___

0.0000155 + 0.0000216

0.032 x 0.79 2

=

0.0000216

m/m.

=

55.707 m. Sf = (

S

)

f =

2/3

2

(12.676)

0.0000186 m/m. hlobs = 55.707 55.03 = 0.677 m, hcal = 0.0000186 x 20,000 = 0.372 m.

55+0.03+0.372 = WS2+0.032, or WS2 = 55.37, y = 55.37-43 = 12.37 m, V = 0.81 m/s,

0.032 x 0.81 2

E = 12.403 or ET = 55.403.

Sf = (

) = 0.0000235

(12.37) 2 / 3

___

0.0000155 + 0.0000235

= 0.0000195 m/m, . hlobs = 55.403-55.03 = 0.373,

Sf =

2

hcal = 0.0000195 x 20,000 = 0.390 m; since this difference is only 0.17 m, this is

considered close enough.

Move on to Section 3, located 25000 m upstream of Section 2.

Assume y3 = 10.33 m, or WS3 = 55.83 m, V = 0.97 m/s, E = 10.378, ET = 55.878 m,

___

0.032 x 0.97 2

0.0000235 + 0.0000428

=

0.0000428

m/m.

= 0.0000332 m/m.

)

S

f =

2/3

2

(10.33)

hlobs = 55.878 55.403 = 0.475 m, hcal = 0.0000332 x 25,000 = 0.829 m. Since these

estimates do not match sufficiently, we must estimate a new stage at 3,

Sf = (

55.83 + 56.184

=56.007 m.

2

y = 56.007 45.5 = 10.507, V = 0.95 m/s, E = 10.553 m, ET = 56.053 m,

___

0.032 x 0.95 2

0.0000235 + 0.0000402

=

0.0000402,

= 0.0000318 m/m.

Sf = (

)

S

f =

2/3

2

(10.507 )

hlobs = 56.053 55.403 = 0.65 m, hcal = 0.0000318 x 25,000 = 0.795 m. Find new WS3,

55.403+0.795 = WS3+0.046, WS3 = 56.152 m. y = 56.152 45.5 = 10.652 m,

0.032 x 0.94 2

V = 0.94 m/s, E = 10.697 m, ET = 56.197, Sf = (

) = 0.0000386 m/m.

(10.652) 2 / 3

___

0.0000235 + 0.0000386

= 0.0000311 m/m.

Sf =

2

hlobs = 56.197 55.403 = 0.794 m, hcal = 0.0000311 x 25,000 = 0.777 m. Since this

difference is only 0.017 m, it is considered close enough.

296

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