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# Exercise 3 Water treatment

a) Softening
Q1. Determine the lime and soda ash dose, in mg/L as CaO and Na2SO3 to soften the following water to a
final hardness of 80.0 mg/L as CaCO3. The ion concentrations reported below are all as CaCO3. Assume
the lime is 93% pure and soda ash is 95% pure.
Given:
Ca2+ = 137.0; Mg2+ = 56.0; HCO3 = 128.0; CO2 = 7.0

Solution:
Step 1: Compute total hardness (TH), carbonate hardness (CH) and noncarbonated hardness
(NCH)
TH = 137.0 + 56.0 = 193.0 mg/L as CaCO3
(Because TH = Ca2+ + Mg2+)
CH = 128.0 mg/L as CaCO3
NCH = 193.0 - 128.0 = 65.0 mg/L as CaCO3
(Because TH = CH + NCH)

## Step 2: Compute Lime Additions (all as CaCO3)

Note:
Due to solubility of CaCO3, Mg(OH)2, physical limitation of mixing, contact, and lack of time for the
reaction to go completion.

## Minimum calcium hardness that can be achieved is about 30 mg/L as CaCO3

Minimum magnesium hardness that can be achieved is about 10 mg/L as CaCO3.
Mg < 20 mg/L as CaCO3 , add lime, for 20-40 mg/L as CaCO3, add excess of lime,
for > 40 mg/L as CaCO3, not much effects

(Excess of 40 mg/L Mg as CaCO3 in water, it will cause scales in heat exchange elements in hot
water heaters)

Figure:

## 1- Lime = CO2 = 7.0

2- Lime = HCO3 = 128.0
3- Since Mg is > 40 add lime = 56.0 - 40.0 = 16.0
and Delta (the excess) = 16.0
Is Delta > 40? No
Is Delta < 20? Yes
Add lime = 20.0
Thus, total Lime = 7.0 (CO2) + 128.0 (HCO3) + 16.0 (the excess of Mg2+) + 20.0 (to add) = 171.0
mg/L as CaCO3

## Step 3: Compute Soda

NCH left (NCHf) = 80.0 - 40 = 40
NCH that must be removed (NCHR) = initial NCH (NCHi) NCHf = 65.0 - 40.0 = 15.0
Soda = 15.0 mg/L as CaCO3

## Step 4: Convert lime to CaO and correct for purity

Note:
E.W. of CaO = 28 and E.W. of CaCO3= 50
(171.0 mg/L as CaCO3)(28/50)(1/0.93) =102.97 or 103 mg/L CaO
Step 5: Convert soda to Na2CO3 and correct for purity
Note:
E.W. of Na2CO3 = 53
(15.0 mg/L as CaCO3)(53/50) (1/0.95) = 16.74 or 17 mg/L Na2CO3

b) Flocculation
Q1. What is the volume required for a rapid-mix basin that is to be used to treat 0.05 m3/s of water if the
detention time is 10 seconds?

Solution:
Given:
Flow = 0.05 m3/s
Detention time = 10 s

## Step 1: Pick the correct equation

V = Qto

Step2: Substitution
V = (0.05 m3/s)(10 s) = 0.5 m3

Q2. Two parallel flocculation basins are to be used to treat a water flow of 0.150 m3/s. if the design
detention time is 20 minutes, what is the volume of each tank?

Solution:
Given:
Flow = 0.150 m3/s
Detention time = 20 minutes
Two parallel tanks

## Step 1: Pick the correct equation

V = Qto = (0.150 m3/s)(20 min)(60 s) = 180 m3
Step 2: Divide the volume into 2 tanks
Volume for each tank = 180/2 = 90 m3

c) Sedimentation

Q1. Two sedimentation tanks operate in parallel. The combined flow to the two tanks is 0.1000 m3/s. The
volume of each tank is 720 m3. What is the detention time of each tank?

Solution:
Given:
2 sedimentation tanks in parallel
Combined Q = 0.1000 m3/s
Volume of each tank = 720 m3

Q = 0.1000 m3/s

## Step 1: Convert flow rate to m3/h

Q = (0.0500 m3/s)(3600 s/h) = 180 m3/h

## Step 2: Calculate detention time

t = V/Q
720 m3 / 180 m3/h = 4 h

Q2. If the settling velocity of a particle is 0.70 cm/s and the overflow rate of a horizontal flow clarifier is
0.80 cm/s, what is the percent of the particles are retain in the clarifier?

Solution:
Given:
v0 = 0.80 cm/s
vp = 0.70 cm/s
%removal = 0.7/0.8 * 100% = 88%

Q3. Two sedimentation tanks operate in parallel. The combined flow to the two tanks is 0.1000 m3/s.
the depth of each tank is 2.00 m and each has a detention time of 4.00 h. what is the surface area of
each tank and what is the overflow rate?

Solution:
Given:
Two sedimentation tanks operate in parallel
Total Q = 0.1000 m3/s
Depth = 2.00 m
t = 4.00 h

Q = 0.1000 m3/s

## Step 1: Convert Q to m3/h for each tank

Q = (0.0500 m3/s)(3600 s/h) = 180 m3/h

t = QV

## V = (4 h)(180 m3/h) = 720 m3

Step 3: Compute surface area
As = V/H
= 720 m3 /2 m = 360 m2

## Step 4: Find overflow rate

Vo = Q/ As = (180 m3/h)/(360 m2) = 0.50 m3.h/m2

d) Filtration
Q1. For a flow of 0.8 m3/s, how many rapid sand filter boxes dimensions 10 m x 20 m are needed for a

Solution:
Given
Q = 0.8 m3/s
Each filter 10 m x 20 m

## Step 1: Determine Q in m3/d

Q = (0.8 m3/s)(86,400 s/d) = 69,120 m3/d

## Step 2: Determine total area required

As = (69,120 m3/d)/( 110. m3/d-m2) = 628.36 m2

Step 3: Calculate the number of filters (must round to next highest integer)
No. = 628.36 m2 / ( 10 m x 20 m) = 3.14.
Thus, 4 filters are required.

Q2. If a dual media filter with a loading rate of 300 m3/d.m2 were built instead of the standard filter in Q1,
how many filter boxes would be required?

Solution:
Given:
Q = 0.8 m3/s;
Each filter 10 m x 20 m

## Step 1: Determine Q in m3/d

Q = (0.8 m3/s)(86,400 s/d) = 69,120 m3/d

## Step 2: Determine total area required

As = (69,120 m3/d)/ 300 m3/d-m2 = 230.4 m2

## Step 3: Number of filters (must round to next highest integer)

No. = 230.4 m2 /(10 m x 20 m) =1.152