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Exercise 3 Water treatment

a) Softening
Q1. Determine the lime and soda ash dose, in mg/L as CaO and Na2SO3 to soften the following water to a
final hardness of 80.0 mg/L as CaCO3. The ion concentrations reported below are all as CaCO3. Assume
the lime is 93% pure and soda ash is 95% pure.
Given:
Ca2+ = 137.0; Mg2+ = 56.0; HCO3 = 128.0; CO2 = 7.0

Solution:
Step 1: Compute total hardness (TH), carbonate hardness (CH) and noncarbonated hardness
(NCH)
TH = 137.0 + 56.0 = 193.0 mg/L as CaCO3
(Because TH = Ca2+ + Mg2+)
CH = 128.0 mg/L as CaCO3
NCH = 193.0 - 128.0 = 65.0 mg/L as CaCO3
(Because TH = CH + NCH)

Step 2: Compute Lime Additions (all as CaCO3)

Note:
Due to solubility of CaCO3, Mg(OH)2, physical limitation of mixing, contact, and lack of time for the
reaction to go completion.

Minimum calcium hardness that can be achieved is about 30 mg/L as CaCO3

Minimum magnesium hardness that can be achieved is about 10 mg/L as CaCO3.
Mg < 20 mg/L as CaCO3 , add lime, for 20-40 mg/L as CaCO3, add excess of lime,
for > 40 mg/L as CaCO3, not much effects

(Excess of 40 mg/L Mg as CaCO3 in water, it will cause scales in heat exchange elements in hot
water heaters)

Figure:

1- Lime = CO2 = 7.0

2- Lime = HCO3 = 128.0
3- Since Mg is > 40 add lime = 56.0 - 40.0 = 16.0
and Delta (the excess) = 16.0
Is Delta > 40? No
Is Delta < 20? Yes
Thus, total Lime = 7.0 (CO2) + 128.0 (HCO3) + 16.0 (the excess of Mg2+) + 20.0 (to add) = 171.0
mg/L as CaCO3

Step 3: Compute Soda

NCH left (NCHf) = 80.0 - 40 = 40
NCH that must be removed (NCHR) = initial NCH (NCHi) NCHf = 65.0 - 40.0 = 15.0
Soda = 15.0 mg/L as CaCO3

Step 4: Convert lime to CaO and correct for purity

Note:
E.W. of CaO = 28 and E.W. of CaCO3= 50
(171.0 mg/L as CaCO3)(28/50)(1/0.93) =102.97 or 103 mg/L CaO
Step 5: Convert soda to Na2CO3 and correct for purity
Note:
E.W. of Na2CO3 = 53
(15.0 mg/L as CaCO3)(53/50) (1/0.95) = 16.74 or 17 mg/L Na2CO3

b) Flocculation
Q1. What is the volume required for a rapid-mix basin that is to be used to treat 0.05 m3/s of water if the
detention time is 10 seconds?

Solution:
Given:
Flow = 0.05 m3/s
Detention time = 10 s

Step 1: Pick the correct equation

V = Qto

Step2: Substitution
V = (0.05 m3/s)(10 s) = 0.5 m3

Q2. Two parallel flocculation basins are to be used to treat a water flow of 0.150 m3/s. if the design
detention time is 20 minutes, what is the volume of each tank?

Solution:
Given:
Flow = 0.150 m3/s
Detention time = 20 minutes
Two parallel tanks

Step 1: Pick the correct equation

V = Qto = (0.150 m3/s)(20 min)(60 s) = 180 m3
Step 2: Divide the volume into 2 tanks
Volume for each tank = 180/2 = 90 m3

c) Sedimentation

Q1. Two sedimentation tanks operate in parallel. The combined flow to the two tanks is 0.1000 m3/s. The
volume of each tank is 720 m3. What is the detention time of each tank?

Solution:
Given:
2 sedimentation tanks in parallel
Combined Q = 0.1000 m3/s
Volume of each tank = 720 m3

Q = 0.1000 m3/s

Step 1: Convert flow rate to m3/h

Q = (0.0500 m3/s)(3600 s/h) = 180 m3/h

Step 2: Calculate detention time

t = V/Q
720 m3 / 180 m3/h = 4 h

Q2. If the settling velocity of a particle is 0.70 cm/s and the overflow rate of a horizontal flow clarifier is
0.80 cm/s, what is the percent of the particles are retain in the clarifier?

Solution:
Given:
v0 = 0.80 cm/s
vp = 0.70 cm/s
%removal = 0.7/0.8 * 100% = 88%

Q3. Two sedimentation tanks operate in parallel. The combined flow to the two tanks is 0.1000 m3/s.
the depth of each tank is 2.00 m and each has a detention time of 4.00 h. what is the surface area of
each tank and what is the overflow rate?

Solution:
Given:
Two sedimentation tanks operate in parallel
Total Q = 0.1000 m3/s
Depth = 2.00 m
t = 4.00 h

Q = 0.1000 m3/s

Step 1: Convert Q to m3/h for each tank

Q = (0.0500 m3/s)(3600 s/h) = 180 m3/h

t = QV

V = (4 h)(180 m3/h) = 720 m3

Step 3: Compute surface area
As = V/H
= 720 m3 /2 m = 360 m2

Step 4: Find overflow rate

Vo = Q/ As = (180 m3/h)/(360 m2) = 0.50 m3.h/m2

d) Filtration
Q1. For a flow of 0.8 m3/s, how many rapid sand filter boxes dimensions 10 m x 20 m are needed for a

Solution:
Given
Q = 0.8 m3/s
Each filter 10 m x 20 m

Step 1: Determine Q in m3/d

Q = (0.8 m3/s)(86,400 s/d) = 69,120 m3/d

Step 2: Determine total area required

As = (69,120 m3/d)/( 110. m3/d-m2) = 628.36 m2

Step 3: Calculate the number of filters (must round to next highest integer)
No. = 628.36 m2 / ( 10 m x 20 m) = 3.14.
Thus, 4 filters are required.

Q2. If a dual media filter with a loading rate of 300 m3/d.m2 were built instead of the standard filter in Q1,
how many filter boxes would be required?

Solution:
Given:
Q = 0.8 m3/s;
Each filter 10 m x 20 m

Step 1: Determine Q in m3/d

Q = (0.8 m3/s)(86,400 s/d) = 69,120 m3/d

Step 2: Determine total area required

As = (69,120 m3/d)/ 300 m3/d-m2 = 230.4 m2

Step 3: Number of filters (must round to next highest integer)

No. = 230.4 m2 /(10 m x 20 m) =1.152